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  • 1.
    Christensson, S. Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Representations for military decision making2015In: 2015 Third World Conference on Complex Systems (WCCS) / [ed] Mohamed Essaaidi, Mohamed Nemiche, Maroccan, 2015, p. 52-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Present--‐day warfare often involves planning and execution of operations in complex environments. In order to support military decision making in such environments I argue that the military situation must be represented by six categories of representations. In current practice only two categories are employed. The six categories should be linked to representations of the operational plan and the planning process. By combining the different categories of representations, military decision makers will gain a better understanding of operational areas that hold complex system behaviour.

  • 2.
    Frank, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division, Sektionen för krigsspel. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Gamer mode: Identifying and managing unwanted behaviour in military educational wargaming2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Games are rule-governed systems at the same time as they are fiction, simulating or representing a real or an abstract world. This defining characteristic may create for different forms of tensions, that is, at different times players may focus on the rules, the fiction or on both during game play. In military education with games, this poses a problem when the learner becomes too focused on the rules, trying to win at any price rather than taking the representation and what it implies in terms of permissible behaviour seriously. In here we attempt to understand how participants in a wargaming situation act out this tension by studying the interaction between the player and the game in military tactical training.

    The results first of all confirm that there is a tension – there are occasions where players are mainly concerned with winning the wargame, disregarding what the theme is meant to represent. I propose the term gamer mode to refer to this player orientation: players in gamer mode have an extreme rule-focused interaction, meaning they behave rationally with respect to game rules but irrationally with respect to the portrayed real-life situation they are training for. Gamer mode can probably occur for many reasons. This thesis documents two contributing factors. The first concerns whenever the game does not match players’ expectation on mimicking warfare. In these situations players may find that the game breaks the fragile contract of upholding an accurate representation of warfare. The other factor that may lead to gamer mode are game design features such as explicit reward structures or victory conditions.

    To remedy the situation, the instructor can, in real-time, actively support players’ orientation towards the game and explain in-game events, keeping them on track. When gamer mode occur I argue that the conditions for learning are compromised as the gaming activity becomes its own learning subject, blurring and overshadowing the learning objective. Although the results suggest that gamer mode is mainly detrimental to learning I conclude that gamer mode is a natural way students will approach games and as such, needs to be dealt with by the instructor.

  • 3.
    Frank, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Gaming the Game: A Study of the Gamer Mode in Educational Wargaming2012In: Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, Vol. 43, p. 118-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A risk associated with the use of games in training and education is that players "game the game," instead of focusing on their learning goals. The term gamer mode is proposed to describe this attitude. A player with a gamer-mode attitude strives to achieve goals that are optimal for winning the game, but suboptimal with respect to educational objectives. In this study of cadets playing an educational wargame to learn ground warfare tactics, the author examined occurrences of gamer mode. The results show that gamer mode on and off emerged in all analyzed sessions. Cadets understanding of the wargame was different from what the instructors expected. This study discusses why it is important to avoid situations where the gamer mode emerges and also speculates on the sources that generate this attitude-the game itself, the educational setting, and the participants' previous experiences.

  • 4.
    Frank, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division, Sektionen för krigsspel. Försvarshögskolan. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    The Instructor Role during Educational Wargaming2014In: THE SHIFT FROM TEACHING TO LEARNING: Individual, Collective and Organizational Learning through Gaming / [ed] Willy C. Kriz, Bielefeld: W. Bertelsmann Verlag , 2014, p. 66-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The instructor has a vital role in leading the debriefing discussion in game-based learning. The role during the gaming part is however not as clear. Some results suggest that the instructor should take an active and authoritative role, but results provide few clues on how to apply this to military wargaming. Wargaming is a two-sided game activity where both sides are assumed to learn from their play experience. Wargaming against a live opponent can however produce unwanted effects. One such effect is ‘gamer mode’ that is a result of an exaggerated willingness to win, which can be observed when the players, for instance, exploit the game rules in unrealistic manner. This paper investigates the main responsibilities or duties of the instructor to prevent gamer mode to occur and instead support the desired player-orientation toward the game. By reasoning on the main characteristic features of wargaming, to play the game and to learn from the experience, I conclude that the main duties of the instructor are to frame the game activity and to steer the learning process. This supports earlier results that the instructor should take an active part in the gaming process, yet needs to have the skills, knowledge, and authority to intervene in students’ game play. The findings are illustrated with excerpts from videotaped wargaming sessions at the Swedish National Defence College.

  • 5.
    Spak, Ulrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Lind, Mats
    Institutionen för informatik och media , Department of Informatics and Media.
    Change blindness in intelligence: Effects of attention guidance by instructions2011In: European Intelligence & Security Informatics Conference: The Premier European Conference on Counterterrorism and Criminology / [ed] Nasrullah Memon and Daniel Zeng, IEEE Press, 2011, p. 142-148Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a first effort to experimentally evaluate if, and how, the instructions given to an operator can cause significant effects regarding his/her change detection performance. The operator monitors a display looking for changes associated with specified target objects. The results show that a more differentiated monitoring instruction can cause a raised level of change blindness to occur for some of the displayed target object classes. We argue that the result will have implications for the intelligence function within military command and control.

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