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  • 1.
    Andersson, Kent
    Solid State Physics Group, Department of Technology, Uppsala University.
    Preparation and Characterisation of Sputtered Titanium- and Zirconium Nitride Optical Films1993Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayered interference coatings based on titanium- and zirconium nitride and designed for solar control have been prepared using reactive d c magnetron sputtering. Preparation effects and degradation mechanisms were investigated. It was shown that the quality of the nitride strongly depends on the degree of crystallinity in the underlying oxide. It has been shown that the nitride layer partly oxidizes as the top oxide layer is deposited. The degradation is enhanced with temperature. A thin sacrificial layer of aluminium deposited between successive depositions of nitride and oxide is shown to improve the optical performance of the coating as preparedm as well as after accelerated ageing tests.

    The optical properties of opaque and semitransparent films of zirconium nitride have been studied. A thorough investigation of the influence of composition, deposition rate, substrate temperature and film thickness on the optical response of the film was performed. Both photometric and ellipsometric methods were used to determine thicknesses and the optical constants at wavelengths ranging from 0.23 to 25 μm. The resulting values of n and k, in the wavelength intervals where these independent methods are applicable, have been shown to agree extremely well. The results so far indicate an even larger potential for zirconium nitride based solar control coatings as compared to the titanium nitride based.

    Access to optical constants derived from films of zirconium nitride of variable quality made multilayer modelling a powerful tool in the design and analysis of solar control coatings.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Åkerlind, Christina
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).
    A review of materials for spectral design coatings in signature management applications2014In: Optics and Photonics for Counterterrorism, Crime Fighting, and Defence X; and Optical Materials and Biomaterials in Security and Defence Systems Technology XI (vol. 9253) / [ed] Douglas Burgess; Gari Owen; Harbinder Rana; Roberto Zamboni; François Kajzar; Attila A. Szep, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current focus in Swedish policy towards national security and high-end technical systems, together with a rapid development in multispectral sensor technology, adds to the utility of developing advanced materials for spectral design in signature management applications. A literature study was performed probing research databases for advancements. Qualitative text analysis was performed using a six-indicator instrument: spectrally selective reflectance; low gloss; low degree of polarization; low infrared emissivity; non-destructive properties in radar and in general controllability of optical properties. Trends are identified and the most interesting materials and coating designs are presented with relevant performance metrics. They are sorted into categories in the order of increasing complexity: pigments and paints, one-dimensional structures, multidimensional structures (including photonic crystals), and lastly biomimic and metamaterials. The military utility of the coatings is assessed qualitatively. The need for developing a framework for assessing the military utility of incrementally increasing the performance of spectrally selective coatings is identified.

  • 3.
    Bengtsson, Ingemar
    Swedish Defence University.
    Vad innebär införandet av FMN för Försvarsmaktens insatsledningssystem?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces have declared that by the year 2023, the Swedish Armed Forces C2-systems are to be fully FMN compliant. This thesis is to answer what initially needs to change in the C4ISR to enable them to achieve FMN compatibility.

    The current FMN Spiral specification provides, in principle, only support for the essential human-to-human communication services. With this, the SA, JISR and MEDEVAC Mission Thread are to be conducted.

    The Swedish Armed Forces is clear about the importance of interoperability in order to act together with others, both within and outside its region. But it is less clear which of the Swedish Armed Forces C2-system that is affected by FMN.

    This thesis has come to the conclusion that SWECCIS probably is the C4ISR that best represents what FMN is trying to achieve today, and that SWECCIS basically is FMN compliant. SWECCIS provides, however, only four of the six human-to-human communications services, and the Swedish Armed Forces' current solution to provide audio-based collaboration services is not FMN compliant.

    The future FMN Spiral specifications will place more demands on the Swedish Armed Forces C4ISR for those to maintain their FMN compliant.

  • 4.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    Univ Southern Queensland, Deputy Vice Chancellors Off Res & Innovat, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;Univ Southern Queensland, Fac Hlth Engn & Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Sustainable Dev Environm Sci & Engn, KFH Internat Groundwater Arsen Res Grp, Teknikringen 76, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Maity, Jyoti Prakash
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;Natl Chung Cheng Univ, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, 168 Univ Rd, Min Hsiung 62102, Chiayi County, Taiwan..
    Mushtaq, Shahbaz
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Vithanage, Meththika
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;Natl Inst Fundamental Studies, Chem & Environm Syst Modeling Res Grp, Kandy 20000, Sri Lanka..
    Seneweera, Saman
    Univ Southern Queensland, Ctr Crop Hlth, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Schneider, Jerusa
    Univ Estadual Campinas, Sch Civil Engn Architecture & Urban Design, Sanitat & Environm Dept, BR-11308388 Campinas, SP, Brazil..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Sustainable Dev Environm Sci & Engn, KFH Internat Groundwater Arsen Res Grp, Teknikringen 76, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Khan, Nasreen Islam
    Australian Natl Univ, Coll Med Biol & Environm, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.;Int Rice Res Inst, GIS Social Sci Div, Los Banos 4031, Laguna, Philippines..
    Hamawand, Ihsan
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Guilherme, Luiz R. G.
    Fed Univ Lavras UFLA, Dept Soil Sci, Campus Univ,Caixa Postal 3037, BR-37200000 Lavras, MG, Brazil..
    Reardon-Smith, Kathryn
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Parvez, Faruque
    Columbia Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Environm Hlth Sci Mailman, 722 West 168th St, New York, NY 10032 USA..
    Morales-Simfors, Nury
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Ghaze, Sara
    Univ Southern Queensland, Fac Hlth Engn & Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Pudmenzky, Christa
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Kouadio, Louis
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Chen, Chien-Yen
    Natl Chung Cheng Univ, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, 168 Univ Rd, Min Hsiung 62102, Chiayi County, Taiwan..
    Medical geology in the framework of the sustainable development goals2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 581, p. 87-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to geogenic contaminants (GCs) such as metal(loid)s, radioactive metals and isotopes as well as transuraniums occurring naturally in geogenic sources (rocks, minerals) can negatively impact on environmental and human health. The GCs are released into the environment by natural biogeochemical processes within the near-surface environments and/or by anthropogenic activities such as mining and hydrocarbon exploitation as well as exploitation of geothermal resources. They can contaminate soil, water, air and biota and subsequently enter the food chain with often serious health impacts which are mostly underestimated and poorly recognized. Global population explosion and economic growth and the associated increase in demand for water, energy, food, and mineral resources result in accelerated release of GCs globally. The emerging science of "medical geology" assesses the complex relationships between geo-environmental factors and their impacts on humans and environments and is related to the majority of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals in the 2030 Agenda of the United Nations for Sustainable Development. In this paper, we identify multiple lines of evidence for the role of GCs in the incidence of diseases with as yet unknown etiology (causation). Integrated medical geology promises a more holistic understanding of the occurrence, mobility, bioavailability, bio-accessibility, exposure and transfer mechanisms of GCs to the food-chain and humans, and the related ecotoxicological impacts and health effects. Scientific evidence based on this approach will support adaptive solutions for prevention, preparedness and response regarding human and environmental health impacts originating from exposure to GCs.

  • 5.
    Chaudhary, Waquar Ul Hassan
    et al.
    Tema, Linköpings universitet.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Object-based analysis of Multispectral RS Data and GIS for Detection of Climate Change Impact on the Karakoram Range Northern Pakistan2014In: Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software, June 15-19, San Diego, California, USA / [ed] Ames, D.P., Quinn, N.W.T., Rizzoli, A.E., Manno, Switzerland: International Environmental Modelling and Software Society , 2014, Vol. 4, p. 2036-2043Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changing climate have a great impact on northern area of Pakistan’s environment and is more prone to environmental changes impacts than rest of the country due to its high elevation. However, the results of melting glaciers effect not only the local environment but also the whole country with frequent and heavy floods. Although recent technological development provided solutions of many problems to mankind, the pace of development in the field of environmental preservation technologies are much slower than needed.

    Remote sensing (RS) from Satellites and Airplanes used in Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are technologies that can aid in understanding the ongoing environmental processes as it enable us to obtain information about vast area and help researchers to observe, understand, forecast and suggest response to changes that occur.

    It can be natural disasters or man-made disasters and human induced factors. Still analysis accuracy issues are there which plays a vital role for the formulation of any strategy. To achieve better results, object based analysis methods have been tested in here. Various algorithms are developed by the analysts to calculate the magnitude of land cover changes but must be evaluated for each environment that is under observation as for example mountainous areas. Here we have tried object-based methods in comparison with pixel based. Landslides, soil moisture, soil permeability, snow cover and vegetation cover that change during certain period of time can, with those methods, be effectively monitored. The findings were in short;

    1) Object based analysis shows better accuracy ratio as compared to the pixel based analysis.

    2) Slow but gradual depletion of snow/ice cover was confirmed in the study area of Karakoram region, Northern Pakistan.

    3) Snow and ice melting catalyses the floods, mudslides, landslides and lake outburst episodes in the area during last two decades could be clearly observed in the analysed images and survey data.

    4) Massive landslide/mudslide phenomena was observed in the study area in 2010 and 2012 in Landsat imagery. The artificial lake on the River Hunza was clearly observable in TM and ETM 2010, 2011 and 2012 imagery.

    5) Bare soil area increased due to glacial retreat therefore gradual increase in the vegetation can be observed from the year 1992 to 2011.

  • 6.
    Christensson, S. Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Representations for military decision making2015In: 2015 Third World Conference on Complex Systems (WCCS) / [ed] Mohamed Essaaidi, Mohamed Nemiche, Maroccan, 2015, p. 52-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Present--‐day warfare often involves planning and execution of operations in complex environments. In order to support military decision making in such environments I argue that the military situation must be represented by six categories of representations. In current practice only two categories are employed. The six categories should be linked to representations of the operational plan and the planning process. By combining the different categories of representations, military decision makers will gain a better understanding of operational areas that hold complex system behaviour.

  • 7.
    Dulanya, Zuze
    et al.
    Geography and Earth Science Department, Malawi.
    Morales-Simfors, Nury
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Comparative study of the silica and cation geothermometry of the Malawi hot springs: Potential alternative energy source2010In: Journal of African Earth Sciences, ISSN 0899-5362, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 321-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Malawi is one of the poorest countries in the world and one of the most densely populated in south-eastern Africa. Its major power source is hydro-electricity. During the past few years, the power generation capacity has been reduced, which has impacted negatively on the socio-economic development of the country. The country holds an enormous potential to generate geothermal energy due to the country’s position within the Great African Rift valley. This could contribute to economic growth, poverty reduction and technological development in Malawi. The paper presents findings of research on comparisons between silica (quartz and chalcedony) and cation geothermometers (Na–K, Na–K–Ca and K–Mg) of hot springs in the Malawi Rift, in order to deduce the temperature at depth of selected hot springs. The saturation indices of most springs have a bearing on the geology of the areas where these hot springs are found. The Na–K geothermometers are, in general, higher than the Na–K–Ca geothermometer and the K–Mg geothermometer shows temperatures that are too low to be considered. The difference in the results between the different geothermometers may indicate shallow conditions of mixing with groundwater. Results also indicate that some hot springs have sufficient heat-generating capabilities and warrant further exploration work to assess their suitability for energy generation.

  • 8.
    Eklund, Jonas
    et al.
    Försvarsmakten.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Lärobok i Militärteknik, vol. 6: Inverkan av geografi, klimat och väder2013 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Foyer, Pernilla
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Early Experience, Maternal Care and Behavioural Test Design: Effects on the Temperament of Military Working Dogs2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Domestication has resulted in animals with broad variations between as well as within breeds, which allows for the selection and breeding of animals for preferred traits. This selection has affected both the genotypes and phenotypes of animals. In dogs, it has allowed for breeding for different purposes, such as companionship or the performance of specific tasks, e.g., herding, hunting, searching and protecting. Each of these types of working dogs has specific traits that are, in part, controlled by genes; however, genes are not solely responsible for the variations in the traits of an individual. The environment also plays a role, which has been studied in rodents and primates in recent decades. For instance, it has been shown that the amount of maternal care that a rat receives as a pup affects its temperament later in life; the more maternal care, i.e., licking, grooming and arched-back nursing (LG-ABN), that a rat receives, the more stress resistant, less reactive and more explorative it will be as an adult. However, the question is whether this is also true for dogs, and the investigation of how temperament in dogs is affected by environmental factors early in life is the main objective of this thesis. Three of the studies presented in this thesis focused on investigating the general parameters, particularly maternal care, that influences offspring behaviour to contribute to the understanding of temperament development in military working dogs. One of these studies concentrated on the environmental factors that influence dogs early in life, and the results indicated that some factors, such as parity, litter size and birth season, affect temperament later in life. Another study investigated how females take care of their young, and the results demonstrated that females consistently vary in their maternal style during the first three weeks postpartum and that this variation affects the temperament of the offspring. The third study focused on factors in the home environment, and the results showed that dogs approved through the evaluative temperament test were significantly associated with being hyperactive or restless and having difficulty settling down in the home environment. However, those dogs were also left home alone for more hours in a day than non-approved dogs. To be able to operate functionally, a military working dog needs to possess certain traits, or a certain temperament, and a vital characteristic is the way it responds to and copes with stress. This was investigated during an evaluative temperament test used to select dogs suitable for further training. Surprisingly, the results showed that the dogs approved for further training had significantly higher levels of salivary cortisol both before and after the test compared with the non-approved dogs. These findings may be of profound importance for understanding individual variations in behaviour and improving breeding schemes for working dogs.

  • 10.
    Foyer, Pernilla
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Linköping University.
    Bjallerhag, Nathalie
    IFM Biology, AVIAN Behaviour Genomics and Physiology group, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Wilsson, Erik
    Dog Instruction Centre, Swedish Armed Forces, Sweden.
    Jensen, Per
    IFM Biology, AVIAN Behaviour Genomics and Physiology group, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Behaviour and experiences of dogs during the first year of life predict the outcome in a later temperament test2014In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 155, p. 93-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early life experiences are known to shape the behavioural development of animals, and therefore events occurring during preadolescence and adolescence may have long-term effects. In dogs, this period of time may be important for later behaviour and thereby also the suitability of dogs for different working tasks. We used the breeding practice for Swedish military working dogs to investigate this possibility. German Shepherds were bred at a central facility and then kept in host families for about a year, before participating in a standardised test determining their temperament, behaviour, and suitability for further training. We surveyed the link between the behaviour of 71 prospective military working dogs in their home situations during the first year of life as assessed by an amended C-BARQ survey, and their performance in a temperament test (T-test) applied at about 17 months of age. Dogs which scored high for C-BARQ category "Trainability" showed a significantly higher success rate in the T-test (P < 0.001), while dogs that scored high for "Stranger-directed fear", "Non-social fear" and "Dog-directed fear" showed a significantly lower success rate (all P < 0.05). Also dogs with higher C-BARQ scores on "Hyperactivity/restlessness, difficulties in settling down" (P=0.028), and "Chasing/following shadows or light spots" (P=0.035) were more successful, as were dogs left longer times at home (2.97 +/- 0.32 vs. 2.04 +/- 0.33 h/day; P=0.050). Index value, describing the expected success rate in the T-test, was negatively correlated with "Non-social fear" (r = -0.35) and "Stranger directed fear" (r = -0.35). The combined effect of the significant C-BARQ categories explained 29.5% of the variance in the later T-test results (P=0.006). The results indicate that the experiences and behaviour of the dogs during their first year of life is crucial in determining their later behaviour and temperament, something that could potentially be used to improve selection procedures for working dogs. Furthermore, an unsuspected result was that success in the T-test was correlated with behaviours usually associated with problem behaviour, which calls for a deeper analysis of the selection criteria used for working dogs. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Foyer, Pernilla
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Linköpings universitet, Biologi.
    Svedberg, Anna-Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Biologi.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Linköpings universitet, Biologi.
    Wilsson, Erik
    Swedish Armed Forces Dog Training Unit, Märsta, Sweden.
    Olsen Faresjö, Åshild
    Linköpings universitet, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Biologi.
    Behavior and cortisol responses of dogs evaluated in a standardized temperament test for military working dogs2016In: Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, ISSN 1558-7878, E-ISSN 1878-7517, Vol. 11, p. 7-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military and police working dogs are often exposed to stressful or threatening events, and an improper response, e.g., fear, may implicate both reduced working efficiency and welfare. Therefore, identifying individuals that display a favorable response to potentially threatening situations is of great interest. In the present study, we investigated behavior responses of 85 prospective military working dogs in 4 subtests in a standardized temperament test used to select working dogs for the Swedish Armed Forces. Our goal was to evaluate behavioral responses in specific subtests and cortisol responses of candidate dogs. After dogs were rated as approved or nonapproved based on the test leader’s assessment of the full test result, we independently analyzed video recordings of 4 subtests. In addition, for 37 dogs, we analyzed pretest and posttest salivary cortisol levels. Dogs which were approved by the test leader for further training scored higher in the video recordings on emotionality and, in particular, fear-related behavior during a subset of the test and had higher levels of cortisol both before and after the test, than nonapproved dogs. Although this may actually reflect the desired traits, it could also indicate a bias in the selection procedure, which may pose limitations on the attempts to recruit the most suitable working dogs.

  • 12.
    Foyer, Pernilla
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Linköpings universitet, Biologi.
    Wilsson, Erik
    Swedish Armed Forces Dog Instruction Centre, Märsta, Sweden.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Biologi.
    Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult off spring temperament2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 19253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs.

  • 13.
    Frank, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division, Sektionen för krigsspel. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Gamer mode: Identifying and managing unwanted behaviour in military educational wargaming2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Games are rule-governed systems at the same time as they are fiction, simulating or representing a real or an abstract world. This defining characteristic may create for different forms of tensions, that is, at different times players may focus on the rules, the fiction or on both during game play. In military education with games, this poses a problem when the learner becomes too focused on the rules, trying to win at any price rather than taking the representation and what it implies in terms of permissible behaviour seriously. In here we attempt to understand how participants in a wargaming situation act out this tension by studying the interaction between the player and the game in military tactical training.

    The results first of all confirm that there is a tension – there are occasions where players are mainly concerned with winning the wargame, disregarding what the theme is meant to represent. I propose the term gamer mode to refer to this player orientation: players in gamer mode have an extreme rule-focused interaction, meaning they behave rationally with respect to game rules but irrationally with respect to the portrayed real-life situation they are training for. Gamer mode can probably occur for many reasons. This thesis documents two contributing factors. The first concerns whenever the game does not match players’ expectation on mimicking warfare. In these situations players may find that the game breaks the fragile contract of upholding an accurate representation of warfare. The other factor that may lead to gamer mode are game design features such as explicit reward structures or victory conditions.

    To remedy the situation, the instructor can, in real-time, actively support players’ orientation towards the game and explain in-game events, keeping them on track. When gamer mode occur I argue that the conditions for learning are compromised as the gaming activity becomes its own learning subject, blurring and overshadowing the learning objective. Although the results suggest that gamer mode is mainly detrimental to learning I conclude that gamer mode is a natural way students will approach games and as such, needs to be dealt with by the instructor.

  • 14.
    Frank, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Gaming the Game: A Study of the Gamer Mode in Educational Wargaming2012In: Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, Vol. 43, p. 118-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A risk associated with the use of games in training and education is that players "game the game," instead of focusing on their learning goals. The term gamer mode is proposed to describe this attitude. A player with a gamer-mode attitude strives to achieve goals that are optimal for winning the game, but suboptimal with respect to educational objectives. In this study of cadets playing an educational wargame to learn ground warfare tactics, the author examined occurrences of gamer mode. The results show that gamer mode on and off emerged in all analyzed sessions. Cadets understanding of the wargame was different from what the instructors expected. This study discusses why it is important to avoid situations where the gamer mode emerges and also speculates on the sources that generate this attitude-the game itself, the educational setting, and the participants' previous experiences.

  • 15.
    Frank, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division, Sektionen för krigsspel. Försvarshögskolan. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    The Instructor Role during Educational Wargaming2014In: THE SHIFT FROM TEACHING TO LEARNING: Individual, Collective and Organizational Learning through Gaming / [ed] Willy C. Kriz, Bielefeld: W. Bertelsmann Verlag , 2014, p. 66-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The instructor has a vital role in leading the debriefing discussion in game-based learning. The role during the gaming part is however not as clear. Some results suggest that the instructor should take an active and authoritative role, but results provide few clues on how to apply this to military wargaming. Wargaming is a two-sided game activity where both sides are assumed to learn from their play experience. Wargaming against a live opponent can however produce unwanted effects. One such effect is ‘gamer mode’ that is a result of an exaggerated willingness to win, which can be observed when the players, for instance, exploit the game rules in unrealistic manner. This paper investigates the main responsibilities or duties of the instructor to prevent gamer mode to occur and instead support the desired player-orientation toward the game. By reasoning on the main characteristic features of wargaming, to play the game and to learn from the experience, I conclude that the main duties of the instructor are to frame the game activity and to steer the learning process. This supports earlier results that the instructor should take an active part in the gaming process, yet needs to have the skills, knowledge, and authority to intervene in students’ game play. The findings are illustrated with excerpts from videotaped wargaming sessions at the Swedish National Defence College.

  • 16.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI); Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS).
    Cohen, Mika
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    What can we learn from enterprise architecture models?: An experiment comparing models and documents for capability development2018In: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 695-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise architecture (EA) has been established as a discipline to cope with the complex interactions of business operations and technology. Models, i.e., formal descriptions in terms of diagrams and views, are at the heart of the approach. Though it is widely thought that such architecture models can contribute to improved understanding and decision making, this proposition has not rigorously been tested. This article describes an experiment conducted with a real EA model and corresponding real traditional documents, investigating whether the model or the documents lead to better and faster understanding. Understanding is interesting to study, as it is a prerequisite to other EA uses. The subjects (N = 98) were officer cadets, and the experiment was carried out using a comprehensive description of military Close Air Support capability either (1) in the form of a MODAF model or (2) in the form of traditional documents. Based on the results, the model seems to lead to better, though not faster, understanding.

  • 17.
    Gradh, Anders
    Swedish Defence University.
    En stabs nätverkstrafik: En analys av användningen av datornätverkskapacitet i en operativ stab under övningen VIKING 112015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014 the Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) spent almost SEK 20 million on the procurement of satellite capacity for use during training, exercises and operations. However, according to SwAF Headquarters, the capacity procured did not meet unit demands.

    The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the capacity usage in an operational headquarters, based on the headquarters’ staff procedures and to see if there is any military utility to be gained in connection with this capacity.

    The starting point for the study is quantitative data about network usage. This quantitative data is then compared with staff work based on quantitative and qualitative data from war diaries, governing documentation and studies.

    The study shows that capacity usage is not related to staff work, but is instead linked to the presence of staff and their use of the Internet. The study also indicates that there could be potential for greater military utility of network capacity, but this will require the introduction of network priority mechanisms and further studies into user traffic.

  • 18.
    Halldin, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Earth Sci, SE-75263 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    van Groningen, Ernst
    Uppsala Univ, ISP, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Preface: Natural disaster science: a Nordic approach to integrated research on disaster risk2015In: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography, ISSN 0435-3676, E-ISSN 1468-0459, Vol. 97, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Huskaj, Gazmend
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section. School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    The Current State of Research in Offensive Cyberspace Operations2019In: Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security, Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2019, p. 660-667Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-attacks have increased since the 1988-Morris worm and can target any connected device from any place in the world. In 2010, Stuxnet received a lot of attention as the first cyber-weapon. Its targets were the Iranian nuclear enrichment centrifuges. Nation states are developing cyberspace capabilities to conduct offensive cyberspace operations. Academic researchers have been calling for a more transparent discussion on offensive capabilities and have pointed out the positive impact researchers had during the development of nuclear capabilities. Shrouded in secrecy, the development of offensive capabilities used for operations makes it difficult to conduct research. Therefore, one way to mitigate this is to conduct a systematic review of the current state of research in offensive cyberspace operations. The systematic review method makes it possible to establish certain inclusion and exclusion criteria and systematically go through academic articles to identify the contents, thoughts and research focus of academic researchers. Six scientific databases were queried and 87 articles were read and clustered. The first insight is that, based on the results of the queried databases, research about offensive cyberspace operations is limited. The resulting clusters are a general cluster about cyberspace operations, followed by research in policy, decision-making, governance, capabilities, levels, models, training, deterrence and international affairs. These are then further grouped into: a) general cyberspace operations; b) deterrence; c) international affairs; d) modelling, simulation and training. The article concludes that research into offensive cyberspace operations is maturing as more information is becoming public. Secondly, current research lists some good basic ideas regarding effects which can be achieved through offensive cyberspace operations, how they should be conducted, and related tools, techniques and procedures. However, discrepancies in research efforts exist, with the majority of research coming primarily from the western world. In addition, secrecy and the resulting limited access to information, coupled with research being either too technically focused or too qualitatively focused, show that there still remains room for research in this field. Finally, some directions for future research are examined.

  • 20.
    Huskaj, Gazmend
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section. School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Moradian, Esmiralda
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Cyber Deterrence: An Illustration of Implementation2018In: 13th International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security (ICCWS 2018) / [ed] John S. Hurley & Jim Q. Chen, Sonning: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2018, p. 304-311Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber deterrence is a strategy to deter attackers from conducting cyber-attacks in the first place. However, several issues exist when implementing cyber deterrence, which are identified in this paper. The findings show (1) non-existence of the deterrence strategy  (2) no doctrine or decision competence to retaliate to an adversary, (3) the armed forces have no authority to retaliate when Swedish sovereignty in Cyberspace is threatened, (4) no norms or regulations exist concerning retaliation, (5) no clear governance on using offensive cyber capabilities, and finally, (6) no credibility in its cyber deterrence posture regarding how much Sweden is willing to sacrifice to protect its electoral system, which is a Swedish national interest. Therefore, this research investigates how cyber deterrence can practically be implemented in Swedish cyber security policy. So far, researchers generally focused on the human aspect of cyber deterrence. By using the case study research strategy and utilizing the Swedish electoral system as a case, this paper examines possibilities to merge the human dimensions of cyber security with the technological dimensions. Data collection is performed through documents studies and semi-structured interviews with experts in the area to identify cyber deterrence components. Further, a mathematical approach is discussed in the paper to express the relationship between an adversary and a deterrent depicting each of the actor’s risk calculus. A result of the research work performed in this paper, the deterrence components for Swedish cyber deterrence are proposed and risk calculus is performed. Moreover, measures to increase Swedish cyber deterrence posture are proposed the practical implementation of cyber deterrence in Swedish cyber security policy in order to deter attacks on the Swedish electoral system is demonstrated.

  • 21.
    Huss, Anders
    Swedish Defence University.
    Kvantifiering av risk inom Försvarsmaktens gemensamma riskhanteringsmodell: En analys av risknivåns kvantitativa egenskaper2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien analyserar de kvantitativa inslagen i Försvarsmaktens gemensamma riskhanteringsmodell. Syftet är att beskriva risknivån, som är det kvantitativa resultatet av riskanalysen inom modellen, och dess egenskaper. I arbetet presenteras grundläggande kvantitativa metoder och dess roll inom riskanalys. En förståelse för dessa kan vara viktig vid kommunikation mellan beslutande chef och analytiker men också viktig för en förståelse av centrala begrepp inom riskanalys såsom risk, sannolikhet och konsekvens.

    Risknivåns egenskaper undersöks utifrån en rad fiktiva scenarion. Metoden för fastställande av risknivån, enlig Försvarsmaktens gemensamma riskhanteringsmodell, appliceras parallellt med kvantitativ analys (matematisk bearbetning och representation av sannolikheter) på dessa scenarier. Utfallet jämförs och diskuteras.

    Den allmänna slutsatsen är att risknivåns egenskaper är svårdefinierade i kvantitativa termer samt att den konkreta innebörden av en viss risknivå kan variera mycket från fall till fall. Detta ställer krav på en god förståelse för den bakomliggande process som resulterar i risknivån så att denna inte misstolkas.

  • 22. Johannesson, Paul
    et al.
    Vretblad, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Byggformler och tabeller2011 (ed. 11)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Kantola, Harry
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Datanätverksattacker, trend eller nödvändighet?2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle används information till att sköta dagliga ärenden. Både militära och civila är beroende av cybervärlden i freds- och kristid. För att kunna skydda sina system måste man förstå hur de kan angripas.

    Syftet med forskningen är att finna ambitionsnivåer och metoder inom datanätverksattack-verksamheten (CNA-verksamhet) som försvarsmakten kan vidmakthålla i stater med högtek-nologisk utveckling men med låga försvarsresurser. Vilken teknologisk datanäverkattack-förmåga rekommenderas en sådan stats försvarsmakt på fem till tio års tidsperspektiv samt med vilka sätt kan man uppnå verkan?

    I arbetet används kvalitativ dataanalys. Med axial kodning, enligt Strauss "Grounded Theo-ry", kategoriseras de olika komponenterna som CNA-förmågorna består av. Dessa kategorier analyseras sedan med hjälp av Rasmussens riskteori i ett informationsteknologiskt system.

    I studien framgår det att en högteknologisk småstat bör sträva efter spetskompetens i de för-mågor som bidrar till att man kan testa och försvara sina egna kritiska och sårbara system. En sådan kompetens är förmågan att utföra datanätverksexploatering (CNE-verksamhet). Om en försvarsmakt som har förmåga till att genomföra avancerad CNE-verksamhet, så kan den genomföra behövlig CNA-verksamhet. För en stat med begränsade försvarsresurser kräver genomförandet av CNA-verksamhet dock strategiskt samarbete med olika civila partner. Av dessa är universitet och teknologiskt avancerade företag/industrier de främsta partnerna.

    Resultatet visar dessutom att den informationstekniska kunskapen är av tillräcklig nivå, men att det behövs förbättringar inom det informationspsykologiska området. Ambitionsnivån be-höver inte överstiga förmågan att genomföra CNE-verksamhet.

    Även om CNE-verksamheten är teknologiskt betonad, så åstadkoms den informationspsyko-logiska effekten med att koordinera CNA-verksamheten inom informationsoperationer. I framtiden är det troligare att uppnå en högre effekt på en motståndare via en informations-psykologisk inriktning.

    Organisatoriskt är det kostnadseffektivare att skapa "eldledningsförmåga inom CNA" än se-parata enheter som man inkorporerar i den normala organisationsstrukturen. Storleken på en CNA-enhet kan hållas låg med hjälp av strategiska partner.

    Som biprodukt framgår det att det behövs ytterligare forskning i uppdelandet ansvaret i at-tack-, exploaterings-, underrättelseinhämtnings- och försvarsförmåga (CNA/CNE/CNI/CND-verksamheten).

  • 24.
    Landerstedt, Andreas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Utbildning i subarktiskt klimat: vilken betydelse har vinterförmågan för att kunna lösa uppgifter i andra extrema miljöer?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag har i detta arbete ställt mig frågan Vilka kunskaper/färdigheter behöver en soldat utbildad i subarktiskt klimat kompletteras med innan insats i tropiskt klimat? vilken jag valt att svara på genom två delproblem:

    -          Vilka krav på individens färdigheter ställer det tropiska klimatet?

    -          Vilka färdigheter utvecklar soldaten vid utbildning i subarktiskt klimat?

     Jag har sedan använt svenska vinterreglementen för att ta reda på vilka kunskaper och färdigheter som en soldat utbildad i subarktiskt klimat införskaffar sig under sin grundutbildning. Därefter har jag fördjupat mig i den amerikanska djungelmanualen för att skapa mig en bild av vilka krav det tropiska klimatet ställer på individens färdigheter.

    Under studierna av de olika reglementena urskiljde jag då ett antal påverkansfaktorer vilka jag valde att använda som analysverktyg för att kunna göra en komparation mellan de olika klimatens krav på individen. Dessa olika påverkansfaktorer är Acklimatisering, Vätska/mat, Fysisk status, Klädsel, Hygien, Psykisk status och Sjukdomar/skador. Jag har sedan utifrån varje analysverktyg jämfört vad respektive miljös litteratur säger om individen kopplat till just den påverkansfaktorn och sedan diskuterat respektive påverkansfaktor var för sig. Jag har då kommit fram till både likheter och skillnader i uppträdandet mellan respektive klimat. Detta har då resulterat i vilka färdigheter som en soldat utbildad i subarktiskt klimat saknar för att kunna göra en insats i tropiskt klimat och behöver kompletteras med.

  • 25.
    Larsson, Emil
    et al.
    Schibsted Media Group.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Papering Over the Cracks: The Effects of Introducing Best Practices on the Web Security Ecosystem2016In: The 30th International Conference on Information Networking: ICOIN 2016, IEEE, 2016, p. 1-6, article id 15837791Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is the de facto standard for secure end-to-end web communication. However, numerous flaws discovered during recent years, such as Apple’s “goto fail” bug, and cryptographic weaknesses as illustrated by the Poodlebleed vulnerability, have brought the efficiency of the mostly self-regulated web security market into question. In this cross-disciplinary paper, the authors survey some 160.000 HTTPS-enabled servers among popular web sites over a time period of three years. The research question is what effect the introduction of best practices and vulnerability publication have on web server security in the form of protocol support. Main findings include that (i) insecure configurations, although well known, can remain widespread for over a decade, (ii) the introduction of best practices affect the decline of insecure configurations only moderately, whereas highly publicized security flaws have a significant impact, and (iii) economic incentives for website owners to provide secure services are weak, motivating such other levers of influence as legislation or blocking of noncompliant sites.

  • 26.
    Leander, Johan L.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    A note on transient underwater bubble sound1998In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 103, no 2, p. 1205-1208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This Letter considers scattered sound from transiently oscillating gas bubbles in liquids. The full transient problem including the finite duration of the excitation is analyzed. As a result, the wave front of the radiated sound pulse involving information about the excitation is also studied. The model presented is used to simulate sound pulses from sea-surface bubbles which have been generated by, for example, spilling breakers, capillary-gravity waves, and rain drops. Although very simple in relation to the actual physical process of excitation, this model enables us to predict some of the essential properties of scattered pulses observed experimentally. It is suggested that the time scale of duration of the initial driving that enters into the present analysis might be of some use in a further physical understanding of bubble generation and excitation.

  • 27. Leander, Johan L.
    Comments on "Acoustic dispersion and attenuation in many spherical scatterer systems and the Kramers-Kronig relations"1998In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 104, no 2, p. 1111-1114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this Comment is to suggest some possible improvements and developments of the investigation by Zhen Ye [J. Acoust. Sec. Am. 101, 3299-3305 (1997)]. Particular attention is given to the causality concept and the use of integral theorems.

  • 28.
    Leander, Johan L.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    On the eigenfrequency of a gas bubble in a liquid1997In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 102, no 3, p. 1900-1903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation concerns free linear gas bubble oscillations in liquids. Of prime interest is the eigenfrequency, and in particular its real part, here named as the transient frequency. The conceptual difference between the more frequently consulted resonance frequency and the transient frequency is first addressed by means of the classical mechanical oscillator. Next, bubble pulsations in liquids are discussed and an existing model is used for the gas-liquid interaction from which an approximate expression for the eigenfrequency is derived. A rationale for the approximate evaluation of the functions modeling the thermal processes is suggested which is independent of the frequency content of any possible pressure excitation, Moreover, compressibility effects are not approximated in the derivation presented here, The quantitative difference between the adiabatic resonance frequency and the derived estimate of the transient frequency is found to be of significance for small bubbles. Finally, the similarity between a standard mechanical oscillator and a bubble in a liquid for the case of liquid-compressibility effects only is discussed.

  • 29.
    Leander, Johan L.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    On the relation between the wavefront speed and the group velocity concept1996In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 100, no 6, p. 3503-3507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between the wavefront speed and the group velocity concept is studied in this work. The relationship between the more well-known velocity concept named as the phase velocity and the speed of propagation of a front of an acoustic pulse is discussed. This is of interest since it concerns transient wave propagation and is, in general, not well known. The form and properties of a pulse can be obtained by means of a Fourier integral and estimates based on quantities derived for monochromatic waves, such as the phase velocity, can be severely misleading and confusing. The wavefront velocity is defined as the high-frequency Limit of the phase velocity. This quantity can be far less than the value of the phase velocity for finite frequencies which for example is the case for bubbly fluids. Then the group velocity concept is discussed, which was introduced in order to characterize the propagation of water waves of essentially the same wavelength. However, more confusion occurs in that it is sometimes believed that a wavefront is propagating with the group velocity (a limit process not mentioned) since it can be related to the propagation of energy. This interpretation of energy propagation is based on sinusoidal waves and involves time as well as space averages and is not applicable for pulses. However, by means of the expression for the group velocity given by Stokes it is shown that the speed of a wavefront can be found from the group velocity at a limiting high frequency. This result can be understood geometrically from the definition of the group velocity given by Lamb which is conservation of wavelength. A wavefront is a discontinuity and limiting short wavelengths will be found there.

  • 30. Leander, Johan L.
    Wavefront and group velocity in relaxing and bubbly fluids1999In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 105, no 6, p. 3044-3048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper it is demonstrated that a theoretical model for wave propagation may indeed correspond to a well-posed transient problem although the group velocity for finite frequencies becomes greater than the high frequency limit of the phase velocity, negative or even infinite. Sufficient conditions for causality dare derived and the particular cases of relaxing and bubbly fluids are considered so as to show-some of the properties of the group velocity concept.

  • 31.
    Litzinger, Paul
    et al.
    University of Applied Sciences Technikum Wien.
    Navratil, Gerhard
    Vienna University of Technology, Institute for Geoinformation and Car-tography.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Knorr, Daniela
    UBIMET GmbH, Vienna.
    Using Weather Information to Improve Route Planning2012In: Bridging the Geographic Information Sciences: International AGILE'2012 Conference, Avignon (France), April, 24-27, 2012 / [ed] Jérôme Gensel, Didier Josselin, Danny Vandenbroucke, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 199-214Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weather has a significant influence on navigation processes. Driving dur-ing a heavy rain, for example, is slower and due to poor visibility more dangerous than driving in perfect weather conditions. Thus from time management and safety perspective including weather information is bene-ficial. Weather, especially rain may also be critical for transportation tasks since some commodities like straw or sand should not get wet. In the last years, the quality of weather information and weather forecast has im-proved and could be used to improve route planning. The paper discusses how weather information can be included in route planning algorithms. A first approximating algorithm to incorporate weather forecast data is pre-sented. Some examples showing the impact on route planning conclude the paper.

  • 32.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Risk-based ship security analysis: a decision-support approach2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The protection of shipping does not come without hazards and threats for military forces, individual civilian ship operators and crews. With particular focus on security threats, this thesis is about how to prepare for such operations without introducing unnecessary risks, i.e., supporting conscious risk-taking related to ship security. It examines both civilian and military aspects of maritime security and therefore draws from the experience of both fields.

    Maritime safety regulations, guidelines and methods have a history and culture of systematic research, development and implementation. In contrast, international security is highly politicised and therefore less transparent. Unfortunately, comprehensive studies of ship security risk are rare. Moreover, applying risk-based approaches to security areas requires special considerations, and the limited research in this field has led to a knowledge gap.

    To reduce the identified challenges with respect to security risk analysis, the goal of this thesis is to improve security decision support by defining an approach to ship security analysis. To increase overall safety, this approach must facilitate compromises between traditional maritime safety and maritime security. Accordingly, the objective is to develop an approach that is both systematic and gives the decision maker an appropriate picture of the security risks. To examine the requirements for a security decision-support approach, the work in the appended papers studies both threats to naval vessels and the security threat posed to commercial vessels by pirates. The results of the studies can be used to further develop military doctrines and civilian guidelines.

    This study shows that the description and quantification of the (concept of) operation in the risk analysis is central for implementing both security and naval ship survivability. In addition, the crew’s risk perception, procedural safeguards and how the implemented risk controls are perceived have an important role not only in risk analysis but also in deciding the effectiveness of implemented controls. It is also concluded that only using expected values—not collecting and using uncertainties—in the analysis can lead to misleading results. Therefore, the uncertainty treatment offered by a quantitative approach is crucial for risk understanding, especially if the aim is to find robust control options or to support the development of a resilient culture.

  • 33.
    Mårdberg, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Forming homogeneous clusters for differential risk information1996In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 68, no 3-4, p. 227-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Latent risk situations are always present in society. General information an these risk situations is supposed to be received differently by different groups of people in the population. In the aftermath of specific accidents different groups presumably have need of specific information about how to act to survive, to avoid injuries, to fmd more information, to obtain facts about the accidents etc. As targets for information these different groups could be defined in different ways. The conventional way is to divide the population according to demographic variables, such as age, sex, occupation etc. Another way would be to structure the population according to dependent Variables measured in different studies. They may concern risk perception, emotional reactions, specific technical knowledge of the accidents, and belief in the information sources. One procedure for forming such groupings of people into homogeneous clusters would be by statistical clustering methods on dependent variables. Examples of such clustering procedures are presented and discussed. Data are from a Norwegian study on the perception of radiation from nuclear accidents and other radiation sources. Speculations are made on different risk information strategies. Elements of a research programme are proposed.

  • 34.
    Olsen, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Boerkriget och Kilcullen: En analys av Kilcullens COIN teorier på boerkriget 1899- 19022013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this analysis is to promote the COIN theories  that were applied as a single insurgency operation during the Boer Wars. The essential dynamics of  COIN (counter insurgency) will be considered as the analysis also includes actions taken by a nation´s government to contain or suppress counterinsurgency. As well as key aspects of David Kilcullens analysis being specifically concentrated on the COIN theories and its use in the Anglo-Boer Wars, Kilcullens COIN theories also focuses on human security. This analysis will mainly focus on the critical Boer wars taking place in South Africa. It also contemplates the question of why modern COIN theory was considered an alternative in the Anglo-Boer Wars. The process is based on a qualitative textual analysis of relevant literature that vividly describes the action of the war. The theory of cultural differences provides a number of key indicators and sources used in the analysis of the material. The results show that the tactical decision-making used during the conflict was mainly based on COIN theories. Furthermore, a discussion of the operational theory and its usefulness will be presented in this analysis, and whether the analysis identifies a beneficial or destructive scene of chosen COIN tactics.

  • 35.
    Olssen, Andreas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Nytten av å jamføre målkoordinatdata mot digitale kartgrunnlag for å øke nøyaktigheten ved indirekte bekjempning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the invention of coordinate dependent weapons in the nineties, the ability to provide accurate

    land target coordinates for engagement has been a topic on discussion. GNSS systems unquestioned

    support to military operations has in the recent years been challenged by the obvious vulnerability the

    GNSS systems regarding its in-accuracy and potential vulnerability.

    During this paper results from both scientific methods and some social scientific methods have

    been merged in order to reveal whether, and if so, to what extent, an operator pulling target coordinates

    in a battlefield with use of the standard Norwegian observation instrument FOI2000 have use of merging

    the FOI2000 data with FACNAV digital map tools such as satellite imagery and/or a 3D terrain model. This

    is meant to acquire more accurate employment of coordinate dependent weapons (GPS-INS guided

    bombs and grenades) with focus on an increased target coordinate accuracy. The collection of data is

    done through literature studies of scientific books and published papers from industries, research

    societies, official institutions and own research-tours at VRICON and Teleplan Globe. Also included in the

    discussion is the author’s own experiences from modern areas of operation.

    Results show that in many scenarios the target coordinate will get an increased accuracy when

    merged with FACNAVs satellite imagery and/or 3D terrain. But this does not apply to all scenarios. Both

    satellite imageries and 3D models provide increased accuracy on the target coordinates when merged,

    however none is necessary better than the other, but they kind of have different qualities. Modern

    satellite imageries have better accuracy in the horizontal domain, while a 3D model has the best

    accuracy in the vertical and 3D domain.

    The conclusion of the work is that an operator pulling target coordinates with a FOI2000 takes

    great advantage of merging the target data with FACNAV´s satellite imagery and a 3D terrain model. The

    best target data will most likely be produced when utilizing all three systems. However, another

    discovery is the potential of a digital 3D model potential to support in operations planning and terrain

    knowledge acquirement in unfamiliar operation areas that military units are going into.

  • 36.
    Pede, Elena
    et al.
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    The Potential of Proactive Role of Citizens: Geo-information and communication technology in crisis management2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Persson, Per-Arne
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Transformation of the analog: The case of the Saab BT 33 artillery fire control simulator and the introduction of the digital computer as control technology1999In: IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, ISSN 1058-6180, E-ISSN 1934-1547, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 52-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is about the development of modern artillery fire control simulators. The Saab BT 33 had few equals when it was operational in the early 1970s. The accounts describe the introduction of the digital computer and its victory over older control technologies during long-term social change. The case illustrates the role of engineering and craft in practice, ultimately to make the practice more controllable. The case also shows how piecemeal solutions risk becoming victims of technical innovations. The use of modern information technology for control and other purposes, only if socially accepted in its context within strong traditions, may be efficient.

  • 38.
    Pettersson, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Pansarvärnsrobotens tekniska möjligheter i duell med en kvalificerad motståndare2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här självständiga arbetet inom militärteknik behandlar hur dagens tekniska tillämpningar avseende pansarvärnsrobotsystem kan möta en kvalificerad motståndare. Hotbilden med varnar- och motverkans-system medför att de tekniska och de stridstekniska kraven har förändrats för att både nå verkan samt överleva i stridsställning. Utifrån kända data och prestanda på både robotsystem samt varnar- och mot-verkanssystem har beräkningar gjorts för att studera tidsförhållanden i en duellsituation. Skillnaderna har tillsammans med tekniska specifikationer analyserats och diskuterats för att ge svar på studiens fråge-ställning: Vilka tekniska möjligheter och begränsningar har dagens pansarvärnsrobotsystem för att möta en kvalificerad motståndare med varnar- och motmedelsystem i svensk småbruten terräng?

    Resultatet visar på följande möjligheter och begränsningar:Den kvalificerade motståndaren har sensorer och motmedel med god förmåga att upptäcka och bekämpa pansarvärnsrobotsystem. Korta skjutavstånd (˂2 000 m), höga robotbanor, salvskjutning med robusta robotsystem vilka styrs autonomt, maskering och störning av motståndarens sensorer ger pansarvärnsro-botförbandet tekniska möjligheter att med framgång möta även en kvalificerad motståndare.

  • 39.
    Pullen, J. Mark
    et al.
    George Mason University C4I Center.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Grönkvist, Magnus
    Saab AB.
    Incorporating C2-Simulation Interoperability Services Into an Operational C2 System2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Sdao, Francesco
    et al.
    University of Basilicata, Italy.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sole, Aurelia
    University of Basilicata, Italy.
    Albano, Raffaele
    University of Basilicata, Italy.
    Pascale, Stefania
    University of Basilicata, Italy.
    Giosa, Luciana
    University of Basilicata, Italy.
    A GIS implementation of a model of systemic vulnerability assessment in urbanized areas exposed to combined risk of landslide and flood2012In: Geographic Information Analysis for Sustainable Development and Economic Planning / [ed] Giuseppe Borruso, Stefania Bertazzon, Andrea Favretto, Beniamino Murgante och Carmelo Maria Torre, IGI Global, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. School of Informatics, University of Skövde.
    Secure Tactical Communications for Inter-Organizational Collaboration: The Role of Emerging Information and Communications Technology, Privacy Issues, and Cyber Threats on the Digital Battlefield2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development within the area of information and communications technology (ICT) has been rapid during the last couple of decades. Advancements in mobile technology, such as smartphones and other portable devices with embedded sensors, rapid expansion of communications infrastructure, and increased spectrum utilization, has had a major impact on civilian society, but increasingly also on professional organizations such as the Swedish Armed Forces. While this technology allows for enhanced capabilities in the areas of command and control, situational awareness, and information management, it also leads to new challenges in such areas as cyber security and privacy. For armed forces in many parts of the world, being able to deploy in new types of missions, such as humanitarian assistance and response operations due to natural or man-made disasters, is an increasingly sought-after capability. Such operations commonly require collaboration amongst several heterogeneous organizations, which in turn requires technical as well as organizational interoperability. While the actors must be able to share certain information efficiently, with regards to integrity and availability, sensitive or classified information must be safeguarded in terms of confidentiality.

    This thesis is concerned with studying emerging ICT for use on the battlefield of tomorrow, investigating how it can lead to more effective operations, and what preconditions that must be met in order for the technology to be of utility for inter-organizational collaboration. In particular, the thesis studies how an acceptable level of information security can be upheld in interconnected tactical communications networks. It is found that Mobile Ad-hoc Networks, Software-Defined Radio and Cognitive Radio are emerging technologies that, while still immature, can contribute to improved capabilities for communications, command and control, and information collection. Furthermore, Hastily Formed Networks is found to be an effective framework for collaboration between heterogeneous actors. However, in order for emerging ICTs to provide military utility, several non-technical requirements must be met. These include usability, trust, legality, cost, and verifying that the technology is in accordance with current military doctrine. Antagonistic as well as unintentional threats must also be mitigated, including information leaks caused by cyberattacks or insiders, and possible consequences of reduced user privacy.

    Besides to the Swedish Armed Forces, this thesis should be of interest to armed forces of comparable countries, and for professional organizations faced with similar challenges. Among the drawn conclusions, the thesis recommends continuously evaluating emerging ICT in support of new capabilities, through academic research as well as internal concept development. Adopting an incremental and modular process is also recommended when developing or procuring new ICT systems, instead of making long-term investments in proprietary technology. Furthermore, a focus should be put on promoting military requirements in future civilian ICT standards. In this way development costs can be reduced, while facilitating tactical use of commercial off-the-shelf products. Regarding information security in tactical networks for inter-organizational collaboration the thesis concludes that employing best-effort methods could allow for efficient information exchange between actors, while upholding acceptable risk levels regarding data leakage.

  • 42.
    Sigholm, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section. Sloan School, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Falco, Gregory
    CSAIL, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA; FSI, Stanford University, USA.
    Viswanathan, Arun
    NASA Jet Proplusion Laboratory, Caltech, USA.
    Enhancing Cybersecurity Education through High-Fidelity Live Exercises (HiFLiX)2019In: Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE conference proceedings, 2019, p. 7553-7562Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The people responsible for building the IT products and infrastructure of tomorrow – today’s students of the computing disciplines – oftentimes do not have the opportunity or proper motivation to develop cybersecurity skills meeting the needs of the job market. This paper introduces High Fidelity Live eXercises (HiFLiX) a teaching/learning activity designed to expose students to cybersecurity challenges resembling those they could face in a future work environment. We describe a HiFLiX prototype study, conducted as a collaboration between the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s CyberSecurity@CSAIL research group and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Our analysis indicates that the proposed delivery method met the stipulated cybersecurity educational outcomes and increased the motivation for future cybersecurity studies in the majority of participants. Two previously unknown software flaws were also discovered.

  • 43.
    Sigholm, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Raciti, Massimiliano
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Best-Effort Data Leakage Prevention in Inter-Organizational Tactical MANETs2012In: Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE Military Communications Conference, IEEE Communications Society, 2012, p. 1143-1149Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS), based on technologies such as Software Defined Radio (SDR) and Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) offer considerable advantages for military operations, such as increased network survivability and interoperability. The RRS-based Common Tactical Radio System (GTRS), currently in development by the Swedish Armed Forces, is designed for use in diverse geographical settings and for purposes varying from international combat missions to national contingency operations. However, protecting these networks from attacks and safeguarding the carried information against leaks is an ongoing research challenge, especially in combined scenarios where tactical data may flow across organizational boundaries. This paper presents a best-effort approach to Data Leakage Prevention (DLP) for inter-organizational RRS-based networks. The proposed architecture makes use of data mining techniques and an efficient n-dimensional clustering algorithm which has previously been successfully used for real-time anomaly detection in critical infrastructure protection. The DLP architecture is developed as an extension to the GTRS system, modeled and simulated in OPNET™ Modeler. Our results show that common data leaks can be efficiently identified by the proposed scheme, while keeping the important false positive rate at a very low level.

  • 44.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Geographical Data for Training, Planning and Tactical Implementation2015In: 2015 International Conference on Military Technologies (ICMT) / [ed] Vaclav Krivanek, Piscataway, USA: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, p. 7153707-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tactics are the part of the military problem solving, which attempts to address situations that arise in a concrete context and in a specific geographical area. It is about learning to perceive both the more stable geographical conditions in the working area as well as taking into consideration the effects of climate and weather and how the squad and their systems are affected and how an opponent could try to exploit these conditions and turn them to his advantage. The idea in tactical training is therefore to be able to master both the battlefield environment with its limitations and possibilities and the combat that is conducted there. Friction is used as a concept in several discussions about military activities. The geography with its sometimes channelling terrain and various landscape elements can constitute serious obstacles in trying to carry out all the tasks and abilities expected of a unit. Geography, Climate and Weather can thus be regarded as frictions in a military operation. This should also be possible to train in simulators and systems for war gaming.

  • 45.
    Sivertun, Åke
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Eliasson, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH), Skolan för teknikvetenskap, Avdelningen för Mekanik.
    Geografisk och klimatologisk påverkan på personal och materiel2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att kunna verka i framtidens insatsmiljöer krävs en god kännedom om det geografiska området och dess klimat. De människor som ska verka på en plats utan att vara rätt förberedda och utan att ha fått rätt utrustning kommer inte att kunna utföra sitt uppdrag och förlusterna kan bli stora. Den utrustning och materiel som ska stödja insatsen kan bli obrukbar eller få mycket kort livslängd beroende på att den är avsedd för andra förhållanden än den som råder där de blir insatta. Miljön förändrar sig även över tiden med ibland olika årstider eller varierande temperatur, luftfuktighet och andra väderförhållanden - kanske under samma dygn. Fysiologisk inverkan på den enskilde soldaten liksom icke- eller felfungerande materiel är exempel på geografisk och klimatologisk påverkan som har stor betydelse för förbands säkerhet och deras förmåga att lösa tilldelade uppgifter. Utan kunskap om dessa frågor, t ex om vilka sjukdomar eller andra lokala faror kopplade bl a till klimatet som väntar liksom korrosiva prestandarelaterade begränsningar hos medförd materiel, kan insatsen bli begränsad eller rent av misslyckad.

    Syftet med denna studie är att inledningsvis inventera för att i senare faser föreslå lösningar på behovet av geografisk och klimatologisk kunskap som stöd för den expeditionära förmågan - dvs förmågan att kunna verka även på andra geografiska platser och under andra klimatologiska förhållanden och med snabbare insatstid än vi hittills gjort. Studien omfattar en genomgång av de olika informationsresurser som finns och hur villkoren ser ut för att kunna utnyttja dessa.

    • Vilka möjligheter finns det att byta eller kommunicera information med andra förband eller aktörer?
    • Hur har erfarenheterna från tidigare insatser dokumenterats och i vilken mån har lärdomarna kunnat integreras i doktriner, kravspecifikationer och planer?

     En viktig frågeställning som behövs arbetas vidare med är vilken beredskap som finns i berörda staber för att ta hand om geografisk och klimatologisk information och arbeta in den i sina egna planer och system för att skaffa sig en lägesbild? I förslag till senare faser i detta projekt nämns att utveckla förslag på de funktioner som skulle behövas för att kunna hantera dynamisk geografisk och klimatologisk information - tillsammans med information om hur dessa förhållanden påverkar människor och utrustning - i informationssystem och beslutstöd.

  • 46.
    Sivertun, Åke
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Zöphel, Katharina
    TUD (Technische Universität Dresden), Dresden, Germany.
    Ahlberg, Simon
    Linköpings Universitet; ForanRS AB.
    LiDAR and Hyperspectral data for Landscape and Vegetation Classification and Monitoring2014In: Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software (iEMSs)June 15-19, San Diego, California, USA / [ed] Ames, D.P., Quinn, N.W.T., Rizzoli, A.E., Manno, Switzerland: International Environmental Modelling and Software Society , 2014, Vol. 4, p. 2172-2179Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mapping of forest areas and other landscapes as to combine information about ground structures, topography as well as other natural and man-made features can be made with help of LiDAR (Elmqvist, M. 2001). The result can be used for planning military and civil missions and analysis of the possibility to drive though areas with bad or no roads (Sivertun & Gumos 2006) as well as for management of natural recourses and for example in physical planning. By combining LiDAR and other remotely sensed data it is possible to make use of the different advantages the different sensors provides. In this article based on a test in Linköping municipality, Sweden, we have employed the LiDAR based SingleTree™ detection model (Ahlberg at al 2008) and hyper spectral image data as to improve the classification of the trees and the ground surface under the trees. This method differs from similar models like in Béland et al. (2014) and Côté et al (2011) that uses terrestrial TLiDAR sensors to identify the species of trees.

    By detecting returns of laser beams that passed through the vegetation and are reflected back to the sensor, it is possible to detect ditches, stones, logs and other obstacles to passing through the area. The data from modern LiDAR sensors can have very high spatial resolution, in many cases 50 points/m2 or more. By filtering the LiDAR data it is also possible to detect vehicles and man-made objects that are hidden under the vegetation, especially if the LIDAR uptake is compared with an earlier registration, movements and differences can be detected.

    LiDAR registrations are today made by the forest industry in order to obtain better and more accurate information about the vegetation and improve their activities. Observation of the health of plants or trees becomes more important as a consequence from global warming and increased pressure from insects and diseases. There is also an increasing demand on forests and crops as to fill the demands from a growing and partly wealthier world (Kamaruzaman J. and Kasawani I., 2009). In forestry the LiDAR data are used to plan for harvest, building forest roads and timber transports. Another important source of data is Hyper Spectral Scenes (HSS) where the reflected solar light is analysed to identify anomalies in the spectral response and get a hint about the health of the canopy (Hyperspectral Imaging 2011). The difference from using multispectral images in comparison with other remotely sensed data is that the hyper spectral sensor delivers response in several hundred small and well-defined spectral wavelength bands. Those are supposed to indicate the biomass and water content as well as the difference between the absorption and the reflectance band for chlorophyll and many other conditions. A system can be used to identify the spectral signature in a certain area in order to decide what material and colours that should be used for camouflage. The data can be combined with LiDAR and used in the classification of forests, soils and other landscape features in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Modern development of sensors and platforms makes it possible to use for example Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) like helicopters to collect LiDAR and HSS data.

  • 47.
    Spak, Ulrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Lind, Mats
    Institutionen för informatik och media , Department of Informatics and Media.
    Change blindness in intelligence: Effects of attention guidance by instructions2011In: European Intelligence & Security Informatics Conference: The Premier European Conference on Counterterrorism and Criminology / [ed] Nasrullah Memon and Daniel Zeng, IEEE Press, 2011, p. 142-148Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a first effort to experimentally evaluate if, and how, the instructions given to an operator can cause significant effects regarding his/her change detection performance. The operator monitors a display looking for changes associated with specified target objects. The results show that a more differentiated monitoring instruction can cause a raised level of change blindness to occur for some of the displayed target object classes. We argue that the result will have implications for the intelligence function within military command and control.

  • 48.
    Theorin, Anders
    Swedish Defence University.
    Försämrade materialegenskaper i aluminiumkonstruktioner - Liquid Metal Embrittlement inducerat av gallium2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility to damage enemy constructions using an efficient method, which might permit a low risk of detection, is studied in this thesis. This damage is based on the phenomena Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME) with which high strength metals can be affected so much that they collapse under their own weight. This thesis studies this effect in a material often used for various constructions, both civilian and military. An experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of LME on an aluminium alloy by exposing the aluminium to the metal known as gallium. A pre-experiment was made in order to determine how the time of exposure affected the LME-process and time-periods were decided accordingly. At each of the timeperiods a yield test was conducted in order to measure losses in strength and elasticity of the aluminium. It was shown that a great reduction in strength and elasticity occurred, where the strength was reduced to 20% of the reference sample and elasticity to 1% of the reference sample.

  • 49.
    Trimintzios, Panagiotis
    et al.
    ENISA.
    Holfeldt, Roger
    Secana.
    Koraeus, Mats
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Uckan, Baris
    Secana.
    Gavrila, Razvan
    ENISA.
    Makrodimitris, Georgios
    ENISA.
    Report on Cyber Crisis Cooperation and Management: Comparative study on the cyber crisis management and the general crisis management2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study is to provide an analysis of cyber crisis management by identifying relations between this emerging field and the better established subject of general crisis management. This includes terminology and key concepts in these fields. This study further seeks to gain knowledge and understanding of the involved actors’ perspectives on the challenges for Cyber Crisis management within the European context.

    The purpose of the study is twofold: to compare concepts from the general crisis management systems with the corresponding systems related to cyber crisis management, and to conduct a conceptual analysis of the language and terminology within these two fields. The primary aim is to analyse the similarities and differences between general and cyber crisis management, employing examples from countries and organizations within the EU.

    Based on interviews with members of key national and EU institutions, and on an analysis of the differences between their practitioner perspectives and the theories of general crisis management, the study arrives at six key areas of recommendations for future activities in the cyber security realm.

  • 50.
    Träff, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University.
    Ett gemensamt verktyg för tillverkning av telekrigsbibliotek?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Försvarsmaktens telekrigsstödenhet (TKSE) har uppgiften att försörja Försvarsmaktens Varning- och motverkanssystem (VMS) med telekrigsbibliotek. Telekrigsbibliotek krävs för att VMS, skall fungera. Med ett gemensamt verktyg för flera VMS, kan den militära nyttan höjas. Genom att möjliggöra att flera system kan samverka vid produktionen, kan flera svaga hypoteser kan blir starkare. Dock kommer detta inte att vara enkelt på grund av den finansiering modell som Försvarsmakten arbetar med. Den som ansvarar för plattformutrustning och producerande enhet har inte alltid möjlighet att nå den optimala lösningen på grund av andra hänsynstaganden.

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