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  • 1.
    Bengtsson, Ingemar
    Swedish Defence University.
    Vad innebär införandet av FMN för Försvarsmaktens insatsledningssystem?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces have declared that by the year 2023, the Swedish Armed Forces C2-systems are to be fully FMN compliant. This thesis is to answer what initially needs to change in the C4ISR to enable them to achieve FMN compatibility.

    The current FMN Spiral specification provides, in principle, only support for the essential human-to-human communication services. With this, the SA, JISR and MEDEVAC Mission Thread are to be conducted.

    The Swedish Armed Forces is clear about the importance of interoperability in order to act together with others, both within and outside its region. But it is less clear which of the Swedish Armed Forces C2-system that is affected by FMN.

    This thesis has come to the conclusion that SWECCIS probably is the C4ISR that best represents what FMN is trying to achieve today, and that SWECCIS basically is FMN compliant. SWECCIS provides, however, only four of the six human-to-human communications services, and the Swedish Armed Forces' current solution to provide audio-based collaboration services is not FMN compliant.

    The future FMN Spiral specifications will place more demands on the Swedish Armed Forces C4ISR for those to maintain their FMN compliant.

  • 2.
    Chaudhary, Waquar Ul Hassan
    et al.
    Tema, Linköpings universitet.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Object-based analysis of Multispectral RS Data and GIS for Detection of Climate Change Impact on the Karakoram Range Northern Pakistan2014In: Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software, June 15-19, San Diego, California, USA / [ed] Ames, D.P., Quinn, N.W.T., Rizzoli, A.E., Manno, Switzerland: International Environmental Modelling and Software Society , 2014, Vol. 4, p. 2036-2043Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changing climate have a great impact on northern area of Pakistan’s environment and is more prone to environmental changes impacts than rest of the country due to its high elevation. However, the results of melting glaciers effect not only the local environment but also the whole country with frequent and heavy floods. Although recent technological development provided solutions of many problems to mankind, the pace of development in the field of environmental preservation technologies are much slower than needed.

    Remote sensing (RS) from Satellites and Airplanes used in Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are technologies that can aid in understanding the ongoing environmental processes as it enable us to obtain information about vast area and help researchers to observe, understand, forecast and suggest response to changes that occur.

    It can be natural disasters or man-made disasters and human induced factors. Still analysis accuracy issues are there which plays a vital role for the formulation of any strategy. To achieve better results, object based analysis methods have been tested in here. Various algorithms are developed by the analysts to calculate the magnitude of land cover changes but must be evaluated for each environment that is under observation as for example mountainous areas. Here we have tried object-based methods in comparison with pixel based. Landslides, soil moisture, soil permeability, snow cover and vegetation cover that change during certain period of time can, with those methods, be effectively monitored. The findings were in short;

    1) Object based analysis shows better accuracy ratio as compared to the pixel based analysis.

    2) Slow but gradual depletion of snow/ice cover was confirmed in the study area of Karakoram region, Northern Pakistan.

    3) Snow and ice melting catalyses the floods, mudslides, landslides and lake outburst episodes in the area during last two decades could be clearly observed in the analysed images and survey data.

    4) Massive landslide/mudslide phenomena was observed in the study area in 2010 and 2012 in Landsat imagery. The artificial lake on the River Hunza was clearly observable in TM and ETM 2010, 2011 and 2012 imagery.

    5) Bare soil area increased due to glacial retreat therefore gradual increase in the vegetation can be observed from the year 1992 to 2011.

  • 3.
    Christensson, S. Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Representations for military decision making2015In: 2015 Third World Conference on Complex Systems (WCCS) / [ed] Mohamed Essaaidi, Mohamed Nemiche, Maroccan, 2015, p. 52-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Present--‐day warfare often involves planning and execution of operations in complex environments. In order to support military decision making in such environments I argue that the military situation must be represented by six categories of representations. In current practice only two categories are employed. The six categories should be linked to representations of the operational plan and the planning process. By combining the different categories of representations, military decision makers will gain a better understanding of operational areas that hold complex system behaviour.

  • 4.
    Frank, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division, Sektionen för krigsspel. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Gamer mode: Identifying and managing unwanted behaviour in military educational wargaming2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Games are rule-governed systems at the same time as they are fiction, simulating or representing a real or an abstract world. This defining characteristic may create for different forms of tensions, that is, at different times players may focus on the rules, the fiction or on both during game play. In military education with games, this poses a problem when the learner becomes too focused on the rules, trying to win at any price rather than taking the representation and what it implies in terms of permissible behaviour seriously. In here we attempt to understand how participants in a wargaming situation act out this tension by studying the interaction between the player and the game in military tactical training.

    The results first of all confirm that there is a tension – there are occasions where players are mainly concerned with winning the wargame, disregarding what the theme is meant to represent. I propose the term gamer mode to refer to this player orientation: players in gamer mode have an extreme rule-focused interaction, meaning they behave rationally with respect to game rules but irrationally with respect to the portrayed real-life situation they are training for. Gamer mode can probably occur for many reasons. This thesis documents two contributing factors. The first concerns whenever the game does not match players’ expectation on mimicking warfare. In these situations players may find that the game breaks the fragile contract of upholding an accurate representation of warfare. The other factor that may lead to gamer mode are game design features such as explicit reward structures or victory conditions.

    To remedy the situation, the instructor can, in real-time, actively support players’ orientation towards the game and explain in-game events, keeping them on track. When gamer mode occur I argue that the conditions for learning are compromised as the gaming activity becomes its own learning subject, blurring and overshadowing the learning objective. Although the results suggest that gamer mode is mainly detrimental to learning I conclude that gamer mode is a natural way students will approach games and as such, needs to be dealt with by the instructor.

  • 5.
    Frank, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Gaming the Game: A Study of the Gamer Mode in Educational Wargaming2012In: Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, Vol. 43, p. 118-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A risk associated with the use of games in training and education is that players "game the game," instead of focusing on their learning goals. The term gamer mode is proposed to describe this attitude. A player with a gamer-mode attitude strives to achieve goals that are optimal for winning the game, but suboptimal with respect to educational objectives. In this study of cadets playing an educational wargame to learn ground warfare tactics, the author examined occurrences of gamer mode. The results show that gamer mode on and off emerged in all analyzed sessions. Cadets understanding of the wargame was different from what the instructors expected. This study discusses why it is important to avoid situations where the gamer mode emerges and also speculates on the sources that generate this attitude-the game itself, the educational setting, and the participants' previous experiences.

  • 6.
    Frank, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division, Sektionen för krigsspel. Försvarshögskolan. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    The Instructor Role during Educational Wargaming2014In: THE SHIFT FROM TEACHING TO LEARNING: Individual, Collective and Organizational Learning through Gaming / [ed] Willy C. Kriz, Bielefeld: W. Bertelsmann Verlag , 2014, p. 66-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The instructor has a vital role in leading the debriefing discussion in game-based learning. The role during the gaming part is however not as clear. Some results suggest that the instructor should take an active and authoritative role, but results provide few clues on how to apply this to military wargaming. Wargaming is a two-sided game activity where both sides are assumed to learn from their play experience. Wargaming against a live opponent can however produce unwanted effects. One such effect is ‘gamer mode’ that is a result of an exaggerated willingness to win, which can be observed when the players, for instance, exploit the game rules in unrealistic manner. This paper investigates the main responsibilities or duties of the instructor to prevent gamer mode to occur and instead support the desired player-orientation toward the game. By reasoning on the main characteristic features of wargaming, to play the game and to learn from the experience, I conclude that the main duties of the instructor are to frame the game activity and to steer the learning process. This supports earlier results that the instructor should take an active part in the gaming process, yet needs to have the skills, knowledge, and authority to intervene in students’ game play. The findings are illustrated with excerpts from videotaped wargaming sessions at the Swedish National Defence College.

  • 7.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI); Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS).
    Cohen, Mika
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    What can we learn from enterprise architecture models?: An experiment comparing models and documents for capability development2018In: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 695-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise architecture (EA) has been established as a discipline to cope with the complex interactions of business operations and technology. Models, i.e., formal descriptions in terms of diagrams and views, are at the heart of the approach. Though it is widely thought that such architecture models can contribute to improved understanding and decision making, this proposition has not rigorously been tested. This article describes an experiment conducted with a real EA model and corresponding real traditional documents, investigating whether the model or the documents lead to better and faster understanding. Understanding is interesting to study, as it is a prerequisite to other EA uses. The subjects (N = 98) were officer cadets, and the experiment was carried out using a comprehensive description of military Close Air Support capability either (1) in the form of a MODAF model or (2) in the form of traditional documents. Based on the results, the model seems to lead to better, though not faster, understanding.

  • 8.
    Gradh, Anders
    Swedish Defence University.
    En stabs nätverkstrafik: En analys av användningen av datornätverkskapacitet i en operativ stab under övningen VIKING 112015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014 the Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) spent almost SEK 20 million on the procurement of satellite capacity for use during training, exercises and operations. However, according to SwAF Headquarters, the capacity procured did not meet unit demands.

    The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the capacity usage in an operational headquarters, based on the headquarters’ staff procedures and to see if there is any military utility to be gained in connection with this capacity.

    The starting point for the study is quantitative data about network usage. This quantitative data is then compared with staff work based on quantitative and qualitative data from war diaries, governing documentation and studies.

    The study shows that capacity usage is not related to staff work, but is instead linked to the presence of staff and their use of the Internet. The study also indicates that there could be potential for greater military utility of network capacity, but this will require the introduction of network priority mechanisms and further studies into user traffic.

  • 9.
    Huskaj, Gazmend
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section. School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    The Current State of Research in Offensive Cyberspace Operations2019In: Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security, Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2019, p. 660-667Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-attacks have increased since the 1988-Morris worm and can target any connected device from any place in the world. In 2010, Stuxnet received a lot of attention as the first cyber-weapon. Its targets were the Iranian nuclear enrichment centrifuges. Nation states are developing cyberspace capabilities to conduct offensive cyberspace operations. Academic researchers have been calling for a more transparent discussion on offensive capabilities and have pointed out the positive impact researchers had during the development of nuclear capabilities. Shrouded in secrecy, the development of offensive capabilities used for operations makes it difficult to conduct research. Therefore, one way to mitigate this is to conduct a systematic review of the current state of research in offensive cyberspace operations. The systematic review method makes it possible to establish certain inclusion and exclusion criteria and systematically go through academic articles to identify the contents, thoughts and research focus of academic researchers. Six scientific databases were queried and 87 articles were read and clustered. The first insight is that, based on the results of the queried databases, research about offensive cyberspace operations is limited. The resulting clusters are a general cluster about cyberspace operations, followed by research in policy, decision-making, governance, capabilities, levels, models, training, deterrence and international affairs. These are then further grouped into: a) general cyberspace operations; b) deterrence; c) international affairs; d) modelling, simulation and training. The article concludes that research into offensive cyberspace operations is maturing as more information is becoming public. Secondly, current research lists some good basic ideas regarding effects which can be achieved through offensive cyberspace operations, how they should be conducted, and related tools, techniques and procedures. However, discrepancies in research efforts exist, with the majority of research coming primarily from the western world. In addition, secrecy and the resulting limited access to information, coupled with research being either too technically focused or too qualitatively focused, show that there still remains room for research in this field. Finally, some directions for future research are examined.

  • 10.
    Huskaj, Gazmend
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section. School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Moradian, Esmiralda
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Cyber Deterrence: An Illustration of Implementation2018In: 13th International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security (ICCWS 2018) / [ed] John S. Hurley & Jim Q. Chen, Sonning: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2018, p. 304-311Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber deterrence is a strategy to deter attackers from conducting cyber-attacks in the first place. However, several issues exist when implementing cyber deterrence, which are identified in this paper. The findings show (1) non-existence of the deterrence strategy  (2) no doctrine or decision competence to retaliate to an adversary, (3) the armed forces have no authority to retaliate when Swedish sovereignty in Cyberspace is threatened, (4) no norms or regulations exist concerning retaliation, (5) no clear governance on using offensive cyber capabilities, and finally, (6) no credibility in its cyber deterrence posture regarding how much Sweden is willing to sacrifice to protect its electoral system, which is a Swedish national interest. Therefore, this research investigates how cyber deterrence can practically be implemented in Swedish cyber security policy. So far, researchers generally focused on the human aspect of cyber deterrence. By using the case study research strategy and utilizing the Swedish electoral system as a case, this paper examines possibilities to merge the human dimensions of cyber security with the technological dimensions. Data collection is performed through documents studies and semi-structured interviews with experts in the area to identify cyber deterrence components. Further, a mathematical approach is discussed in the paper to express the relationship between an adversary and a deterrent depicting each of the actor’s risk calculus. A result of the research work performed in this paper, the deterrence components for Swedish cyber deterrence are proposed and risk calculus is performed. Moreover, measures to increase Swedish cyber deterrence posture are proposed the practical implementation of cyber deterrence in Swedish cyber security policy in order to deter attacks on the Swedish electoral system is demonstrated.

  • 11.
    Kantola, Harry
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Datanätverksattacker, trend eller nödvändighet?2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle används information till att sköta dagliga ärenden. Både militära och civila är beroende av cybervärlden i freds- och kristid. För att kunna skydda sina system måste man förstå hur de kan angripas.

    Syftet med forskningen är att finna ambitionsnivåer och metoder inom datanätverksattack-verksamheten (CNA-verksamhet) som försvarsmakten kan vidmakthålla i stater med högtek-nologisk utveckling men med låga försvarsresurser. Vilken teknologisk datanäverkattack-förmåga rekommenderas en sådan stats försvarsmakt på fem till tio års tidsperspektiv samt med vilka sätt kan man uppnå verkan?

    I arbetet används kvalitativ dataanalys. Med axial kodning, enligt Strauss "Grounded Theo-ry", kategoriseras de olika komponenterna som CNA-förmågorna består av. Dessa kategorier analyseras sedan med hjälp av Rasmussens riskteori i ett informationsteknologiskt system.

    I studien framgår det att en högteknologisk småstat bör sträva efter spetskompetens i de för-mågor som bidrar till att man kan testa och försvara sina egna kritiska och sårbara system. En sådan kompetens är förmågan att utföra datanätverksexploatering (CNE-verksamhet). Om en försvarsmakt som har förmåga till att genomföra avancerad CNE-verksamhet, så kan den genomföra behövlig CNA-verksamhet. För en stat med begränsade försvarsresurser kräver genomförandet av CNA-verksamhet dock strategiskt samarbete med olika civila partner. Av dessa är universitet och teknologiskt avancerade företag/industrier de främsta partnerna.

    Resultatet visar dessutom att den informationstekniska kunskapen är av tillräcklig nivå, men att det behövs förbättringar inom det informationspsykologiska området. Ambitionsnivån be-höver inte överstiga förmågan att genomföra CNE-verksamhet.

    Även om CNE-verksamheten är teknologiskt betonad, så åstadkoms den informationspsyko-logiska effekten med att koordinera CNA-verksamheten inom informationsoperationer. I framtiden är det troligare att uppnå en högre effekt på en motståndare via en informations-psykologisk inriktning.

    Organisatoriskt är det kostnadseffektivare att skapa "eldledningsförmåga inom CNA" än se-parata enheter som man inkorporerar i den normala organisationsstrukturen. Storleken på en CNA-enhet kan hållas låg med hjälp av strategiska partner.

    Som biprodukt framgår det att det behövs ytterligare forskning i uppdelandet ansvaret i at-tack-, exploaterings-, underrättelseinhämtnings- och försvarsförmåga (CNA/CNE/CNI/CND-verksamheten).

  • 12.
    Larsson, Emil
    et al.
    Schibsted Media Group.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Papering Over the Cracks: The Effects of Introducing Best Practices on the Web Security Ecosystem2016In: The 30th International Conference on Information Networking: ICOIN 2016, IEEE, 2016, p. 1-6, article id 15837791Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is the de facto standard for secure end-to-end web communication. However, numerous flaws discovered during recent years, such as Apple’s “goto fail” bug, and cryptographic weaknesses as illustrated by the Poodlebleed vulnerability, have brought the efficiency of the mostly self-regulated web security market into question. In this cross-disciplinary paper, the authors survey some 160.000 HTTPS-enabled servers among popular web sites over a time period of three years. The research question is what effect the introduction of best practices and vulnerability publication have on web server security in the form of protocol support. Main findings include that (i) insecure configurations, although well known, can remain widespread for over a decade, (ii) the introduction of best practices affect the decline of insecure configurations only moderately, whereas highly publicized security flaws have a significant impact, and (iii) economic incentives for website owners to provide secure services are weak, motivating such other levers of influence as legislation or blocking of noncompliant sites.

  • 13.
    Leander, Johan L.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    A note on transient underwater bubble sound1998In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 103, no 2, p. 1205-1208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This Letter considers scattered sound from transiently oscillating gas bubbles in liquids. The full transient problem including the finite duration of the excitation is analyzed. As a result, the wave front of the radiated sound pulse involving information about the excitation is also studied. The model presented is used to simulate sound pulses from sea-surface bubbles which have been generated by, for example, spilling breakers, capillary-gravity waves, and rain drops. Although very simple in relation to the actual physical process of excitation, this model enables us to predict some of the essential properties of scattered pulses observed experimentally. It is suggested that the time scale of duration of the initial driving that enters into the present analysis might be of some use in a further physical understanding of bubble generation and excitation.

  • 14. Leander, Johan L.
    Comments on "Acoustic dispersion and attenuation in many spherical scatterer systems and the Kramers-Kronig relations"1998In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 104, no 2, p. 1111-1114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this Comment is to suggest some possible improvements and developments of the investigation by Zhen Ye [J. Acoust. Sec. Am. 101, 3299-3305 (1997)]. Particular attention is given to the causality concept and the use of integral theorems.

  • 15.
    Leander, Johan L.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    On the eigenfrequency of a gas bubble in a liquid1997In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 102, no 3, p. 1900-1903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation concerns free linear gas bubble oscillations in liquids. Of prime interest is the eigenfrequency, and in particular its real part, here named as the transient frequency. The conceptual difference between the more frequently consulted resonance frequency and the transient frequency is first addressed by means of the classical mechanical oscillator. Next, bubble pulsations in liquids are discussed and an existing model is used for the gas-liquid interaction from which an approximate expression for the eigenfrequency is derived. A rationale for the approximate evaluation of the functions modeling the thermal processes is suggested which is independent of the frequency content of any possible pressure excitation, Moreover, compressibility effects are not approximated in the derivation presented here, The quantitative difference between the adiabatic resonance frequency and the derived estimate of the transient frequency is found to be of significance for small bubbles. Finally, the similarity between a standard mechanical oscillator and a bubble in a liquid for the case of liquid-compressibility effects only is discussed.

  • 16.
    Leander, Johan L.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    On the relation between the wavefront speed and the group velocity concept1996In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 100, no 6, p. 3503-3507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between the wavefront speed and the group velocity concept is studied in this work. The relationship between the more well-known velocity concept named as the phase velocity and the speed of propagation of a front of an acoustic pulse is discussed. This is of interest since it concerns transient wave propagation and is, in general, not well known. The form and properties of a pulse can be obtained by means of a Fourier integral and estimates based on quantities derived for monochromatic waves, such as the phase velocity, can be severely misleading and confusing. The wavefront velocity is defined as the high-frequency Limit of the phase velocity. This quantity can be far less than the value of the phase velocity for finite frequencies which for example is the case for bubbly fluids. Then the group velocity concept is discussed, which was introduced in order to characterize the propagation of water waves of essentially the same wavelength. However, more confusion occurs in that it is sometimes believed that a wavefront is propagating with the group velocity (a limit process not mentioned) since it can be related to the propagation of energy. This interpretation of energy propagation is based on sinusoidal waves and involves time as well as space averages and is not applicable for pulses. However, by means of the expression for the group velocity given by Stokes it is shown that the speed of a wavefront can be found from the group velocity at a limiting high frequency. This result can be understood geometrically from the definition of the group velocity given by Lamb which is conservation of wavelength. A wavefront is a discontinuity and limiting short wavelengths will be found there.

  • 17. Leander, Johan L.
    Wavefront and group velocity in relaxing and bubbly fluids1999In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 105, no 6, p. 3044-3048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper it is demonstrated that a theoretical model for wave propagation may indeed correspond to a well-posed transient problem although the group velocity for finite frequencies becomes greater than the high frequency limit of the phase velocity, negative or even infinite. Sufficient conditions for causality dare derived and the particular cases of relaxing and bubbly fluids are considered so as to show-some of the properties of the group velocity concept.

  • 18.
    Litzinger, Paul
    et al.
    University of Applied Sciences Technikum Wien.
    Navratil, Gerhard
    Vienna University of Technology, Institute for Geoinformation and Car-tography.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Knorr, Daniela
    UBIMET GmbH, Vienna.
    Using Weather Information to Improve Route Planning2012In: Bridging the Geographic Information Sciences: International AGILE'2012 Conference, Avignon (France), April, 24-27, 2012 / [ed] Jérôme Gensel, Didier Josselin, Danny Vandenbroucke, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 199-214Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weather has a significant influence on navigation processes. Driving dur-ing a heavy rain, for example, is slower and due to poor visibility more dangerous than driving in perfect weather conditions. Thus from time management and safety perspective including weather information is bene-ficial. Weather, especially rain may also be critical for transportation tasks since some commodities like straw or sand should not get wet. In the last years, the quality of weather information and weather forecast has im-proved and could be used to improve route planning. The paper discusses how weather information can be included in route planning algorithms. A first approximating algorithm to incorporate weather forecast data is pre-sented. Some examples showing the impact on route planning conclude the paper.

  • 19.
    Persson, Per-Arne
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Transformation of the analog: The case of the Saab BT 33 artillery fire control simulator and the introduction of the digital computer as control technology1999In: IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, ISSN 1058-6180, E-ISSN 1934-1547, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 52-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is about the development of modern artillery fire control simulators. The Saab BT 33 had few equals when it was operational in the early 1970s. The accounts describe the introduction of the digital computer and its victory over older control technologies during long-term social change. The case illustrates the role of engineering and craft in practice, ultimately to make the practice more controllable. The case also shows how piecemeal solutions risk becoming victims of technical innovations. The use of modern information technology for control and other purposes, only if socially accepted in its context within strong traditions, may be efficient.

  • 20.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. School of Informatics, University of Skövde.
    Secure Tactical Communications for Inter-Organizational Collaboration: The Role of Emerging Information and Communications Technology, Privacy Issues, and Cyber Threats on the Digital Battlefield2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development within the area of information and communications technology (ICT) has been rapid during the last couple of decades. Advancements in mobile technology, such as smartphones and other portable devices with embedded sensors, rapid expansion of communications infrastructure, and increased spectrum utilization, has had a major impact on civilian society, but increasingly also on professional organizations such as the Swedish Armed Forces. While this technology allows for enhanced capabilities in the areas of command and control, situational awareness, and information management, it also leads to new challenges in such areas as cyber security and privacy. For armed forces in many parts of the world, being able to deploy in new types of missions, such as humanitarian assistance and response operations due to natural or man-made disasters, is an increasingly sought-after capability. Such operations commonly require collaboration amongst several heterogeneous organizations, which in turn requires technical as well as organizational interoperability. While the actors must be able to share certain information efficiently, with regards to integrity and availability, sensitive or classified information must be safeguarded in terms of confidentiality.

    This thesis is concerned with studying emerging ICT for use on the battlefield of tomorrow, investigating how it can lead to more effective operations, and what preconditions that must be met in order for the technology to be of utility for inter-organizational collaboration. In particular, the thesis studies how an acceptable level of information security can be upheld in interconnected tactical communications networks. It is found that Mobile Ad-hoc Networks, Software-Defined Radio and Cognitive Radio are emerging technologies that, while still immature, can contribute to improved capabilities for communications, command and control, and information collection. Furthermore, Hastily Formed Networks is found to be an effective framework for collaboration between heterogeneous actors. However, in order for emerging ICTs to provide military utility, several non-technical requirements must be met. These include usability, trust, legality, cost, and verifying that the technology is in accordance with current military doctrine. Antagonistic as well as unintentional threats must also be mitigated, including information leaks caused by cyberattacks or insiders, and possible consequences of reduced user privacy.

    Besides to the Swedish Armed Forces, this thesis should be of interest to armed forces of comparable countries, and for professional organizations faced with similar challenges. Among the drawn conclusions, the thesis recommends continuously evaluating emerging ICT in support of new capabilities, through academic research as well as internal concept development. Adopting an incremental and modular process is also recommended when developing or procuring new ICT systems, instead of making long-term investments in proprietary technology. Furthermore, a focus should be put on promoting military requirements in future civilian ICT standards. In this way development costs can be reduced, while facilitating tactical use of commercial off-the-shelf products. Regarding information security in tactical networks for inter-organizational collaboration the thesis concludes that employing best-effort methods could allow for efficient information exchange between actors, while upholding acceptable risk levels regarding data leakage.

  • 21.
    Sigholm, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section. Sloan School, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Falco, Gregory
    CSAIL, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA; FSI, Stanford University, USA.
    Viswanathan, Arun
    NASA Jet Proplusion Laboratory, Caltech, USA.
    Enhancing Cybersecurity Education through High-Fidelity Live Exercises (HiFLiX)2019In: Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE conference proceedings, 2019, p. 7553-7562Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The people responsible for building the IT products and infrastructure of tomorrow – today’s students of the computing disciplines – oftentimes do not have the opportunity or proper motivation to develop cybersecurity skills meeting the needs of the job market. This paper introduces High Fidelity Live eXercises (HiFLiX) a teaching/learning activity designed to expose students to cybersecurity challenges resembling those they could face in a future work environment. We describe a HiFLiX prototype study, conducted as a collaboration between the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s CyberSecurity@CSAIL research group and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Our analysis indicates that the proposed delivery method met the stipulated cybersecurity educational outcomes and increased the motivation for future cybersecurity studies in the majority of participants. Two previously unknown software flaws were also discovered.

  • 22.
    Sigholm, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Raciti, Massimiliano
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Best-Effort Data Leakage Prevention in Inter-Organizational Tactical MANETs2012In: Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE Military Communications Conference, IEEE Communications Society, 2012, p. 1143-1149Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS), based on technologies such as Software Defined Radio (SDR) and Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) offer considerable advantages for military operations, such as increased network survivability and interoperability. The RRS-based Common Tactical Radio System (GTRS), currently in development by the Swedish Armed Forces, is designed for use in diverse geographical settings and for purposes varying from international combat missions to national contingency operations. However, protecting these networks from attacks and safeguarding the carried information against leaks is an ongoing research challenge, especially in combined scenarios where tactical data may flow across organizational boundaries. This paper presents a best-effort approach to Data Leakage Prevention (DLP) for inter-organizational RRS-based networks. The proposed architecture makes use of data mining techniques and an efficient n-dimensional clustering algorithm which has previously been successfully used for real-time anomaly detection in critical infrastructure protection. The DLP architecture is developed as an extension to the GTRS system, modeled and simulated in OPNET™ Modeler. Our results show that common data leaks can be efficiently identified by the proposed scheme, while keeping the important false positive rate at a very low level.

  • 23.
    Sivertun, Åke
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Zöphel, Katharina
    TUD (Technische Universität Dresden), Dresden, Germany.
    Ahlberg, Simon
    Linköpings Universitet; ForanRS AB.
    LiDAR and Hyperspectral data for Landscape and Vegetation Classification and Monitoring2014In: Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software (iEMSs)June 15-19, San Diego, California, USA / [ed] Ames, D.P., Quinn, N.W.T., Rizzoli, A.E., Manno, Switzerland: International Environmental Modelling and Software Society , 2014, Vol. 4, p. 2172-2179Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mapping of forest areas and other landscapes as to combine information about ground structures, topography as well as other natural and man-made features can be made with help of LiDAR (Elmqvist, M. 2001). The result can be used for planning military and civil missions and analysis of the possibility to drive though areas with bad or no roads (Sivertun & Gumos 2006) as well as for management of natural recourses and for example in physical planning. By combining LiDAR and other remotely sensed data it is possible to make use of the different advantages the different sensors provides. In this article based on a test in Linköping municipality, Sweden, we have employed the LiDAR based SingleTree™ detection model (Ahlberg at al 2008) and hyper spectral image data as to improve the classification of the trees and the ground surface under the trees. This method differs from similar models like in Béland et al. (2014) and Côté et al (2011) that uses terrestrial TLiDAR sensors to identify the species of trees.

    By detecting returns of laser beams that passed through the vegetation and are reflected back to the sensor, it is possible to detect ditches, stones, logs and other obstacles to passing through the area. The data from modern LiDAR sensors can have very high spatial resolution, in many cases 50 points/m2 or more. By filtering the LiDAR data it is also possible to detect vehicles and man-made objects that are hidden under the vegetation, especially if the LIDAR uptake is compared with an earlier registration, movements and differences can be detected.

    LiDAR registrations are today made by the forest industry in order to obtain better and more accurate information about the vegetation and improve their activities. Observation of the health of plants or trees becomes more important as a consequence from global warming and increased pressure from insects and diseases. There is also an increasing demand on forests and crops as to fill the demands from a growing and partly wealthier world (Kamaruzaman J. and Kasawani I., 2009). In forestry the LiDAR data are used to plan for harvest, building forest roads and timber transports. Another important source of data is Hyper Spectral Scenes (HSS) where the reflected solar light is analysed to identify anomalies in the spectral response and get a hint about the health of the canopy (Hyperspectral Imaging 2011). The difference from using multispectral images in comparison with other remotely sensed data is that the hyper spectral sensor delivers response in several hundred small and well-defined spectral wavelength bands. Those are supposed to indicate the biomass and water content as well as the difference between the absorption and the reflectance band for chlorophyll and many other conditions. A system can be used to identify the spectral signature in a certain area in order to decide what material and colours that should be used for camouflage. The data can be combined with LiDAR and used in the classification of forests, soils and other landscape features in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Modern development of sensors and platforms makes it possible to use for example Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) like helicopters to collect LiDAR and HSS data.

  • 24.
    Spak, Ulrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Lind, Mats
    Institutionen för informatik och media , Department of Informatics and Media.
    Change blindness in intelligence: Effects of attention guidance by instructions2011In: European Intelligence & Security Informatics Conference: The Premier European Conference on Counterterrorism and Criminology / [ed] Nasrullah Memon and Daniel Zeng, IEEE Press, 2011, p. 142-148Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a first effort to experimentally evaluate if, and how, the instructions given to an operator can cause significant effects regarding his/her change detection performance. The operator monitors a display looking for changes associated with specified target objects. The results show that a more differentiated monitoring instruction can cause a raised level of change blindness to occur for some of the displayed target object classes. We argue that the result will have implications for the intelligence function within military command and control.

  • 25.
    Trimintzios, Panagiotis
    et al.
    ENISA.
    Holfeldt, Roger
    Secana.
    Koraeus, Mats
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Uckan, Baris
    Secana.
    Gavrila, Razvan
    ENISA.
    Makrodimitris, Georgios
    ENISA.
    Report on Cyber Crisis Cooperation and Management: Comparative study on the cyber crisis management and the general crisis management2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study is to provide an analysis of cyber crisis management by identifying relations between this emerging field and the better established subject of general crisis management. This includes terminology and key concepts in these fields. This study further seeks to gain knowledge and understanding of the involved actors’ perspectives on the challenges for Cyber Crisis management within the European context.

    The purpose of the study is twofold: to compare concepts from the general crisis management systems with the corresponding systems related to cyber crisis management, and to conduct a conceptual analysis of the language and terminology within these two fields. The primary aim is to analyse the similarities and differences between general and cyber crisis management, employing examples from countries and organizations within the EU.

    Based on interviews with members of key national and EU institutions, and on an analysis of the differences between their practitioner perspectives and the theories of general crisis management, the study arrives at six key areas of recommendations for future activities in the cyber security realm.

  • 26.
    Uckan Färnman, Baris
    et al.
    Secana.
    Koraeus, Mats
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Backman, Sarah
    Secana.
    Gavrila, Razvan (Editor)
    ENISA.
    Trimintzios, Panagiotis (Contributor)
    Stavropoulos, Vangelis (Commentator for written text)
    ENISA.
    Zacharis, Alexandros (Commentator for written text)
    ENISA.
    The 2015 Report on National and International Cyber Security Exercises: Survey, Analysis and Recommendations2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During this study ENISA gathered and analysed a large set of over 200 exercises. In addition to the exercise dataset, ENISA analysed specialised literature such as after-action reports and previous studies that have contributed to the analysis. This report includes a model for describing and reporting on such exercises. The study is a step forward towards better resource for planning and collaboration between nations and agencies interested in cybersecurity exercises. The findings show a continuous and accelerated increase in the total amount of exercises held after 2012, as well as an increase in the number of cooperative exercises involving private and public actors. This indicates that it is not just a matter of public agencies running more exercises, but also of more actors benefiting from these exercises.

  • 27.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    A Microworld for Investigating the Effects of Visualizing Expanding Search Areas in Naturalistic Naval Warfare Tasks2012In: Proceedings of 2012 Cognitive Methods in Situation Awareness and Decision Support (CogSiMA), New Orleans, LA, 2012, p. 146-149Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presents an microworld for investigating the effects of visualizing expanding search areas to support the building of a naval force's common operational picture. The microworld simulates naval warfare operations, and in it, two participants can play against each other in an operations area where both own units and neutrals may be present. The participants control combat vessels used to locate and attack the enemy, and high value objects that should be protected. The map of the operations area is configurable and the units' weapons and sensors can be defined by the experimenter. The microworld displays an individual operational picture to each player complied from the sensor information provided by that player's units. To investigate visualization, expanding search areas can be added to enhance the operational picture, and algorithms based on these areas can be used to let the computer help the participant identify enemies from neutrals. The integration of expanding search areas into the operational picture is illustrated. The unit classification algorithms based on expanding search areas are explained, and examples of how they work are presented. Experimental setups are presented together with initial evaluations of the microworld.

  • 28.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Using uncertainties as basis for evaluating plans2007In: Proceedings of the 11th international conference, KES 2007 and XVII Italian workshop on neural networks conference on Knowledge-based intelligent information and engineering systems: Part I / [ed] Bruno Apolloni, Robert J. Howlett, Lakhmi Jain, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag Berlin , 2007, p. 254-261Conference paper (Refereed)
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