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  • 1.
    Aalto, Janne
    et al.
    Finnish Defence Research Agency, (FIN).
    De Reya, Anthony
    United Kingdom Royal Navy, (GBR).
    Garb, Maja
    University of Ljubljana, (SVN).
    Giga, Sabir
    Lancaster University, (GBR).
    Goyne, Anne
    Australian Defence College, (AUS).
    Kalantzis, Eugenia
    Royal Military College of Canada, (CAN).
    Kucera, Tomás
    Charles University, (CZE).
    Lekea, Ioanne
    Hellenic Air Forces Academy, (GRC) .
    MacIntyre, Allister
    Royal Military College of Canada, (CAN).
    MacVean, Allyson
    Bath Spa University, (GBR).
    Morales, John
    US Centre for Army Profession and Ethics, (USA).
    Ness, Alisha
    US Army Research Institute, (USA) .
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    O´Keefe, Damian
    Royal Military College of Canada, (CAN) .
    Olsthoorn, Peter
    Netherlands Defence Academy, (NLD).
    Reed, Esther
    University of Exeter, (GBR).
    Robertsson, Magna
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Shackleton, Scott
    United Kingdom Royal Navy, (GBR).
    Shaughnessy, Stefanie
    US Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, (GBR) .
    van der Linden, Naomi
    Australian Defence College, (NLD).
    Factors Affecting Ethical Leadership: Final report of Task Group HFM-3042023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    "Factors Affecting Ethical Leadership” shows that the ethical behavior of leaders is the most important factor in shaping an organization’s ethical climate. Representatives from ten countries, Canada, Australia, Czech Republic, Finland, Greece, Netherlands, Slovenia, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States of America participated in the research, with six (Canada, Australia, Finland, Netherlands, Sweden and the USA) able to collect data. The goals of RTG HFM-304 included identifying the individual, situational, and organizational variables predictive of ethical leadership, developing a model of ethical leadership, and collating best practice in military ethics education amongst NATO and Partner for Peace (PfP) countries. Findings evidence that ethical leadership is strongly associated with values, in particular with value achievement (e.g., setting high standards and striving for excellence) and person-environment fit. Leaders who have the ability to address an ethical dilemma tend also to be those with high standards, a firm foundation in values (such as helping others and generosity) and belief that their institution shares these values. To engender ethical cultures and attract, train and sustain principled leaders, there is a need for military institutions to emphasize values, reinforce ethical decision-making and promote and value-informed ethical leadership from the beginning.

  • 2.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    “It will be difficult for you to move on from this…” An Autoethnographic Study of Hitting the Glass Ceiling in an Academic Recruitment Process2022In: Croatian Sociological Review, ISSN 0350-154X, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 7-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This narrative is an autoethnographic study of how discrimination and prejudice counteract the academic meritocratic system. In Sweden, which is one of the most gender-equal countries in the world, opposition to gender equality and prejudices against what is considered the Other can be hidden and thus reproduced in decision-making processes and structures. This narrative shows how a professorial recruitment process bypassed the meritocratic system i.e., the system in which qualifications and educational results in combination with the individual’s achievements should play the greatest role in the promotion process. This is a story about how the supposed meritocracy is twisted and manipulated within university contexts and how the “temperament” of a foreign female researcher is utilized to exclude her from entering through the coveted doors of academic departments. Different experiences, characterized by demanding conditions, have been analyzed with the help of gender theoretical perspectives, opposition to gender equality, intercultural perspectives, and a number of social psychological perspectives linked to prejudice. The description is interwoven with previous experiences from younger years, which together contribute to an increased understanding of the individual narrative and its specific context. 

  • 3.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Borglund, Anders
    Försvarsmakten, Sweden, (SWE).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Tematisk analys: Din handbok till fascinerande vetenskap2023Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vill du använda dig av tematisk analys i din forskning eller uppsats, men vet inte riktigt hur det går till? Här får du hjälp – hands-on! Tematisk analys är en av de mest använda metoderna vid analys av data som genereras från intervjuer, litteratur och officiella dokument. Men trots att metoden är så populär har det hittills saknats en lärobok på svenska som särskilt fokuserar på den tematiska analysens olika steg. Den här boken behandlar alla delar vid undersökningar och uppsatsskrivande som tar sin utgångspunkt i tematisk analys, och på så sätt kompletterar den mer generella metodböcker. Den fungerar också som stöd för lärare vid handledning av examensarbeten på alla nivåer. Boken är av praktisk karaktär och innehåller ett stort antal illustrerande exempel och steg-för-steg-instruktioner.

  • 4.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL).
    Hede, Susanne
    Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB), (SWE).
    Helenius, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Ledarskapets kontext: en lärobok för militärer och krishanteringsaktörer2022Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En ledares förmåga att leda påverkas i stor utsträckning av yttre omständigheter. Trots detta finns få böcker som denna som behandlar ledarskap, organisationsutveckling och medarbetarskap utifrån kontextfaktorer. I särskilt fokus är organisationer som arbetar i påfrestande kontexter. Författarna beskriver hur ledarskapet påverkas av exempelvis samhällsförändringar och yttre kriser såväl som av organisatoriska problem och andra typer av faktorer som omger ledaren.

    När en kris inträffar ska en organisation kunna agera snabbt. Som ledare kan det finnas många mål och perspektiv att ta i beaktande, samtidigt som beslut måste fattas – ofta under tidspress och med bristande beslutsunderlag. I boken beskrivs ledarskapsutmaningar som uppstår till följd av kontextfaktorer i kombination med krissituationers ovisshet och oförutsägbarhet. Författarna presenterar också ett antal verktyg som stöd för analys och agerande i olika situationer.

    Ledarskapets kontext vänder sig till personer som studerar ämnen relaterade till krig, kris och säkerhet, men även till yrkesverksamma i insatsorganisationer som vill fördjupa sig i faktorer som påverkar ledarens förmåga att verka under svåra och ibland farliga betingelser.

  • 5.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Department of Leadership and Command & Control, Swedish Defence University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Arita
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Political Science and Law, Political Science Division. Department of Political Science and Law, Swedish Defence University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    External, non-governmental resistance in relation to interstate war: an analytical framework2023In: European Security, ISSN 0966-2839, E-ISSN 1746-1545, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Russian war against Ukraine in February 2022, unleashed an unprecedented wave of non-governmental, external resistance directed against Russia. In many ways, previous literature on war and resistance does not capture the characteristics of this phenomenon. Besides noting the presence of civilian war protests outside of the warzone, most research has focused on internal resistance during war. In this article, we draw on a wider array of resistance literature and present an analytical framework that allows us to capture the broad elements of non-governmental, external resistance during war – including the power-resistance nexus at work. The analytical framework sorts the various kinds of resisters, it categorises the form of resistance and the targets pursued. The usefulness of the analytical framework is demonstrated through an exploration of empirical examples and illustrations drawn from media reports gathered during the first 10 days of the war in Ukraine. It is concluded that new analytical tools are necessary in order to capture non-governmental, external resistance during war as it is waged in Europe in the 2020s.

  • 6.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Sjölén, Camilla
    Swedish Armed Forces, Sweden, (SWE).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Organizational Changes and their Presumptive Effect on the Military Families2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Military Studies, ISSN 2596-3856, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 225-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the role of work-life balance in a recent relocation decision made by the Swedish Armed Forces. Applying the “What is the problem represented to be?” (WPR) discourse analysis method to documents concerning budget submissions over a five-year period (2020–2024) and a relocation decision from 2017, this study identifies a common focus on the reduction of organizational vulnerability. The way the problem of organizational vulnerability is presented, however, neglects considerations of employees’ work-life balance and serves to make effects of organizational changes at the individual level invisible. Founded on a social constructivist perspective, the study therefore argues that this neglect of work-life balance in official discourse on organizational change may be counterproductive to the proposed aim of a reduction in organizational vulnerability.

  • 7.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Göteborgs universitet, (SWE).
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, (SWE).
    Hotet mot det sociala självet till följd av covid-19 pandemin – En sonderande analys2022In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, E-ISSN 2002-343X, Vol. 28, no 3-4, p. 67-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In connection with Covid-19 pandemic, employers were forced to change their behavior and adjust to new working life challenges. Firstly, the pandemic became a healthcare disaster, and secondly a crisis with social and emotional consequences for workers. The purpose of this article is to investigate the presence of threats to the social self in the working life context. We are looking for shame or shame-related feelings and behaviors, which can be linked to the pandemic. The threat to the social self can be intentional or unintentional and consist of behaviors and gestures that are perceived as derogatory and in terms of bullying, violations, humiliations, harassment, or organizational changes. 

  • 8.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet (SWE).
    Hotet mot det sociala självet till följd av covid-19 pandemin - en sonderande analys2022In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, E-ISSN 2002-343X, Vol. 28, no 3-4, p. 67-86, article id https://journals.lub.lu.se/aoa/article/view/23896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In connection with the Covid-19 pandemic, employers were forced to change their behavior and adjust to new working life challenges. Firstly, the pandemic became a healthcare disaster and secondly a crisis with social and emotional consequences for workers. The purpose of this article is to investigate the presence of threats to the social self in the working life context. We are looking for shame or shame-related feelings and behaviors, which can be linked to the pandemic. The threat to the social self can be intentional or unintentional and consist of behaviors and gestures that are perceived as derogatory and in terms of bullying, violations, humiliations, harassment or organizational changes. 

  • 9.
    Andersson, Isabell
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Josefsson, Anders
    Kognitiva aspekter på ledningsprocessen: Konvergent och divergent tänkande och möjliga sätt att stimulera kreativitet2022In: Perspektiv på ledning: Ledning och samverkan i totalförsvaret 2019-2021 / [ed] Martin Schüler, Ulrik Spak, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2022, p. 109-116Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm. Stockholm University, (SWE).
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, (SWE).
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Karolinska Institutet, (SWE).
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, (SWE).
    Newcomers Taking Different Paths: Proximal Socialization Outcome Profiles among Police Officers2022In: 15th EAOHP Conference 2022. Supporting knowledge comparison to promote good practice in occupational health psychology: Book of Proceedings / [ed] Kevin Teoh; Fiona Frost; Jasmeet Singh; Maria Charalampous; Miguel Muños, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2022, p. 532-533, article id P37Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Answering calls for an interactionist approach that would help clarify the complexity of organizational socialization, this study applied a person-centered analytic approach aiming to examine the role of proximal socialization outcome profiles for distal outcomes. Organizational socialization concerns the learning and adjustment process enabling newcomers to adapt to an organizational role. Proximal outcomes (or adjustment indicators) are assumed to reflect how well individuals adjust on their way to become organizational insiders, while distal outcomes reflect the ultimate organizational socialization outcomes. Thus, proximal outcomes precede distal outcomes, mediating effects of various organizational and individual socialization factors (known as antecedents) that foster the socialization process.

    Method: In this study, a person-centered analytic approach was used to examine the role of proximal socialization outcome profiles for distal outcomes. Data from new police officers in Sweden (N = 430), from three time points (T0 = Application process [spring 2008], T1 = Near end of field training [end of 2010], and T2 = Near end of first work year [end of 2011]), were analyzed. First, latent profile analysis (LPA) was performed to identify proximal outcomes profiles. Then, the identified profiles were validated by a complementary analysis, which examined differences in antecedents and distal socialization outcomes among officers with different profiles.

    Results: Among the new police officers, three proximal outcome profiles were identified – a vulnerable (35%), a troublesome (11%), and a successful (54%) – with profiles exhibiting distinct patterns in the proximal outcome indicators role conflict, task mastery, and social integration. Complementary analysis showed subgroup differences in some antecedents (e.g., personality and psychosocial working conditions) and distal outcomes (e.g., organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and work-related anxiety), thus emphasizing the role of personality and psychosocial working conditions in organizational socialization.

    Implications: The study showed that proximal socialization outcome indicators may form profiles that characterize subgroups of newcomers following different socialization paths. Depicting how the socialization process may differ among subgroups is a significant theoretical contribution that adds nuance to traditional stage models. Findings also emphasize that both psychosocial working conditions and personality are important antecedents, which support viewing organizational socialization as an interactive process including both the individual and the environment. Accordingly, the study suggests the person-centered approach as promising for gaining new insights regarding organizational socialization processes. Further, this study indicates that the socialization process was successful for most new police officers. Still, for a fairly large proportion (i.e., the Vulnerable and Troublesome groups), the proximal outcome profiles indicated a less favourable adjustment. The differences in proximal outcome profiles suggest that the Troublesome and the Vulnerable groups struggled with somewhat different adjustment challenges, which may yield organizational challenges. From an applied perspective, the findings suggest that targeting the challenges and needs that characterize different groups of newcomers may help organizations to tailor actions facilitating learning and adjustment among newcomers. Moreover, to facilitate newcomers’ socialization, organizations may also benefit from monitoring newcomers’ experiences of their working climate as well as their personality.

  • 11.
    Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm. Stockholm University, (SWE).
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, (SWE).
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Karolinska Institutet, (SWE).
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, (SWE).
    On the same path? Profiles of proximal socialization outcomes among new police officers2022In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 74, no 4, p. 301-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Answering calls for an interactionist approach that would help clarify complex relationships among organizational socialization variables, this study applied a person-centered analytic approach aiming to examine the role of proximal socialization outcome profiles for distal outcomes. This approach is novel to organizational socialization research, contrasting the variable-centered approach dominating the field. Data from new police officers in Sweden (N = 430) were analyzed using latent profile analysis (LPA). Three proximal outcome profiles - a vulnerable (n = 151), a troublesome (n = 47), and a successful (n = 232) - were identified, with distinct patterns in the proximal outcome indicators role conflict, task mastery, and social integration. Complementary analysis showed subgroup differences in some antecedents and distal outcomes, which emphasized the role of personality and psychosocial working conditions. Thus, the findings show that proximal socialization outcome indicators may yield profiles characteristic of subgroups of newcomers who follow different socialization paths. Importantly, the findings show that a person-centered approach can add nuance to the understanding of how socialization processes differ among newcomers. While these results are promising, their generalizability to other professions and organizations remains to be investigated, which calls for continued person-centered research of organizational socialization processes.

  • 12.
    Bakker, Arnold B.
    et al.
    Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, (NLD), University of Johannesburg, (ZAF).
    Hetland, Jørn
    University of Bergen, (NOR).
    Kjellevold Olsen, Olav
    University of Bergen, (NOR), BI Norwegian Business School, Bergen, (NOR).
    Espevik, Roar
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Daily transformational leadership: A source of inspiration for follower performance?2023In: European Management Journal, ISSN 0263-2373, E-ISSN 1873-5681, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 700-708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses the full-range leadership model to argue that on days when leaders engage in transformational leadership behaviors, they identify follower strengths and stimulate followers to show personal initiative. We propose that transformational leadership is related to follower work engagement and performance through follower strengths use and personal initiative. Moreover, we hypothesize that followers' personal initiative is most effective when followers use their strengths. A total of 57 Norwegian naval cadets filled out a diary booklet for 30 days (response = 72.6%; n = 1242). Multilevel modeling analyses largely supported our hypotheses. On the days when leaders used transformational leadership behaviors such as intellectual stimulation and individual consideration, followers were more likely to use their strengths and take initiative. These behaviors, in turn, predicted next-day work engagement and next-day job performance. Moreover, followers’ personal initiative was particularly related to work engagement when strengths use was high rather than low. We discuss how these findings contribute to the leadership literature by showing how leaders inspire their followers to lead themselves. In addition, we elaborate on the practical implications for leadership training.

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  • 13.
    Bekesiene, Svajone
    et al.
    General Jonas Zemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania, (LTU).
    Smaliukiene, Rasa
    General Jonas Zemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania, (LTU); Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, (LTU).
    Vaicaitiene, Ramute
    General Jonas Zemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania, (LTU).
    Mazeikiene, Asta
    Vilnius University, (LTU).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Vilnius University, (LTU); Inland University College of Applied Sciences. (NOR).
    Karciauskaite, Dovile
    Vilnius University, (LTU).
    Mazgelyte, Egle
    Vilnius University, (LTU).
    Three-Faceted Approach to Perceived Stress: A Longitudinal Study of Stress Hormones, Personality, and Group Cohesion in the Real-Life Setting of Compulsory Basic Military Training2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 3, article id 1046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compulsory basic military training is characterized not only by being challenging but also by being stressful. Assuming a high frequency of perceived stress events as a negative outcome of training, this article provides evidence on how the perceived frequency of stressful situations is affected by three types of factors: (i) biological stress response variables measured by hair steroid hormone levels, (ii) personality traits measured using the Big Five personality test, and (iii) group cohesion measures in military squads. A total of 112 conscripts in 11 squads participated in the research at the beginning (T1), in the middle (T2), and at the end (T3) of compulsory basic military training. Hair steroid hormone levels (cortisol, cortisone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) levels were measured by liquid mass spectrometry; other data were collected using self-report questionnaires. The results of the Poisson regression analysis indicated that hair steroid hormone cortisol had a statistically significantly impact and could increase the perceived frequency of stressful situations by up to 1.317 (e(0.275), T2) times. The concentrations of other hormones (cortisone = 1.157, e(0.146), T3 and DHEA = 1.020, e(0.020), T3) also had a statistically significant effect. Other factors had a decreasing effect on the frequency. Extraversion was significant with an effect of 0.907 (e(-0.098), T2) and 0.847 (e(-0.166), T3), while task cohesion had an effect of 0.946 (e(-0.056)) and norm cohesion of 0.954 (e(-0.047)). The research indicates that the three groups of factors affect the perceived frequency of stressful situations during compulsory basic military training, but their impacts are considerably different.

  • 14.
    Bencker, Andreas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Halmstad University, (SWE).
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, (SWE).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, (SWE).
    Common demanding conditions among professional high-level military and sport leaders: a cross-contextual qualitative reflexive thematic analysis2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, E-ISSN 2596-741X, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 27-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military and sport have attracted increased research interest separately as two distinctly demanding performance- and leadership-driven contexts. However, cross-contextual psychological research in leadership is lacking. Such research has potential to expose unique cross-fertilising insights into resemblances in leadership challenges among military and sport leaders, transferable to a broader range of contexts. Thus, the current study simultaneously explored high-level military and sport leaders’ real-life experiences of similarities in demanding conditions and their psychological manifestations. Sixteen participants - eight Swedish high-level military leaders and eight Swedish high-level sport leaders, participated in the study. Using a qualitative inductive cross-contextual design enabled in-depth knowledge and transferability. A reflexive thematic analysis (RTA) of sixteen interview transcripts generated four common themes of demanding conditions: (1) Developing organisations: Leading under an extensive workload and responsibility, (2) Managing destructive superiors and subordinates: Standing up for oneself, (3) Taking care of the minds and moods of others: Leading deliberated difficult conversations, and (4) Periods of extreme concentration: Leading critical coordination, decisions, and timing. The findings tie high-level military and sports leaders together into a high-stress and high-stakes leader role invoked to manoeuvre a complex buildup of demanding conditions. Implications are presented.

  • 15.
    Bencker, Andreas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Johnson, U
    Ivarsson, A
    High-level military and sport leaders' everyday challanges and psychological skills: A cross-contextual repeated measures study2023In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Bergh, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, (SWE).
    Oskarsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Analysis of the psychometric properties of a dice test - strategies for item difficulty and targeting improvements2022Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Bergman, David
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Mjölken spillde ut sig: artificiell intelligens, etik och autonoma vapensystem2023In: Drönare/UAS: Teknik och förmågor / [ed] Stig Rydell; Mats Olofsson, Stockholm: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademien , 2023, p. 61-74Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Bergman, David
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Stridens psykologi: konsten att döda och överleva2022Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är i de mest extrema situationer vi ofta finner människans mest onda och grymma handlingar. Men det är även där individer ofta uppvisar tapperhet, lojalitet och osjälviskt riskerar sitt eget liv för att hjälpa andra. När vi kan förstå mänskliga reaktioner i extrema situationer blir vi bättre rustade att fungera i dem, men också att förstå många fenomen vi omges av i vardagen. Stridens psykologi tar bland annat upp psykologiska aspekter på ondska, våldsutövning, fångenskap, tortyr och att möta döden. Men den diskuterar också coping, överlevnad och vägen tillbaka efter att ha upplevt extrema situationer, såsom krig. Boken tar sin utgångspunkt hos soldater i strid. Resonemangen är dock tillämpbara även för andra yrkesgrupper som regelmässigt arbetar i extrema situationer eller möter människor i kris såsom poliser, brandmän, sjukvårdspersonal, psykologer och präster. Men kriser drabbar inte bara yrkesfolk. Över 80 procent av oss kommer under vår livstid att uppleva något potentiellt traumatiserande, och denna bok kan göra dig bättre rustad att hantera det

  • 19.
    Berndtsson, Joakim
    et al.
    a School of Global Studies, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, (SWE).
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    A question of time? Deployments, dwell time, and work-life balance for military personnel in Scandinavia2023In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 157-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, interest in the different ways in which military employment affects individuals’ work-life balance (WLB) has grown. At the same time, research on military organizations and personnel has increasingly included time-related factors such as deploy-to-dwell (D2D) ratios to help explain adverse health effects of overseas deployments. The aim of this article is to explore connections between organizational systems for regulating deployment frequency and dwell (or respite) time with a particular focus on potential consequences for work-life balance. We focus on personal and organizational factors that shape the nature and outcome of work-life balance, including stress, mental health problems, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions. To explore these links, we first provide an overview of research on the impact of deploy-to-dwell ratios on mental health and social relations. We then turn to the regulation and organization of deployment and dwell time in Scandinavia. Here, the ambition is to identify potential sources of work-life conflict and associated effects for deployed personnel. The results provide a basis for further research into time-related effects of military deployments.

  • 20.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Stockholms universitet, Sweden, (SWE).
    Samspel och tillit mellan chefer och stödfunktioner2023In: Samspel i kommunal administration: Lagspel, dragkamp eller hierarki? / [ed] Anna Cregård; Tina Forsberg; Erik Berntson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023, p. 29-49Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här boken handlar om chefer, experter och stödfunktioner i kommuner - och om deras administrativa arbete. Den kommunala sektorns administration har på några decennier förändrats genomgripande, både vad gäller omfattning, arbetsinnehåll och styrka. Inom flera områden har roller professionaliserats, och mer kraft och resurser har lagts på att styra organisationen med bakgrund i krav på granskningsbarhet, kommunövergripande policyer och mätbar måluppfyllelse. Det har kommit att påverka hela den kommunala organisationen. I den här boken redogör vi för hur samspel mellan olika administrativa funktioner (såsom chefer, stödverksamhet och staber) ser ut och förändras. Vi diskuterar också hur goda samspel kan se ut, och vad som krävs för att åstadkomma sådana. Boken riktar sig till alla med intresse för organisatoriskt samspel mellan chefer, experter av olika slag och servicefunktioner i dagens kommunala värld. Särskilt riktar den sig till studenter som läser utbildningar inom personal- och arbetsvetenskap, organisation och ledarskap, och offentlig förvaltning, samt till dem som arbetar med ledning och administration i kommuner.

  • 21.
    Bjurström, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Ivari, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Tarnawska, Alina
    Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Salisbury, England, (GBR).
    Westbury, Nicholas C.
    Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Salisbury, England, (GBR).
    Towards a multi-level theory of agility2021In: 26th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS): Artificial Intelligence, Automation and Autonomy: C2 Implications, Opportunities and Challenges, 2021, 2021, p. 1-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multilevel theory of agility for C2 is absent. This paper uses an organizing paradigm to reinterpret the existing body ofresearch in order to explore the multilevel self-organizing dynamics that underpin the emergence of organizationalagility. Following social theory’s practice-turn, we outline in section 2 the essence of the organizing paradigm and mapsome of its implications. We reflect on the routines, creativity and complexity inherent in human organizing, and howorganizing practices manifest new collective C2 capabilities for unanticipated, unexpected and unfamiliar circumstances.Then we consider the role and limits of individual agency and rationality within the process of organizing, placing theemphasis on a collective process of structuring that imposes change and order in structure. In section 3 we present anillustration of some organizing principles and practices that may feature within a multi-level theory of agility. We explorehow collective sensemaking is intertwined with collective organizing, and briefly reflect on a conceptual model of agilityin the organizing paradigm. In the concluding section 4 we discuss the usefulness of an organizing paradigm for C2 agilityresearch and invite collaboration in researching cross-level organizing processes and practices.

  • 22.
    Björklund, Christina
    et al.
    Institutet för miljömedicin, Karolinska Institutet, (SWE).
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Institutionen för psykologi, Umeå universitet, (SWE).
    Bolander, Pernilla
    Institutionen för företagande och ledning, Handelshögskolan i Stockholm, (SWE).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Akademin för Hälsa och arbetsliv, Högskolan i Gävle samt Institutet för miljömedicin, Karolinska Institutet, (SWE).
    Lundmark, Robert
    Institutionen för psykologi, Umeå universitet, (SWE).
    Irehill, Hanna
    Institutionen för psykologi, Umeå universitet, (SWE).
    Ung och chef: En guide till organisationer som vill tillvarata unga chefers potential2023Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Bondesson, Sara
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Empowerment and Social Justice in the Wake of Disasters: Occupy Sandy in Rockaway after Hurricane Sandy, USA2022Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book taps into discussions about social vulnerability, empowerment, and resistance in relation to disaster relief and recovery. It disentangles tensions and dilemmas within post-disaster empowerment, through a rich ethnographic narrative of the work of Occupy Sandy in Rockaway, New York City, after Hurricane Sandy in 2012. It details both a remarkable collaborative relief phase, in which marginalized communities were empowered to take active part, as well as a phase of conflict and resistance that came about as relief turned to long-term recovery.

    This volume particularly aims to understand how community empowerment processes can breach pre-disaster marginalization in the aftermath of disasters. It connects with broader emancipatory literature on dilemmas involved in empowerment ‘from the outside’. In a future of potentially harsher climate related disasters and increased social vulnerability for certain communities, this book contributes to a full and nuanced understanding of community empowerment and vulnerability reduction.

    This book will be of interest to sociologists, anthropologists, geographers, political scientists, and urban studies researchers, as well as undergraduate and postgraduate students interested in disaster management, disaster risk reduction, social vulnerability, community empowerment, development studies, local studies, social work, community-based work, and emancipatory theory.

  • 24.
    Bäckström, Denise
    et al.
    Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden, (SWE).
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Physicians’ challenges when working in the prehospital environment: a qualitative study using grounded theory2024In: International Journal of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1865-1372, E-ISSN 1865-1380, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In the rapid development in prehospital medicine the awareness of the many challenges in prehospital care is important as it highlights which areas need improvement and where special attention during education and training should be focused. The purpose of this study is to identify challenges that physicians face when working in the prehospital environment. The research question is thus; what challenges do physicians face when working in prehospital care?

    Method

    This is a qualitative study with an inductive approach and is based on individual interviews. The interviews were analyzed using the Classic Grounded Theory (GT) method as an approach. The interviews were conducted as semi-structured interviews via the digital platform Zoom during winter / early spring 2022.

    Results

    Challenges for prehospital physicians can be understood as a process that involves a balancing act between different factors linked to the extreme environment in which they operate. This environment creates unique challenges not usually encountered in routine hospital practice, which results in trade-offs that they would not otherwise be faced with. Their individual situation needs to be balanced against organizational conditions, which means, among other things, that their medical decisions must be made based on limited information as a result of the constraints that exist in the prehospital environment. They must, both as individuals and as part of a team, maneuver in time and space for decision-making and practical tasks. This theory of balancing different entities is based on four themes; thus the theory is the relation between the four themes: leadership, environment, emotion management and organization.

    Conclusions

    With the help of previous studies and what we have found, it is reasonable to review what training is needed before starting to work prehospital as a physician. This should include components of the themes we have described: organization, environment, leadership and emotional management.

  • 25.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Espevik, Roar
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Bergman, David
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Stress i teori och praktik2022Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Carlerby, Mats
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Sensorledning - en nödvändig förmåga för att kunna hantera framtida hot2022In: Perspektiv på ledning: Ledning och samverkan i totalförsvaret 2019-2021 / [ed] Martin Schüler, Ulrik Spak, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2022, p. 68-76Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Institutionen för arbetsliv och välfärd, Högskolan i Borås, Sweden, (SWE).
    Forsberg, Tina
    Arbetsvetenskap Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Högskolan Dalarna, Sweden, (SWE).
    Berntson, Erik
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Samspel mellan linjechefer och stödfunktioner2023In: Samspel i kommunal administration: Lagspel, dragkamp eller hierarki? / [ed] Anna Cregård; Tina Forsberg; Erik Berntson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023, p. 9-28Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här boken handlar om chefer, experter och stödfunktioner i kommuner - och om deras administrativa arbete. Den kommunala sektorns administration har på några decennier förändrats genomgripande, både vad gäller omfattning, arbetsinnehåll och styrka. Inom flera områden har roller professionaliserats, och mer kraft och resurser har lagts på att styra organisationen med bakgrund i krav på granskningsbarhet, kommunövergripande policyer och mätbar måluppfyllelse. Det har kommit att påverka hela den kommunala organisationen. I den här boken redogör vi för hur samspel mellan olika administrativa funktioner (såsom chefer, stödverksamhet och staber) ser ut och förändras. Vi diskuterar också hur goda samspel kan se ut, och vad som krävs för att åstadkomma sådana. Boken riktar sig till alla med intresse för organisatoriskt samspel mellan chefer, experter av olika slag och servicefunktioner i dagens kommunala värld. Särskilt riktar den sig till studenter som läser utbildningar inom personal- och arbetsvetenskap, organisation och ledarskap, och offentlig förvaltning, samt till dem som arbetar med ledning och administration i kommuner.

  • 28.
    Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Institutionen för arbetsliv och välfärd, Högskolan i Borås, Sweden, (SWE).
    Forsberg, Tina
    Arbetsvetenskap Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Högskolan Dalarna, Sweden, (SWE).
    Berntson, Erik
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Stockholms universtiet, Sweden, (SWE).
    Samspel inom kommunal administration – sammanfattande konklusioner2023In: Samspel i kommunal administration: Lagspel, dragkamp eller hierarki? / [ed] Anna Cregård; Tina Forsberg; Erik Berntson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023, p. 135-152Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här boken handlar om chefer, experter och stödfunktioner i kommuner - och om deras administrativa arbete. Den kommunala sektorns administration har på några decennier förändrats genomgripande, både vad gäller omfattning, arbetsinnehåll och styrka. Inom flera områden har roller professionaliserats, och mer kraft och resurser har lagts på att styra organisationen med bakgrund i krav på granskningsbarhet, kommunövergripande policyer och mätbar måluppfyllelse. Det har kommit att påverka hela den kommunala organisationen. I den här boken redogör vi för hur samspel mellan olika administrativa funktioner (såsom chefer, stödverksamhet och staber) ser ut och förändras. Vi diskuterar också hur goda samspel kan se ut, och vad som krävs för att åstadkomma sådana. Boken riktar sig till alla med intresse för organisatoriskt samspel mellan chefer, experter av olika slag och servicefunktioner i dagens kommunala värld. Särskilt riktar den sig till studenter som läser utbildningar inom personal- och arbetsvetenskap, organisation och ledarskap, och offentlig förvaltning, samt till dem som arbetar med ledning och administration i kommuner.

  • 29.
    Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Institutionen för arbetsliv och välfärd, Högskolan i Borås, Sweden, (SWE).
    Tina, Forsberg
    Arbetsvetenskap Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Högskolan Dalarna, Sweden, (SWE).
    Berntson, Erik
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Samspel i kommunal administration: Lagspel, dragkamp eller hierarki?2023Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här boken handlar om chefer, experter och stödfunktioner i kommuner - och om deras administrativa arbete. Den kommunala sektorns administration har på några decennier förändrats genomgripande, både vad gäller omfattning, arbetsinnehåll och styrka. Inom flera områden har roller professionaliserats, och mer kraft och resurser har lagts på att styra organisationen med bakgrund i krav på granskningsbarhet, kommunövergripande policyer och mätbar måluppfyllelse. Det har kommit att påverka hela den kommunala organisationen. I den här boken redogör vi för hur samspel mellan olika administrativa funktioner (såsom chefer, stödverksamhet och staber) ser ut och förändras. Vi diskuterar också hur goda samspel kan se ut, och vad som krävs för att åstadkomma sådana. Boken riktar sig till alla med intresse för organisatoriskt samspel mellan chefer, experter av olika slag och servicefunktioner i dagens kommunala värld. Särskilt riktar den sig till studenter som läser utbildningar inom personal- och arbetsvetenskap, organisation och ledarskap, och offentlig förvaltning, samt till dem som arbetar med ledning och administration i kommuner.

  • 30.
    Darr, Wendy
    et al.
    Director General Military Personnel Research & Analysis, Department of National Defence, Ottawa, (CAN).
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Zajicova, Marketa
    Military University Hospital, Czech Armed Forces, Prague, (CZE).
    Verboom, Marjolein
    Department for Recruitment & Selection, Netherlands Armed Forces, Amsterdam, (NLD).
    Kai, Nyman
    Human Performance Division, Finnish Defence Research Agency, Tuusula, (FIN).
    Wolgers, Gerhard
    Swedish Armed Forces, Human Resources Centre, Swedish Armed Forces, Stockholm, (SWE).
    Defining integrity: An approach and military application2022In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 591-603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personnel selection research has seen an increasing interest in integrity tests. Although these tests have been found to predict a variety of workplace criteria, a long-standing criticism of integrity tests is their criterion-focussed nature. A construct-oriented approach to integrity test development involves identifying important elements of integrity and developing content to reflect those elements. Drawing upon earlier attempts to define integrity, this paper conceptualizes integrity as a behavior, and elaborates on two definitional elements, nature of standards and their referent. Undertaking a content analysis of the high-level codes of conduct of 13 military nations, this paper illustrates the application of an approach to defining integrity for use in the military context. It includes a discussion on the operationalization of integrity for assessment purposes, highlighting considerations that must be given to all aspects of the assessment development process.

  • 31.
    Eid, Jarle
    et al.
    Centre for Crisis Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, (NOR).
    Brattebø, Guttorm
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Emergency Medical Communication, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, (NOR), Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, (NOR).
    Jacobsen, Johan K.
    Safetec Nordic AS, Oslo, Norway, (NOR).
    Espevik, Roar
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Johnsen, Bjørn Helge
    Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, (NOR).
    Distributed team processes in healthcare services: a scoping review2023In: Frontiers in Medicine, E-ISSN 2296-858X, Vol. 10Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: High-quality healthcare services is delivered by teams rather than individuals and depends heavily on multidisciplinary cooperation between dispersed healthcare professionals. The aim of this scoping review is to identify common barriers and innovative applications of technology supporting team processes and patient safety, in geographically dispersed healthcare services.

    Methods: Studies were identified from searches in APA PsychINFO, Epistemonikos and Medline databases, from 2010 to 2023. A detailed search strategy was performed, and studies were included, based on prior established criteria.

    Results: Among the 19 studies that fulfilled our inclusion criteria, the majority (85%) were from Europe or North America, and most studies (53%) were quantitative, with a cross-sectional study design. Several reported observed distributed team processes in training and education. Most studies described barriers and detailed how innovative approaches and technological solutions were introduced to improve communication, coordination, and shared mental models in distributed healthcare settings. A small proportion of studies (16%) used health services data to examine interpersonal exchange and team processes.

    Conclusion: The scoping review offer recommendations to enhance future research on distributed team processes in healthcare services.

  • 32.
    Eid, Jarle
    et al.
    Center for Crisis Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen; Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen (NOR).
    Hansen, Anita Lill
    Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen; Centre for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (NOR).
    Andreassen, Natalia
    Business School, Nord University Business School, Bodø (NOR).
    Espevik, Roar
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm. Center for Crisis Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen.
    Brattebø, Guttorm
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen; Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen (NOR).
    Johnsen, Bjørn Helge
    Center for Crisis Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen (NOR).
    Developing local crisis leadership: A research and training agenda2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The crisis triggered by Covid-19 has exposed the interdependencies of modern society and sparked interest in local response to protracted and complex crisis situations. There has been a growing awareness and interest in the key roles of political and professional stakeholders, their emotional regulation and how they influence team performance and outcomes in dealing with uncertainty and complex crisis situations. While cognitive and behavioral aspects of crisis leadership are well researched, less is understood about how one can mitigate negative emotions, instill trust, or restore public faith and support of security forces and emergency response teams during crises. In addressing this gap, we propose a simplified conceptual roadmap for research and training of local crisis leadership. In this, we emphasize complex problem solving, team interaction, team context and technology and team training design. These four factors represent significant barriers if neglected. On the other side, they may be considerable force multipliers when better understood and managed. We suggest how seven research and training questions could be linked to the four conceptual factors and guide an evidence-based approach to develop local crisis leadership.

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  • 33.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Psychology of crisis and trauma2022In: Oxford Encyclopedia of Crisis Analysis / [ed] Erik Stern, Denis Fischbacher-Smith, Sanneke Kuipers, Allan McConnell, Daniel Nohrstedt, Thomas Preston, Oxford University Press, 2022Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Engelkes, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Hedlund, Erik
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Loyal to the end: Examining the meaning of loyalty among high-ranking military officers2023In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 936-953Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations need co-workers who are committed to common goals and that are loyal to the core values of the organization.[1] The conscious fostering of organizational core values is seen as an important tool in creating loyal co-workers and hence an effective organization.[2] Professions with a strong vocational calling such as medicine (Kallin, 2010), the police (Ewin, 1990 ; Foust, 2018) or the military[3] have particular demands on loyalty to certain core values, and individuals are expected to adopt these as their own. However, organizational core values can be contradictive (Billig, 1988) and sometimes in conflict with the individual´s own core values which – when incompatible – can in turn cause severe moral stress and mental illness.[4] This implies a need for clarification about what is expected from members of an organization concerning the objectives and manifestations of core values. In terms of loyalty, the military profession is possibly one of the most demanding, expecting individuals to risk their own lives and to kill other human beings for the benefit of the organizational goals. However, since misplaced loyalty can cause destructive,[5] and unethical behaviour[6] with enormous consequences – especially in the military (Winslow, 1998) – there is a need to be clear about what kind of loyalty behaviour is constructive and vice versa. Although loyalty is a concept that seems to be defined in many different ways, the number of studies of loyalty and its meaning are quite limited - especially in military research.[7] The overall purpose of this study is to broaden understanding of the meaning of loyalty within the military. Because important core values of an organization are set – or strongly influenced[8] – by its leaders,[9] the aim of this study was to explore how high-ranking officers in the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) give meaning to their own personal experiences of loyalty and to describe possible common patterns within the participant group.

     [1] Wieseke, Alavi & Habel, 2014.[2] Berghaus & Cartagena, 2013.[3] Huntington, 1985 ; Moskos & Wood, 1988 ; Kirkhaug, 2009 ; Olsthoorn, 2011 ; Beard, 2014.[4] Molendijk, Kramer & Verweij, 2018.[5] Gabriel, 1982 ; Connor, 2010.)[6] Umphress & Bingham, 2011.[7] Olsthoorn, 2011 ; Connor, Andrews, Noack-Lundberg & Wadham, 2019.[8] Larsson, Haerem, Sjöberg, Alvinius & Bakken, 2007.[9] Fergusson & Milliman, 2008 ; Oh, Cho & Lim, 2018.

  • 35.
    Engelkes, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm. Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden, (SWE).
    Lindholm, Torun
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden, (SWE).
    Predicting Loyalty: Examining the Role of Social Identity and Leadership in an Extreme Operational Environment—A Swedish Case2023In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military organizations often emphasize the importance of loyalty. It has been suggested that loyalty enhances motivation to take great risks and strive to accomplish a mission. However, research into what influences loyalty among military personnel is scarce. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine how leadership and social identity fusion relate to loyalty, using data from a sample consisting of a Swedish military unit on a United Nation mission (N = 152) in Mali. Hierarchical multiple regression results generally showed that social identity fusion and leadership were positively related to a willingness to show loyalty to the closest workgroup, one’s own unit, and the mission. The findings indicate that leadership and high levels of social identity fusion may influence the willingness to be loyal to organizational goals. The practical implication of this study is increased knowledge about the importance of leadership and social identity in developing relevant loyalties.

  • 36.
    Espevik, Roar
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Sover vi godt?: Utvikling av sjømilitært lederskap2023In: Militær leder- og ledelsesutvikling i teori og praksis / [ed] Rino Bandlitz Johansen; Jan Ketil Arnulf, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 2023, p. 297-312Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Naval officers must through leadership act well under pressure and be able to develop mature teams. This requires social competence, empathic skills, and a respectful approach to those around you that ensures closeness and durable interaction. Use of safe, free-play cadet-led activities is paramount. Two invariable requirements are set for each cadet – action and justification. Research shows that the Naval Academy’s leadership development program has the desired effect.

  • 37.
    Espevik, Roar
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Johnsen, Bjørn Helge
    University of Bergen, (NOR).
    Hystad, Sigurd W.
    University of Bergen, (NOR).
    Police Dyads Within an Operational Simulation: an Empirical Test of the Research Propositions Made in the “Big Five” Teamwork Approach2022In: Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, ISSN 0882-0783, E-ISSN 1936-6469, Vol. 37, p. 844-855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the impact of the theoretical big five of teamwork model proposed by Salas et al. (2005), the present study aimed at investigating the model within an operational police simulation. One hundred and sixty-seven frontline police officers participated in the study. Based on path analyses, a reduced model excluding trust and leadership obtained a good fit with the data.

    The results provided some support for the model by confirming six out of 10 proposed direct effects and four out of seven indirect pathways. Shared mental models directly affected team adaptability, and backup behavior affects adaptability and team effectiveness. Team orientation affects mutual performance monitoring and backup behavior, and finally, reciprocal monitoring affects backup behavior. Monitoring influenced both team effectiveness and adaptability through backup behavior. Two paths from team orientation towards effectiveness were found. One flowing through monitoring and another through back-up behavior. Our study expands former knowledge of the big five theory by empirically testing the totality of the model and identifying important pathways.

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  • 38. Espluga, Josep
    et al.
    Konrad, Wilfried
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Medina, Beatriz
    Prades, Ana
    Cools, Pieter
    Risky or beneficial? Exploring perceptions of nuclear energy over time in a cross-country perspective2021In: Engaging the atom: The History of Nuclear Energy and Society in Europe from the 1950s to the Present / [ed] Arne Kaijser, Markku Lehtonen, Jan-Henrik Meyer, Mar Rubio-Varas, West Virginia University Press, 2021, p. 147-169Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Van Baalen, Miriam
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Hantering av destruktivt ledarskap ur ett ledar- och medarbetarperpektiv2022Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Frögéli, Elin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, (SWE).
    Annell, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Rudman, Ann
    Karolinska Institutet (SWE); Dalarna University, (SWE).
    Inzunza, Miguel
    Umeå University, (SWE).
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Karolinska Institutet, (SWE).
    The Importance of Effective Organizational Socialization for Preventing Stress, Strain, and Early Career Burnout: An Intensive Longitudinal Study of New Professionals2022In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, no 12, p. 7356-7356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Burnout was originally conceptualized based on experiences of new professionals. Role clarity, task mastery, and social acceptance are recognized as key resources enabling new professionals’ management of the challenges of the new profession. However, relations between these resources and stress, strain, and burnout have not yet been thoroughly investigated at professional entry. Increased understanding of these relations could have implications for strategies to prevent burnout. The aim of the study was to investigate within- and between-individual effects over the first months and relations to burnout at one-year post-entry. Data (n = 322) was collected weekly over the first 13 weeks and again 9 months later. Relationships were modelled using a multilevel regression model and correlation analysis. Results showed that on weeks when participants experienced higher role clarity, task mastery, and social acceptance, they reported significantly less stress, and that participants who experienced higher levels of the resources in general, reported significantly less strain. Levels of the resources at three months were related to symptoms of burnout at 12 months. The study findings provide support of the role of task mastery, role clarity, and social acceptance as resources buffering the impact of demands at professional entry on experiences of stress, strain, and burnout.

  • 41.
    Grimmer, Bettina
    et al.
    Pädagogische Hochschule Zürich.
    Hobbins, Jennifer
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Neue Subjektpositionen – alte Klassismen? Übergangsregime und aktivierende Arbeitsmarktpolitik in Deutschland und Schweden2023In: Übergänge mit Klasse / [ed] Handelmann, Antje & Siegert, Karolina, Verlag Julius Klinkhardt, 2023Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Hedlund, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Lönnegren, Camilla
    Civil-military Collaboration during the Coronavirus outbreak: a case study in Swedish contextIn: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Hedlund, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Lönngren, Camilla
    Swedish Defence University, Centre for Societal Security, Executive Education Division.
    Leadership, boundary spanners and team learning in crisis management2022In: International Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1471-4825, E-ISSN 1741-5071, Vol. 17, no 3/4, p. 323-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In early 2020, decision makers in Stockholm were concerned that intensive care units (ICUs) would fill up because of the massive spread of the coronavirus. Therefore, they decided that a group of doctors, a construction company and the Swedish Armed Forces would build a temporary hospital inside an exhibition hall. Using field study observations and in-depth interviews, this study investigates the role of boundary spanners and leadership in crisis management and team learning. Two types of boundary spanners were prevalent: the 'Leader' and the 'Expert', and together they are crucial for successful crisis management, and for team learning. This study contributes to filling a gap in research regarding the role of boundary spanners in team learning within and across teams. Results show that research into boundary spanners and team learning can use the variables in Edmondson's team learning model for thematic data analysis, and to describe and understand how boundary spanners can contribute to learning within and across teams, when collaborating in the mutual management of crises.

  • 44.
    Hermansson, Helena
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm. Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science, Uppsala University.
    Decentralization and Recentralization of Disaster Management in Turkey2023In: Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and Governance / [ed] Ali Farazmand, Cham: Springer, 2023, 2, p. 2961-2968Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Hetland, Jørn
    et al.
    University of Bergen, (NOR).
    Bakker, Arnold B.
    Erasmus University Rotterdam, (NLD), University of Johannesburg, (ZAF).
    Espevik, Roar
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm. University of Bergen, (NOR).
    Olsen, Olav K.
    University of Bergen, (NOR).
    Daily work pressure and task performance: The moderating role of recovery and sleep2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas previous research has focused on the link between (mental and physical) workload and task performance, less is known about the intervening mechanisms influencing this relationship. In the present study, we test the moderating roles of daily recovery and total sleep time in the relationship between work pressure and daily task performance. Using performance and recovery theories, we hypothesized that (a) work pressure relates positively to daily task performance, and that both (b) daily recovery in the form of psychological detachment and relaxation, and (c) total sleep time independently enhance this relationship. Our hypotheses were tested in a 30-day diary study with 110 officer cadets on a cross-Atlantic voyage on a Naval sail ship. The results of multilevel modeling lend support to all three hypotheses. Taken together, our findings suggest that recovery and sleep duration between shifts play a key role in the relationship between daily work pressure and task performance. We discuss the implications of these findings for the stressor-detachment model.

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  • 46.
    Hetland, Jørn
    et al.
    Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, (NOR).
    Bakker, Arnold B.
    Organizational Psychology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands;c, (NLD), University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa, (ZAF).
    Nielsen, Morten B.
    Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway;d National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway, (NOR).
    Espevik, Roar
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Stockholm.
    Kjellevold Olsen, Olav
    Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, (NOR).
    Daily interpersonal conflicts and daily negative and positive affect: exploring the moderating role of neuroticismIn: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, ISSN 1061-5806, E-ISSN 1477-2205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objectives

    Drawing on affective events theory, the present study investigates relationships between daily interpersonal conflicts and negative and positive affective reactions, and tested whether trait neuroticism moderates immediate (same day) and persisting (next-day) affective reactions.

    Design and Methods

    A sample of 53 Norwegian naval cadets completed a diary questionnaire for 30 consecutive days (total N = 1590).

    Results

    As predicted, the findings showed that cadets reported more negative affect (but not less positive affect) on days they were confronted with affective events that were of a conflicting nature. In addition, the proposed interaction effects between daily conflict and neuroticism were significant for both negative and positive affect. Specifically, the immediate and persistent effects of daily conflicts on negative affect were strongest for individuals high (vs. low) in neuroticism. Moreover, individuals high in neuroticism reported less positive affect on days with conflicts, whereas individuals low in neuroticism reported more positive affect the two days following interpersonal conflicts.

    Conclusions

    The findings contribute to affective events theory with important knowledge about the role of trait neuroticism in dealing with interpersonal conflicts in a natural work setting.

  • 47.
    Hobbins, Jennifer
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Kristiansen, Elsa
    School of Business, University of South-Eastern Norway, Drammen, (NOR).
    Carlström, Eric
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Goteborg, (SWE).
    Women, Leadership, and Change: Navigating between Contradictory Cultures2023In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 209-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores how women in top leader positions navigate between the two contradictory cultures of masculinity and femininity and, in particular, if and how these positionings and negotiations develop over time. Drawing on working-life biographical interviews with women on the top of organizational hierarchies within the crisis management systems in the Nordic countries, the article illustrates women top leaders relating to norms of masculinity and femininity, demonstrating how these have shaped their roles as top leaders, and how these have shifted along their careers. It shows how, in the beginning of their careers, women in organizations marked by cultures of masculinity conform to these gendered norms, while in their roles as top leaders, they do gender differently and assume roles as change agents. The findings suggest that processes of navigation between organizational cultures of masculinity and societal cultures of femininity can be better understood when individual experiences are situated within their gendered social and cultural expectations.

  • 48.
    Holmberg, Arita
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Political Science and Law, Political Science Division.
    External, non-governmental resistance in relation to interstate war: an analytical frameworkIn: European Security, ISSN 0966-2839, E-ISSN 1746-1545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

  • 49.
    Holmberg, Arita
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Political Science and Law, Political Science Division.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Organizational resistance through organizing principles: the case of gender equality in the military2024In: Gender in Management, ISSN 1754-2413, E-ISSN 1754-2421, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 313-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Previous studies show that the implementation of gender equality encounters resistance in military organizations, but it is often invisible or seen as confined to anonymous structures or troubled individuals. This paper aims to show how the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) use organizational principles to resist implementing gender equality measures.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study is a qualitative analysis of discursive strategies in the SAF’s 2013–2018 annual reports to government.

    Findings – The organizing principles of instrumentality and distance, while existing in parallel with gender equality efforts, actually pursue logics that prevents the SAF from implementing gender equality. The principle of instrumentality in this context means that gender equality in the SAF is of secondary interest to organizational members. The principle of distancing from the problem includes strategies that alienate female from male officers.

    Originality/value – The contribution of this paper is the finding that the use of organizing principles represents conscious organizational resistance to go gender equality efforts. This kind of use needs to be revealed and criticized to change military organizations.

  • 50.
    Holmberg, Arita
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Political Science and Law, Political Science Division.
    Holmberg, Miranda
    (SWE).
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Människans sociala relationer med djur: En utmaning för totalförsvaret?2023In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, E-ISSN 2002-066X, Vol. 59, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kriget i Ukraina har redan fått många återverkningar, även i samhällen som inte direkt skakas av de fruktansvärda krigshandlingarna. I traditionella och sociala medier funderar människor kring vad som skulle hända om det blev krig i Sverige och hur detta skulle påverka vår vardag och våra relationer. En ofta förbisedd fråga i detta sammanhang är relationen mellan människor och djur. I denna artikel diskuteras hur totalförsvaret som samhällsorganisation och verksamhet kan utmanas av 2020-talets normer om förhållandet mellan människor och djur och djurs status som säkerhetssubjekt. Mot bakgrund av den traditionella totalförsvarstanken presenterar vi ett antal områden där djurens relationer med människor kan tänkas väcka frågor och komma i konflikt med delar av totalförsvaret: synen på säkerhet, juridiken i kris och krig samt utvecklingen av den sociala relationen mellan människor och djur. Artikeln avslutas med tankar kring hur ett totalförsvar som inkluderar djur skulle kunna se ut samt kring hur dagens totalförsvar i så fall skulle behöva förändras.

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