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  • 1.
    Amann, Daniel
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska tillämpningar (MteT). Herr.
    Affordability management and its influence on concept development2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Amann, Daniel
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska tillämpningar (MteT). Integrated Product Development and Design, Machine Design, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    Integrated Product Development and Design, Machine Design, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Mats
    Integrated Product Development and Design, Machine Design, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Affordability aspects in the concept generation of defence systems2017Ingår i: Proceedings of 18th International CINet Conference: Digitalization and innovation: designing the organization of the future, Twente: Continuous Innovation Network, 2017, s. 26-38Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost escalation for fighter aircraft is arguably not sustainable. Pushing frontiers oftechnology by incremental improvements of traditional platforms has led to anexponential increase in cost. This paper addresses the process of concept generationwith the purpose to explore how affordability is managed in that process, in order toidentify possible measures to improve the likelihood of generating affordableconcepts. This is done by studying two cases of concept generation of future combatair systems. The concepts generated in these two cases are however not curbing thecost escalation and are, with only one notable exception, based on incrementalinnovation. Nevertheless, the empirical observations offer leads to potentially fostera more innovative and cost conscious concept generation process, indicatingavenues for future research.

  • 3.
    Amann, Daniel
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska tillämpningar (MteT). School of Industrial Engineering and Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    School of Industrial Engineering and Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Mats
    School of Industrial Engineering and Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Disruptive innovation barriers: Exploring value network inertia in complex low-volume products2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Amann, Daniel
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska tillämpningar (MteT). School of Industrial Engineering and Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    School of Industrial Engineering and Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Mats
    School of Industrial Engineering and Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Facilitating path change: A historical success story of product development2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the 20th International CINet Conference: Innovating in an era of continuous disruption, Continuous Innovation Network, 2019, s. 13-27Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Extant theory suggests that paths of development, although identified as beingunsustainable, might be difficult to depart from. Our aim has therefore been toexplore and understand how a path change can be facilitated in a setting of complexproduct systems. We have studied a unique single case that managed a departurefrom an unsustainable cost escalation for complex defence equipment. The studyshows a relation between a path change and an opportunity, and also indicates howthis relation can be moderated by company management and customers. This isfurther clarified in a proposed model. We thereby provide both a theoretical andpractical contribution that support understanding and facilitating of path changes.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Emmelie
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Asp, Viktoria
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Arnevall, Linnéa
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Blomstrand, Rickard
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Deschamps-Berger, Jenny
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Ericson, Marika
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    Palmgren, Anders
    Försvarshögskolan, Militära programledningen.
    Sandberg, Daniel
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), CRISMART (Nationellt Centrum för Krishanteringsstudier).
    Förutsättningar för krisberedskap och totalförsvar i Sverige2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport beskriver utvecklingen av totalförsvaret och framväxten av området samhällsskydd och beredskap. Den ska ge en övergripande bild av hur det ser ut idag på lokal, regional och nationell nivå inom krisberedskap och totalförsvar. Det bör nämnas att rapporten främst fokuserar på utvecklingen av och förändringar i den civila delen i totalförsvaret samt på samhällsskydd och beredskap.

    Syftet är att ge läsaren en förståelse för dagens krisberedskap och totalförsvar. För att få en uppfattning för varför vi befinner oss där vi är idag, är det av vikt att ha med sig en bild av historiska händelser, förändrade hotbilder och av de beslut (och ickebeslut) som fattats.

    Författarna vill betona att rapporten ingalunda ger en komplett bild av krisberedskap eller totalförsvar, utan är tänkt att skapa intresse, kunskap och förståelse på ett övergripande plan.

    Rapporten ska främst ses som ett stöd för högskolestudenter, beslutsfattare och handläggare genom att ge en översiktlig beskrivning över de system och funktioner som utgör svensk krisberedskap och totalförsvar. Rapporten kan läsas i sin helhet, men kan också användas som ett slags uppslagsverk för den läsare som är intresserad av en särskild tidsperiod, händelse eller ett beslut.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Kent
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    A Case study report on signature engineering: The SEP multipurpose armored vehicle and the Visby class corvette2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report is to present consolidated results from case studies of the development processes of the SEP multipurpose armored vehicle and the Visby class corvette respectively.

    The report is intended as an annex to a journal article named “Key requirements in the procurement of future Low Observable combat vehicles: A European perspective” published in the journal of Systems Engineering in 2017.

    Results filtered from interviews and document reviews are presented based on the structure of the Friedman-Sage framework (Friedman & Sage, 2004) for case studies on systems engineering. Firstly, data collected from the two case studies are presented and then the lessons identified consistent with both cases. The sources, an overview of the two cases studied and the application of the framework are described in the journal article.

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  • 7.
    Andersson, Kent
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    Key requirements in the procurement of future low observablecombat vehicles: a European perspective2018Ingår i: Systems Engineering, ISSN 1098-1241, E-ISSN 1520-6858, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 3-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to propose guidelines for the systems engineering of future stealth combat vehicles using Low Observable Technology (LOT). A case study approach, based on interviews and document reviews, was used to analyze the systems engineering processes of the SEP multirole armored vehicle and the Visby class corvette respectively. The result is a thorough investigation of what worked in the cases studied, butwith lessons extrapolated into recommendations for future development programs. These will have to deal with an increasingly complex sensor threat and a transformed, multilateral, European procurement environment. The main conclusion is that coherence and traceability between military needs on the battlefield and signature requirements is expected to be particularly challenging. A workflow tailored for requirements analysis in LO combat vehicle programs has, therefore, been derived and is presented here. In addition, themost important enablers for future multilateral development programs involving LOT have been identified as: establishing common best practices, demonstrator programs, an integrated product team approach, and, in line with similar work on combat aircraft, establishing stealth as a key architectural  principle.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Kent
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    On the Military Utility of Spectral Design in Signature Management: a Systems Approach2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ongoing duel between military sensor development and developments in signature management. The last decade, with warfare characterized by joint expeditionary operations and asymmetry, has favored sensors. However, on account of the worsening security situation in Europe, there is now also an increasing interest in efforts to increase survivability of own military platforms. Spectral design is one of several promising technologies with extensive research potentially suitable for Low Observable platforms. It involves creating desired spectral optical responses from surfaces, in this case reducing contrast to background, by choosing suitable materials and structures. The challenge to a military decision-maker, faced with inherent uncertainties concerning the future and with limited resources, is how to choose among alternative capabilities, technologies or equipment. Correspondingly, on account of the system character of the signature attribute, researchers in technologies for signature management has difficulties communicating relevant basis for these decisions. The scope of this thesis is therefore to find and analyze patterns in decision situations involving technology or technical systems for military use, and the purpose is to propose conceptual and methodological contributions to support future decisionmaking. The technology focus is on spectral design and the application in focus is signature management of Low Observable military platforms. The research objective is addressed from a military system and capability centric perspective using methods from several disciplines in the military sciences domain. The result is synthesized from four separate studies: 1) on spectral design using systematic review of literature, 2) on military utility using a concept formation method, 3) on modeling for how to operationalize a link between spectral design and measures of military utility using methods of military operations research, and, 4) on cases of systems engineering of military Low Observable platform designs. In summary, the result of the work presented in this thesis is a compilation of related work in military sciences, systems engineering and material optics into a framework to support effective decision-making in relevant contexts. The major contribution to theory is a proposed concept called Military Utility, capturing how to communicate the utility of technical systems, or technology, in a military context. It is a compound measure of Military Effectiveness, Military Suitability and Affordability. Other contributions can be expected to support decision-making in practice; - the so-called Ladder-model is a template for how to quantitatively operationalize the military effectiveness dimension of Military Utility regarding the use of spectral design; - an applied Ladder-model is demonstrated, useful for analyzing the military utility of spectral designs in Low Observable attack aircraft; - a probabilistic framework for survivability assessments is adopted into a methodology for doing the analysis, and lastly; - a generic workflow is identified, from relevant development programs, including decision-situations that can benefit from the adopted methodology.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    Lundmark, Martin
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA). Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    The Military Utility Assessment Method for Future Technologies2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to describe the Swedish Defence University (SEDU) Military Utility Assessment Method for Future Technologies (MUAFT). The report describes the actions taken in each step of the process and ends with references and a template for the technology memos used as basis for assessment.

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  • 10.
    Axelson, Mattias
    et al.
    FOI.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    Olsson, Per
    FOI.
    Öhrn-Lundin, Josefin
    FOI.
    Förutsättningar för undervattensförmåga - dagens resurser och morgondagens effekter2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Bang, Martin
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska tillämpningar (MteT).
    Institutional influence on assessments: the institutional analysis and development framework applied to military intelligence2018Ingår i: The International Journal of Intelligence, Security, and Public Affairs, ISSN 2380-0992, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 47-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    How can we understand intelligence assessments and intelligence work? The intelligence literature offers several plausible causes of failures and the consequences of such failures. However, there is a direct lack of theories or frameworks that connect these variables, that is, there is an incomplete understanding of both how those variables interact and their underlying mechanisms. Failures as such do only give one part of the picture. Why intelligence succeed is equally if not more important to understand. The military intelligence service from an institutional perspective may help to give this understanding.

    This study connects these variables with Ostrom’s Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework, which yields a model to understand the mechanisms of institutional on the assessment and lays a foundation for a common terminology. The study uses the Swedish military intelligence institution active in Afghanistan between 2008 and 2012 as a case.

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  • 12.
    Bang, Martin
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska tillämpningar (MteT).
    Military intelligence analysis: institutional influence2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Underrättelse är en avgörande komponent för utfallet av väpnad strid. Så länge människor krigar, kommer det att finnas ett behov av beslutsstöd till militära och civila ledare angående dess motståndare och potentiella motståndare. Produktionen av underrättelse är dock inte lätt eller utan fallgropar. Det finns där för ett behov av att öka förståelsen för de predikamenten kopplade till underrättelseanalys.

    Underrättelse som produkt är byråkratiskt såväl som socialt konstruerad och skapas i ett distinkt kulturellt sammanhang. Konceptet "Institution" kan ses fånga alla dessa tre aspekter. Därför handlar det speciellt om militär intelligens, som handlar om att förstå det institutionella inflytandet på intelligensbedömningar. Den tillgängliga underrättelselitteraturen har ökat stadigt under de senaste tre decennierna. Dock gällande teorier och ramverk på området som syftar till att förstå fenomenet är det emellertid fortfarande lite gjort. Detta gäller i än högre utsträckning för det specifika området modern militärunderrättelse verksamhet. Avhandlingen avser att bidra till att överbrygga dessa forskningsgap. Detta görs genom att studera den svenska militärunderrättelseinstitutionen ur flera perspektiv. Dess regler-i-bruk, delad trossystem/övertygelser samt den inkommande stimuli(data/information) primärt kopplade till hur hotbedömningar genomförs. Mer exakt granskar avhandlingen användningen av kvantitativa metoder, doktriner (dvs de formella reglerna) och delade föreställningar kopplade till epistemologiska antaganden och hotbedömningar.

    Huvudresultatet av denna avhandling är att det etablerar och beskriver en länk mellan en militärunderrättelseinstitution och de bedömningar som görs. Det går att se en direkt länk mellan de regler-i-bruk samt institutionens trossystem och deras inverkan på individens mentalmodellen. Detta sker genom att de rådande reglerna påverkar förekomesten av kognitivt bias vilket där med påverkar analytikerns uppfattning av en given situation. Avhandlingen har där med en ambition att göra studier i underrättelseanalys mer generaliserbara, genom att applicera och utveckla ramverket för institutionell analys och utveckling (IAD). Det metadeteoretiska språket i IAD är en lovande aveny för att förklara och beskriva det institutionella inflytandet på intelligensbedömningar.

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  • 13.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Ledningssektionen (Ledn). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    A Practitioners Guide for C2 Evaluations: Quantitative Measurements of Performance and Effectiveness2018Ingår i: ISCRAM 2018 Conference Proceedings: 15th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] Boersma, Kees; Tomaszewski, Brian, Rochester, NY, USA: Rochester Institute of Technology , 2018, s. 170-189, artikel-id 1546Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative evaluations are valuable in the strive for improvements and asserting quality. However, the field of Command & Control (C2) evaluations are hard to navigate, and it is difficult to find the correct measurement for a specific situation. A comprehensive Scoping Study was made concerning measurements of C2 performance and effectiveness. A lack of an existing appropriate framework for discussing C2 evaluations led to the development of the Crisis Response Management (CRM) Matrix. This is an analysis tool that assigns measurements into categories, and each category display unique strengths, weaknesses and trends. The analysis yielded results proving to be too rich for a single article, thusly, this is the first of two articles covering the results. In this article, the Practitioners Guide focus on results valuable for someone interested in evaluating C2. Each evaluation has specific requirements that, for best result, ought to be reflected in the chosen measurement.

  • 14.
    Belin, Jean
    et al.
    Chaire Economie de défense.
    Hartley, Keith
    University of York.
    Lefeez, Sophie
    IRIS.
    Linnenkamp, Hilmar
    SWP.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    Masson, Hélène
    FRS.
    Maulny, Jean-Pierre
    IRIS.
    Ungaro, Alessandro
    IAI.
    Defence industrial links between EU and US2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission’s initiatives in the field of armament should lead to a deeper integration of European DTIBs in the coming years. In parallel, the links between European and American DTIBs take the form of technological and armament cooperation, and of capital links between European or American companies. This report aims at analysing the links between the US DTIB and the EU DTIB, and the consequences these links carry on cooperation between European DTIBs.

    These links vary by country. France has strived to preserve its strategic autonomy when developing its DTIB. Its technological and capability-related reliance on the United States has thus remained limited. Nonetheless, cooperation is sought when it is mutually beneficial while French companies seek to invest in the US market, as do other European DTIBs.

    The German DTIB was rebuilt belatedly after World War II, partly on the basis of French-German cooperation. German industry is now privatised and the scope of the German DTIB’s partnerships has widened to other European countries and to the US. The German supply chain is now well established in American armament programmes.

    The Italian DTIB has consistently pursued a policy of active cooperation, whether with the US or with EU member states. Links with the US have notably been built in the context of NATO and through bilateral agreements. In parallel, Italy has developed partnerships with European countries. Rome’s cooperation policy is thus inclusive, and has considered diverse factors such as political links, capability requirements, the need to develop certain technologies and to preserve industrial capabilities and jobs in Italy.

    The British DTIB has historically enjoyed deeper links with US industry, as a result of the cultural closeness between the UK and the US, and of the strategic proximity that dates back to the end of World War II. The links between US and UK DTIBs thus follow a model of strategic partnership. Nevertheless, the UK’s industrial and defence policy is also pursued within a European framework. The missile manufacturer MBDA is nowadays considered as the deepest model of transnational industrial and defence integration in Europe.

    While Sweden seeks to preserve its industrial capabilities in two sectors – submarines and military aircraft – it appears to be most technologically reliant on the US among the surveyed countries. It is worth noting also that these links are long-standing, dating back to the cold war and the Soviet threat, despite Sweden not being a NATO member state.

    The links with the US are thus very different from one country to another, and carry varying implications. While the costs of acquiring American equipment can be low despite their high technological grade, there are often constraints on their use and restrictions on technologies that will not be transferred, or that will be unusable for other partnerships.

    These links are also formalised through bilateral agreements promoting armament cooperation, as is the case for UK-Italian cooperation. For its part, Sweden has signed interstate agreements with the US in the field of technological cooperation.

    DEFENCE INDUSTRIAL LINKS BETWEEN EU AND US / September 2017

    3

    Since the European Council meeting in December 2013 and in its 2016 Global Strategy, the EU has set itself the task of developing "a certain degree of strategic autonomy" supposed to encourage greater competitiveness of European DTIBs.

    In order to promote the development of this European defence industrial policy, we must seek to ensure that the links between US and EU DTIB are mutually beneficial. To do this, two conditions must be met:

    -That the rules governing relations between US and EU DTIB be based on the principle of reciprocity and on equal rules of regulation of respective DTIBs.

    -That the rules governing relations between US and EU DTIB be defined in the context of a dialogue between the European Union and the United States and not bilaterally between each European country and the United States.

    Today the multiplication of bilateral agreements between the United States and European Union member states are potential obstacles to the establishment of a level playing field governing the relations between European DTIBs;

    There is also a lack of reciprocity and equal regulation of EU and US DTIB. This concerns different areas: access to advanced capabilities, unrestricted use of exported armament, access to cooperated technologies, rules governing investment in US and European companies, rules governing property rights over technologies, rules governing export controls.

    Organizing the transatlantic relationship in the field of armaments in order to have a more balanced and profitable relationship, can be achieved in two complementary ways.

    At the European level, the European Defence Research Program (EDRP) will have strong implications for the relations between the companies of the US DTIB and the EDTIB. The rules governing access to finance and the ownership of intellectual property rights (IPR), which will be adopted for collaborative R&T projects involving European defence companies, will result in a common framework governing the relationship between these companies and the US EDTIB: the more Europeans will collaborate among themselves in the field of defence research, the more they will be able to set common and mutually beneficial rules in their relationship with the United States.

    It may also be considered that some EU States will decide to engage in enhanced cooperation in the industrial defence field which could include the following rules:

    -Obligation to achieve a level of 30% R&T in common among the members of the enhanced cooperation, which means 10% more than the target that was defined 10 years ago by the European Defence Agency and that is regularly reminded in the objectives of the European Union;

    -Obligation to inform members of enhanced cooperation of agreements on defence R&T cooperation concluded with the United States so as to ensure compatibility of these agreements with existing agreements between members of enhanced cooperation. The objective is to prevent agreements with the United States from subsequently restricting the scope of existing agreements between European countries;

    DEFENCE INDUSTRIAL LINKS BETWEEN EU AND US / September 2017

    4

     

    -Obligation to systematically consider the acquisition of military equipment manufactured by one of the member countries of enhanced cooperation. This should be accompanied by reinforced security of supply rules;

    -The need to bring the export policies of the member states of the enhanced cooperation closer together.

    These rules, complementary with, and not contradictory to, those which are being defined at European Union level, would accelerate industrial defence consolidation in Europe and make it possible to consider on a more balanced, mutually equally beneficial, basis relations between the United States and the European Union in the field of armaments. These rules would also be inspired by political principles: to strengthen the strategic autonomy of the European Union when necessary. Far from forbidding cooperation between the US and the EU DTIB, such enhanced cooperation would be facilitated because cooperation between US EDTIB and EU DTIB would not be a brake on European cooperation, as it is currently still too often the case.

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  • 15.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    Univ Southern Queensland, Deputy Vice Chancellors Off Res & Innovat, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;Univ Southern Queensland, Fac Hlth Engn & Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Sustainable Dev Environm Sci & Engn, KFH Internat Groundwater Arsen Res Grp, Teknikringen 76, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Maity, Jyoti Prakash
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;Natl Chung Cheng Univ, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, 168 Univ Rd, Min Hsiung 62102, Chiayi County, Taiwan..
    Mushtaq, Shahbaz
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Vithanage, Meththika
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;Natl Inst Fundamental Studies, Chem & Environm Syst Modeling Res Grp, Kandy 20000, Sri Lanka..
    Seneweera, Saman
    Univ Southern Queensland, Ctr Crop Hlth, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Schneider, Jerusa
    Univ Estadual Campinas, Sch Civil Engn Architecture & Urban Design, Sanitat & Environm Dept, BR-11308388 Campinas, SP, Brazil..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Sustainable Dev Environm Sci & Engn, KFH Internat Groundwater Arsen Res Grp, Teknikringen 76, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Khan, Nasreen Islam
    Australian Natl Univ, Coll Med Biol & Environm, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.;Int Rice Res Inst, GIS Social Sci Div, Los Banos 4031, Laguna, Philippines..
    Hamawand, Ihsan
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Guilherme, Luiz R. G.
    Fed Univ Lavras UFLA, Dept Soil Sci, Campus Univ,Caixa Postal 3037, BR-37200000 Lavras, MG, Brazil..
    Reardon-Smith, Kathryn
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Parvez, Faruque
    Columbia Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Environm Hlth Sci Mailman, 722 West 168th St, New York, NY 10032 USA..
    Morales-Simfors, Nury
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska tillämpningar (MteT).
    Ghaze, Sara
    Univ Southern Queensland, Fac Hlth Engn & Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Pudmenzky, Christa
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Kouadio, Louis
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Chen, Chien-Yen
    Natl Chung Cheng Univ, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, 168 Univ Rd, Min Hsiung 62102, Chiayi County, Taiwan..
    Medical geology in the framework of the sustainable development goals2017Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 581, s. 87-104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to geogenic contaminants (GCs) such as metal(loid)s, radioactive metals and isotopes as well as transuraniums occurring naturally in geogenic sources (rocks, minerals) can negatively impact on environmental and human health. The GCs are released into the environment by natural biogeochemical processes within the near-surface environments and/or by anthropogenic activities such as mining and hydrocarbon exploitation as well as exploitation of geothermal resources. They can contaminate soil, water, air and biota and subsequently enter the food chain with often serious health impacts which are mostly underestimated and poorly recognized. Global population explosion and economic growth and the associated increase in demand for water, energy, food, and mineral resources result in accelerated release of GCs globally. The emerging science of "medical geology" assesses the complex relationships between geo-environmental factors and their impacts on humans and environments and is related to the majority of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals in the 2030 Agenda of the United Nations for Sustainable Development. In this paper, we identify multiple lines of evidence for the role of GCs in the incidence of diseases with as yet unknown etiology (causation). Integrated medical geology promises a more holistic understanding of the occurrence, mobility, bioavailability, bio-accessibility, exposure and transfer mechanisms of GCs to the food-chain and humans, and the related ecotoxicological impacts and health effects. Scientific evidence based on this approach will support adaptive solutions for prevention, preparedness and response regarding human and environmental health impacts originating from exposure to GCs.

  • 16.
    Carlerby, Mats
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Ledningssektionen (Ledn).
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sensor C2 in a future operational environment: a suggestion for an experimental study2019Ingår i: 24th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS): Cyber Risk to Mission / [ed] Alberts, David, International Command and Control Institute , 2019, Vol. Topic 2, artikel-id 46Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a future and data-intensive operating environment, threats can be assumed to vary considerably. One example of such threats is missiles that can achieve speeds of Mach 5 and above. To handle this type of threat alone, it implies at least two things. First, that a suitable operational picture is provided that take account for future long distance threats. Second, it is likely that it will be even more important to be able to collect, filter, process and understand relevant data to make priorities and make proper decisions under short time conditions. Third, when considering threats by cyberwarfare, these threats can be considered as conducted in the speed of light. This, in summary, will probably suppose an efficient and dynamic command and control (C2) of available and different types of sensors, from directly controlled to sensors guided by artificial intelligence (AI), on a future battlefield. In this paper, we propose an experimental study to investigate from which levels of sensor C2 that can be centralised, decentralised, or a combination thereof, and which seems to be sufficient to be able to in time respond to threats in a geographically and by information enlarged operating environment.

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    Paper 46
  • 17.
    Dansarie, Marcus
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska tillämpningar (MteT).
    Teknisk utveckling och hybridkrigföring2020Ingår i: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, nr 1, s. 162-165Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI); Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS).
    Cohen, Mika
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Sigholm, Johan
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska tillämpningar (MteT).
    What can we learn from enterprise architecture models?: An experiment comparing models and documents for capability development2018Ingår i: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 695-711Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise architecture (EA) has been established as a discipline to cope with the complex interactions of business operations and technology. Models, i.e., formal descriptions in terms of diagrams and views, are at the heart of the approach. Though it is widely thought that such architecture models can contribute to improved understanding and decision making, this proposition has not rigorously been tested. This article describes an experiment conducted with a real EA model and corresponding real traditional documents, investigating whether the model or the documents lead to better and faster understanding. Understanding is interesting to study, as it is a prerequisite to other EA uses. The subjects (N = 98) were officer cadets, and the experiment was carried out using a comprehensive description of military Close Air Support capability either (1) in the form of a MODAF model or (2) in the form of traditional documents. Based on the results, the model seems to lead to better, though not faster, understanding.

  • 19.
    Granåsen, Magdalena
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Barius, Per
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Ledningssektionen (Ledn).
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Anders
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Ledningssektionen (Ledn).
    Exploring Mission Command in a Concept for Future Command and Control2018Ingår i: 23rd International Command and Control Research & Technology Symposium (ICCRTS): Multi-Domain C2 / [ed] Alberts, David, International Command and Control Institute , 2018, Vol. Topic 3, artikel-id 22Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Future Command and Control (C2) need to be both agile and resilient to cope with unpredictable operational environments and to make use of the technological advances. The Swedish Armed Forces develops a concept for future C2 of military operations. The objective of this paper is to explore the utilization of mission command in a future C2 concept. Sweden has a solid tradition of mission command, promoted by the Swedish culture of participation and empowerment. However, the future operational environment demands a need for organizational agility, thus changing the prerequisites for mission command. The future C2 concept, which is under development, encompasses centralized and decentralized command in fixed and temporary organizations. Centralized approaches may be preferred when it comes to prioritization of technologically advanced exclusive resources. On the other hand, dynamic situations demand rapid decision making and seizing the opportunity given in the moment. The future operational environment includes hybrid warfare and gray zone issues, demanding thorough analysis in order to foresee the political consequences of decisions. Sensor and communication technologies enable enhanced situation awareness; however, the infrastructure is vulnerable. The current paper analyses the application of mission command in the future operational environment, and further mission command in relation to organizational agility. The conclusion is that mission command is still relevant in the complex future operational environment. However, the increasingly complex operational environment demands continuous development of the C2 function.

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    fulltext
  • 20.
    Granåsen, Magdalena
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Huskaj, Gazmend
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS). School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Stefan, Varga
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Data Collection and Research in CDXs: Command and Control, Cyber Situational Awareness and Intelligence Perspectives on Cyber Defense2019Ingår i: 24th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS): Cyber Risk to Mission / [ed] Alberts, David, International Command and Control Institute , 2019, Vol. Topic 9, artikel-id 24Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The annual cyber defense exercise Locked Shields is the world’s largest unclassified defensive exercise. The exercise participants form “blue teams” that are tasked to defend their critical infrastructure against an attacking “red team.” The blue teams are scored based on how well they keep their essential system functions running and the extent to which they manage to assess and report what they are exposed to. During Locked Shields 2019, 24 blue teams from 30 countries participated in a two-day exercise. The case study presented in this paper focuses on one of the blue teams. The team consisted of around 60 people from governmental institutions as well as private companies. The objective of this paper is to explore the possibilities to collect meaningful data for research on Command and Control, C2, Cyber Situational Awareness, CSA, and Intelligence in conjunction with an inter-organizational cyber defense team during a cyber defense exercise. During preparations preceding the exercise, the research team observed the development of strategy, coordination structures and organization in the temporarily formed team as it prepared to solve the highly challenging exercise tasks. During the exercise, data collection included questionnaires, observations, team communication logs, reporting from the blue to the white team and performance scores. The data collection sought to satisfy needs within three research themes - 1) command and control, C2, 2) cyber situational awareness, and 3) intelligence. A review of the dataset showed that the data is well suited for further analysis. The paper presents initial results as well as an outline of how the different types of data collected contribute to research within the three research themes.

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    24th_ICCRTS_paper_62
  • 21.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Granåsen, Magdalena
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Anders
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Ledningssektionen (Ledn).
    Ekenstierna, Christina
    Swedish Armed Forces, Sweden.
    Framework for C2 Concept Development: Exploring Design Logic and Systems Engineering2018Ingår i: 23rd International Command and Control Research & Technology Symposium: Multi-Domain C2 / [ed] Alberts, David, International Command and Control Institute , 2018, Vol. Topic 9, artikel-id 23Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The conditions for military operations have changed due to, e.g., globalization, climate change, and nations' ambitions and actions. This has resulted in new demands on command and control (C2) capability. Further, the rapid evolution of information technology has provided vigorous opportunities to enhance the C2 capability, e.g., through advanced communication, information management, and decision support. However, the need to rely on modern technology also causes increased vulnerabilities. The sociotechnical nature of C2 systems means that the development of C2 systems is complex and challenging. Developing C2 concepts requires collaboration between people from different knowledge disciplines, traditions, and perspectives. Therefore, there is a need for elaborated concept development approaches and structures that promote collaborative efforts. The objective of this paper is a framework for the development of C2 concepts that enhance the collaboration of people from different traditions. The study was carried out as case study performed in two steps: theoretical development and formative evaluation. The case study targets the development of C2 concepts for future military operations of the Swedish Armed Forces. The framework includes terminology models, a development process, and system representations. The case study shows that in diverse teams, it is essential to agree upon terminology, development process, and systems representations used for the development to avoid misunderstandings and unnecessary rework. The framework explored in this paper is only in its first version. However, the development and the application of the framework was found to facilitate and focus the work of the multi-disciplinary team.

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    fulltext
  • 22.
    Hedlund, Erik
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapsavdelningen.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Josefsson, Anders
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Ledningssektionen (Ledn).
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ledarskap och ledning i en förändrad organisatorisk kontext2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande bok har ambitionen att sätta samman tre års forskningsresultat (2016-2018) inom ramen för det av Försvarsmakten (FM) finansierade forskningsprojektet Ledarskap och ledning i en förändrad organisatorisk kontext och omsätta kunskaper till ett pedagogiskt och lättillgängligt material som kan användas i såväl Försvarshögskolans ordinarie kurs- och utbildningsprogram, som enskild läsning eller som utgångspunkt för gruppdiskussioner, seminarier och förberedelser inför något av de teman som tas upp i boken. Bokens innehåll speglar forskningsprojektets sammansättning som består av forskare från Ledarskapsavdelningen i Stockholm, Försvarshögskolans Ledarskapscentrum i Karlstad, och Ledningsvetenskap i Stockholm. Att bokens empiri kommer från militär kontext hindrar inte att bokens innehåll även kan vara av stort intresse för civila läsare, särskilt inom ramen för dem med intresse för civil-militär samverkan i såväl nationella som internationella insatser.

  • 23.
    Huskaj, Gazmend
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS). School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    The Current State of Research in Offensive Cyberspace Operations2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security, Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2019, s. 660-667Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-attacks have increased since the 1988-Morris worm and can target any connected device from any place in the world. In 2010, Stuxnet received a lot of attention as the first cyber-weapon. Its targets were the Iranian nuclear enrichment centrifuges. Nation states are developing cyberspace capabilities to conduct offensive cyberspace operations. Academic researchers have been calling for a more transparent discussion on offensive capabilities and have pointed out the positive impact researchers had during the development of nuclear capabilities. Shrouded in secrecy, the development of offensive capabilities used for operations makes it difficult to conduct research. Therefore, one way to mitigate this is to conduct a systematic review of the current state of research in offensive cyberspace operations. The systematic review method makes it possible to establish certain inclusion and exclusion criteria and systematically go through academic articles to identify the contents, thoughts and research focus of academic researchers. Six scientific databases were queried and 87 articles were read and clustered. The first insight is that, based on the results of the queried databases, research about offensive cyberspace operations is limited. The resulting clusters are a general cluster about cyberspace operations, followed by research in policy, decision-making, governance, capabilities, levels, models, training, deterrence and international affairs. These are then further grouped into: a) general cyberspace operations; b) deterrence; c) international affairs; d) modelling, simulation and training. The article concludes that research into offensive cyberspace operations is maturing as more information is becoming public. Secondly, current research lists some good basic ideas regarding effects which can be achieved through offensive cyberspace operations, how they should be conducted, and related tools, techniques and procedures. However, discrepancies in research efforts exist, with the majority of research coming primarily from the western world. In addition, secrecy and the resulting limited access to information, coupled with research being either too technically focused or too qualitatively focused, show that there still remains room for research in this field. Finally, some directions for future research are examined.

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    The Current State of Research in Offensive Cyberspace Operations
  • 24.
    Huskaj, Gazmend
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS). School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Iftimie, Ion A.
    Eisenhower Defence Fellow, NATO Defense College, Rome, Italy; European Union Research Center, George Washington School of Business, Washington D.C., USA; Central European University, Vienna, Austria.
    Toward an Ambidextrous Framework for Offensive Cyberspace Operations: a Theory, Policy and Practice Perspective2020Ingår i: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security / [ed] Payne, Brian K.; Wu, Hongyi, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2020, s. 243-253Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the rise in state-sponsored cyber attacks over the past three decades and proposes a new ambidextrous framework for offensive cyberspace operations. Since 1982, nation states have embarked in a fierce race to develop both clandestine and covert offensive cyber capabilities. Their intended targets range from foreign militaries and terrorist organizations to civilian populations and the critical infrastructures that they rely upon. Advancements in cyber security have, however, contributed to the discovery and attribution of offensive cyber operations, such as state-sponsored ransomware attacks, where state-built cyber capabilities have been used to attack governments, industries, academia and citizens of adversary nations. The financial and psychological costs of these ransomware attacks are today a threat to any state’s national security. This article draws from academic research, the cyber military doctrines of four countries—a total of eight models from the Netherlands, Sweden, the U.S., and the U.K.—and the authors’ operational experience to propose a new ambidextrous framework for offensive cyberspace operations. This ambidextrous framework for offensive cyberspace operations and the associated Cyberspace Operations Canvas are needed today in order to increase the resilience of national critical infrastructures against attacks from state-developed tools. We use the WannaCry-case to illustrate how the implementation of the ambidextrous framework for offensive cyberspace operations would result in increased awareness and understanding of the prospective cyber threats, their intended target(s), the likelihood of cascading effects and the options available by nation states to minimize them.

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    Toward an Ambidextrous Framework for Offensive Cyberspace Operations - A Theory Policy and Practice Perspective
  • 25.
    Huskaj, Gazmend
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS). School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Moradian, Esmiralda
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Cyber Deterrence: An Illustration of Implementation2018Ingår i: 13th International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security (ICCWS 2018) / [ed] John S. Hurley & Jim Q. Chen, Sonning: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2018, s. 304-311Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber deterrence is a strategy to deter attackers from conducting cyber-attacks in the first place. However, several issues exist when implementing cyber deterrence, which are identified in this paper. The findings show (1) non-existence of the deterrence strategy  (2) no doctrine or decision competence to retaliate to an adversary, (3) the armed forces have no authority to retaliate when Swedish sovereignty in Cyberspace is threatened, (4) no norms or regulations exist concerning retaliation, (5) no clear governance on using offensive cyber capabilities, and finally, (6) no credibility in its cyber deterrence posture regarding how much Sweden is willing to sacrifice to protect its electoral system, which is a Swedish national interest. Therefore, this research investigates how cyber deterrence can practically be implemented in Swedish cyber security policy. So far, researchers generally focused on the human aspect of cyber deterrence. By using the case study research strategy and utilizing the Swedish electoral system as a case, this paper examines possibilities to merge the human dimensions of cyber security with the technological dimensions. Data collection is performed through documents studies and semi-structured interviews with experts in the area to identify cyber deterrence components. Further, a mathematical approach is discussed in the paper to express the relationship between an adversary and a deterrent depicting each of the actor’s risk calculus. A result of the research work performed in this paper, the deterrence components for Swedish cyber deterrence are proposed and risk calculus is performed. Moreover, measures to increase Swedish cyber deterrence posture are proposed the practical implementation of cyber deterrence in Swedish cyber security policy in order to deter attacks on the Swedish electoral system is demonstrated.

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    Cyber Deterrence - An Illustration of Implementation
  • 26.
    Huskaj, Gazmend
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS). School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Wilson, Richard L.
    Towson University; Hoffberger Center for Professional Ethics, University of Baltimore.
    An Anticipatory Ethical Analysis of Offensive Cyberspace Operations2020Ingår i: 15th International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security / [ed] Payne, Brian K.; Wu, Hongyi, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2020, s. 512-520Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the ethical issues using offensive cyberspace operations. Previously enshrouded in secrecy, and now becoming the new norm, countries are using them to achieve their strategic interests. Russia has conducted offensive operations targeting Estonia, Georgia and the Ukraine; Hamas was targeting Israeli targets; and Iran has been targeting U.S. targets. The response has varied; Estonia and Georgia struggled with the attacks and were unable to respond while Ukraine tried to respond but it was inefficient. Israel’s response on Hamas offensive operations was an air strike on a building with Hamas Cyber-operatives. Iran shot down a U.S. Drone over the Strait of Hormuz, and the U.S. initially intended to respond with kinetic capabilities in the form of missile strikes. However, in the last minute, the U.S. chose to respond with offensive cyberspace operations targeting the Iranian missile systems. This last-minute change of response choosing between kinetic or cyber capabilities shows a need to further investigate how offensive cyberspace operations can be used against which targets from an ethical perspective. This article applies anticipatory ethical analysis on U.S. offensive operations in the “Global Hawk”-case when Iran shot down a U.S. drone over the Strait of Hormuz. Anticipatory ethical analysis looks at emerging technologies and their potential consequences. Offensive cyberspace operations present a range of possibilities, which include lowering the risk of harm to cyber operatives’ lives belonging to the responding nation. However, a response can also be kinetic. Therefore, the analysis of the “Global Hawk”-case is compared with the Israeli-air strike of the building of Hamas Cyber-operatives. The authors argue that applying anticipatory ethical analysis on offensive operations and kinetic operations assist decision makers in choosing response actions to re-establish deterrence.

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    An Anticipatory Ethical Analysis of Offensive Cyberspace Operations
  • 27.
    Huskaj, Gazmend
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS). School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Wilson, Richard L.
    Towson University; Hoffberger Center for Professional Ethics, University of Baltimore.
    Anticipatory Ethics for Vulnerability Disclosure2020Ingår i: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security / [ed] Payne, Brian K.; Wu, Hongyi, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2020, s. 254-261Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the ethical dilemma related to under what circumstances vulnerabilities should be disclosed. Vulnerabilities exist in hardware and software, and can be as a consequence of programming errors or design flaws. Threat actors can exploit these vulnerabilities to gain otherwise unintended access to information systems, resources and/or stored information. In other words, they can be used to impact the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information in information systems. As a result, various types of vulnerabilities are highly sought after since they enable this type of access. The most highly sought are so-called “zero-day”-vulnerabilities. These are vulnerabilities that exist but are unknown, and when exploited, enable one way of entry into a system that is not thought possible. This is also why zero-day vulnerabilities are very popular among criminal organizations, states and state-sponsored advanced persistent threats. The other side of the coin is when a state identifies a zero-day, and ends up in the ethical dilemma of whether to release the news and inform the vendor to patch it, i.e. close the vulnerability, or to use it for offensive or intelligence purposes. This article employs these distinctions to apply anticipatory ethics in the Stuxnet-case. Stuxnet was a computer software that was allegedly developed by the U.S. together with Israel to disrupt Iran’s development of uranium for their nuclear program. More exactly, it was developed to disable the uranium centrifuges used to enrich uranium. To achieve this, Stuxnet exploited four zero-day vulnerabilities and, according to some experts, managed to delay Iran’s nuclear program by one to two-years, forcing them to the negotiation table. Using vulnerabilities like zero-days presents opportunities but also risks. The results of the application of anticipatory ethics to the Stuxnet case are then compared with the “Osirak”-case and the “al-Kibar”-case. Osirak was the nuclear reactor in Iraq and was bombed in 1981; al-Kibar was the nuclear reactor being built up in Syria, also bombed in 2007.

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    Anticipatory Ethics for Vulnerability Disclosure
  • 28.
    Johansson, Björn J.E.
    et al.
    Department of C4ISR, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Carlerby, Mats
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Ledningssektionen (Ledn).
    Alberts, David
    Institute for Defense Analyses, Alexandria, USA.
    A Suggestion for Endeavour Space Dimensions2018Ingår i: 23rd International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium: Multi-Domain C2, International Command and Control Institute , 2018, Vol. Track 9, artikel-id 66Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a set of dimensions for the “Endeavour Space” and provide a set of examples of endeavours that can be utilized for future studies that seek to determine the appropriate of different C2 approaches for different locations (regions) of this Endeavour Space.

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    fulltext
  • 29.
    Johnsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    SWEDEC, Swedish Armed Forces, Sweden.
    Vretblad, Bengt
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska tillämpningar (MteT).
    Explosive Remnants: A Multifaceted Risk Problem2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, defense cuts have forced the release of former military areas no longer needed for military purposes. These areas are often contaminated with explosive remnants from military activities, such as unexploded ordnance on former shooting ranges and surplus ammunition dumped in lakes and rivers. A complete elimination of such contamination is usually not possible; there will still be a residual risk after remediation.

    Several government agencies and other stakeholders are involved and concerned with the risk management, but no single body has the overall responsibility. Liability is sometimes difficult to establish. For example, who is responsible if an accident occurs after remediation and release to a new landowner?

    What was previously only an issue for the military has become a risk challenge to society in general.

    Explosive remnants remediation leads to substantial costs – costs that increase rapidly with increased levels of remediation. With limited resources available, these should be allocated based on the risk reduction that they can provide. The questions "What is the acceptable residual risk from a societal perspective?" and “How safe is safe enough?” in relation to the new usage become important criteria for decision making.

    During the 17th ISIEMS a research program for the development of a risk-based model for release of land and water contaminated with explosive remnants was presented. Since then, a lot of new knowledge has been generated and added to the model.

    Still, however the question “How to combine and visualize a joint risk assessment to decision makers?” remains unanswered. Explosive remnants remediation involves the simultaneous management of different risk dimensions and many different stakeholders. Therefore, a multifaceted risk picture needs to be communicated to decision makers for prioritization of – often costly - risk reduction measures. This raises the question if a multifaceted problem requires a multitude of solutions or if standardized solutions can be used?

    In the paper, the strengths and weaknesses of varying degrees of standardization, where different risk dimensions (environmental, safety and security) are combined into a common risk picture, are analyzed. The analysis shows that standardization creates a foundation for cooperation between stakeholders with divergent rationales. Furthermore, standardization is a prerequisite to communicate a complex risk situation to decision makers. A high degree of standardization, however, takes place at the expense of comparability with other societal risks and requires modifications of existing risk management tools. The conclusion is that standardization is not black and white; the level of standardization is critical and has to be adapted to the nature of the problem - otherwise the utility will be reduced - or even lost.

    The situation with multifaceted risks is not unique for the handling of explosive remnants. Our modern society offers a lot of situations with complex risk pictures where different aspects and different stakeholders are involved in the managing of the same issue. Basic societal functions like electrical power supply and fresh water supply also involve antagonistic threats that must be handled together with both safety and environmental risks.

    The resulting model may be used to visualize and communicate the overall risk picture to decision makers for complex risk situations.

  • 30.
    Josefsson, Anders
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Ledningssektionen (Ledn).
    Anderson, Joseph
    United States Army.
    Norlander, Arne
    Marcusson, Björn
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Operativa avdelningen (OPA), Sektionen för operativa funktioner (OpFunk).
    Mission Command when waging cyber operations2019Ingår i: 24th International Command and Control Research & Technology Symposium (ICCRTS), International Command and Control Institute , 2019, Vol. Topic 2Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The conditions for military operations have changed due to many things and the cyber-related challenges associated with these conditions require more attention. Many cyber activities are conducted under other circumstances than conventional war that is called the grey zone between peace and war. The objective of this paper is to explore the conditions for mission command when conducting cyber operations. The distinction between war and peace has blurred and adversaries, both state and non-state, threaten the stability in many western countries. Mission command can be seen both as a philosophy and as a method. The fundamental principles for mission command as a philosophy are trust, intent focus, initiative and common ground. This paper discusses if the conditions for Mission Command have changed and are applicable while conducting different types of cyberspace operations and that offensive and defensive cyber operations imply different conditions for Mission Command. The conclusion is that Mission Command as a philosophy is still relevant, but it has to be supported by a comprehensive Command and Control (C2)-Method that is flexible and able to vary between Direct Control and Mission type Control. The C2 Method should be complemented with a dynamic and adaptive control policy for different types of cyber actions. The paper also suggests a holistic model for Dynamic Command that considers both the situations need for action and the Mission Systems C2-needs.

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  • 31.
    Laestadius, Nils
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    Påverkansfaktorer i pansarduellen: människans roll i bekämpningskedjan2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker tekniska och mänskliga faktorer som påverkar tiden för en skytt att upptäcka, identifiera och nedkämpa ett mål på markarenan. Uppsatsen lägger fram förslag på vilka åtgärder ur tekniskt- och utbildningshänseende som kan åtgärdas för att spara tid vid ett bekämpningsförlopp.

    Många strider mellan stridsfordon sker på korta håll i snabba situationer, duellstrider. Stridsavståndet är framtaget från simulerade strider från hela Sverige och är i medeltal så kort som 300 m. Skytten kan med siktets sensor under goda väderleksförhållanden identifiera ett 2,3 m högt mål på 1520 m men kan under svårare förhållanden som i dimma få problem att identifiera motsvarande mål på stridsavstånd under 300 m. Detta tillsammans med sannolikheten att träffa målet på grund av systemspridning och val av riktpunkt gör att verkan kan vara svår att utvärdera och därmed finns risk att skytten fortsätter och bekämpar med risk för överbekämpning av målet som i sin tur leder till tidsförluster och minskad förmåga hos chefer att agera.

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att studera bekämpningsförloppet för att bygga upp kunskap inom området, för att kunna förstå var det går att optimera. Denna optimering skall sedan leda till att minska tiden från upptäckt till att målet är nedkämpat.

    Resultatet av undersökningen visar att den beprövade erfarenheten som återfinns i Försvarsmaktens handböcker och reglementen är väl avvägd men saknar referenser så att spårbarheten är bristfällig. Resultatet visar också att om skjutregler följs så kommer motståndaren att kunna nedkämpas med tillräcklig verkan. Dock så är det beroende på var i målet träffen tar. I front kommer det vara svårt att observera verkan medans träffar i sida leder till brand i stor utsträckning. Skytten kan vara tvungen att skjuta upp till åtta skott för att nedkämpa ett stridsfordon beroende på skjutavstånd och riktpunkt i målet.

    Med detta resultat så rekommenderas att det sker en fortsatt undersökning om vilka algoritmer som kan stödja en bildförbättrande optronik. Fusion av sensorer och eldledningssystemet bör undersökas för att hitta lösningar som gör det möjligt att prediktera eldmoment automatiskt för att snabba upp bekämpningskedjan.

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  • 32.
    Liwång, Hans
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska tillämpningar (MteT).
    Exposure, vulnerability and recoverability in relation to a ship's intact stability2019Ingår i: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 187, artikel-id 106218Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Intact stability describes a ship's stability in waves to avoid incidents. Operational safety measures are an important aspect of a holistic safety approach for intact stability. The aim of this study is to provide a structure of the relationship between key elements of the intact stability risk concept. Such a structure has implications for risk assessment and risk management. The developed structure is discussed in relation to the proposed second generation intact stability criteria, which highlights how the measures relate to safety. The definitions are also analyzed in relation to seven incidents. Operational decisions and the human element are shown to have strong ties to exposure, vulnerability and recoverability. However, the results herein show that the interdependency between risk and operational decisions differ between the three areas; the effective measures are thus different. The actual exposure, vulnerability and recoverability for a ship is not known nor can it be fully assessed. However, all three aspects of intact stability safety must be considered in a structured manner to reach a cost effective intact stability.

  • 33.
    Liwång, Hans
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska tillämpningar (MteT).
    Risk level in peacetime Swedish naval operations: Meta lessons identified2018Ingår i: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, Vol. 2018, nr 1, s. 160-180Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    2010 ändrade marinen definitionen av geografiska områden för säker fart för re-spektive fartygsklass, d v s fartområden. Den nya regeln baseras på ett EU-direktiv för civila passagerarfartyg. Här beskriven utredning undersöker säkerhetseffekten av denna regel i förhållande till säkerhetsnivån i marinens verksamhet 1990–2015. Utredningen följer the International Maritime Organization (IMO:s) process för en Formal Safety Assessment (FSA). Risken i marinens verksamhet under perioden har inte varit försumbar, men analysen visar också att regeln som definierar farty-gens fartområden inte leder till säkerhetshöjningar som står i proportion till dess operativa kostnad. Identifierade lärdomar innebär att en FSA kan visa om en regel påverkar säkerhetsnivån som tänkt och hur den i övrigt påverkar verksamheten. Speciellt belyses behovet av att kunna analysera föreslagna bestämmelser i termer av säkerhetseffekt, men också i termer av lämplighet i förhållande verksamheten i stort.

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  • 34.
    Liwång, Hans
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska tillämpningar (MteT).
    Rosén, Anders
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A framework for investigating the potential for operational measures in relation to intact stability2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the 13th International conference on stability of ships and ocean vehicles / [ed] Naoya Umeda, Toru Katayama, Atsuo Maki, Kobe, 2018, s. 488-499Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Operational safety measures are an important aspect of a holistic safety approach for intact stability. With the aim to facilitate and further investigate potential operational measures this researchaims to describe a framework for prioritizing intact stability issues suitable for being addressed withoperational safety measures. The proposed framework identifies that there are different potentialsand uncertainties in relation to operational safety measures dependent on the operation type understudy. It is demonstrated that there is not one solution that facilitates operational measures and thereliability of potential measures varies.

  • 35.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    Conditions and success factors for companies in international arms collaboration2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report discusses what factors and conditions that support a successful implementation of international defence materiel collaboration. It is based on the analysis of a eight multilateral collaborations, with Sweden as a partner in six of them.

    Since the mid-1990s, international defence materiel collaboration has represented an increasingly large share of European nations’ defence procurement. This development is likely to continue. As a framework for future decisions concerning international defence materiel collaboration, an analysis is needed regarding how such collaboration between defence companies actually is implemented. The specific purpose of the report is therefore:

    • To identify factors that influence the accomplishment of international defence materiel collaboration between companies

    The report is based on eight case studies of international defence materiel collaboration: Iris-T, Joint Strike Fighter, Meteor, MidCas, Neuron, NFR-90, Taurus, and Viking.

    Based on the analysis, the findings are:

    -          The main conclusions are that international collaboration between companies has a greater probability of a successful outcome if: companies view the collaboration as being strategic; companies have experience of previous collaboration between them; and one single company has the lead in the collaboration.

    -          Factors that shape the conditions, but do not have a direct influence on operations, are for example: the products’ degree of innovation, the number of participating companies and the number of participating states.

    Based on these results we recommend decision makers in the concerned ministries and authorities to analyse before engaging in international defence materiel collaboration:

    -          the concerned companies’ incentives for collaborating;

    -          if companies have shared strategic goals for the collaboration;

    -          if the companies are on a similar level of technology, and;

    -          to demand that one single company has the lead in the collaboration.

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    Conditions and success factors for companies in international arms collaboration
  • 36.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    The development of the Swedish defence technology complex2013Ingår i: Export Voorusheny, nr No 1, s. 20-29Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 37.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    The Gripen Fighter: Present and Future Flight2019Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The article describes the present development and status regarding the Swedish fighter aircraft Gripen.

  • 38.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    The Swedish defence industry: drawn between globalization and the domestic pendulum of doctrine and governance2019Ingår i: The Economics of the Global Defence Industry / [ed] Hartley, Keith & Belin, Jean, New York: Routledge, 2019, 1, s. 290-311Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 39.
    Lundmark, Martin
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    Amann, Daniel
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska tillämpningar (MteT).
    Dansarie, Marcus
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska tillämpningar (MteT).
    Löfgren, Lars
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    Sturesson, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    Technology Forecast 2018: Military Utility of Future Technologies2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary

    Four technology forecast reports from the Fraunhofer Institute and two reports from the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) have been reviewed by staff at the Military Technology Division at the Swedish Defence University (SEDU). The task given by the Defence Materiel Administration (FMV) was to assess the military utility of the given technologies in a timeframe up to the year 2040, from a Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) perspective.

    In the review, we assess the military utility of certain technologies as possible contributions to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, based on identified and relevant scenarios.

    The technologies are grouped into four classes of military utility: potentially significant, moderate, negligible or uncertain.

    The following technologies were assessed to have the potential for significant military utility:

    • Rapid field      identification of harmful microorganisms
    • Hypersonic      propulsion

     

    The following technologies were assessed to have a potential for moderate military utility:

    • Non-line-of-sight      imaging
    • Artificial      intelligence for military decision support

     

    The following technologies were assessed to have uncertain military utility:

    • Structural      energy storage
    • Triboelectric      nanogenerators

     

    No technology was found to have negligible military utility.

    The method used in this technology forecast report was to assign each report to one reviewer in the working group. Firstly, each forecast report was summarized. A new methodological step this year was for each reviewer to discuss the assigned technologies with researchers from FOI. This proved to be a valuable enhancement for understanding the technologies’ present state and likely future development.

    The chosen definition of military utility clearly affects the result of the study. The definition used here, ‘the military utility of a certain technology is its contribution to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, within identified relevant scenarios’ has been used in our Technology Forecasts since 2013.

    Our evaluation of the method used shows that there is a risk that assessments can be biased by the participating experts’ presumptions and experience from their own field of research. It should also be stressed that the six technologies’ potential military utility was assessed within the specific presented scenarios and their possible contribution to operational capabilities within those specific scenarios, not in general. When additional results have been found in the analysis, this is mentioned.

    The greatest value of the method used is its simplicity, cost effectiveness and that it promotes learning within the working group. The composition of the working group and the methodology used are believed to provide a broad and balanced coverage of the technologies being studied. This report should be seen as an executive summary of the research reports and the intention is to help the SwAF Headquarters to evaluate the military utility of emerging technologies within identified relevant scenarios.

    Overall, the research reports are considered to be balanced and of high quality in terms of their level of critical analysis regarding technology development. These reports are in line with our task to evaluate the military utility of the emerging technologies.

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  • 40.
    Lundmark, Martin
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    Andersson, Kent
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    Bull, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska tillämpningar (MteT).
    Dansarie, Marcus
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska tillämpningar (MteT).
    Technology Forecast 2019 – Military Utility of Future Technologies: A report from seminars at the Swedish Defence University’s (SEDU) Military Technology Division2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Four technology forecast reports from the Fraunhofer Institute and two reports from the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) have been reviewed by staff at the Military Technology Division at the Swedish Defence University (SEDU). The task given by the Defence Materiel Administration (FMV) was to assess the military utility of the given technologies in a timeframe up to the year 2040, from a Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) perspective. The assessment centred on 5G has the perspective 2030, due to the rapid development of telecommunication standards.

    In the review, we assess the military utility of certain technologies as possible contributions to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, based on identified and relevant scenarios.

    The technologies are grouped into four classes of military utility potential: significant, moderate, negligible or uncertain.

    The following technology was assessed to have a potential for significant military utility:

    • Cognitive Radar

    The following technology was assessed to have a potential for moderate military utility:

    • 5G technologies in military applications

    The following technology was assessed to have an uncertain potential military utility:

    • Multi-Domain UxS

    The following technologies were assessed to have negligible military utility.

    • Blockchains
    • Optical Atomic Clocks

    The method used in this technology forecast report was to assign each report to one reviewer in the working group. Firstly, each forecast report was summarized. A new methodological step this year was for each reviewer to discuss the assigned technologies with researchers from FOI. This proved to be a valuable enhancement for understanding the technologies’ present state and likely future development.

    The chosen definition of military utility clearly affects the result of the study. The definition used here, ‘the military utility of a certain technology is its contribution to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, within identified relevant scenarios’ has been used in our Technology Forecasts since 2013.

    Our evaluation of the method used shows that there is a risk that assessments can be biased by the participating experts’ presumptions and experience from their own field of research. It should also be stressed that the six technologies’ potential military utility was assessed within the specific presented scenarios and their possible contribution to operational capabilities within those specific scenarios, not in general. When additional results have been found in the analysis, this is mentioned.

    The greatest value of the method used is its simplicity, cost effectiveness and that it promotes learning within the working group. The composition of the working group and the methodology used are believed to provide a broad and balanced coverage of the technologies being studied. This report should be seen as an executive summary of the research reports and the intention is to help the SwAF Headquarters to evaluate the military utility of emerging technologies within identified relevant scenarios.

    Overall, the research reports are considered to be balanced and of high quality in terms of their level of critical analysis regarding technology development. These reports are in line with our task to evaluate the military utility of the emerging technologies.

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    Technology Forecast 2019
  • 41.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    A Comparison of two Books on Systems of Systems2014Ingår i: Le Libellio, ISSN 1269-8644, E-ISSN 2268-1167, ISSN 2268-1167, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 59-60Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this text is to carry out a comparative analysis of the general features regarding System of Systems (SoS) in the books System of Systems Engineering: Innovations for the Twenty-First Century (Jamshidi, 2009) and Systems of Systems (Luzeaux & Ruault, 2010).

  • 42.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    A Review of the Book Systems of Systems 2014Ingår i: Le Libellio, ISSN 1269-8644, E-ISSN 2268-1167, ISSN 2268-1167, Vol. 0, nr 3, s. 55-57Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This review consists first of a brief description of the general features of Systems of Systems (SoS) through the book Systems of Systems by Luzeaux & Ruault (2010). The review then continues to address Chapter 4, written by Ruault (2010) on Human Factors within the context of SoS.

  • 43.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    Are Systems of Systems a New Reality?2014Ingår i: Le Libellio, ISSN 1269-8644, E-ISSN 2268-1167, ISSN 2268-1167, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 47-54Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 44.
    Malmio, Irja
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    Styrning i samverkan: Översikt2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samverkan är ett svårfångat fenomen med många olika definitioner där det övergripandemålet är ”att arbeta tillsammans mot ett gemensamt mål eller för ett gemensamt syfte”(Svedin, 2015 s. 101). Termen beskrivs ofta som ett idealt tillstånd (Carlström & Berlin,2009) men innebär i realiteten inneboende intressekonflikter där strävan efter att skapa engemensam målbild kan innebära en konkurrenssituation (Uhr, 2011). Den modernakrishanteringen utgår i grunden från de beroendeförhållanden, kontakter och densamverkan som redan existerar mellan civila och militära organisationer under normalaförhållanden, och är därför beroende på hur pass väl utvecklade kontakter de olika aktörernahar med varandra före en kris uppstår (Bharosa, 2009; MSB 2014; Veibäck et. al, 2017).Denna text syftar till att ge läsaren en överskådlig bild av ett mycket komplext och brettämne, med olika möjliga teoretiska infallsvinklar. Texten inleder med en kortare redogörelseför olika relevanta teoretiska begrepp som kopplas ihop med styrning i samverkan i aktuellforskning som skett i anslutning till civil-militära relationer i internationella insatser,forskning som belyser social-psykologiska faktorer, samt forskning som har gjorts påoffentlig förvaltning (Svedin, 2009). Det övergripande temat för texten är styrning isamverkan där områden som behandlas är; ledarskap vilket fokuserar på styrning isamverkan, ledarskapsparadoxen samt ledarskapets kritiska faser. Därefter följerinformationsdelning i samverkan som ett rent funktionellt perspektiv påsamverkansstyrning. Sedan följer ett avsnitt som tittar på samverkansituationen utifrån ettsocial-psykologiskt perspektiv. Övergripande handlar dessa studier om den mänskligatendensen att kategorisera människor genom social stereotypisering (Allport, 1954.Fördomar uppstår genom social identifikation (Ashforth & Mael, 1989 ) som uppstår i olikakulturella miljöer. Avsnittet tittar även på förtroende och kontroll som är komplimenterandefaktorer (Costa & Bijlsma-Frankema, 2007), ju mer förtroende organisationer har förvarandra desto mindre kontroll behöver de utöva och vice versa. Texten avslutas med attlyfta tillit och socialt kapital som nödvändiga komponenter för en lyckadsamverkansstyrning.

  • 45.
    Marcus, Carina
    et al.
    Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden; Linköpings Universitet, Sweden.
    Andersson, Kent
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS). National Defence University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Åkerlind, Christina
    Försvarets Forskningsinstitut, FOI, Sweden; Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Balancing the radar and long wavelength infrared signature properties in concept analysis of combat aircraft – A proof of concept2017Ingår i: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 71, s. 733-741Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing combat aircraft with high military effectiveness, affordability and military suitability requires balancing the efforts of many engineering disciplines during all phases of the development. One particular challenge is aircraft survivability, the aircraft's ability to avoid or withstand hostile actions. Signature management is one way of increasing the survivability by improving the ability to avoid detection. Here, the long-wave infrared and radar signatures are studied simultaneously in a mission context. By establishing a system of systems approach at mission system level, the risk of sub optimization at a technical level is greatly reduced. A relevant scenario is presented where the aim is to incapacitate an air-defense system using three different tactics: A low-altitude cruise missile option, a low and medium altitude combat aircraft option. The technical sub-models, i.e. the properties of the signatures, the weapons and the sensors are modeled to a level suitable for early concept development. The results from the scenario simulations are useful for a relative comparison of properties. Depending on the situation, first detection is made by either radar or infrared sensors. Although the modeling is basic, the complexity of the infrared signature and detection chain is demonstrated and possible pivot points for the balancing of radar and IR signature requirements are identified. The evaluation methodology can be used for qualitative evaluation of aircraft concepts at different design phases, provided that the technical models are adapted to a suitable level of detail.

  • 46.
    Pede, Elena
    et al.
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    Alvinius, Aida
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    The Potential of Proactive Role of Citizens: Geo-information and communication technology in crisis management2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 47.
    Persson, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Division of Microsystems Technology, Uppsala, Sweden; Uppsala University, Ångström Space Technology Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berglund, Martin
    Uppsala University, Division of Microsystems Technology, Uppsala, Sweden; Uppsala University, Ångström Space Technology Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Khaji, Zahra
    Uppsala University, Division of Microsystems Technology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS). Uppsala University, Division of Microsystems Technology, Uppsala, Sweden; Uppsala University, Ångström Space Technology Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Söderberg, Johan
    Uppsala University, Division of Microsystems Technology, Uppsala, Sweden; Uppsala University, Ångström Space Technology Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University, Division of Microsystems Technology, Uppsala, Sweden; Uppsala University, Ångström Space Technology Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Optogalvanic spectroscopy with microplasma sources: Current status and development towards a lab on a chip2016Ingår i: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 26, nr 10, artikel-id 104003Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Miniaturized optogalvanic spectroscopy (OGS) shows excellent prospects for becoming a highly sensitive method for gas analysis in micro total analysis systems. Here, a status report on the current development of microwave-induced microplasma sources for OGS is presented, together with the first comparison of the sensitivity of the method to conventional single-pass absorption spectroscopy. The studied microplasma sources are stripline split-ring resonators, with typical ring radii between 3.5 and 6mm and operation frequencies around 2.6 GHz. A linear response (R2 = 0.9999), and a stability of more than 100 s are demonstrated when using the microplasma source as an optogalvanic detector. Additionally, saturation effects at laser powers higher than 100 mW are observed, and the temporal response of the plasma to periodic laser perturbation with repletion rates between 20 Hz and 200 Hz are studied. Finally, the potential of integrating additional functionality with the detector is discussed, with the particular focus on a pressure sensor and a miniaturized combustor to allow for studies of solid samples.

  • 48.
    Pettersson, Ulrica
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Ledningssektionen (Ledn).
    Uhr, Christian
    Department of Risk Management and Societal Safety, Lund University, Sweden.
    Who Commands Whom?: A Discussion on Bottom-up Behavior and its Consequencesin Military Influenced First Response Organizations2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The rationale behind this paper is to explore and conceptualize the dynamics taking place when bottom-up influenced management meets top-down influenced management in spontaneous reactive first response operations. We employ an interdisciplinary approach based on theoretical perspectives from Systems science, Command & Control science, and Disaster sociology.

    In order to stimulate a discussion on theoretical gaps and practical challenges, a model illustrating what we call Command & Control dynamics in spontaneous reactive operations is suggested. The model is applied as a conceptual tool for analyzing the response of the Swedish Police to a terror attack in Stockholm 2017. Both primary data from interviews and secondary data from official investigations are utilized as a basis for the analysis.

    We then continue the analytical discussion regarding Command and Control dynamics, and suggest that spontaneous reactive operations give rise to quite different prerequisites for Command & Control compared to planned operations. There is a risk that both academic and practical discussions on how to improve capability do not acknowledge these differences.

    Spontaneous reactive operations are likely to initially generate strong bottom-up influences in the Command & Control arrangement of a single organization. Initial decision makers will make rapid decisions and generate a direction that the superior commanders, who are not present from the beginning of the operation, must adapt to. We argue that the intent of the subordinates “restrict” the solution space for commanders on higher levels. Furthermore, we argue that in a spontaneous reactive response there is no specific Commander’s Intent from the start, only a doctrine. This leads us to suggest that the idea on mission tactics in civil operations must be problematized.

  • 49.
    Rydmark, Joacim
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Ledningssektionen (Ledn).
    Till nytta eller skada när klockan tickar?: Om effekter av att presentera osäkerhet i riskbeskrivningar i tidskritiska beslutssituationer2019Ingår i: Ledning och samverkan i kris och krig: Slutrapport 2016-2018 / [ed] Schüler, Martin, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2019, 1, s. 79-91Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Framgångsrik insatsledning vid kriser och i krigssituationer kräver förmåga att fatta beslut i rätt tid i siutationer som präglas av både osäkerhet, komplexitet samt olika former av risker. Syftet med forskningen i detta delprojekt har varit att öka kunskapen om hur osäkerhet påverkar riskrelaterat beslutsfattande i tidskritiska beslutssituationer. I följande kapitel redogörs för tre empiriska studier som undersöker om metoden att presentera osäkerhet i riskbeskrivningar, genom att använda så kallade sannolikhetsintervaller, kan leda till fördröjningar i beslutsprocessen och därmed utgöra ett problem för ledningsprocessens kvalitet i tidskritiska beslutssituationer.

  • 50.
    Sigholm, Johan
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS). Sloan School, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Falco, Gregory
    CSAIL, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA; FSI, Stanford University, USA.
    Viswanathan, Arun
    NASA Jet Proplusion Laboratory, Caltech, USA.
    Enhancing Cybersecurity Education through High-Fidelity Live Exercises (HiFLiX)2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE conference proceedings, 2019, s. 7553-7562Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The people responsible for building the IT products and infrastructure of tomorrow – today’s students of the computing disciplines – oftentimes do not have the opportunity or proper motivation to develop cybersecurity skills meeting the needs of the job market. This paper introduces High Fidelity Live eXercises (HiFLiX) a teaching/learning activity designed to expose students to cybersecurity challenges resembling those they could face in a future work environment. We describe a HiFLiX prototype study, conducted as a collaboration between the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s CyberSecurity@CSAIL research group and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Our analysis indicates that the proposed delivery method met the stipulated cybersecurity educational outcomes and increased the motivation for future cybersecurity studies in the majority of participants. Two previously unknown software flaws were also discovered.

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