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  • 1.
    Andersson, Tobias
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Elhybridteknik i bandvagnssystemet: Den militära nyttan i logistikfunktionen2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fossil fuels are finite resources and in a report from 2013, the Swedish Defence Material Administration encourages the Swedish Armed Forces to start planning for the transition to alternative propulsion systems to reduce its dependency of fossil fuels. The most promising technology to bridge the gap between pure electric propulsion and today’s internal combustion engine is hybrid electric technology. This essay examines the implications a series hybrid solution would have on military logistics. The method used includes analysis of both scientific reports and of survey answers from personnel in the SAF with several years of experience working with the tracked vehicle Bandvagn 309. The analysis of the survey answers is completed with interviews with these people and others working at BAE Systems who contributes with technical expertise. The essay will conclude that a series hybrid solution would have a positive impact on military logistics even though it is hard to specify how great the effect would be due to technical uncertainties and the fact that the technology is yet to be tested in combat.

  • 2.
    Bruzelius, Nils
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bäck, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Eklund, Jonas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Heilert, Kenny
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Stensson, Patrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Svantesson, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Lärobok i Militärteknik, vol. 5: Farkostteknik2010Book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Bull, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Ögren, Petter
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Grahn, P.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Hillerström, G.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Johansson, P.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Jändel, M.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Karlholm, J.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Karlsson, R.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Lundgren, L.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Mårtensson, T.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Nilsson, P.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Näsström, F.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Rensfelt, A.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Robinson, J.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Schubert, J.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Sparf, M.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Svenmarck, P.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Thoren, P.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Ulvklo, M.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Förstudie obemannade farkoster2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Unmanned vehicles are being used in many conflicts around the world today. This report gives a broad overview of the field of unmanned vehicles, and includes suggestions of how a future research activity within the field might look like.

    The overview is focussed on both systems and capabilities, as well as activities that are relevant for the Swedish Armed forces. By applying the capability areas defined in the armed forced development plan (FMUP) to both commercial systems and possible scenarios, we strive to limit the scope of the report to the most relevant topics.

    The recommendations are based upon a review of the development documents of the Swedish Armed Forces, as well as visits to units operating unmanned systems today, and the overview described above. The suggestions are as fol- lows. Broad, cross-disciplinary projects focussing on system types, e.g. UAV, UGV etc, should be formed. These should be interacting with the procure- ment process, and different level of planning activities. They should also bring together competencies across FHS and FOI, survey current research state-of- the-art, through competitions, conferences and collaborations, and transfer the results to the armed forces through demonstrations and simulations of sys- tems and subsystems. Simulations in particular are well suited to illustrate the benefits and drawbacks of a particular unmanned systems, as the interaction with such systems is mostly carried out through the computers of the control stations, even for the real systems. In this way, participants from the armed forces can get a feeling for both threats and possibilities associated with the different future and contemporary systems, which will be of use to both tactic development and procurement activities.

  • 4.
    Liwång, Hans
    KTH, Farkostteknik, Skeppsteknik.
    Evaluating SHIPFLOW as a tool for calculating transverse dynamic stability and maneuvering drift forces on two semi-planning hulls1999Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Exposure, vulnerability and recoverability in relation to a ship's intact stability2019In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intact stability describes a ship's stability in waves to avoid incidents. Operational safety measures are an important aspect of a holistic safety approach for intact stability. The aim of this study is to provide a structure of the relationship between key elements of the intact stability risk concept. Such a structure has implications for risk assessment and risk management. The developed structure is discussed in relation to the proposed second generation intact stability criteria, which highlights how the measures relate to safety. The definitions are also analyzed in relation to seven incidents. Operational decisions and the human element are shown to have strong ties to exposure, vulnerability and recoverability. However, the results herein show that the interdependency between risk and operational decisions differ between the three areas; the effective measures are thus different. The actual exposure, vulnerability and recoverability for a ship is not known nor can it be fully assessed. However, all three aspects of intact stability safety must be considered in a structured manner to reach a cost effective intact stability.

  • 6.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Risk-based ship security analysis – an approach based on civilian and military methods2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands on maritime operations today are increasingly higher in terms of control, efficiency and cost. The margins for accidents and security incidents are therefore decreasing. In the area of ship safety the regulations, guidelines and methods have a history and culture of systematic research, development and implementation. In contrast, international security is highly politicized and therefore not as transparent. The result is that a tradition of ship security is not as well established.

    The overall aim of this thesis is to propose a method for ship security analysis that increases the overall safety of the crew and the ship. The objective is to develop a method that is systematic in order to ensure that assessment and response are complete and effective, and that the process is documented to provide evidence of decision-making.

    The method used is probabilistic risk assessment where quantitative analysis is central. The proposed approach is consistent with the requirements of maritime safety work. However, in the work here, the proposed methods are specifically tested for security cases. This is because hazards (without intent) and threats (with intent) evolve in different ways into risk. Therefore, they must be analysed differently in order to capture the causal relationship.

    The proposed approach consists of three steps: the first step consists of a threat description that documents qualitative and quantitative aspects that together describe how the threat most likely will act in relation to the ship’s vulnerability; the second step uses the threat description to define the system studied as well as the scenarios that collectively describe the harmful consequences; the third step evaluates the risk with tools from probabilistic risk assessment.

    The overall conclusion is that the proposed method brings the procedure and results of ship security analysis into the open and therefore allows for criticism, improvements and shared risk knowledge, not possible with less structured methods. The results also show that the calculated probabilities agree with available statistics, which indicates that the analysis succeeds in describing the central causal relationships of the scenarios modelled.

  • 7.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Risk-based ship security analysis: a decision-support approach2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The protection of shipping does not come without hazards and threats for military forces, individual civilian ship operators and crews. With particular focus on security threats, this thesis is about how to prepare for such operations without introducing unnecessary risks, i.e., supporting conscious risk-taking related to ship security. It examines both civilian and military aspects of maritime security and therefore draws from the experience of both fields.

    Maritime safety regulations, guidelines and methods have a history and culture of systematic research, development and implementation. In contrast, international security is highly politicised and therefore less transparent. Unfortunately, comprehensive studies of ship security risk are rare. Moreover, applying risk-based approaches to security areas requires special considerations, and the limited research in this field has led to a knowledge gap.

    To reduce the identified challenges with respect to security risk analysis, the goal of this thesis is to improve security decision support by defining an approach to ship security analysis. To increase overall safety, this approach must facilitate compromises between traditional maritime safety and maritime security. Accordingly, the objective is to develop an approach that is both systematic and gives the decision maker an appropriate picture of the security risks. To examine the requirements for a security decision-support approach, the work in the appended papers studies both threats to naval vessels and the security threat posed to commercial vessels by pirates. The results of the studies can be used to further develop military doctrines and civilian guidelines.

    This study shows that the description and quantification of the (concept of) operation in the risk analysis is central for implementing both security and naval ship survivability. In addition, the crew’s risk perception, procedural safeguards and how the implemented risk controls are perceived have an important role not only in risk analysis but also in deciding the effectiveness of implemented controls. It is also concluded that only using expected values—not collecting and using uncertainties—in the analysis can lead to misleading results. Therefore, the uncertainty treatment offered by a quantitative approach is crucial for risk understanding, especially if the aim is to find robust control options or to support the development of a resilient culture.

  • 8.
    Liwång, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Pejlert, Lars
    Miller, Steve
    Gustavsson, Jan-Erik
    Management of High Speed Machinery Signatures to Meet Stealth Requirement in the Royal Swedish Navy Visby Class Corvette (YS2000)2001In: IGTI 2001, 2001, p. 2001-GT-0214-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years, the word stealth has been used more and more when discussing design and operational characteristics in military applications. New and more challenging techniques are constantly being applied to minimize signatures and thus hinder or delay detection and identification.The Visby Class Corvette is a multipurpose combat ship with 600 tons displacement. The hull is a sandwich construction of a PVC core with carbon fiber/vinyl laminate. The propulsion system consists of two identical CODOG machinery systems, each driving a KaMeWa 125 size Water Jet Unit.The Ship has special requirements for all signatures, i.e. Radar-, Hydro acoustics-, IR- and Magnetic Signature.The High Speed Machinery is twin Honeywell TF50A Gas Turbines, cantilever mounted side by side on the Main Reduction Gearbox housing. The Main Reduction Gearbox is a dual input high performance marine Gearbox designated MA -107 SBS, designed and manufactured by Cincinnati Gear Co.The Low Speed Machinery is a MTU 16 V 2000 TE90 Diesel Engine connected to the MRG by a power take in shaft.Combustion Air for the Gas Turbines is ducted from the shipside Air Inlet Screen (radar screen) via 3-stage separating filters. The Exhausts from the twin Gas Turbines are combined into one Exhaust Pipe and ducted to the ship transom above the Water Jet stream.Very little can be changed in the Gas Turbine, but high quality such as well balanced rotating part contributes to reduce the signatures. However, the main work has to be accomplished by the building shipyard in cooperation with the Gas Turbine manufacturer. The Main Reduction Gearbox is more available for changes to reduce signatures, but even for the Gearbox the building shipyard has to take design and installation measures.The HSM installation consist mainly of the Gas Turbine Engine, the Main Reduction Gear, Water Jets Unit and surrounding equipment such as main shaft, bearings and so on. The emphasis in this paper is on the GT, MRG and their effect on some of the more well known signatures i.e. RCS, IR, Hydro acoustics and Magnetic. Also some design measures are discussed.

  • 9.
    Liwång, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Ringsberg, Jonas W.
    Chalmers Univeristy of Technology.
    Ship security analysis: the effect of ship speed and effective lookout2013In: Proceedings of the ASME 32nd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering (OMAE 2013), ASME Press, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The threat of piracy to commercial shipping is a concern for the protection and safeguarding of human lives, property and environment. Therefore, ships under piracy threat should follow security measures suggested by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somali. It is, therefore, important to choose the proper security measures for the right situation.

    This study presents a simulation model that can be used for probabilistic risk assessments regarding the operation of commercial ships. This investigation specifically studies the pirate approach phase and quantifies the effect of ship speed and effective lookout. The purpose of introducing probabilistic risk assessment into the analysis of pirate attacks is to meet safety goals more effectively through a well-balanced combination of proactive and reactive measures whilst keeping focus on the intended over all purpose of the particular ship.

    The study presents collected and documented knowledge regarding pirate capability, intention and likelihood to perform attacks. The knowledge is collected from experts with experience from the situation off the Horn of Africa. The collected information is input to an influence analysis that identifies the network of influences that govern the skiff approach. The simulation model describes piracy characteristics and decision making on the threatened ship, the characteristics and countermeasures of the ship under attack, as well as weather.

    Based on a comparison with available statistics the overall conclusion of the work is that the threat analysis and the simulation model can quantify and explain how the studied risk control options affect the probability of a successful approach. The result therefore exemplifies how a quantified ship security analysis can support the recommendations in industry guidelines and also enable recommendations that to a greater extent can facilitate an educated decision by the ship operators.

  • 10.
    Liwång, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Ringsberg, Jonas W.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Quantitative risk analysis: Ship security analysis for effective risk control options2013In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 58, p. 98-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reviews ship security assessment. The objectives are to explore the possibilities for quantifying and performing a more thorough ship security risk analysis than that described in the International Ship and Port Facility Security code and to evaluate to what extent this more detailed analysis increases ship security and facilitate the effective selection of risk control options.

    The study focuses on Somali-based maritime piracy, using piracy on the Indian Ocean as a case study. Data are collected using questionnaires and interviews with civilian and military security experts who possess firsthand experience of piracy off the coast of Somalia. The data are collected specifically for this study and describe and quantify the threat’s capability, intent and likelihood of exploiting a ship’s vulnerability. Based on the collected description of the threat, the study analyzes and describes: probability of detection by pirates, probability of successful approach, and probability of successful boarding.

    The performed work shows good agreement between calculated probabilities and frequencies in the cited incident reports. Also, the developed scenarios describe the most important influences on the analyzed areas. The research therefore shows that the proposed risk-based approach, which uses structurally collected and documented information on the threat, can increase ship security by assisting in selecting risk control options. The approach also allows for a better understanding of the causal relationship between threat and risk than that provided in today’s security analysis by ship owners, for example. This understanding is crucial to choosing effective and robust risk control options.

  • 11.
    Liwång, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Rosén, Anders
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A framework for investigating the potential for operational measures in relation to intact stability2018In: Proceedings of the 13th International conference on stability of ships and ocean vehicles / [ed] Naoya Umeda, Toru Katayama, Atsuo Maki, Kobe, 2018, p. 488-499Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operational safety measures are an important aspect of a holistic safety approach for intact stability. With the aim to facilitate and further investigate potential operational measures this researchaims to describe a framework for prioritizing intact stability issues suitable for being addressed withoperational safety measures. The proposed framework identifies that there are different potentialsand uncertainties in relation to operational safety measures dependent on the operation type understudy. It is demonstrated that there is not one solution that facilitates operational measures and thereliability of potential measures varies.

  • 12.
    Liwång, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Westin, Jonas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Wikingsson, Jon
    Swedish Defence University.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Minimising Risk from Armed Attacks: The new naval ship code's effects2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Nilsson, Göran
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles: Teknik och etik: Ett självständigt arbete om obemannade flygande farkoster och deras militära nytta och moraliska dilemman2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Unmanned aerial vehicles, popularly known as drones, have been up to debate since the start of the war on terror, 11th September 2001, and there are still a lot of questions about their use and moral legitimacy. There are a lot of useful applications for this kind of vehicle for example, situational awareness, searching for lost people and attack missions. This study is going to investigate how these vehicles are being used within attack missions and and what their military utility are. Since there are a lot of different opinions on the system in war and conflict, the aim for this study is to make the ethics more concrete and evaluate what military utility this system gives.

    The moral aspects of UCAV, Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle, in conflict and war differ a lot from person to person. Those who are against this kind of system mean that the UCAV, in itself, is a threat and not as much to how it is used. Supporters of the system, on the other hand, argue that similar tactics have been used in war since the 1960s hence the system does not need any change in ethics and morals. However the system has got a negative reputation because of they way it is being used.

    This study shows that it is morally right to use UCAVs when the conflict or war meets a majority of the seven criteria of Just War Theory. However it is not as simple as that, there are a lot more factors that come in play. The population of the nation and its interests in the conflict or war, the threat level and what kind of profit the nation will acquire through it are important factors. If all of these criteria are met then the use of UCAVs for attack missions can be seen as morally just.

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