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  • 1.
    Malm, Anders
    Swedish Defence University.
    Historien om Masar -e Sharifs belägring - Postmodern etik och militär våldsanvändning2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study draws from Zygmunt Bauman´s theory that a governmental policy of values can reduce the personal responsibility and moral choices for employees, to focus only on maintaining the government’s internal rules and regulations. The apparent risk with this type of moral attenuation is that the employee is deprived of the possibility to react morally on conduct of the government’s external misuse of power. In this study, this theory is connected to the Swedish Armed Forces’ policy of values, as these values do not include a critical standpoint for officers and soldiers. The policy is instead aimed at maintaining the internal rules and regulations of the Armed Forces, thus neglecting moral functions’ for officers and soldiers applicable to the use of force.The purpose of this study is to show how development of the current policy of values can make it possible to mitigate the risk of moral attenuation, by using a postmodern theory for ethics. The study analyses the decision to use force in Afghanistan, and finds that the ethics for military violence are based on a liberal ontology. With a postmodern paradigm on ethics, the study then criticizes the liberal ethics at hand for the use of force in Afghanistan.The study concludes that the policy of values set by the Swedish Armed Forces could be revised by adapting an ethical awareness to the risks of moral attenuation. Further, the study suggests that the policy should include the fact that the use of language can dehumanize groups of people, with the apparent risk that the use of force aimed at these people, is morally unsound.

  • 2.
    Nilsson, Göran
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles: Teknik och etik: Ett självständigt arbete om obemannade flygande farkoster och deras militära nytta och moraliska dilemman2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Unmanned aerial vehicles, popularly known as drones, have been up to debate since the start of the war on terror, 11th September 2001, and there are still a lot of questions about their use and moral legitimacy. There are a lot of useful applications for this kind of vehicle for example, situational awareness, searching for lost people and attack missions. This study is going to investigate how these vehicles are being used within attack missions and and what their military utility are. Since there are a lot of different opinions on the system in war and conflict, the aim for this study is to make the ethics more concrete and evaluate what military utility this system gives.

    The moral aspects of UCAV, Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle, in conflict and war differ a lot from person to person. Those who are against this kind of system mean that the UCAV, in itself, is a threat and not as much to how it is used. Supporters of the system, on the other hand, argue that similar tactics have been used in war since the 1960s hence the system does not need any change in ethics and morals. However the system has got a negative reputation because of they way it is being used.

    This study shows that it is morally right to use UCAVs when the conflict or war meets a majority of the seven criteria of Just War Theory. However it is not as simple as that, there are a lot more factors that come in play. The population of the nation and its interests in the conflict or war, the threat level and what kind of profit the nation will acquire through it are important factors. If all of these criteria are met then the use of UCAVs for attack missions can be seen as morally just.

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