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  • 1.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    A Gender Perspective on Teachers as Crisis Managers2019In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 5-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stressful conditions affect communities at different levels and may involve occupational groups not normally associated with issues of crisis and security. Teachers in the compulsory school system are members of such a group. The purpose of this study is to examine teachers’ view of their own role as crisis management actors in a female-dominated occupation. A Grounded Theory approach applying a gender perspective was used as an analytical tool for data processing. In total, 16 informants from four different schools in two different municipalities in Sweden were interviewed. The analysis of these interviews shows that teachers’ perceptions of risk, crisis, and security are influenced and characterized by social and emotional regulation aimed at (a) reducing vulnerability, (b) increasing the sense of security, and (c) regaining or restoring a sense of order and control. These strategies have been discussed froma gender perspective as teachers do not regard themselves as legitimate crisis management actors.

  • 2.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    War, modernity and the origins of civilization: the old and new strengths of sociology2015In: Journal of Political Power, ISSN 2158-379X, E-ISSN 2158-3803, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 141-144Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Ilmari, Kähkö
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Hoffman, Danny: Monrovia Modern. Urban Form and Political Imagination in Liberia2018In: Anthropos: Internationale Zeitschrift für Völker- und Sprachenkunde, ISSN 0257-9774, Vol. 113, no 2, p. 734-734Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Cultural Distance and Counterinsurgency Outcome2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Analysing how counterinsurgency outcomes relate to cultural distance has never been a focus for conventional COIN literature. Despite this, cultural distance seems to be a neglected variable influencing outcomes. This thesis explores this large gap by examining how the cultural distance between insurgents and the counterinsurgents relate to outcome. Four concluded COIN campaigns are analysed, compared, and checked for causal congruence. The most crucial case is also subjected to analytical process tracing to verify the causal path and determine its plausibility. The findings are that increased cultural distance leads to COIN losses due to cultural misunderstandings and non-contextual solutions that instead of leading to a win paves the way to strategic loss. 

  • 5.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL).
    Liberia Incorporated: military contracting, cohesion and inclusion in Charles Taylor’s Liberia2017In: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 53-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the existing literature, compensation is often understood to be an inferior source of cohesion in military organisations. Through an investigation of the militias who fought for Charles Taylor’s government of Liberia, this paper makes three claims. Firstly, the organisation of these forces was looser than is often claimed in previous literature, which assumes tight and often coercive military patrimonialism. Consequently, the militias did not enjoy the interpersonal bonds of solidarity that have dominated recent cohesion literature. Secondly, since Taylor chose to suppress attempts to build cohesion around ethnicity, it played a subordinate role in unifying the militias. Thirdly, Taylor instead relied on military contracting and compensation, which allowed for the broad mobilisation of forces. The combination of militias’ hopes of inclusion into the state patrimony and insufficient resources to realise this left the cohesion of the militias fragile. Ultimately, this paper questions both whether Taylor had any choice but to resort to compensation in a context with a weak state and fragmented social organisation, and also whether the strategy is as inefficient as often thought.

  • 6.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The people's war in Ukraine2018In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 4, p. 180-183Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    War as nothing but a duel: war as an institution and the construction of the Western military profession2018In: Journal of Military Studies, ISSN 2242-3524, E-ISSN 1799-3350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Like all repetitive human interaction, even war has been institutionalized and fought according to conventions and norms. Historically, this institutionalization is apparent from the way war has been compared to the duel, first in the 14th century and most famously by Carl von Clausewitz 5 centuries later. This article continues this train of thought and argues that the observed limits of Western “professional orthodoxy” and “strategic vocabulary” can be traced to how war has been institutionalized by the military profession. This offers an alternative explanation to the prevailing views of why the West has struggled in contemporary wars: it is the fundamental mismatch between these professional norms in the West and those held by their opponents that forms the biggest asymmetry in contemporary war. As this asymmetry is unlikely to disappear, these professional norms need to be reconsidered: just like the aristocracy with the duel by the late 19th century, the Western military profession appears stuck in an institution that is increasingly becoming obsolete. Without such reconsideration, the attainment of decision – the central strategic objective in war – and hence victory in future wars will remain uncertain.

  • 8.
    Linehagen, Frida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Conforming One’s Conduct to Unwritten Rules Experiences of Female Military Personnel in a Male-Dominated Organization2018In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces have traditionally been exclusively male, and service in the cause of defending the country has until recently been the privilege of men. While the very first women entered the military 37 years ago, the military has so far failed to fully integrate women into the organization and promote gender equality. The object of this study is to probe servicewomen's meanings, identities, strategies and experiences in a male-dominated institution. For that purpose, a qualitative approach was chosen, and nine female members of the Swedish Armed Forces, from private to general, were interviewed. The rich empirical data on what it means and feels like today to serve as a female minority as part of unique culture emphasizing corporateness - on their attitudes, options, dilemmas, contradictions as well as the double binds imposed on them by the prevailing male orthodoxy - are analyzed and discussed in light of Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical concepts : cultural capital, habitus, masculine domination and symbolic violence.

  • 9.
    Weibull, Louise
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL).
    Kvinnan på väg in i ledet.: Intryck från mönstring och värnplikt hos en grupp kvinnor som mönstrat 1999-2002.2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The Swedish Armed Forces has an expressed ambition to recruit more women. One component in this has been the establishment of special enlistment days for women. The expectations of the Armed Forces for this form of enlistment were both quantitative and qualitative. Firstly, more women would attend the tests and enlist as conscripts, and secondly, this form of enlistment would better prepare women for their service. The expectation that more women would enlist has already proven correct. The central question in this study is whether the special enlistment for women did in fact render the women better prepared for their service. The study was conducted using a questionnaire. The group studied comprised 320 women, of which about half attended the special enlistment for women and the rest ”ordinary” enlistment, i.e. together with men.

    The results of the study show that those women who underwent the special enlistment for women is basically satisfied with this form of enlistment. Most positive was to meet and get information from female officers and conscripts. The results also indicate that the special enlistment strengthens women on the personal level. For instance, the group of women who underwent separate enlistment report less sexual harassment during their service. The reason for this could be that after having spoken to women with experience of the military, they have more insight into the importance of ”setting boundaries” and ”opportunities to report”, etc. Thus, the question posed at the outset, whether the special enlistment for women provides a better preparation than ”ordinary” enlistment, can be answered in the affirmative.

     

  • 10.
    Öhlund, Robert
    Swedish Defence University.
    Demokratiska krigsbrott: En studie av tyska krigsfångar i franska och amerikanska händer2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I studien kommer jag analysera skillnaden mellan norm och praxis i implementerandet av Genevekonventionen från 1929. Genom en fallstudie av två västerländska, demokratiska stater med samma norm, det vill säga 1929 års Genèvekonvention vill jag studera deras behandling, det vill säga praxis, av tyska krigsfångar från den 11 maj 1942 fram till Västtysklands grundande, den 23 maj 1949.

    Metoden jag har använt mig av i mitt arbete är en kvalitativ fallstudie, med utgångspunkt i tidigare intervjuer, rapporter och litteratur. I fallstudien kommer behandlingen av de tyska krigsfångarna att undersökas för att se hur Frankrike och USA implementerade Genèvekonventionen i praktiken.

    Därefter kommer resultatet att analyseras med hjälp av Zygmunt Baumans teorier. Bauman är en professor i sociologi som analyserat sambandet mellan moderniteten och förintelsen. Dessa teorier kommer att användas för att förklara och redogöra de bakomliggande orsakerna till varför det uppstår en skillnad mellan norm och praxis hos upplysta och demokratiska stater, när dessa stater ska implementera folkrätten vid behandlingen av krigsfångar.Bauman menar att västerlandet sen upplysningen har haft en stark strävan efter att uppnå rutiner och ett slags beteendemönster. Genom att normalisera upplevda händelser kan de lättare förstås och förklaras. Genom att applicera samma resonemang på våldsanvändningen vid behandlingen av krigsfångar skulle det kunna innebära ett kontinuerligt och fortlöpande övergrepp. Våldet skulle ha sin grund i att det blivit en vana, en rutin och således någonting man förväntar sig. Förutom rutinen talar Bauman om auktoriseringen och avhumanseringens som viktiga förutsättningar för våld och övergrepp.

    När Tyskland kapitulerade våren den 7 maj 1945 togs miljontals tyska soldater till fånga av de allierade. Fångarna samlades ihop i olika typer av koncentrations och fångläger. Syftet med mitt arbete blir att inledningsvis undersöka om de franska och amerikanska trupperna gjorde sig skyldiga till krigsbrott i och med hanterandet av tyska krigsfångar, under och efter andra världskriget.

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