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  • Risfelt, Linnéa
    Swedish Defence University.
    The Arctic Front: A study using the Securitization Theory to analyse in which way the Arctic region is perceived a security and defence concern within Swedish Arctic discourse2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic region is a region defined by change. Climate change, militarization and a growing interest from both Arctic and non-Arctic states are increasing the geopolitical significance for the region. As a consequence, concerns about the Arctic region's security and what threat the region might constitute have grown. 

    The following thesis seeks to study in which way the Arctic region is perceived as a security and defence concern by the Swedish government and state agencies in Swedish state discourse from first of January 2019 to the 19th of June 2023. By using arguments from the Copenhagen schools Securitization Theory, the thesis aims to understand to what extent the Swedish state discourse has securitized the Arctic region and what and/or who the is presented as security issues and defence threats. The findings argue that the Swedish Arctic discourse does not securitize the Arctic region, however, patterns of securitization could be found which indicate that the region might be securitized in the future. The Swedish Arctic discourse recognise several security issues and defence threats and present cooperation with other states as well as strengthen military capabilities in northern Sweden as countermeasures. This further indicates that the Swedish Arctic discourse recognise security and defence concerns connected to the Arctic region even if they are not presented by the terms of securitization. 

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  • Österberg, Erik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Det spanska inbördeskrigets inverkan på den svenska krigsmakten: En studie av den svenska krigsmaktens förmåga att hämta in och lära från information angående spanska inbördeskriget2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is a known fact that learning from other nations wars is a pivotal part of military innovation. Other studies have shown that the Spanish civil war was a conflict that other nations used to learn lessons about how warfare was evolving during the interwar period. What was previously unknown however, was the extent to which the Swedish military learned from this event and whether the conflict affected the Swedish armed forces. Exploring this will inevitably also reveal interesting things about the Swedish military as a learning organisation. The method used to do this is a qualitative text analysis. The approach aims to see what the Swedish armed forces wanted to know, how it obtained the information, what lessons were drawn from the information, if the information had an impact on the organisation and lastly what this says about the Swedish military as a learning organisation. Thus, the method is used to interpret, decipher, and understand the information that was received. There are three theories which were used to aid me in my search for the answers. The first is what Tom Dysons calls the ideal learning process which consists of four criteria. To complement this the seven pitfalls to effective learning that Brent L. Sterling outlines in his book Other people’s wars were used. Finally, Michael Herman´s HUMINT pyramid is used to assess how advanced the Swedish intelligence network was during the time of the Spanish civil war. The conclusion drawn at the end of the study show that the Swedish military could collect adequate information and draw impactful lessons from the conflict while also meeting all four criteria outlined by Dyson´s ideal learning process. This despite the fact that Herman´s HUMINT pyramid showed that the intelligence organisation wasn’t the most advanced at the time. Regarding the pitfalls that Sterling had outlined the Swedish military managed to avoid most but not all of them. 

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  • Siniciato Terra Garbino, Henrique
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies, Strategy Division.
    Robinson, Jonathan
    Brown University, (USA).
    Valdetaro, João
    Brazilian army, (BRA).
    Civil-military what?!: Making sense of conflicting civil-military concepts2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The post-Cold War era has ushered in an array of complex challenges, expanding the scope of security agendas for states and multilateral organizations alike. This transformation necessitated regional and international approaches, encompassing multifaceted security threats such as human rights abuses, international terrorism, climate change, migration, pandemics, and cyberattacks. As a result, coordination between civilian and military actors became indispensable. However, this shift brought forth a multitude of civil-military concepts, each tailored to specific entities but resulting in significant confusion due to subtle variations in terminology and interpretation. For instance, the United Nations, European Union, and North Atlantic Treaty Organization employ various civil-military concepts, often sharing similar terms but conveying distinct meanings. Such conceptual disparities can lead to misunderstandings and hinder effective coordination. This paper introduces an analytical tool that categorizes organization-specific civil-military concepts into archetypes and provides a repository of official concepts and their summaries. The analytical framework is based on four core parameters of each civil-military concept, i.e. the main perspective, the scope, the level of applicability, and whether the concept entails a dedicated function. This resource aims to facilitate a common language for navigating and bridging different civil-military concepts. While essential for national militaries in multinational operations, this guide also benefits civilians engaging with military organizations, providing insights into military approaches to civil-military relations and aiding in identifying interlocutors within military structures. Ultimately, this framework accommodates future developments in civil-military concepts, enabling a contextual understanding within the existing conceptual landscape.

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  • Kristjansdottir, Lara
    Swedish Defence University.
    Constructing Capabilities - Military Strategies of Small States in an Age of Transition: Examining the Influence of Strategic Culture2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars tend to approach small states’ military strategies in terms of restraints and opportunities in the external security environment, largely overlooking the influences of a state’s domestic particularities. This thesis aims to explore how the theory of strategic culture, regarded here as an inherent, domestic context in which strategy is formulated, can add nuance to such realist analyses of how small states build and adjust their defence capabilities. Through a comparative case study design and a qualitative content analysis method, this thesis examines the adjustments in Denmark and Sweden’s military strategies following the Russian annexation of Crimea in 2014, and the central similarities and distinctions between those. The influence of strategic culture on the respective states’ strategies is examined based on three foundational elements, dominant threat perception, approach to strategic partnerships, and geographical patterns and strategic exposure. The findings of this thesis demonstrate that the neorealist perspective of adjustments in small states’ military strategies can indeed be complemented with a view of the states’ unique strategic cultures, particularly with regard to the differences between the two empirical cases. Most notably, such a view allows for a deeper understanding of distinctions in the underlying rationales which guide the development, organisation and mission of the respective states’ Armed Forces. 

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