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  • 1.
    Borres, Adam
    Swedish National Defence College. University of Defense, Tjeckien.
    Logistics in enemy territory2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background of this study comes from the lack of documentation and knowledge about logistics in units, which has the main focus on combat or reconnaissance. The aims of the thesis is to determine and compare the different methods used to provide logistical support to units operating in enemy territory by Sweden and the Czech Republic in todays convention and asymmetric wars.Method of gathering information is through qualitative interviews using a semi-structured interview technique with both Swedish and Czech officers. The topics of the interviews are defined beforehand on an interview template and are based on the Swedish basic view of logistics. The three logistical branches that are covered are; service, movement and healthcare support. The result shows that Sweden and the Czech Republic have largely the same methods in all three branches. Sweden has one method in both service and healthcare support, which the Czech Republic does not have. For service support the method is a “forward operating place” which is similar to a forward operating base but only smaller and within the enemies territory. With healthcare support Sweden has small competent medicalgroups further out in enemy territory.The conclusion is that although Sweden and the Czech Republic have mostly the same logistical methods in supporting units in enemy territory they sometimes use them differently. The Swedish armed forces have a more evolved system for logistical support in enemy territory, which is a consequence of the cold war and the Swedish decision of not joining NATO, according to the author.

  • 2.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Risk analysis for shipping under piracy threat2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many different security measures are suggested for ships under piracy threat by organisations such as the International Maritime Organisation. The effectiveness of the respective measures is discussed thru out the shipping industry, and different ship operators make different choices. It is important for the security of international shipping to further develop the anti-piracy measures.

    Research has been carried out to describe piracy structures and also to analyse the effects on shipping. It has been shown that piracy is not random and that factors such as seize, speed, cargo and ship vulnerability affect the probability of a pirate attack (Meija et. al. 2009). More research is however needed to further describe the causal relationship that governs the probability and the consequences of an attack.

    Results from research in risk-based ship design shows that rational risk-based analysis procedures can be used as a decision support tool to facilitate increased safety. The methods have been shown to be able to quantify safety risks as a result of failure of technical systems in their self, as well as incidents due to a combination of technical failure and human decisions. The merits of probabilistic risk assessment has however so far not been fully researched for security risks. The military practise regarding threat assessment and risk analysis for antagonistic threats (NATO RTO 2008) is nevertheless a indication of that it is likely that probabilistic risk assessment also can be very well suited for security risks such as piracy.

    The study

    The aim of this study is to evaluate how, based on probabilistic risk assessment procedures, the operation under piracy threat off the Horn of Africa can be analysed. This to support ship owners risk management, development of anti piracy measures and rule making. The purpose of introducing probabilistic risk assessment into the analysis of pirate attacks is to meet safety goals more effectively through a well-balanced combination of proactive and reactive measures whilst keeping focus on the intended overall purpose of the particular ship.

    Based on research on piracy structures this study collects and documents pirate capacity, intention and opportunity to perform attacks based on expert judgment. This information is used as an input to an influence diagram approach to model the network of influences on a pirate attack (IMO 2002). Tools from military security-risk analysis (NATO RTO 2008) and military operational research (Jaiswal 1997) are used in the influence analysis to structure the analysis and to capture and describe relevant aspects.

    The output of the influence analysis serves as system description for hazard identification and risk analysis.

    The risk analysis output follows requirements on safety scenarios for risk-based ship design (Vassalos 2009) and the IMO formal safety analysis (IMO 2002). It is therefore possible to use the analysis output in ship owners risk management and maritime safety work.

    The investigation also develops a test scheme for evaluating the output of the risk analysis against data from piracy reports. Based on statistical comparisons between analysis output and the piracy reports the reliability and sensitivity of the analysis is tested.

    The outcomes of the study are:

    • a stringent documentation of the pirates’ capacity, intention and opportunity to perform attacks,
    • a better understanding of the casual relationships that governs the probability and consequences of an attack,
    • a statistically tested risk analysis, and
    • knowledge on the sensitivity of the risk analysis and the possibilities of the model to capture aspects of risks associated with piracy attacks.

    References

    ELLIS, J., FORSMAN, B., and Dausendschoen, K., Dangerous goods transport with open-top container vessels – risk analysis. SAFEDOR Deliverable D4.8.2., 2008.

    IMO, Guidelines for formal safety assessment (FSA) for use in the IMO rule-making process, International Maritime Organisation, United Nations, 2002.

    Jaiswal, N. K., Military Operations Research, Quantitative Decision Making, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997.

    Mejia, M. Q.  Jr, Carioub, P., and Wolff, F-C. Is maritime piracy random? Applied Economics Letters, 2009, 16, pp. 891–895.

    NATO RTO, Improving Common Security Risk Analysis, RTO Technical Report TR-IST-049, Research and Technology Organisation of NATO, 2008.

    VASSALOS, D. ed., Risk-Based Ship Design – Methods, Tools and Applications, Springer, 2009.

  • 3.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Riskanalys inom fartygsskydd - en analysstrategi för bättre beslutsunderlag2015In: Tidskrift i sjöväsendet, ISSN 0040-6945, no 2, p. 151-168Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjöfartsskydd bedrivs idag både av militära styrkor och civila redare. Det är inte ofarligt, men nödvändigt och viktigt. Med fokus på säkerhetshot undersöker denna avhandling hur fartyg ska förbereda sig inför potentiellt farlig verksamhet, det vill säga hur man skapar ett lämpligt riskmedvetande i förhållande till fartygsskydd.

    Inom sjösäkerhet har regler, rekommendationer och metoder systematiskt utvecklats under många år. Inom sjöfartsskydd är däremot frågorna inte lika belysta och angreppssätten och erfarenheterna är ofta dolda bakom hemligstämplar. Det är rimligt att anta att riskanalysmetoder från andra områden kan användas även för sjöfartsskyddsanalyser, men inte utan att metoderna anpassas till områdets specifika behov. Därför leder den begränsade forskningen och dokumentationen inom området till ett kunskapsgap.

    För att reducera de identifierade utmaningarna inom sjöfartsskydd undersöks i avhandling hur en lämplig analysstrategi för fartygsskydd ser ut. För att öka den övergripande säkerheten för de analyserade verksamheterna ska metoden kunna stötta nödvändiga kompromisser mellan sjösäkerhet och fartygsskydd. Syftet är att utveckla en analysstrategi som är systematisk och som ger beslutsfattaren en lämplig bild av de aktuella riskerna. För att undersöka detta område behandlas i avhandlingen både hot mot militära fartyg och hotet mot civila fartyg från sjöröveri. Därför kan resultatet användas för att utveckla både militära doktriner och civila riktlinjer.

    Studien visar att hur fartygets verksamhet beskrivs i analysen är centralt för resultatet och därmed förståelsen av riskerna. Inte bara skyddslösningar i sig, utan även besättningens riskförståelse och hur det implementerade skyddet förstås måste inkluderas i analysen. Hur det implementerade skyddet förstås kommer också i stor utsträckning att påverka effektiviteten hos implementerade åtgärder. I avhandlingen konstateras också att om analysen görs utan att ta hänsyn till de osäkerheter som finns kan det innebära att resultatet är missvisande. Därför är den osäkerhetsanalys som är möjlig med ett kvantitativt angreppssätt nödvändig, speciellt om syftet är att identifiera robusta skyddsåtgärder.

  • 4.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Risk-based ship security analysis2013In: Naval architect, ISSN 0306-0209, no 2, p. 35-37Article, review/survey (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chalmers University of Technology and the Swedish National Defence College research the conditions for a risk-based ship security analysis approach. Hans Liwång, licentiate in Engineering, at Chalmers explains further.

  • 5.
    Pettersson, Alexander
    Swedish Defence University.
    Additiv tillverkning för högre teknisk tillgänglighet i internationella insatsområden2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the military utility of additive manufacturing of spare parts during international deployment is explored. We also analyze the effect that additive manufacturing has on technical availability.

    International deployment can be tough for logistical reasons and this leads to a difficulty in supplying ground troops with spare parts. If the spare parts cannot be acquired in the deployment area these have to be shipped from central distribution centers or be ordered directly from the industries. Some spare parts are uncommon and not stored in distribution centers but only get manufactured on order. This type of production can lead to delivery times of up to 40-50 weeks. With additive manufacturing this process could be shortened to 4-10 weeks.

    Conclusions that can be drawn is that additive manufacturing has military utility and can give a higher technical availability, given that a few technical difficulties are resolved. At this point there is a shortcoming in the number of qualified materials for printing spare parts for regular vehicles and this makes it difficult for the industry to approve of spare parts constructed with additive manufacturing. The winning in technical availability is directly linked to how difficult the deployment area is to reach for logistical units. Additive manufacturing has a higher positive effect in areas that are hard to reach.

  • 6.
    Sahlström, Stefan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Operativ och taktisk logistik- Jämförelse melllan stridskrafterna avseende tillgänglighet, kontinuitet och förmåga till överlevnad2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att, med hjälp av främst Moshe Kress principer för operativ logistik, analysera likheter och skillnader avseende hur armén, flygvapnet och marinen tillämpar logistik samt identifiera eventuella möjligheter att samordna tillämpningen för optimal effektivitet i en utveckling mot allt fler gemensamma operationer. Tyngdpunkt är på taktisk nivå.

     

    Det råder ingen tvekan om att logistik är viktigt för all militär verksamhet. Försvarsmakten genomgår omstrukturering som innebär utmaningar när samma resurser behövs av flera samtidigt. Gemensamma operationer ställer krav på interoperabilitet vilket är en utmaning för logistiken som av tradition varit stridskraftsspecifik med begränsat erfarenhetsutbyte över gränserna.

     

    Med stöd av Kress teorier om operativ logistik har tre faktorer operationaliserats. Empirin inhämtas ur Försvarsmaktens styrdokument samt genom intervjuer med nyckelpersoner från Högkvarteret. Genom jämförande analys har likheter och skillnader mellan stridskrafternas logistikkoncept, och tillämpning av desamma, genomlysts. Likheterna är tydligast avseende tidens centrala betydelse, behovet av transportresurser och logistikens tidiga integrering i planeringsarbetet. Även behovet av rutiner, hänvisningar och understöd från andra förenar. Skillnaderna avser främst snabbhet, distribution och leverans, centraliserat respektive decentraliserat ledarskap. Förutsättningarna för val och anpassningsmöjligheter av leveransplatser skiljer sig åt.

     

    Uttalade möjligheter till omedelbar samordning har inte identifierats. Däremot finns det stöd för att ökad förståelse för och kunskap om varandras logistikkoncept, och tillämpningen, kan ge bättre möjligheter till samordnat utnyttjande av befintliga resurser. Över tid bör det kunna leda till ökad effektivitet utan att koncepten måste likriktas.

     

  • 7.
    Sörenson, Karl
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Deterring the Dauntless: Appraising the effects of naval deterrence against the Somali piracy2018In: WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs (JoMA), ISSN 1651-436X, E-ISSN 1654-1642, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 31-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article considers whether the Somali pirates were deterred by the naval task forces between the years 2009 and 2013. By disaggregating data and using previously unpublished records regarding the naval operations, two areas of operations are identified as potential periods of deterrence. The article uses a model of asymmetric deterrence to study the outcomes and equilibria of the navy-pirate interaction. It is found that the naval operations eventually did deter the Somali pirates in the Gulf of Aden, but that this objective was not met in the Somali Basin. It is concluded that the operational focus on the Gulf of Aden coupled with the fact that the area is relatively smaller than the Somali Basin enabled the naval credibility, thus effectively denying the pirates access to the sea. Conversely, limited attention by the naval units and the long Somali southern coast with its open waters impeded naval control in the Somali Basin. In connection to these findings some conclusions regarding naval deterrence are discussed.

1 - 7 of 7
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