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  • McCarthy Hartman, Nina
    Swedish Defence University.
    Countering Terrorist Content Online: Removal = Success?: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the EU Regulation 2021/7842024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis critically interrogates the underlying assumptions which legitimise the hard regulation of online platforms regarding terrorist content, by turning to the case of the EU Regulation 2021/784. Utilising qualitative critical discourse analysis, the study analyses how the EU's strategy against terrorist content online is discursively legitimised through the lens of Theo van Leeuwen's framework for discursive legitimisation strategies, focusing on moral and rational justifications. The study's empirical contribution demonstrates how the EU's strategy is legitimised primarily through public security, fundamental rights, digital economy and efficiency discourses. It contributes theoretically by highlighting how counter-terrorism measures regarding online spaces function through rationalisation and moralisation strategies which legitimise policies as reasonable and morally justifiable, when in fact they rest upon a series of contested assumptions and narratives about the threat from terrorist content. Furthermore, the study puts forward that the regulation contributes to the institutionalisation of online platforms role in countering terrorist content online and reproduces unequal power relations between large and small hosting service companies, public authorities, and individuals.

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  • Moberg Berlin, Oscar
    Swedish Defence University.
    Attachéer och lärdomar i Vietnamkriget: Undersökning av de svenska attachérapporterna från Washington under Vietnamkriget 1965-1969.2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is examining the Swedish military attachés reports from Washington regarding the Vietnam War. The focus is to find out if there are any lessons learned by the US military, and then also if these lessons learned are applicable for the Swedish military according to the rapports of the military attachés. This with the help of Tom Dyson’s theory about the lessons learned process in modern militaries. Where the process is turned into four steps, knowledge acquisition, management, dissemination and finally transformation. These four steps are also influenced by four factors, organizational theory, bureaucratic politics, culture, and neoclassical realism. The method used is qualitative text analysis with a hermeneutic viewpoint, where the focus it to interpret the rapports. The study shows that there are several rapports from the attachés regarding the Vietnam War, where rapports range from political problems in the US to the use of hovercraft on the rivers of Vietnam. The study further shows several instances where the US tactics in Vietnam have changed following the lessons learned theory four steps. The study shows that several of these lessons learned by the US in Vietnam were also interesting for the attachés for their applicability in the Swedish military. Lastly it showed that several of the theories factor might have played a part in how the rapports were presented from the attachés to the Swedish intelligence center.

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  • Sterner Jonsson, Elisa
    Swedish Defence University.
    Kinesiska investeringar, en säkerhetsrisk? Svenska föreställningar kring kinesiska investeringar i teknik och infrastruktur2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to contribute a nuanced understanding of Swedish perceptions regarding Chinese investments, particularly in technology and infrastructure. Despite the shift in perceptions from economic opportunities to security risks since 2017, there remains a gap in understanding the multifaceted nature of these perceptions. The research problem revolves around the contradiction between perceiving Chinese investments as security risks and their continued influx into sensitive sectors like technology and infrastructure. This study aims to investigate if there are nuanced perceptions and how they are constructed, aiming to fill this gap in understanding Swedish attitudes towards chinese investments. Employing the concept of "Sociotechnical Imaginaries" developed by Jasanoff and Kim (2009), grounded in Science and Technology Studies (STS) and political theory, the thesis utilizes Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to dissect empirical data. The analysis explores the evolution of Swedish perceptions regarding Chinese investments from 2017 to 2021, examining how national politicians frame these perceptions and whether they are reflected in the execution and development of technical and industrial projects. Through this approach, the study aims to provide insights into the complexity of Swedish attitudes towards Chinese investments, contributing to a comprehensive understanding of why these investments persist despite being perceived as security risks.

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  • Grinnemo, Felix
    Swedish Defence University.
    Den moderna underrättelsetjänstens första krig: Svensk underrättelseinhämtning i Norge och Ryssland i början av första världskriget2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about mapping out Sweden's intelligence gathering from Russia and Norway under the beginning of the first world war, more specifically the years between 1914–1915. This study also deals with the sources that the Swedish intelligence used to gather information and what the use of sources can say about how evolved the Swedish intelligence organization was under the period. The third purpose with the study is to investigate if there are any differences between the intelligence work in Russia and Norway regarding the intelligence gathering and use of sources.  The study will answer the purpose through one main question and three operationalizing questions. The methods used is a qualitative text analysis with focus on skim reading and synchronous comparison. These methods allow me to process a large amount of material which allows me to determine what kind of intelligence that was gathered and which sources were used to gather the information from the countries. These methods also allow me to see the differences in the intelligence gathering and use of sources between the countries. Selected parts of Michael Hermas book Intelligence Power in Peace and War will be used as a theoretical perspective to answer how evolved the Swedish intelligence organization was. The theoretical part used is the Humint pyramid. The pyramid decides how valuable a source is depending on the information the sources possess, how frequently it is used and how sensitive information it is reporting. If an intelligence organization is dependent on sources of a low value, the organization is passive and unevolved, however if the organization frequently uses sources with a high value, the organization is active and evolved. The conclusions are that the Swedish focus areas with its intelligence gathering was troops, logistical conditions, fortifications, the situation and atmospheres in the countries and also the border guard. Regarding how evolved the Swedish intelligence organization, the conclusion was drawn that it was unevolved during 1914 while it developed significantly under 1915.   

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  • Söderstjerna, Frida
    Swedish Defence University.
    The Liberalist Tightrope: Balancing Pluralism and Meaningful Action in International Relations, a study on Judith Shklar’s Liberalism of Fear2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Judith Shklar’s liberalism of fear, while characterized by deep skepticism and dissatisfaction with utilitarian theories on liberalism, is also filled with hope and a tireless dedication to the victims of our political worlds. This thesis in international political theory explores Judith Shklar’s underappreciated international political thought. The thesis argues that while her liberalism of fear can be considered a coherent alternative to rivaling theories in international political theory, as it explores questions on ethics beyond the horizons of single political communities, it also presupposes strict limitations regarding the purpose of international political theory. Consequently, the liberalism of fear can be thought of as an international political theory that functions as a sense-making tool rather than being action-guiding. Hence, the aim of this thesis is twofold: It aims to contribute to the secondary literature on Shklar’s political thought in the context of international relations, but it also aims to contribute to the broader discussion on the study of ethics in international relations, especially concerning realist political theory, and in such ways, it illuminates some fundamental complexities in real-world politics. 

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  • Wehrling, Freja
    Swedish Defence University.
    Peace-washing: The pacifization of the Swedish arms export2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden’s role internationally is often cited as a paradox which is argued to have its origin in the opposition between the state’s international humanitarianism and its large arms export. The tension here has often been examined from the perspectives of militarization in research on the subject. This thesis instead argued that a comprehensive understanding of peace is needed to analyze the paradox holistically. By semiotically engaging with the Swedish Government's annual reports on arms export control, this thesis could identify the construction of peace within the arms export during the years 2014-2021. A usage of the combined perspectives of pacifization, militarization and an in-depth review of the peace concept, allowed for a comprehensive understanding of peace within these discourses. The thesis discovered that elements of the Swedish arms export were framed as (1) a precondition for peace, (2) an agreement of peace, and (3) an enhancement of peace. Moreover, the material revealed the juxtaposition of two different versions of peace, one liberal and one emancipatory understanding. As these versions are associated with different values and practices of peace, their coexistence in Swedish arms export is argued to be the heart of Sweden’s foreign policy paradox. 

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  • Henriksson, Johan
    Swedish Defence University.
    Lärdomar från informationspåverkan: Amerikanska lärdomar i samband med valet 20162024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the aftermath of a Russian influence operations against the U.S. presidential election of 2016 there was a change in governmental behavior. Since it was not known whether learning processes had caused these behavioral changes, the study aimed to examine the lessons learnedas well as their implementation. By using process tracing as a method, this essay established a causal link between the situation at hand and crisis induced learning by the U.S. Government.The characteristics of lessons were then examined more closely, and explained using the theory of crisis induced learning. It was concluded that the crisis induced lessons were mostly singleloop, as the crisis to a limited extent highlighted flaws in societal premises. They were mainlyaimed at improving crisis response, because focusing on the antagonistic reasons behind the crisis was less fruitful. They were predominantly inter-crisis, because uncertainty, timepressure and stress made intra-crisis learning difficult. Finally, most lessons were distilled (not implemented), due to a shift in the government’s priorities. In the end, not all behavioral changes could be linked to governmental lessons learned, which calls for further research. 

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  • Jansson, Henrik
    Swedish Defence University.
    'Allå, 'allå, Sveriges 'emliga specialförband: Hur Sveriges hemliga specialförband gestaltas i dagspressen2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's special forces were introduced to the public in 1997 and have since been involved in international operations such as those in Afghanistan, Congo, and Mali. This study aims to analyze the Swedish newspaper’s interest in and portrayal of Swedish special forces over a 25-year period. A quantitative method was used to gather data from the four largest newspapers in Sweden to find out the newspaper's interests. Subsequently, qualitative text analysis, supported by the framing theory, examined how the newspapers portrayed the special forces.

    The newspaper’s portrayal of Sweden's special forces has undergone significant changes over the past 25 years, often in distinct phases. Initially, the special forces were frequently likened to fictional characters such as Carl Hamilton. Key events, including fatalities in 2005 and scandals in 2008, prompted a shift in newspaper coverage, resulting in a more humanized depiction of the special forces. While they are still perceived as enigmatic, they are now portrayed as essential to Sweden's defense and interests. Newspaper’s interest intensified during critical periods, presenting a more nuanced view of the special forces. The prior emphasis on their secretive operations and associations with fictional figures shifted towards a more human representation.

    This evolution in the newspaper’s portrayal highlights changes in perceptions of the special forces and their role in Sweden's operations. The study aims to deepen understanding of these shifting representations and their impact on the public perception of Sweden's special forces.

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  • Gunnarson Hellerstedt, Lukas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Island of the Roses: A case study of the ontological threat of a micronation2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The discipline of OSS’s (Ontological Security Studies) incorporation in Security Studies has helped unravel state behaviour which other IR-theories (International Relations) have struggled to make sense of. Going beyond the physical security concerns which characterise the traditional literature, OSS has up until recently consistently emphasised the psychological threat of harm to the “self” – emanating from a point of departure which renders it disembodied. Disputing this detachment of the material body, Nina C. Krickel-Choi argues the significance of embodying the self in order to visualise how ontological and physical security converge. 

    This case study aims to develop on Nina C. Krickel‐Choi’s (re)embodiment of the self, further problematizing by what boundaries the body is encapsulated. Additionally, it draws on Jennifer Mitzen’s seminal article on ontological security, utilising the hitherto underexplored basic trust system as a tool in uncovering anxiety-fueled state behaviour. This theoretical framework is applied to the peculiar case of the Republic of Rose Island, in order to make sense of the drastic measures taken by the Italian State in 1968-69 in response to the emergence of the independent micro-state. By disentangling the circumstances under which the course of action proceeded, this case study illustrates how the small republic outside the coast of Rimini inflicted severe anxiety to the state of Italy’s ontological (in)security, causing the military occupation and final destruction of the platform which constituted the territory of the short-lived nation.

    The case is made that the measures taken by the Italian state in response to the emergence of the micro-republic was a result of a rigid attachment to routines, inducing behaviour not only confirming the entwined relationship between the body and the self – but indeed, as the study will show, demonstrating an even more apposite expression of the body’s importance to a secure sense of being. Through this demonstration, the distinction between the juridical territory and the material body is problematised, as the study goes to show that the territorial borders does not firmly delineate the boundaries of the bodily self. Visualising and untangling this seemingly contradictory and transcendent imagining of the material body – as well as unfolding the connection between the proceeding and a rigid attachment to routines – aims to elaborate on existing literature on ontological security, as well as stimulate further research on the field. 

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  • Boman, Lukas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Finland som underrättelsemål eller vän: C-byråns underrättelseverksamhet i Finland under andra världskriget2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligence organizations and their operations are by their nature secretive and wantto continue as such. This problematizes research around them and especiallyintelligence cooperation with other countries can be considered among the most secretparts of an intelligence organization. This is put in the context of the essay whereSweden and Finland have a long and extensive historical relationship. Thatrelationship also includes military aspects with volunteer soldiers and even today withthe joint decision to apply to NATO. Previous research on Swedish intelligencegathering and intelligence cooperation in Finland has been sparse and scattered inlarger works that have focused largely on the Swedish intelligence organization andits operations.

    The purpose of the essay is twofold. One is to map the Swedish intelligence gatheringin Finland by C-byrån and see how it changed during the course of the war. Thesecond is to highlight and discuss the intelligence cooperation between the Swedishand Finnish intelligence services. Since the purpose is twofold, two differenttheoretical frameworks and researchers' thoughts will be used. The first is Agrell'sthoughts on different types of intelligence, which will be used to analyze what isobtained in Finland. The second is Michael Herman's thoughts on intelligencecooperation, which will be used to explain and discuss the Swedish-Finnishintelligence cooperation. The method chosen for this essay is a qualitative textanalysis with a close reading of reports carried out. The essay will also containelements of quantitative methods in the form of a table and figures to more easilyvisualize some of the results. The end result of this essay is that the C-byrånsintelligence gathering in Finland changed in volume and type of intelligence duringthe course of the war. Within the intelligence cooperation, it is established that thecooperation was at its greatest and in clarity during the Finnish Winter War. After theFinnish Winter War cooperation decreased and became discreet, then returned duringthe Lapland War in clarity. Intelligence cooperation with the Finnish intelligenceservice became a method of approach and a professional exchange for the C-byrån toobtain intelligence on active war experience of how Soviet troops fight and theirtactics

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  • Bonnier, Irena
    Swedish Defence University.
    The swing of the pendulum: Sweden's pivot to NATO: A case of small states' shift in security policy2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is the only state in the Baltic Sea region currently not under NATO protection, which puts the state in a particularly vulnerable position. On 18 May 2022, Sweden officially deemed NATO alignment a more effective option of security strategy in projecting deterrence and dealing with the security challenges the state is facing, compared to a strategy of non-alignment which has been Sweden’s security posture for over 200 years. The aim of the thesis is to explain this shift in Sweden’s security policy. 

    The thesis will explain small states’ security policy beyond the traditional explanations found in realist theory of state-centric threat balancing and sovereignty. Shelter theory claims that small states’ options for security is either to find a protecting power or join an alliance in order to be politically and militarily sustainable. The thesis will analyse Sweden’s shift in security policy by examining shelter theory’s claim that in order for small states to survive and prosper, buffering up domestic capabilities does not suffice, they need to seek political and military shelter from external security providers by implementing bi- or multilateral agreements with neighbouring states, great powers and by joining alliances. 

    Analysing a long-time deviant case of a non-aligned small state, this thesis argues that Sweden’s drawn-out road-map to NATO membership is problematic to explain from the perspective of shelter theory. Consequently, the thesis makes the additional claim that factors related to Sweden’s domestic policy, such as public opinion and the nearly institutionalised practice of broad political consensus in issues relating to security policy, also play an important role for the design of Sweden’s security policy. Shelter theory in combination with domestic factors’ influence on security policy change offer a more fully fledged explanation of Sweden's shift in security policy to NATO alignment. This thesis argues that its findings complement and enhance shelter theory by shedding light on the importance of domestic factors in the study of small states’ security policy. 

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  • Jill, Clavell
    Swedish Defence University.
    Konkurrens: ett hinder eller en möjlighet? En kvalitativ studie om konkurrens inom interorganisatorisk krissamverkan2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A well-functioning collaboration can be of decisive importance for the management of a crisis. Although it is a common endeavour, there may be obstacles that give rise to conflicts (Bondesson et al., 2019; Bynander & Nohrstedt, 2019; Deverell et al., 2019a; Hedlund & Lönngren, 2021; Svedin, 2009; Ödlund, 2010). In these contexts, competition is mentioned as an obstacle and something that happens in the periphery (Deverell et al., 2019b; Palm & Ramsell, 2007; Ödlund, 2010). The research provides a limited description of competition and its conditions within inter-organizational cooperation. Based on a social psychological perspective, 10 semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted. The result shows that competition was first considered non-existent and later as hidden and hindering. Competition was managed through group identification as well as factors such as trust, adaptation and co-leadership. The conclusion is that the competition in a collaboration can be described. Finding a balance between competition as an obstacle and cooperation was important for the actors. The experience shows the complexity that can exist regarding competition linked to crisis management. This study shows that there is an ambition on the part of the actors to achieve a good collaboration, where efficiency and good preparation for crisis management become increasingly important elements. However, the results showed that there was competition which took the form of internal interests and mistrust. Competition, as an opportunity, was considered by the actors to have less importance for cooperation

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  • Wallertz, Sebastian
    Swedish Defence University.
    Lägesbild eller tempo - vad prioriteras i kriskommunikation: En intervjustudie angående beslutsfattande i kriskommunikation2024Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen undersöker om det finns en konflikt i kriskommunikation mellan att ha tempo i kommunikationen eller att ha en korrekt lägesbild. Finns det skillnader och likheter i beslutsprocesser gällande kriskommunikation på nationell, regional och kommunal nivå? Tidigare forskning har fokuserat på relationen mellan sändaren och mottagaren av kriskommunikationen som Ann Enander tar upp i sin forskning. Även hur man ändrar ett beteende under en kris för att få önskad effekt. Det har forskats på intern och extern kriskommunikation som Mats Heide tar upp i sin forskning. Ingen av dessa forskare tar upp om det finns en konflikt mellan tempo och lägesbild. Det finns även en forskningslucka gällande skillnader och likheter i beslutsprocesser gällande kriskommunikation på nationella, regionala och kommunala nivåer. Teorin som användes i den här uppsatsen är Kahneman och Tverskys Prospect theory den handlar om att människor alltid försöker minska sina förluster än att maximera sina vinster. Metoden som har använts är en intervjustudie och databearbetningsmetoden är en tematisk analys. Resultatet visar att det inte fanns någon konflikt mellan tempo och ha korrekt lägesbild, att det är beroende av hur krisen ser ut. Men även visar resultatet att det är svårt avgör vad som är en korrekt lägesbild. kriskommunikation på nationell, regional och kommunal nivå. Resultatet i uppsatsen visar att det inte är så stora skillnader mellan dessa nivåer. Organisationerna har staber och organisationerna och individerna var lärande. Detta innebar att kriskommunikationen på dessa nivåer utvecklades och erfarenheten ökade efter varje kris. Även framkom det i studien att upprättande av lathundar och spårande av tidstjuvar påverkar effektiviteten av kriskommunikationen.

     

     

     

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  • Gelot, Linnéa
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Joint Warfare Division.
    Khadka, Prabin B.
    Department of Government, University of Essex, Colchester, UK, (GBR).
    Traditional authorities as both curse and cure: the politics of coping with violent extremism in Somalia2024In: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores community perceptions about traditional authorities’ roles during the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) of former combatants. We have selected the case of Somalia, where both government institutions and traditional authorities have partnered with international actors and institutions, as well as non-governmental organisations (NGOs), to prevent and counter violent extremism (P/CVE). International actors have related to traditional authorities based on the assumption that these actors wield a kind of social power that facilitates the reintegration of former members of the violent extremist organisation al-Shabaab. Based on mixed methodology research we explain social reintegration in Somalia from the community perspective, and find that P/CVE programmes are expressive of co-optation of traditional authorities. We make the case that ‘risk coping’ helps explain why a majority of civilians prefer the government-led formal reintegration pathway of ex-combatants to the traditional authorities pathway. We conclude by discussing the implications that this has for NGOs/INGOs active in this P/CVE sector.

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  • Ternström, Clara
    Swedish Defence University.
    The Kampala Convention vs. Bare Life: A Qualitative Analysis of the Kampala Convention and its Impact on IDPs’ Quality of Life2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to identify potential ways in which the African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (Kampala Convention) improves the quality of life for IDPs. Relying on the concept of bare life, it answers if and how the convention prevents bare life. Drawing on theory and previous research on bare life in relation to IDPs, the analytical framework forms four theoretical dimensions to which the Kampala Convention, Translating The Kampala Convention Into Practice: A Stocktaking Exercise (ICRC, 2017) and The Kampala Convention: Key Recommendations Ten Years On (ICRC, 2019) are applied. Based on a grading, the results tell of the convention’s effects. The IDPs’ rights and political agency are adequately respected; quotidian culture and prevention of exclusionary practices are promoted yet insufficiently. Adding humanitarianism, biopolitics and host communities as additional findings, there are areas that should be carefully respected, but bare life is mostly prevented. Hopefully, this study can add knowledge to the progress of the Kampala Convention and provide a framework for similar analyses of policy and practice on aiding people in distress.

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  • Svanfeldt, Ebba
    Swedish Defence University.
    Risken med kärnkraft eller risken utan kärnkraft? En kvalitativ innehållsanalys av sambandet mellan ideologi och riskperception i den svenska kärnkraftsdebatten2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nuclear power is a topic that has been debated for many years, both in Sweden and internationally. The arguments that are found in the debate often express either that risk is connected to using nuclear power, or that risk is connected to not using it. Both sides frequently express a political connection. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate whether there is a connection between ideology and risk perception in the Swedish debate on nuclear power. To find an answer ideological connection and risk perception are identified in a number of articles published in Sweden’s five largest newspapers during the spring and summer of 2022. The results indicate a connection between ideology and risk perception, although it is not quite clear. Also, what type of risk an article expresses as the most serious seems to be connected to its ideology and the values it builds on. 

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  • Moregård, Emelie
    Swedish Defence University.
    NATO and their gold card holders: An entanglement analysis of Sweden and Finland's decision to apply for membership in NATO2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to gain a greater understanding of the meaning-making process behind Finland and Sweden’s decision to join NATO in 2022, and by so, deviate from their long-standing tradition of military non-alignment. Instead of solely pointing to the Russian invasion of Ukraine as the official reason for NATO membership this paper suggests that the concept of strategic culture can provide one with a greater understanding of their decision to join NATO. Resulting in the question: How can the concept of strategic culture help us understand the decision by Sweden and Finland to apply for NATO membership in 2022, despite their longstanding tradition of non-military alignment? With the concept of strategic culture, the analytical framework argues that the decision-making in Finland and Sweden was shaped by historical experiences that in turn influenced their strategic culture, which worked as a shaping context for their respective strategic behaviour. This is done through an entanglement analysis, a close reading and interpretation of the empirical material such as books, peer-reviewed articles, statements, government reports, and speeches, to demonstrate if the decision to join NATO followed Finland and Sweden’s typical strategic behaviour. This paper argues that the decision to join NATO did not represent a shift in the two state’s respective behaviour, instead the decision was in line with the strategic behaviour the states have followed since the end of the Cold War. Hence, the decision to join NATO demonstrates a sign of continuity rather than a historical shift in their foreign and security policy.

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  • Thunström, Josefine
    Swedish Defence University.
    Examining the Possibilities of Live, Virtual, Constructive (LVC)2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Live, Virtual, and Constructive (LVC) is a relatively newly developed system of systems concept designed to provide a new way of conducting training for, but not exclusively, fighter pilots. “Train like you fight” is a commonly used quote when talking about LVC. The ability to create an environment where fighter pilots are able to train in an environment that is as much alike their working environment as possible will give the pilots a huge advantage when having to work in such a challenging and dangerous environment like active war. Besides training, other areas to use LVC have been discussed, and one of those areas is system test and analysis for weapon systems. In this thesis the ability to use LVC as a system test and analysis tool is investigated. This is done by the development of a model of what the LVC system looks like, then a suggestion of an LVC-design with the purpose of using the system as a test and analysis tool is presented. The design is based on SWOT-analyses based on previous research and on LVC products existing on the market. To validate this design a workshop with experts was conducted to receive input on the design as well as discuss the possibilities of Sweden implementing LVC in the future. After the workshop the LVC-design was updated with the points from the workshop.

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  • Björk, Emil
    Swedish Defence University.
    Den polska demokratins undergång: En analys av den polska demokratins förfall mellan 2015 och 20222024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • Linder, Julia
    Swedish Defence University.
    The crisisification of the European Single Market: A study investigating how changes to governance of the Single Market can be understood through crisisification2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The European Single Market (SM) has typically been a symbol of economic integration and multilateralism within the European Union (EU). It operates within a robust regulatory framework aimed at ensuring the free movement of goods, services, people, and capital. However, with the steady onslaught of crises seen in the union in recent years, the SM governance appears to be changing by giving privilege to the safeguarding of strategic interests and ensuring stability. Similar changes have been noted in other sectors, where it has been dubbed a crisisification of policy-making in the EU. This is expressed by the agenda-setting, decision-making, participation, and legitimising narratives of ordinary governance becoming similar to those employed during crises.

    The thesis seeks to understand the changing governance of the SM by using the theoretical framework of crisisification. The framework is adapted by considering elements of time, active secrecy, and Council coordination dynamics. Crisisification shows that changes to SM governance challenges democratic processes and community building. Insights from critical security studies also contributes to assessing the implications on policy-makers, citizens, and democracy of crisisification. The study explores these goals through semi-structured interviews and reflexive thematic analysis with civil servants from the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs, the European Commission, and the Swedish National Board of Trade. Findings revealed the multifaceted impacts of crisisification on privileging sectors deemed vulnerable or threatened over others and changing interinstitutional power dynamics resulting in challenges towards democratic values. The study underscores the need for further exploration into the effects of crisisification through systematic review across European policy sectors.  

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  • Hårleman, Cornelia
    Swedish Defence University.
    Neutralitet: Ideal eller verklighet? En kvalitativ textanalys av Svenska Röda korset humanitära hjälpaktioner 1935-19442024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Red Cross (SRK) has worked for over a century to improve Swedishsociety and at the same time been involved in aid operations for several internationalhumanitarian disasters and crises. SRK is meant to be a stateless and neutralorganization, but has at the same time since its inception in 1864 SRK had a closecollaboration with the Swedish government. This essay aims to understand how thiscooperation has affected SRK's aid actions in war and if it has affected their neutralityin choosing sides in the wars. The essay's investigation deals with three areas thatwere affected by war and where SRK chose to carry out aid operations. The sourcematerial has been analyzed based on the qualitative text analysis method where thesource material is selected according to the three areas; Abyssinia, Finland andGreece. Furthermore, the empirical evidence has been analyzed based on Joseph S.Nye Jr. Theory of interdependence to better and at a deeper level understandcooperation. The analysis is based on the four concepts that Nye Jr. built his theorybased on: sources, benefits, relative costs, and symmetries. The study shows that therewas a mutual need for a collaboration between SRK and the Swedish state, whichaffected SRK's neutrality into whom and where the aid actions should be sent.

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  • Lindhé von Ehren, Viktor
    Swedish Defence University.
    Fredsbevarande utan fred att bevara: Ulf Henricssons och Nordbat 2:s påverkan på Tuzlaområdets aktörer under BA 01 i Bosnien2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The UNPROFOR mission in Bosnia is often seen as problem ridden, if not ill-fated,and the limited success the international mission did see, came mostly after thehandover to IFOR and NATO in 1995. The Nordic battalion Nordbat 2, primarilyconsisting of Swedish units, and particularly its first rotation BA 01, can be seen as ananomaly; this battalion was characterised by its application of mission command. It canreasonably be stated that its first commanding officer, Ulf Henricsson, madecontroversial interpretations of the Rules of Engagement, and frequently emphasised tothe parties to the conflict that Nordbat 2 would not be bureaucratically bullied like manyother UN-units. This study maps out the Area of Responsibility of Nordbat 2, Tuzla,through Bordieuan field theory, and uses an iteration of the same theory developed byHåkan Gunneriusson for use in international military missions to analyse the effects ofHenricsson’s actions, and those of BA 01 as a whole, in respect to the field and its rules.Through qualitative analysis of Henricssons memoir, certain battalion documents andICTY protocols, the study finds that Henricsson, in satisfactory accordance with thechecklist put forward by Gunneriusson, identified the rules, illusio, of the field andincentivised the parties to the conflict to, in certain cases, abandon violent methods formore benign ones through a carrot and stick approach. When this, for different reasons,was impossible, Henricsson’s direct involvement and the subculture of the battalionmade clear that Nordbat 2 was not to be taken lightly and managed to uncover themassacre in Stupni Do through aggressive and unconventional means. 

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  • Ångquist, Philip
    Swedish Defence University.
    Information och makt: Svenska militärattachéers rapportering gällande Norge och Ryssland 1914-1918 sett ur ett underrättelsepolitiskt perspektiv2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Using a qualitative text analysis tying into the hermeneutic tradition, this study aims to explain how Swedish military attachés, as part of the process of professionalization, reported information as possible proponents of their own armed service during WW1. Michael I. Handel’s taxonomy, including four definitions of politics in the intelligence process, will here be used to analyze how the interests of the Swedish army as a stakeholder in the competition for state funds came to light in intelligence reporting. Based on the perceived conflict between a “professional intelligence culture” and the political use of intelligence, Handel’s taxonomy will also be used to discuss the attachés attitudes regarding the relationship between professional military officers and political decision making. These conclusions are made to create a Swedish historical perspective in research geared towards the politicization of intelligence, a field dominated by Anglo-Saxon perspectives and generalizations based on empirical findings not necessarily relevant to Swedish conditions. This study is therefore an attempt at relating the Swedish intelligence history to the phenomenon of intelligence politicization in an era where the professionalization of the military trade was highly prevalent. The study concludes that the reports show a tendency, with slight exceptions, where the attachés defend and propagate the interests of the army. This especially in cases where there is a clear rival in the competition for state funding within a political bargaining process, here exemplified by the Swedish navy. Cultural ideals emphasizing professional judgements over political opportunism, where officers who can propagate military demands in spite of political opposition are idealized, come to light in the reports. This suggests that the socioprofessional change within the Swedish officer corps between 1890-1914 coincides with a will to speak truth to power in line with the interests of military professionals. 

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  • Christensson, Gustav
    Swedish Defence University.
    The Propaganda of Iran and its Proxies: A study on the cross-group cohesion of Iran, Hezbollah and Hamas2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the Islamic Revolution in 1979 Iran has employed a deliberate and successful strategy centered around the use and support of various proxies, notably Hezbollah and Hamas who are part of the Iranian led Axis of Resistance. There is a vast literature that has studied different aspects of this Iranian proxy dimension, but relatively little research has been conducted on propaganda as a unifying mechanism. This thesis thus expanded upon the current literature through a content analysis of the propaganda produced by Iran, Hezbollah, and Hamas in order to gain a fuller understanding of how cross-group cohesion has been achieved. The analysis incorporated social identity theory, and identified how the propaganda could be used in accordance with three theoretical dimensions: Identity constructions, Justification for Violence, and Weaponization of the ummah. The findings revealed how cross-group cohesion was achieved through the creation of a dichotomous worldview, consisting of an ingroup that is existentially threatened by an outgroup consisting of the West and Jews. Moreover, they use conspiratorial rhetoric combined with victimhood in order to frame the struggle as an ongoing religious war against Islam. The thesis concludes with a theoretical discussion on the normative assumptions that underpin the propaganda, arguing that the cross-group cohesion is dependent on the creation of shared identities based on victimhood, religious references, and the creation of shared external enemies.  

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  • Viel Lamare, Tristan
    Swedish Defence University.
    Sverige och det spansk-amerikanska kriget: En komparativ studie av svensk medias rapportering av det spansk-amerikanska kriget2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • Birkoff, Måns
    Swedish Defence University.
    Ukrainakriget i nyhetspressen: En kvalitativ undersökning av tidningsrapporteringen om Ukrainakriget i två svenska tidningar under 2022 jämfört med 20142024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The war in Ukraine had a large media presence during both 2014 and 2022. The way media frames information about the conflict can lead to the reader of said media to be influenced into viewing actors and events in a certain way, which can have an effect on public opinion and political decision making. Because of this framing theory is used as the theoretical basis to analyze the Swedish newspapers Aftonbladet and Dagens Nyheter. The goal of this analysis is to form an understanding about how the media has framed the Ukraine war over time. To reach this goal the analysis attempts to answer the following questions: How Swedish newspapers have framed the Ukraine war during 2022 and 2014? Is the framing in these papers biased towards any actors in 2022 and how does this compare to 2014? How does the framing of the conflict in 2022 differ from previous studies of the events from 2014? The analysis has been conducted using qualitative text analysis, and the result of this is presented both using text and by using a quantitative method through charts. The analysis focuses on 241 different newspaper articles published between February 2022 and July 2022 and two studies focusing on the Swedish news framing during 2014. The result of the analysis shows continuity in the framing as both focused heavily on the Russia vs west struggle that is playing out on the international and domestic political stage, instead of the war itself. There were some changes however, as 2022 introduced new subjects such as migration, economy and energy crisis to the framing of the war in Ukraine. The analysis also shows that the framing of the media in 2022 is heavily biased towards Ukraine with only a small amount of pro russian tendencies, which is a similar result to what was presented by previous studies covering the conflict during 2014.

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  • Friman, Johanna
    Swedish Defence University.
    Försvarsmaktens jämställdhetsarbete: En kvalitativ studie av hur kadetter, som identifierar sig som män, upplever jämställdhetsarbetet inom Försvarsmakten.2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces have been tasked by the Swedish government to integrate gender equality efforts throughout their operations, necessitating the inclusion of all personnel in this work. There is a gap in research concerning the perspectives of male military personnel on gender equality efforts. The thesis aims to understand how cadets who identify themselves as men experience gender equality work in the Swedish Armed Forces. Using a qualitative design, eleven semi-structured interviews were conducted with cadets enrolled at the Swedish Defence University at the time of the thesis. Through a discourse analysis, the social reality and the discourses that are allowed to take place in the work for gender equality were made visible. The results showed that the cadets perceive gender equality efforts as not being integrated throughout the organization and possibly being seen as if there is organizational resistance to such initiatives. Furthermore, gender equality is equated with equal treatment by the cadets, which can be problematic. 

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  • Gustafsson, David
    Swedish Defence University.
    Politisk kommunikation vid kris: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys av svenska statsministrars tal till nationen2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has seen an increase in the use of “speech to the nation” by the recent Prime ministers. It is a type of speech reserved for major crises and since 1974 just six have been held, four of them since 2020. By using a theoretical framework from the framing part of crisis management literature, this paper examines what kind of communication tool “speech to the nation” is. The analysis concludes that the speeches typically seek to acknowledge the severity of the crisis, highlight exogenous causes, and present incremental policy changes which defends status quo. In line with contemporary research about political communication, the speeches have developed into more politicized speeches with more serious descriptions of the crises and with more severe policy-reforms presented. The thesis contributes to the literature about political communication by giving an overview and analysis of every prime ministerial speech to the nation in Sweden since 1974. 

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  • Lundin, Agnes
    Swedish Defence University.
    Medieframställning av cyberriskperceptioner: En innehållsanalys av förstärkta och nedtonade cyberhot i svenska nyhetsmedier 2017-20232024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker hur cyberrisker skildras i svenska nyhetsmedier mellan 2017-2023 samt huruvida medieframställningen av cyberriskerna förstärks eller tonas ned. Syftet är att ge nya insikter kring hur cyberrisker uppmärksammas i samhället med tanke på aktuella rapporter om bristande cybersäkerhetsarbete i Sverige gentemot de betydande cyberrisker som existerar. Studiet av medieframställningen av cyberrisker ämnar därigenom ge större förståelse för cyberriskperceptioner i Sverige. Innehållsanalysen studerar medieframställningen av cyberriskerna samt förstärkning respektive nedtoning av detsamma utifrån fyra koder baserade på ”The Social Amplification of Risk Framework”. Resultaten visar att cyberattacker förstärks i stor utsträckning gällande mängden nyhetsartiklar på området och cyberhotet mot Sverige likaså. Få nyhetsartiklar behandlar dock hur cyberhot påverkar individen vilket nedtonar denna medieframställning. Det ämne som förstärks mest utifrån antalet uppfyllda koder är påverkansoperationer mot riksdagsval i Sverige. Samtidigt nedtonas åtgärder för att minska cyberhotet mot Sverige mest. Utöver detta synliggör resultaten att cyberrisker tenderar att tonas ned på grund av avsaknad av omtvistade inslag då cyberriskerna ofta präglas av en enad nyhetsrapportering.

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  • Magnil, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    DRR in Colombia: The risk of reproducing rather than reducing disasters: A discourse analysis on the local sense-making of DRR in Huila, Colombia2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The international community has been working on reducing disaster risks for decades, investing millions of dollars and implementing hundreds of projects in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR). There is a broad consensus nowadays between academia and practitioners of how disasters result from exposure and vulnerabilities, where it’s essential to reduce these vulnerabilities. However, regardless of all efforts made, vulnerabilities seem to persist and local knowledge is often limited due to the top-down approach of DRR-projects. Based on a field study in Huila, Colombia, this thesis examines why vulnerabilities persist by studying the local sense-making of disaster risks and DRR of the practitioners and consumers of these projects. A discourse analysis, grounded in a Foucauldian and post-structuralist approach, identifies and further analyzes discourses, considering power dynamics. The thesis findings highlight three different understandings of DRR among the participants: the Colombian Red Cross (CRC), the city's recipients and the indigenous community of Nasa Çxhaçxha. The dominant discourse of the CRC, focusing on DRR measures of self-reliance, generates knowledge that overlooks the contextual risks of the recipients, which strengthens what previous research has already concluded. The thesis can contribute to existing research by emphasizing how educational programmes for improving risk awareness have been too generalized and overlooked the contextual vulnerabilities and risks, which in turn has reproduced the dominant knowledge of DRR, generating a cyclic process that enganger to reproduce the risks and thereby also making the vulnerabilities persist.

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  • Erlands, Elvira
    Swedish Defence University.
    Den inåtriktade utrikespolitikens era: En idealtypsanalys av den svenska utrikespolitiken i en tid av säkerhetspolitisk omsvängning2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay conducts a qualitative text analysis on the Swedish foreign policy debates held in February 2015 and 2023. The study aims to enhance understanding of the shift in Swedish security policy following the Swedish NATO application. Using an ideal-type analysis, the occurrence of realistic and liberal assumptions is compared in the two debates. The study reveals that both debates are characterized by liberal assumptions. Additionally, it is evident that the Swedish foreign policy debate in 2023 is characterized to a greater extent by realistic assumptions than the debate in 2015. This difference becomes apparent as the debaters in 2023 more frequently and elaborately discuss the consequences of the international situation for security in Sweden and its vicinity. At the same time, the threat is more extensively linked to states, and a certain skepticism is expressed towards international institutions and their ability to uphold international laws. This enhances understanding of the shift in the Swedish security policy debate, indicating a change in how Swedish politicians talk about security concerns.

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  • Norell, Per-Ivar
    Swedish Defence University.
    Officer, ett livsyrke?2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Försvarsmakten är under tillväxt, den senaste nu gällande propositionen Totalförsvar har en kraftig utökning av Försvarsmaktens organisation som mål för 2030. Antalet anställda yrkesofficerare skall ökas med 1700 individer fram till år 2033. För att möjliggöra denna utökning räcker det inte att bara öka rekryteringen utan även att behålla redan anställd personal. I en studie från 2020 konstaterades att 25 % av yrkesofficerarna hade slutat inom Försvarsmakten inom 10 år efter att de tagit anställning. Att kompensera för detta genom överintag är kanske nödvändigt men samtidigt resurs och kostnadskrävande.

    Syftet med de attityder och intentioner som de blivande yrkesofficerana denna studie att försöka belysa har innan de åter kommer ut på förbanden och blir påverkade av förbands miljön. Studien undersöker vilka attityder de har om sin tjänstgöring i Försvarsmakten och dess påverkan på intentionerna om tjänstgöringslängd och karriärsutveckling. En insikt i dessa attityder samt intentioner möjliggör att kunna hantera dessa och minska personalomsättningen. 

    Studien resulterar i vissa tydliga resultat. Det finns en generell attityd bland blivande yrkesofficerare att konflikten mellan arbete och familj kommer att påverka dem i deras tjänstgöring i Försvarsmakten. Det finns också en skillnad mellan könen i hur de uppfattar karriär och barn. Kvinnor har ofta starkare attityd om att föräldraskap negativt påverkar karriärmöjligheterna i Försvarsmakten. Förebilder har betydelse, men inte så stor omfattning. Lärare på skolan samt tidigare chefer har ofta en positiv inverkan på attityden om eventuell karriär i Försvarsmakten. Detta är ett förhållande som bör utnyttjas från myndighetens sida.

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  • Mellstrand Sajnovic, Emma
    Swedish Defence University.
    Are They Part Of “Us” Or The “Other”? A Discourse analysis examining how the U.S. perceives itself in East Asia region in relation to the disputes between two important allies: Japan and South Korea2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the trilateral meeting between U.S. President Joe Biden, Japanese Prime Minister Kishida Fumio, and South Korean President Yoon Suk-Yeol in August 2023, a new chapter of cooperation between the three seems to be coming closer, with new possibilities of laying bilateral issues between Japan and South Korea to rest. But how does the U.S. perceive its allies? This essay analyses the discursive identities constructed in U.S. official foreign policy discourse on Japan and South Korea in relation to their bilateral disputes. In order to create a deeper understanding of U.S. self-perception, and to gain insight into how identities are created with regard to bilateral disputes built on a long history of animosity. This essay takes on a poststructural discourse analysis building on Lene Hansens (2006), understanding identity as relationally constituted, constructed through discourse. This essay analyses how discourse has been constructed through a spatial, temporal, and ethical lens from the first Obama administration (2009) to the current Biden administration to uncovered if there are any dominant discourse that are stable over time, or if they change more or less with every president. The analysis finds that there is a dominant discourse that can be seen though all the presidencies constructing South Korea and Japan as close to the core, building on shared values, democracy, the rule of law and strife for peace and prosperity. A more implicit discourse becoming clearer though every presidency is the friction between the U.S. and its ally’s inability of moving beyond their bilateral disputes, a discourse building on the perception of lack of maturity and commitment to the greater good.        

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  • Norbäck, Sara
    Swedish Defence University.
    An American story of hope: A narrative analysis on the role of hope within the Biden administration's biographical narrative after January 6th2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the role of hope within the Biden administration’s biographical narrative during the year after the Capitol attack on January 6th. The thesis provides for both an exploration of the case and how hope within national identity representations can be analyzed, as well as the value of hope after a disruptive event with consequences for the nation’s self-understanding. Previous research has focused mainly on fear of the outside or internal anxiety as drivers of state identity representations while implicitly assuming the occurrence of universality or a stable identity within the state. Instead, the theorizing on hope proposed by the thesis suggests that the American subject is unfinished and incomplete within its identity representations and requires hope to move forward, while also immunizing notions of fear and anxiety. While a complete identity can never be reached, American identity representations are sustained by manifesting hope for the future. Even though the American collective subject may never reach its desired unity, the hope that it someday might allow for the continuation of identity representations of the striving subject. 

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  • Öberg, Helene
    Swedish Defence University.
    Tjänstehund - verktyg eller självständig aktör? En studie om hur hundförare upplever hundens roll i arbetet2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study was conducted with a qualitative design to explore dog handlers' experiences of the roles assumed by the dog when they work together in actual operations and to determine if there is an interaction that qualifies as socially distributed cognition. In the study, handlers working in the Swedish Police Authority, the Swedish Armed Forces, and the Swedish Customs were interviewed based on three research questions: how they perceive the dogs’ contributions, the dogs’ limitations, and the relationship with the dog.

    The interviews can be summarized that dog handlers experience a strong bond with the dog. The relationship is characterized by interaction and trust, but with different perceptions of how the dog should be guided. Handlers describe the dog as a tool but at the same time they see the dog capable to act independently.

    The results are compared against a theoretic framework of socially distributed cognition between humans and service dogs (Amon & Favela, 2019). The results indicate that the handlers' experience of interaction with the dog may qualify as socially distributed cognition.

    The conclusion of the study is that dogs have diverse roles, shifting between being a tool and an independent actor. The results may challenge the criteria for social distributed cognition, indicating a need for supplementation, particularly concerning the significance of the relationship, communication, and how initiative shifts between the handler and the service dog. Therefore, the study suggests that further research is required to better comprehend the diversity of the dog's roles and the importance of the relationship.

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  • Jensfelt de Cloux, Martin
    Swedish Defence University.
    Gestaltningen av det spansk–amerikanska kriget 1898: En kvalitativ studie av den svenska pressdiskussionen kring det spansk–amerikanska kriget 18982024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The American press has been given a significant amount of attention regarding their

    role in enabling the Spanish–American war. Even though there is a debate regarding

    how much the so called yellow press contributed to the causes of war, a significant

    amount of research points to how the American press was filled with speculations and

    propaganda which certainly added fuel to the fire. The press played an important part

    in shaping the opinion of the American and Spanish public regarding the war and US–

    Spanish diplomatic relations. Most of the studies have been about the American and

    the Spanish press. A study of the Swedish newspapers reports about the war contributes

    to military history as it can highlight how a neutral European state regarded the war. It

    also gives a better understanding of how the press in Sweden during the 1890s operated,

    in a time when it was still taking its modern shape.

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to cover what the Swedish press wrote about the

    Spanish–American war and how they framed it. To better understand how the

    newspapers wrote about the war I used the so-called Framing theory as a tool to dissect

    the coverage of the war. I analyzed the news coverage by using a qualitative text

    analysis and found that the Swedish newspapers framed the war as an American

    military success that came with a heavy price as their occupation of the former Spanish

    colonies raised questions regarding international law and most importantly, morality.

    The conclusion of the study shows that Spain’s defeat was attributed to the fact that

    Spain was faltering, not just in terms of their great power status, according to the

    Swedish newspapers the whole of Spanish society had been decaying since the 16th

    century. The Swedish newspapers framed the Spanish defeat with sympathetic

    comments served together with some patronizing undertones.

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  • Bergström, Jennifer
    Swedish Defence University.
    "Här finns inga lyxfruar och ingen kverulans": En narrativanalys av pressens berättelser om Svenska Lottakåren under beredskapstiden2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s thesis examines the narrative about the Swedish Women’s Volountary Defence Organization (Svenska Lottakåren) in Aftonbladet, Dagens Nyheter, Göteborgs Handels- och Sjöfartstidning, and Svenska Dagbladet during the preparedness period (beredskapstiden) through a qualitative narrative analysis. Drawing from Lawrence Freedman’s theory of strategic narratives, the research sheds light on the newspaper’s role in shaping perceptions of Lottakåren and its efforts during the period. Furthermore, it investigates the narratives implications on a strategic level. The study concludes that the narrative may have influenced public perceptions of Lottakåren, serving specific strategic aims, such as creating support for the organization within society, fostering unity withing the organization, encourage volunteering and recruitment of new members. In doing so, this research fills a gap in knowledge on the subject while emphasizing the press’s vital role at a strategic level in times of war and crisis. 

     

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  • Olsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University.
    Svensk underrättelseinhämtning och organisationskultur under 1939/1940: En studie av försvarsstabens fokus på sovjetisk styrkeuppbyggnad i Estland genom en kvalitativ text- och kulturanalys2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about a mapping of the Swedish Defense Staff's focus area for information gathering regarding the Soviet military capability, based on their military build-up in Estonia during the fall of 1939 and the spring of 1940. Relevance for this study is found in the research gap identified in previous research and intends to be able to produce a deeper understanding of the defense staff's view of the military-strategic significance of the Soviet Union's military build-up. This study also deals with the defense staff's need for information gathering and how they attacked and handled challenges. The material in this study consists of archives from the Defense Staff's intelligence department where documents have been analyzed through a qualitative text analysis using hermeneutics as a basis. The theoretical standpoint is based on a cultural analysis of military organizations, that is operationalized using two theoretical concepts. One is future orientation which measures the extent to which a military engages in future-oriented actions such as planning and investing in the future. The second is uncertainty avoidance and measures the extent to which a military relies on rules and procedures to reduce the unpredictability of future events. The conclusions drawn in this study shows that regarding the Soviet military capability the focus was primarily on studying the establishment of Soviet bases in Estonia, in particular the location of the bases. Observations and assessments were also carried out regarding its military strategic importance, such as a more favorable naval strategic position for the Red Fleet where the possibility of operations to certain areas of the Baltic Sea, including Sweden, seemed likely. The conclusion can also be drawn that, of all things, the attachés' continued intelligence gathering was of great importance to the Defense Staff. The interpretation of the material suggests that the defense staff had a culture with a high future orientation, and overall, also a high uncertainty avoidance.

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  • Tindemyr Hagelin, Maja
    Swedish Defence University.
    Frihetskamp eller terrorism? En kvalitativ textanalys av irländska och engelska tidningars gestaltningar av det anglo-iriska kriget 1919–19212024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how The Times and The Irish Times framed the Anglo-Irish War from September to December 1920. The research question explores how the British and Irish press framed the Anglo-Irish War based on political and national affiliations. The purpose of the paper is to contribute to an understanding of how the newspapers chose to frame the war based on their own interests and perspectives. The military-historical interest lies in understanding the role of the media in war and how they influence the reader’s perceptions of the war and its participants. The source material used consists of 14 newspaper editions from The Times and 15 from The Irish Times between September 1st and December 31st, 1920. The sources are digitized primary materials obtained from the newspapers’ online archives. To analyse the material, the method of qualitative text analysis has been employed, involving careful reading to identify trends in the newspapers. Combined with the method, the framing theory has been applied to interpret frames in relation to the newspapers’ political stance and national identity. Previous research indicates that the newspapers were not objective observers of the war, but through their critical reporting, influenced public opinion and the outcome of the war. This study demonstrates that The Times and The Irish Times framed the war and its participants differently, thereby creating different versions of the reality of the war. The Times focused on British reprisals and emphasized the international reputation of the empire. The Irish Times focused on the IRA and the consequences of their actions for the Irish people. The results are considered relevant today to remind consumers of the media to be critical of sources and aware of media’s framing. 

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  • Crispien, Ida
    Swedish Defence University.
    Högerpopulisms påverkan på humanitärt biståndsgivande: En kvantitativ studie i Europeiska unionen från 2000 till 20222024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Förekomsten av partier med en högerpopulistisk ideologi har ökat i EU-länder sedan sent 1900-tal. Utifrån denna förändring har resonemang kring möjliga effekter av uppgången blivit mer aktuella än någonsin. Ökningen av högerpopilism i Europa väcker frågor om hur det påverkar några av världens största humanitära biståndsgivare. Humanitärt bistånd ges för akut stöd i en kris. Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att bidra till kunskap om hur högerpopulism påverkar EU-länders vilja att ge humanitärt bistånd. Frågeställningen som besvaras i uppsatsen lyder: Vilken påverkan hade högerpopulism på mängd humanitärt bistånd från EU-länder 2000-2022? Uppsatsens hypotes vilar på Cas Muddes teori om exkluderande högerpiopulistiska partier.

    Studien genomförs med hjälp av kvantitativ multivariat regressionsanalys med fixerad effekt och nyttjar 621 observatioiner. Uppsatsens resultat tyder på att det finns ett statistiskt signifikant negativt samband mellan den beroende variabeln humanitärt biståndsgivande och den oberoende variabeln högerpopulism. Alltså, att om ett EU-land har en högre andel högerpopulism i det nationella parlamentet kommer de tendera att ge mindre humanitärt bistånd. Ytterligare tyder resultatet på att det finns variationer i effekten mellan olika geografiska områden inom EU. Uppsatsens resultat bidrar till möjligheter att resonera kring den framtida utvecklingen i EU området inom givande av humanitärt bistånd.

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  • Eriksson Arrhén, Frida
    Swedish Defence University.
    De narrativa anpassningarna: Identitetskontinuitet uttryckt i den politiska diskursen om svensk säkerhetspolitisklinje och omsvängning i Nato-frågan2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ontological security theory has served the field of international relations well by providing a theoretical lens through which the continuous behaviours of states can be understood. This study aims to contribute to furthering the development of ontological security theory by demonstrating its explanatory power even in the context of altered state behaviour. Employing a narrative methodological approach the study investigates the coexistence between states' ontological security pursuits in the form of identity continuity on one hand and political policy change on the other. This is achieved by examining political discourse surrounding a case of political policy change, the Swedish shift in stance towards NATO. The analysis of the study reveals that a pursuit of identity continuity and hence ontological security has coexisted with the political policy change, facilitated by narrative adaptations.These narrative adaptations entail making the political change compatible with the already established state identity. This allows for change in certain aspects while preserving continuity in areas necessary to fulfill the state's need for ontological security. 

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  • Martinsson, Agnes
    Swedish Defence University.
    Varför ska jag ha beredskap när det finns pizza på Foodora? Ungas beredskap och hur de resonerar kring den2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • Mingarini Melin, Noa
    Swedish Defence University.
    Begreppet "resiliens" resiliens.: En studie över hur svenska statens offentliga utredningar använt begreppet resiliens.2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En undersökning av hur statliga utredningar inom krisberedskap, internationellt och regionalt utvecklingsarbete samt miljö och klimat använt sig av begreppet resiliens över tid. Undersökningen utgår från amerikansk och brittisk kritisk forskning om hur resiliens är ett otydligt begrepp, något som även noterats i Sverige. En kvantitativ-kvalitativ metod anläggs för att få både bredd och förståelse. Undersökningen finner att problemet med otydlighet även finns i Sverige, åtminstonte gällande SOU:er, även om det inte är på samma skala. Otydligheten undersöks genom tre analysaxlar gällande hur resiliens förstås ur ett maktperspektiv (dvs. grad av mänsklig kontroll), ur ett disciplinärt perspektiv samt ur ett perspektiv som mål i sig självt eller en process mot större mål. Undersökningen påtalar att svenska utredare använder resiliens relativt lite men bör sluta använda resiliens som det görs. Undersökningen ger stöd till den resilienskritiska forskningen men visar att den svenska forskningen kan ha överskattat problemet.

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  • Paillard Borg, Julyan
    Swedish Defence University.
    Galli Non Grata in Mali? Explaining why France left Mali in August 20222024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the understanding that Mali and Russia will be unable to contain the jihadist security threat in Mali, this paper explains why France withdrew from Mali in 2022 and why the latter intensified its cooperation with Russia. Existing literature points to operational obstacles and grievances directed towards France’s presence in Mali, however, it falls short of explaining whether these are explanatory for France’s withdrawal, or why France wouldn’t have left earlier considering these hurdles. Through process tracing and historical institutionalism, this paper studies the sequence of events that led up to France’s withdrawal, and whether the grievances against the popular dissatisfaction with the security framework in Mali actually has explanatory power over France’s withdrawal. 

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  • Paris, Emma
    Swedish Defence University.
    Exploring the prospect that voluntary human shields can take a direct part in hostilities2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This doctrinal thesis centers around the topic of voluntary human shields as a complex phenomenon requiring further scholarly attention. Specifically, this paper acknowledges that the actions of certain voluntary shields renders their classification as civilians strenuous, in which it is explored if the notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities might apply. As such, the research question contemplates: To what extent, if at all, can voluntary human shields be considered as taking a direct part in hostilities when shielding lawful targets? 

    The analyses have concentrated on both a theoretical examination of the ICRC’s Interpretive Guidance, and on an empirical investigation into two cases of voluntary human shields: the Serbian citizens in 1999 and the Palestinian women in 2006. Evidently, the findings indicate that voluntary human shields can to some extent take a direct part in hostilities, while the generalizability of our results are appreciated. Ultimately, this thesis provides additional insights into the topic, as increasingly relevant and required within the contradictory and existing research field, while also anticipating avenues for future research. 

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    Bachelor's Thesis Paris Emma
  • Svensson, Linnéa
    Swedish Defence University.
    Estlands säkerhetspolitik i egenskap av småstat: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys av Estlands nationella säkerhetskoncept 20232024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study seeks to understand Estonia as a small state acting on the international arena in 2023. By analysing the National Security Concept of Estonia by applying Baldur Thorhallsson’s shelter theory, this study identifies Estonia’s shelter-seeking tendencies based on three areas of small state weakness: military, economic and societal. As a small European state and the front line of NATO against Russia, Estonia is primarily seeking military shelter with allies and partners. The National Security Concept also indicates economic shelter-seeking by embracing open international trade and moving its energy dependence from Russia to partners in Europe. Lastly, Estonia shows potential societal seeking by promoting democratic values domestically and abroad.

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  • Eskilsson, Viktor
    Swedish Defence University.
    Swedish Pandemic Preparedness Plans and the Existential Pandemic Threat: A Pandemic Imaginary Perspective2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Pandemiberedskap är central ur ett säkerhets- och folkhälsoperspektiv. Uppsatsens fokus ligger på existentiell riskuppfattning i Folkhälsomyndighetens pandemiberedskapsplaner från 2019 och 2023. För analysen detta används ett perspektiv som utvecklats av en medicinsk antropolog vid namn Christos Lynteris. På engelska kallar han perspektivet för pandemic imaginary som grovt översatt till svenska blir pandemiska imaginär. Syftet är att undersöka hur riskuppfattningen för närvarande är konstruerad och hur den har förändrats från 2019 till 2023, åren för COVID-19-pandemin. Denna studie kommer inte att undersöka processerna bakom riskuppfattningen, utan enbart hur riskstrukturen ser ut och hur den har förändrats. Studien undersöker hur konceptet hot och värden har förskjutits både i direkta termer som det presenteras i beredskapsplanerna för pandemier och från ett perspektiv av pandemiska imaginär som hjälper till att förklara hur vissa metanarrativ har förskjutits från en mer existentiellt inriktad riskuppfattning 2019 till ett mindre existentiellt inriktat perspektiv 2023. Detta görs genom en kvalitativ systematisk och diskursiv läsning av beredskapsplanerna med fokus på teorin om pandemiska imaginär och riskuppfattning. Resultaten visade en förskjutning från en lågt existentiellt inriktad hotbild 2019 till en ännu lägre existentiellt inriktad hotbild 2023, som kort sagt kan sägas skapa en bild av pandemihotet som icke-existentiellt hotande och likartat till den omfattning som COVID-19 och de influensapandemier som har varit de senaste århundradets pandemier. Det visade också en förskjutning mot ett ökad fokus på individuell frihet och framställde motåtgärderna som tas mot pandemin som ett av de mest centrala hoten i ett pandemiscenario, det vill säga att röra sig bort från död och sjukdom som huvudkaraktär av en pandemi till att en pandemi är en kris och en orsak till samhällsstörning som drabbar individen. Denna uppsats är skriven på engelska. 

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  • Andreasson, Ellen
    Swedish Defence University.
    Are the American Doves or Hawks Flying Highest Over Southeast Asia? An analysis of American soft, hard, and smart power in foreign visits to Southeast Asia2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From the start of the Obama administration’s “pivot to Asia” in 2011 until November 2023, 78 foreign visits have been made by three U.S. Presidents and five Secretaries of State to Southeast Asia. To uncover the U.S. ambitions in Southeast Asia, this thesis uses frame analysis to study speeches, statements, and remarks published by the U.S. Department of State and the White House during the visits to categorize them as displaying predominantly soft, hard, or smart power. The frames identified during the visits show that each administration has displayed a different kind of power. While the Obama administration focused on soft power, the Trump administration displayed significantly more hard power. The Biden administration used almost exclusively smart power during their visits. The thesis contributes to the operationalization of Joseph Nye’s concepts of soft, hard, and smart power, while also attempting to understand the U.S. ambition in Southeast Asia, especially as relations with the PRC have become increasingly tense. 

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  • Löwgren, Manfred
    Swedish Defence University.
    Russian and Swedish stories of a failing country: An interpretivist theory-consuming narrative study of the interaction between strategic narratives and political myths in Sweden2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I have conducted an interpretivist narrative study on the correlation between strategic narratives and political myths. The strategics narratives were found by analyzing articles written by Sputnik, and the political myths are identified in previous research. This was done against the theoretical background that when strategic narratives and political myths share similarities the narratives and the myths are more powerful than when told on their own. This study found that the Russian strategic narratives and the political myths in Swedish Democrats share multiple similarities. The two actors tell the story of anti-immigration, how the liberal left is failing the people, and how Sweden have gone from a once wonderful country to a state in decline. Additionally, the two actors portray Sweden Democrats as the saviors that can save the common man from its enemies, i.e., the liberal left and the migrants. This relationship between the narratives and the myths indicates that they have a lot in common and thus the myths should be more powerful and be able to target and convince a larger audience according to the theoretical assumption of this thesis. 

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  • Sand, Lovisa
    Swedish Defence University.
    Securing the Arctic: An analysis of Sweden's construction of security in the Arctic (2020-2023)2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how the Arctic region is portrayed and constructed as a security matter within Swedish state discourses from 2020 to 2023. Focused on the escalating geopolitical significance and the transformative impact of climate change in the Arctic, the thesis scrutinizes Sweden's portrayal of security in the region. The research aims to gain a deeper understanding of how the Arctic region is constructed in Swedish discourses and the possible implications of this.  This thesis employs securitization theory, which is useful for understanding who securitizes, on what issues, for what reasons, and with what results, as well as under what conditions. The findings show that securitizing moves are more prevalent in the traditional security sector, but that environmental security is also gaining prominence. Through critical discourse analysis and securitization theory, the thesis unveils different representations and discourses used by various actors, as well as cross-references between the environmental and traditional security sector.

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