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  • 1.
    Boqvist, Mary
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Psykologiska operationer: utvecklingen efter operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom massmedierna kan hela samhällen bli influerade. Med tanke på medieteknikutvecklingen så har det varit intressant att ta reda på om medietekniken har bidragit till utvecklingen av psyops användande. Med medieperspektivet som bakgrund har uppsatsen svarat på om det första informationskriget, Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm, har följts upp med ännu mer användande av psyops.

    Med slutsatser så som att psyops har fått en mer framträdande roll i krigföringen och att förändringarna kan härledas till medieteknikutvecklingen kan också frågeställningen besvaras.

    Slutsatsen är att Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm har följts upp med ännu mer användande av psyops. Med medietekniken som bakgrund är denna en av anledningarna till att psyops utvecklats men också vice versa.

    För att besvara dessa frågor har en faktainhämtning gjorts på området för att sedan kunna jämföra de olika operationernas mål, medel och metoder.

  • 2.
    Dahlström, Carl-Christer
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Utveckling av Grupp och Ledare: En intervjustudie av kursen UGL2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom Försvarsmakten och civila företag utbildas chefer som förväntas kunna leda andra i strid eller civilt. Ledarskap är otroligt viktigt i Försvarsmakten. En stor del av Försvarsmakten består av just ledarskap. En av åtskilliga kurser som används i detta ämne är utveckling av grupp och ledare (UGL). Kursens innehåll kan lätt kopplas mot teorin utvecklande ledarskap som handlar om vad UGL vill uppnå. Kursen baserar sigäven på pedagogik hämtad från FIRO-teorin. Det har dock inte forskats så mycket om huruvida utbildningen har gett någon effekt inom ämnet ledarskap.

    Detta arbete ämnar undersöka om kursdeltagarna upplevt att kursen UGL är utvecklande i den form den är tänkt samt är användbar för personal inom Försvarsmakten. I vilken utsträckning har kursdeltagarna upplevt att UGL utvecklat dem mot de kursmål som ställts upp?

    En intervjustudie gjordes som påvisar hur och om kursdeltagarna uppfattar att deutvecklats i de olika delmål kursen har. Processen utgår från en kvalitativ intervjustudie av kursdeltagare som gått kursen tillsammans under samma tidsperiod samt arbetar inom samma område.

    Resultatet av detta arbete visar att kursen ger en utveckling hos kursdeltagarna i deflesta målsättningar som satts upp för kursen. Vissa av målsättningarna blir indirekt berörda genom utveckling av huvuddelen av målsättningarna. Detta tyder på att kursen kan vara lämplig att använda sig av även i fortsättningen inom försvarsmakten.

  • 3.
    de Waern, Henrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Computer Network Attack som olovligt våld: en fråga om association, effekt, aktör och mål2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Estland 2007 utbröt vad som kommit att kallas ”Cyberwar I”, vari ett stort antal centrala myndigheters, tillika finansiella institutioners servrar attackerades av massiva så kallade Computer Network Attacks (CNA), utfört av framförallt ryska aktörer. Estland protesterade högljutt, men frågan huruvida CNA är att beteckna som olovligt är allt annat än klar. Prövningen sker mot den folkrättsliga regimen Jus ad Bellum, och huruvida metoden uppfyller vissa centrala begrepp. Men hur skall denna regim appliceras CNA?

    De frågeställningar som avses besvaras är: hur kan CNA utgöra våld eller hot om våld i enlighet med FN-stadgans artikel 2(4) samt hur kan CNA utgöra väpnat angrepp i enlighet med FN-stadgans artikel 51? Detta avses göras genom en studie inbegripande flertalet folkrättsliga experters teorier på området CNA och våldsanvändning, samt applicering av desamma på en fallstudie av händelserna i Estland 2007.

    Sammanfattningsvis konstateras att flertalet variabler har bärighet i hur CNA kan uppfylla artiklarnas centrala begrepp, vari frågan om association, effekt, aktör och mål tydligast faller ut. I en efterföljande diskussion påvisas dock hur variablerna endast är att betrakta som indicier på hur CNA kan klassas så som olovligt, varvid endast statspraxis kan ge den slutgiltiga bedömningen.

  • 4.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Hur organisationskultur påverkar strategi och anpassningsförmåga i kriser2011In: Strategisk kommunikation: forskning och praktik / [ed] Mats Heide och Jesper Falkheimer, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Egevad, Andreas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Vad gör du just nu?: En kritisk diskursanalys av Försvarsmaktens reklamkampanjer2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay has been to analyze two advertising campaigns made by the Swedish Armed Forces (Svenska Försvarsmakten) with the help of discourse analysis, focusing on the pictures involved and the dialectics between pictures and texts. The first one can be called “Someone will solve the problems” and the other one “What are you doing?”

    Questions involved are

    • What kind of discourse lies behind these campaigns?
    • What are the differences between the two campaigns?

    The main discourse can be described through the new security doctrine for the Swedish Armed Forces where they no longer focus on total war but a more complex and at the same time more unpredictable threatening global environment, due to unstable countries all over the world, terrorism and nature catastrophes, often dependent on global warming. Thus this is the present task for the Swedish Armed Forces.

    The two campaigns differ in the way that “Someone will solve it” focuses on the tasks for the modern defense and the other one, “What are you doing?” points out the defense as offering a meaningful future.

  • 6.
    Enoksson, Marcus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Modern strategisk kommunikation: Oberoende försvars- och säkerhetspolitiska bloggars relation till Försvarsmaktens direktiv för strategisk kommunikation2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I det moderna samhället, som tydligt präglats av de senaste årtiondenas närmast explosiva utveckling av den digitala världen, kämpar myndigheter som Försvarsmakten allt mer med sin kommunikation och möjligheten att sprida sina egna narrativ.Framför allt har framväxten av de sociala medierna och deras särställning som informationsspridare påverkat hur myndigheter idag kommunicerar med allmänheten. Mot bakgrund av detta ställs frågan huruvida svenska försvars- och säkerhetspolitiska bloggara bör ses som utmanare till, eller en tillgång för, Försvarsmakten i dess strävan att kommunicera med medborgarna.

    Studien tar sin grund i en kvalitativ innehållsanalys, kompletterat av en kvantitativ analys, av blogginlägg publicerade under en sex veckor lång tidsperiod under våren 2014 av två oberoende svenska försvarspolitiska bloggare, Wiseman's Wisdoms och Skipper. Dessa analyseras utifrån tre gemensamma nämnare, tidsfokus, samhällsreform och försvarsmaktsperspektiv, deducerade från Försvarsmaktens dokument  Direktiv för Försvarsmaktens strategiska kommunikation 2013:1 samt  PM Försvarsmaktens Centrala budskap och talepunkter.

    Resultatet av studien visar att de båda bloggarna generellt förhåller sig väl till Försvarsmakten med utgångspunkt i de identifierade gemensamma nämnarna. Vidare konstateras att dessa utgör ett tydligt stöd för Försvarsmakten i den försvarspolitiska debatten. Studien avslutas med en diskussion om vad som kan vara de bakomliggande orsakerna till resultaten och vad konsekvenserna av de samma kan bli.

  • 7.
    Grip, Kenny
    Swedish National Defence College.
    En analys av den svenska tidningsrapporteringen under Krimkrisen2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to analyze how four newspapers in Sweden have portrayed the Crimean-Crisis, in order to compare the results and draw conclusions about how media portray war.  A quality discourse analysis. There is a clash between two images: the image of the events in Ukraine being portrayed as a people’s revolution to overthrow a corrupt and Russianloyal regime, and the image of an armed uprising consisting of facists and ultranationalists forming a non-legitimate government who is threatening the Russian language and the ethnic Russian inhabitants in Ukraine. A majority of the newspapers polarizes the conflict into an us and them, with Putin as the great villain and the Western powers as the good side. There is a distinction in writing between the morning newspapers and the tabloid newspapers, where the second one is more dramatic and more frequently applies attributes. A consequence of this could be an increased motivation for conflict, rather than for peace.

  • 8.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Ottis, Rain
    Tallinn University of Technology.
    Cyberspace from the Hybrid Threat Perspective2013In: Journal of Information Warfare, ISSN 1445-3312, Vol. 12, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid threats use conventional and unconventional means to achieve their goals. In this paper we explore the cyber threats as one possible aspect of hybrid threats. We describe three ways of approaching cyberspace (operations) from the hybrid threats perspective: supporting conventional operations, exploiting non-military systems, and exploring the opportunities provided by this environment. In particular, we highlight the aspects that are or likely will be relevant to the military community.

  • 9.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Ottis, Rain
    University of Jyväskylä & Tallinn University of Technology.
    Cyberspace from the Hybrid Threat Perspective2013In: Papers Presented at the 12th European Conference on Information Warfare and Security / [ed] Kuusisto, Rauno & Kurkinen, Erkki, Reading: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited , 2013, p. 98-105Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid threats use conventional and unconventional means to achieve their goals. In this paper we explore the cyber threats as one possible aspect of hybrid threats. We describe three ways of approaching cyberspace (operations) from the hybrid threats perspective: supporting conventional operations, exploit-ing non-military systems, and exploring the opportunities provided by this envi-ronment. In particular, we highlight the aspects that are or likely will be relevant to the military community.

  • 10.
    Hellman, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Milblogs and soldier representations of the Afghanistan War: the case of Sweden2016In: Media, War & Conflict, ISSN 1750-6352, E-ISSN 1750-6360, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 43-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on the notion that military blogs (milblogs) can support national strategic narratives, the aim of the article is to deepen our knowledge of exactly how blogging that depicts soldiers' personal experiences of 'everyday life' can serve to support a strategic narrative. This article explores empirically how Swedish milblogs published between January 2010 and April 2012 articulate the experience of being a soldier in the Afghanistan mission. The analysis shows that soldiering is treated as an everyday practice, de-dramatized and routinized where military assignments are meshed with civilian duties. The article concludes that the 'normalization' of war in milblogs can potentially serve to strengthen national strategic narratives, facilitate recruitment of soldiers and add to growing 'militarism' in society.

  • 11.
    Idström, William
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Nationell självspegling av utrikes- och säkerhetspolitisk orientering i nyhetsrapportering från konflikter: en fallstudie av svenska mediers rapportering från Krimkrisen 20142014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Villkoren för krigföring befinner sig i ständig förändring och tempot med vilket de ändras ökar. Det här för med sig allt fler faktorer att ta hänsyn till när de samtida förutsättningarna för krig och konflikter skall förstås och hanteras, och bland dessa finns medierna och deras sätt att rapportera från konflikter. Tidigare forskning inom området har visat att ett lands mediers rapportering från konflikter tenderar att spegla nationens utrikes- och säkerhetspolitiska orientering, vilket i sådana fall innebär att sättet på vilket ett lands medier rapporterar från en konflikt kan påverka omvärldens uppfattning om landet i sin helhet.

    Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka om svensk medierapportering alltjämt speglar den svenska utrikes- och säkerhetspolitiska orienteringen, eller om den tenderar att uppvisa en mer självständig roll. Undersökningen sker genom en fallstudie av svensk nyhetsrapportering från en konflikt i Sveriges närområde i modern tid. Via metoden framinganalys jämförs Svenska Dagbladet och Dagens Nyheters rapportering från Krimkrisen 2014 med ett antal teman ur svensk utrikes- och säkerhetspolitisk orientering, i både historisk och modern tappning.

    Resultatet visar att nyhetsrapporteringen från den aktuella tidsperioden går i linje med den svenska utrikes- och säkerhetspolitiska orienteringen och att det finns tydliga inslag av såväl historiska drag såsom neutralitet och alliansfrihet, som av moderna drag avseende internationalism med betoning på multilateralt samarbete.

  • 12.
    Konow Lund, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Journalism and Media Studies, Oslo, Norway; Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Bech, Isabel
    Department of Journalism and Media Studies, Oslo, Norway; Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Work First, Feel Later: How News Workers Reflect on Subjective Choices During a Terror Attack2017In: Putting a Face on It: Individual Exposure and Subjectivity in Journalism / [ed] Birgitte Kjos Fonn, Harald Hornmoen, Nathalie Hyde-Clarke and Yngve Benestad Hågvar, Cappelen Damm Akademisk / NOASP , 2017, p. 309-327Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In journalism studies, the discussion of objectivity as a strategic ritual is long stand-ing, while the impact of subjectivity and emotion upon journalism has received much less attention. During terror events, journalists’ notion of objectivity as a strategy is likely to be challenged due to unexpected autonomy. In order to explore how this unfolds, we have interviewed 24 journalists in three different news organ-isations shortly after the Norwegian terror attack in 2011, where 77 people were killed. Studies of what journalists experience during a terror attack, and how they reflect upon their experiences, are scarce. The present study addresses this gap, and in particular looks at how news workers deal with dilemmas where their percep-tions of professionalism are challenged.

  • 13.
    Konow Lund, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Journalism and Media Studies, Oslo, Norway; Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    News Frames and Global Terrorism Coverage in the UK and Norway: Context and Consequences for Humanitarian Issues2017In: The Routledge Companion To Media and Humanitarian Action / [ed] Robin Andersen and Purnaka L. de Silva, Routledge, 2017, 1, p. 221-230Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the potential of history for framing acts of terrorism, such as the July 5, 2005 British and the July 22,2011 Norwegian attacks, in the aftermath of September 11, 2011. It focuses in particular on the impact of historical analogies for creating meaning and framing new reporting at both local and global levels. In both caseslocal frames of reference and meaning addressed citizens’ emotional and communal needs, such as solace, a sense of historical legacy, and identity concerns. The global frame of reference differed. In the British case, historical analogies were foremost means of connecting that terror event to the broader “war on terror frame,” which facilitated the identification of motives and policy responses. In the Norwegian case, no such analogies existed, which meant that history was unable to provide a contextual understanding. In short, historical analogies can serve to bring order to chaos but also limit other explanations and arguments and, as such, hamper knowledge crucial in creating informed publics. Yet, to a large extent analogies are nationally contextualized. In order for journalistic accounts to create meaning and comfort for global audiences, stronger efforts should be made to communicate such values by using inclusive, comprehensible and relevant global analogies.

  • 14.
    Konow Lund, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Journalism and Media Studies, Oslo, Norway; Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Social Media’s Challenge to Journalistic Norms and Values during a Terror Attack2017In: Digital Journalism, ISSN 2167-0811, E-ISSN 2167-082X, Vol. 5, no 9, p. 1192-1204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade, the frequency of terror attacks around the world has increased. In the context of the 22 July 2011 terror attacks in Norway, social media use by citizens, and even victims, became an essential feature of reporting. Social media confronted the legacy media's way of covering crisis events. It raised questions about traditional journalism's ability to handle audience's as, not only news consumers, but also producers. In the present article, we look at the ways in which the professional norms and values of traditional journalism are specifically challenged by social media use in times of terror, using the 22 July 2011 attacks as a case study. We find that Norwegian journalists initially held to their professional roles, and to the classic self-representational principles of journalism, including objectivity, autonomy and immediacy. When they integrated social media into their traditional platforms and modes of coverage, they framed it as a "source" of sorts. As the 22 July 2011 event coverage became more focused on the collective grief felt by the nation, in turn, the traditional journalistic principles of objectivity and autonomy became less relevant, enabling yet more audience participation and social media use in relation to the attack.

  • 15.
    Konow-Lund, Maria
    et al.
    Høgskolen i Oslo.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Crisis management in media organizations: when routines are not enough2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Langborg, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Svensk dagspress beskrivning av konflikten i Libyen 20112014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 15 februari 2011 kom den arabiska våren till Libyen. Det började likt de andra upproren i Tunisien och Egypten, men tog en helt annan vändning när våldet från regimsidan eskalerade och konflikten benämndes snart inbördeskrig. Det ledde till en internationell militär intervention där Sverige deltog med flygstridskrafter.

    Konflikten fick mycket uppmärksamhet och stort utrymme i svensk massmedia under de inledande två månaderna. Antagligen var frågan om läget i Libyen och svensk insats något som många upplevde som viktig och intressant, och hade en åsikt om. Massmedia är en viktig faktor till vad allmänheten har åsikter om, och en grund till opinionsbildning.

    Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att analysera hur tre svenska dagstidningar beskriver och diskuterar konflikten och insatsen i Libyen, samt den politiska debatten som fördes om dem.

    En del av slutsatserna är: Dagspressens beskrivningar bedöms ha haft stor potential att påverka allmänheten till att se Libyen som en prioriterad fråga, med en tydlig bild av konflikten som en kamp mellan gott och ont. Budskapet i stort är att oppositionen står för något gott, civilbefolkningen är utsatt och i behov av akut stöd, Gaddafi är ond, begår övergrepp på oskyldiga och bör störtas.

    Tidningarnas inställning till militär insats och svenskt deltagande är samstämmigt positiv, men det förs inte någon tydlig argumentation för saken. Debatt och oenigheter är snarare kopplat till större politiska frågor som NATO-medlemskap. Tidningarnas politiska inriktning skiner igenom när kritik riktas åt motsatt håll, och de ”egna” får beröm.

  • 17.
    Lindén, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Media i konflikter: den andra fronten2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important issues debated in retrospect of the Vietnam war is whether media is to be blamed for the defeat. However, the debate has created a form of antagonistic fellowship between armed forces and media around the world. A fellowship where the media claims the people’s right to know and the military claims the soldiers’ right to live. The arguments importance increases further in view of the steps taken by world leaders in order to keep the home front opinions in favour of their actions. When Saddam Hussein planned to invade Kuwait he took into account how the home opinions of possible nations, who would be likely to intervene, would hamper its leader’s actions on Kuwait’s behalf. The purpose of this work is to study two conflicts, the Vietnam War and the Gulf War, in order to discuss the possible impact media might have had on the home opinion in the USA. During the work I will study the conflict by using the communication theory developed by Westley and McLean and Daniel C Hallin theory of spheres of reporting. These to theories will be used to study the three conceptual factors. These factors have been constructed in order to be able to study conflict by analysing the impact three variables; the President, TV and journalists.

    In both case studies you find both differences and similarities. The methods of approach have been different, but results not seldom coherent. There is difference is the degree of preparation in handling the media assignment. In the Vietnam War the methods of approach were occasionally successful but nowhere near the degree of success presented in the coalitions way of approach. Two rudimentary methods can be identified. The method of approach in handling media in the Vietnam War is to be labeled as reactive whilst the same during the Gulf War is to be labeled as progressive. This fundamental difference result in the opinion being far more positive and far easier handled during the Gulf War. The character of reporting has an impact on opinion. The military political part is the one with absolutely most at stake in losing favorable public opinion. The analysis on impact of journalism, during the Vietnam War, undoubtedly supports this. Of the two case studies, the result on opinion because of change in reporting character is most easily supported here. 

  • 18.
    Niemi, Niklas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Försvarsmakt med dagordningsmakt?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    ”Vi kan försvara oss mot ett angrepp mot ett begränsat mål. Vi talar om ungefär en vecka på egen hand.”

    Överbefälhavarens uttalande 31 december 2012 i intervjun med Svenska Dagbladet blev en stor nyhet, kanske den största inom försvarsområdet på senare år. Uppsatsen utreder vad det är som styr att ett uttalande likt detta blir uppmärksammat av media och hos allmänheten, så kallad dagordningsmakt, samt vilka konsekvenser det kan få för Försvarsmakten. Genom att använda nyheten om enveckasförsvar som exempel analyseras händelsen framförallt utifrån hur politiken reagerade. Detta för att synliggöra ett pågående fenomen och hitta skillnaderna mellan politikens och Försvarsmaktens möjligheter och begränsningar vid kommunikation med media. Resultatet visar att det är centralt att uppfylla villkoren för nyhetsvärde för att hamna på dagordningen och att när en nyhet väl finns där pågår det en kamp mellan aktörerna för att etablera sitt perspektiv på den.

  • 19.
    Nord, Lars
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet .
    Färm, Karl-Arvid
    Mittuniversitetet .
    Jendel, Lena
    Mittuniversitetet .
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Mittuniversitetet .
    Efter Husbykravallerna.: En studie av mediebilder och kriskommunikation2014Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Defining Crisis News Events2010In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, E-ISSN 2001-5119, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 87-101Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on news organizations’ handling of ‘what-a-story’s proposes that journalists find routines for handling these events based on their previous experiences of similar situations. Still, conceptual discussions on how to define extraordinary events or ’what-a-story’s have thus far attracted limited interest. In response, the present article proposes a definition of‘what-a-story’s in order to provide an understanding of what events become a part of news organizations’ historical case banks. Accordingly, the aim of the article is to present a definition of crisis news events from an organizational perspective, which can help distinguish critical news events of importance to news organizations’ learning and preparedness. The article argues that crisis news are to be understood as surprise events that challenge key organizational values and demand a swift response. Based on interviews with Swedish broadcasting media managers, the article illustrates how the September 11

    th

    terror attacks can be defined as a crisis event.

  • 21.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    How Journalists Portray Political Leaders: The Personalization of Prime Ministers and the Connection to Party Affiliation in Swedish News Coverage2017In: Putting a Face on It: Individual Exposure and Subjectivity in Journalism / [ed] Birgitte Kjos Fonn, Harald Hornmoen, Nathalie Hyde-Clarke, and Yngve Benestad Hågvar, Cappelen Damm Akademisk / NOASP , 2017, p. 99-119Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Journalists not only represent political leaders in terms of their policies and political competence. The personalities and private lives of leaders have also become an important component in mediated stories and narratives crucial for voter identifi-cation and interest. This chapter explores how the Swedish press reports on prime ministers’ social backgrounds, personal appearance and leadership characteristics in relation to party affiliation. The empirical material consists of news reporting on four former Swedish prime ministers: two from the Swedish Social Democratic Party; and two from the Moderate Party. The findings show that it is not only party affiliation that is of interest to journalists in reporting on prime ministers. Broader societal trends of what it means to be a politician in a certain time and era also influence reporting.

  • 22.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Falkheimer, Jesper
    Lunds universitet .
    Gränsöverskridande kriskommunikation: En studie av politiska aktörers, offentliga organisationersoch nyhetsmediers kommunikation under samhällskriser2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en populärvetenskaplig sammanfattning av forskningsprojektet gränsöverskridande kriskommunikation som genomförts under 2011-2013.

  • 23.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Jääsaari, Johanna
    Journalistic norms, organizational identity and crisis decision-making in PSB news organizations2010In: Communicating risks: towards the threat society? / [ed] Stig A. Nohrstedt, Göteborg: Nordicom, 2010, p. 73-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Persson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Rigas, Georgios
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Complexity: The Dark Side of Network-Centric Warfare2014In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military theoretical considerations suggest that a networked command and control architecture will provide a more effective form of command and control under complex operations that demand a high tempo of action. This article presents an experimental study with the purpose to examine team performance under different conditions of command and control architectures and their resilience to complexity. The experiment was performed with the task to extinguish simulated fires in a microworld. Three factors were varied in the experiment: command and control architecture, the number of simulated units, and tempo. The dependent variable was the number of lost cells in the microworld. Three command and control architectures were investigated; command by negation, directive command, and a control condition. The general conclusion from this experiment was that all command and control architectures performed equally poorly under the condition of many subordinate units and fast tempo. This was in contradiction to suggestions made in the military theoretical literature. Command by negation was presumably the more effective command and control architecture under the other conditions.

  • 25.
    Sandin, Paul
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Välkommen till vår inramade verklighet2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen granskar Försvarsmaktens rekryteringskampanj "Välkommen till vår verklighet" med hjälp av inramningsteori. Resultatet visar att det finns risk att de kommunicerade budskapen förstärker en negativ bild av Försvarsmakten och därmed inte når ut till andra personer än de som redan har en positiv bild.

  • 26.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Cyber Security in Tactical Network Infrastructure for Command and Control2014In: Network Topology in Command and Control: Organization, Operation, and Evolution / [ed] T. J. Grant, R. H. P. Janssen, H. Monsuur, Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2014, p. 241-269Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging information and communications technology has had significant importance for military operations during the last decades. Development within such technology areas as sensors, computers, and wireless communications has allowed for faster and more efficient collection, transmission, storage, processing, analysis, and distribution of data. This has led to new and improved military capabilities within command and control, intelligence, targeting, and logistics. However, the increased complexity and interdependencies of networked systems, the continuously growing amounts of data, changing non-technical requirements, and evolving adversary threats makes upholding cyber security in command and control systems a challenging task. Although some best-practice approaches have been developed, finding good solutions for protecting critical infrastructure and important information assets is still an open research question requiring an interdisciplinary approach. This chapter describes recent developments within emerging network technology for command and control, and suggests focus areas where further research is needed in order to attain sufficient operational effect from the employed systems. While a gradual and evolutionary progress of military cyber security has been seen, a long-term commitment is required within such areas as procurement, standardization, training, doctrinal, and legal development, in order to achieve military utility of command and control systems.

  • 27.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Non-State Actors in Cyberspace Operations2013In: Journal of Military Studies, ISSN 2242-3524, E-ISSN 1799-3350, Vol. 4, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing importance of cyberspace to modern society, and its increasing use as an arena for dispute, is becoming a national security concern for governments and armed forces globally. The special characteristics of cyberspace, such as its asymmetric nature, the lack of attribution, the low cost of entry, the legal ambiguity, and its role as an efficient medium for protest, crime, espionage and military aggression, makes it an attractive domain for nation-states as well as non-state actors in cyber conflict.

    This paper studies the various non-state actors who coexist in cyberspace, examines their motives and incitements, and analyzes how and when their objectives coincide with those of nation-states. Literature suggests that many nations are currently pursuing cyberwarfare capabilities, oftentimes by leveraging criminal organizations and irregular forces. Employment of such non-state actors as hacktivists, patriot hackers, and cybermilitia in state-on-state cyberspace operations has also proved to be a usable model for conducting cyberattacks. The paper concludes that cyberspace is emerging as a new tool for state power that will likely reshape future warfare. However, due to the lack of concrete cyberwarfare experience, and the limited encounters of legitimate cyberattacks, it is hard to precisely assess future effects, risks and potentials.

  • 28.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Säkerhet i cybermiljön2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den snabba utvecklingen inom IT-området under de senaste decennierna har haft stor betydelse för Försvarsmaktens verksamhet men har samtidigt även inneburit många nya möjligheter för det civila samhället. I synnerhet har framsteg inom sensorteknik, datateknik och kommunikationsteknik inneburit att man idag kan inhämta, överföra, lagra, och analysera stora mängder data på ett snabbare och mer effektivt sätt än tidigare. Detta har kommit till nytta inom bland annat system för ledningsstöd, stridsledning, underrättelsetjänst och logistik.

    På samma gång har dock komplexiteten, de inbördes systemberoendena och volymerna data som hanteras i informationssystemen ökat kraftigt. I kombination med att karaktären på Försvarsmaktens verksamhet medför särskilda krav på systemsäkerhet och skydd mot antagonistiska hot, är upprätthållandet av en tillräcklig säkerhetsnivå i cybermiljön en utmaning. Att kunna skydda viktiga informationstillgångar mot förekommande risker är samtidigt en nödvändighet för att den nya tekniken ska kunna bidra till militär nytta. Förmågan att kunna verka i cybermiljön måste utvecklas och regelbundet tränas i fredstid, för att denna ska kunna stå till förfogande vid behov.

    Försvarsmakten är på väg mot en högre grad av mognad och förståelse för cybermiljöns förutsättningar och krav. Det krävs dock ett kontinuerligt arbete inom flera områden för att cybermiljön och de system som ingår i denna ska bidra till en reell effekt. De aspekter som belyses i denna rapport bedöms vara av särskild vikt.

  • 29.
    Sigholm, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Towards Offensive Cyber Counterintelligence: Adopting a Target-Centric View on Advanced Persistent Threats2013In: Proceedings of the 2013 European Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference / [ed] Joel Brynielsson & Fredrik Johansson, IEEE Computer Society, 2013, p. 166-171Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the traditional strategies for cyber defense in use today are necessary to mitigate broad ranges of common threats, they are not well-suited to protect against a persistent antagonist with access to advanced system exploitation techniques and knowledge of existing but yet undiscovered software vulnerabilities. Addressing the threat caused by such antagonists requires a fast and offensive Cyber Counterintelligence (CCI) process, and a more efficient interorganizational information exchange. This paper proposes a framework for offensive CCI based on technical tools and techniques for data mining, anomaly detection, and extensive sharing of cyber threat data. The framework is placed within the distinct context of military intelligence, in order to achieve a holistic, offensive and target-centric view of future CCI. The main contributions offered are (i) a comprehensive process that bridges the gap between the various actors involved in CCI, (ii) an applied technical architecture to support detection and identification of data leaks emanating from cyber espionage, and (iii) deduced intelligence community requirements.

  • 30.
    Simons, Greg
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Pašencev, Evgenij
    The Rising Role of Communication Management in World Politics and Business2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Spak, Ulrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division. Uppsala universitet, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Change Detection of the Unexpected: Enhancing change detection of the unexpected in a complex and high risk context – guiding visual attention in a digital display environment2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Change detection of objects and events in our visual surroundings is sometimes severely difficult, especially if these changes are unexpected. Such failures in change detection may cause huge malicious outcomes in contexts characterized by high levels of complexity and risk. For operators within organizations active in such contexts, effective change detection is a necessary step for functional feedback control in the pursuit of achieving specified goals. This thesis demonstrates examples of change detection failures from aviation, defence, healthcare, and road traffic.

    The purpose of the thesis is to present a support concept for enhanced change detection in complex and high risk contexts. The design requirements are primarily provided by the field of command and control. The main mechanisms behind the problems of change detection are identified as the psychological phenomena of change blindness and inattentional blindness. A theoretical foundation is presented regarding these phenomena, complemented with a review concerning orientation and capture of visual attention. The solution space for enhanced change detection is explored and a gap in the literature is identified; there is a need for a support concept which considers both blindness phenomena simultaneously. The thesis elaborates on a conceptual design; an adaptive attention aware system (A3S), based on cuing of visual attention.

    The thesis includes four experimental studies. The first examines the effects of instruction on change detection performance. The remaining studies evaluate the possibilities to orient visual attention by a non-obtrusive flash cue in a radar-like display, to compensate for inadequate expectations in a situation characterized by high levels of uncertainty. The participants’ performance is measured in accuracy (hit frequencies) and response times.

    The results indicate that; (a) instructions can affect change detection performance, (b) the bottom-up flash cue enhance change detection independent of perceptual load, (c) the flash cue enhance change detection in both static and dynamic environments, and (d) the flash cue is beneficial for change detection even when its position is outside foveal vision in relation to the changed target object. Design propositions for an A3S are presented, derived from the results of the thesis.

  • 32.
    Spak, Ulrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Enhancing change detection of the unexpected in monitoring tasks: guiding visual attention in command and control assessment2016In: 21st International Command and Control Reserach and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS): C2 in a Complex Connected Battlespace, International Command and Control Institute , 2016, Vol. Topic 5, p. 1-18, article id 054Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many surveillance tasks in military command and control involve monitoring for change in a visual display environment in order to discover potential hazards or new opportunities. Effective change detection in various situational pictures is a requisite for battlespace understanding. The detection of unexpected events is particularly difficult and missed events may cause malicious outcomes in contexts characterized by high levels of complexity and risk. We present examples of change detection failures in the military domain, and explain why and how the psychological phenomena of change blindness and inattentional blindness can generate such failures. We further give an overview of existing solutions to these problems and point out a specific issue, coping with unexpected events, where effective solutions are missing today. Inadequate expectations may be a result of misdirection by the enemy. This article demonstrates a new concept – an adaptive attention aware system (A3S) for enhanced change detection. The A3S is a concept of gentle support. It is based on cuing of visual attention by a non-obtrusive flash cue in the display (bottom-up), to compensate for guidance by inadequate expectations (top-down) in situations influenced by high levels of uncertainty.

  • 33.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    A Microworld Study of Task Force Commanders Executing a Maritime Escort Mission2010In: Proceedings of the 15th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an exploratory microworld study with the aim to identify individual dierences between participants, and relate those dierence to how well the participant solves the task. Six ocers, rank from lieutenant commander to flotilla admiral, were studied when they commanded a maritime escort mission. The experiment was conducted using a microworld where the participant had to control all own units while the computer controlled enemy and neutral units. Data collection consisted of think-aloud protocols, screen captures of the microworld’s tactical screen, questionnaires, and battle outcomes. Performance was determined using a measure of mission success and a general model of the participants’ decision making process was constructed. This model was used to identify individual dierences and relate those to task performance. The results suggest that there is no correlation between how often the participants perform a certain decision making activity, and how well they perform in the microworld. On the other hand, the results suggest a strong correlation between how well the participants perform in the microworld and how many dierent decision making activities they visit during one coherent reasoning chain. The result seems to suggest that it is more important to consider many aspects of a problem at the same time, and that no decision making activity is more important that another.

  • 34.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Constraint Visualization Decreases Search Time for Novices and Navy Officers in a Naval Search Task2011In: Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making, Orlando, FL, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigated a visualization aid to support naval search tasks. 20 officers and 20 students completed 12 trials in an experiment that contrasted with and without the visualization aid and controlled for learning effects. The aid improved performance in both groups, and there were no effects of learning or task difficulty.

  • 35.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Supporting Dynamic Decision Making in Naval Search and Evasion Tasks2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Visualizing a time-space constraint increases performance in a dynamic search task2010In: Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, ISSN 1555-3434, E-ISSN 2169-5032, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 275-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a display manipulation designed to support search tasks in which the location of the target is unknown and changes over time. The problem is analogous to that of a naval search task when there is an initial sighting and then the naval force must guide its search vehicles to reestablish contact with the fleeing target. The display manipulation visualizes a dynamic constraint on the area where a fleeing target can be found and adjusts its shape to the environment and to the search efforts. Forty participants without prior knowledge of search tactics completed 12 trials in an experiment that compared performance with and without the visualization aid and controlled for learning effects. The results suggest that this visualization improves performance in the dynamic search task. They further suggest that the visualization was easy to learn but that the learning effect did not transfer to a condition without visualization. The results have practical utility for both military and civil search tasks, and they are consistent with other research that emphasizes that control interfaces should make constraints in the task environment perceptually available.

  • 37.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Visualizing the Field of Safe Travel Increases Performance in a Naval Movement Task2011In: Proceedings of IEEE International Multi-Disciplinary Conference on Cognitive Methods in Situation Awareness and Decision Support (CogSIMA), Miami, FL, 2011, p. 252-256Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates a display manipulation designed to support movement tasks where the location of a threat is uncertain and dynamic. The problem is analogous to that of a naval transportation task, where a ship has to move from one port to another under threat from several enemies of which only the initial positions are known. The display manipulation visualizes a time-dependent constraint on the area where an enemy can be, given its initial position and maximum speed, and adjusts the shape to the environment. The region outside this area represents a field of safe travel where the transport ship can move safely. Forty participants without prior knowledge of the task completed sixteen trials in an experiment that contrasted with and without visualization, and controlled for learning effects. The results suggest that the visualization significantly improved performance in the movement task and that it had a large effect. The visualization also significantly reduced variance in performance, which suggests that it generated a more consistent behavior among participants. It was also easy for the participants to make effective use of the visualization, and once exposed to the visualization, the learning transferred to a condition without the visualization. This study have practical utility for designers of combat information systems as the results indirectly suggest that people have difficulties in inferring the locations of targets of which they only have fragmentary information. Including similar visualizations in the design may consequently increase overall system performance.

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