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  • 1.
    Liwång, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sörenson, Karl
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin). Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar Maritime Academy, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Ship security challenges in high-risk areas: manageable or insurmountable?2015In: WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs (JoMA), ISSN 1651-436X, E-ISSN 1654-1642, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 201-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Piracy can lead to risks so high that they, according to the International Maritime Organization, are tolerable only if risk reduction is not practicable or is disproportionate to the benefits achieved. Therefore, there is a need for reducing ship security risks in relation to antagonistic threats such as piracy. The aim of this study is to identify challenges for ship operators when developing their ship security management. Furthermore, this study also investigates two central aspects in the analysis: understanding the threat and understanding how a security threat affects the crew and operation of the ship. It is clear from the analysis that the importance of subjective aspects beyond a ship operators’ direct control is high. This seems to be the fact for all aspects of the risk management process. The situation is also dynamic as the security risk, as well as the risk perception, can change dramatically even though there are no actual operational changes. As a result, the ship security management process is highly iterative and depends on situations on board as well as conditions out of the ship operator’s control. In order to make ship security manageable, the risk management has to put particular focus on methodological understanding, relevant system understanding and well-defined risk acceptance criteria as well as on including all levels of the organization in the risk reduction implementation and on a continuous monitoring.

  • 2.
    Pettersson, Alexander
    Swedish Defence University.
    Additiv tillverkning för högre teknisk tillgänglighet i internationella insatsområden2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the military utility of additive manufacturing of spare parts during international deployment is explored. We also analyze the effect that additive manufacturing has on technical availability.

    International deployment can be tough for logistical reasons and this leads to a difficulty in supplying ground troops with spare parts. If the spare parts cannot be acquired in the deployment area these have to be shipped from central distribution centers or be ordered directly from the industries. Some spare parts are uncommon and not stored in distribution centers but only get manufactured on order. This type of production can lead to delivery times of up to 40-50 weeks. With additive manufacturing this process could be shortened to 4-10 weeks.

    Conclusions that can be drawn is that additive manufacturing has military utility and can give a higher technical availability, given that a few technical difficulties are resolved. At this point there is a shortcoming in the number of qualified materials for printing spare parts for regular vehicles and this makes it difficult for the industry to approve of spare parts constructed with additive manufacturing. The winning in technical availability is directly linked to how difficult the deployment area is to reach for logistical units. Additive manufacturing has a higher positive effect in areas that are hard to reach.

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