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  • 1.
    Bjarnesen, Mariam
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Hybrid security governance in Liberia in the aftermath of UN intervention2023In: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What can we expect in terms of security governance in targeted states as international peacebuilding interventions and security sector reform ends? Can we assume that years of reform and capacity building will result in formal security institutions whose function alone can explain stability or instability, sustainable peace or relapses into violence, or even war? In 2018, the United Nations ended its peacekeeping mission in Liberia. Celebrated as a success and role model for future undertakings, scrutinising the UN narrative may appear as a natural starting point for analysing Liberia’s relative stability. Yet, in the Liberian case, formal performance reviews will never be sufficient. This paper, with a conceptual point of departure in theories of hybrid security governance, recognises the continued entangled nature of formal and informal security provision in Liberia. It argues that post-intervention narratives of success should not keep us from assessing security beyond formal state capacity. Instead, holistic approaches are key to understand security governance as non-state security providers are, for better or worse, likely to remain relevant despite years of reform and capacity building.

  • 2.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University; Department of Economic History and International Relations, Stockholm University (SWE).
    Nilsson, Desirée
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University (SWE).
    Sundberg, Ralph
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Conceptualizing Civil War Complexity2023In: Security Studies, ISSN 0963-6412, E-ISSN 1556-1852, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 137-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Civil wars that appear to observers to be the most complex—even using a colloquial understanding of the concept—are also those that seem to register the most intense fighting, the most prolonged spells of war, and the most resistance to durable conflict resolution. But what does it really mean for a civil war to be complex? We currently lack a concept of “civil war complexity” that can help us better understand the most important variations in civil wars across time and space. To address this gap we develop a conceptualization of “civil war complexity” consisting of three dimensions—“actor complexity,” “behavior complexity,” and “issue complexity”—and demonstrate how they manifest empirically. We also highlight this conceptualization’s utility—and the danger of overlooking it—through the case of Darfur. This conceptualization paves the way for a new research agenda that explores how civil wars differ in terms of their complexity, the causes and consequences of civil war complexity, and how to refine conflict resolution techniques and strategies.

  • 3.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Defence and Security: Festschrift in Honour of Tomas Ries2022Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Försvar i takt med tiden: De svenska och finländska Natomedlemskapen och den nya nordflanken2023In: Om kriget kommer: Hot, beredskap och försvar / [ed] Anders Frankson, Stockholm: Lind & Co , 2023, p. 26-44Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Gästredaktörens förord2023In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 125, no 3, p. 511-517Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 6.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    La Svezia nella Nato cambia l'ecuazione Baltica2022In: Limes – Rivista Italiana de Geopolitica, ISSN 1124-9048, no 5, p. 101-104Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Natos forskning2023Report (Other academic)
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  • 8.
    Christiansson, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Tema: kriget i Ukraina: Statsvetenskaplig tidskrift Vol. 125 No. 3 (2023)2023Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Danielsson, Anna
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Military Geographies of Urban Space and War2023In: Oxford Bibliographies in Geography / [ed] Barney Warf, Oxford University Press, 2023Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Danielsson, Anna
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Minecraft as a technology of postwar urban ordering: The situated-portable epistemic nexus of urban peacebuilding in Pristina2023In: Territory, Politics, Governance, ISSN 2162-2671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I argue that a ‘situated-portable epistemic nexus’ characterizes postwar urban peacebuilding. The concept captures how knowledge in urban peacebuilding is produced by/productive of discursive and material conditions that are both, and simultaneously, situated in a particular urban environment and transnationally emergent and circulating. I illustrate this argument in an analysis of an urban peacebuilding project in postwar Pristina, Kosovo, that relied on the computer game Minecraft as the main technology. Despite a heterogeneous group of actors involved, and a primacy devoted to local perspectives, the at-once-situated and globally portable discourses, technologies and artefacts of the Pristina project conditioned the production of a relatively narrow urban knowledge and space that formed around a purely visual conception of the urban – overall limiting what the situated urban was and could become.

  • 11. Druelle, Laurie
    et al.
    Siniciato Terra Garbino, Henrique
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Mellado Åhlin, Eric
    Mine Action and the Reintegration of Former Combatants: Expanding the Debate2022In: Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction, ISSN 2469-7575, E-ISSN 2469-7605, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 24-29, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decades, humanitarian mine action (HMA) and disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) processes have increasingly been recognized as essential to paving the way for sustainable development thanks to their contributions towards human security, livelihood, and access to services. The integration between the two processes, however, has not yet been fully addressed in the literature or practice. This paper seeks to identify areas where DDR and HMA intersect and, supported by anecdotal evidence, suggest a conceptual framework for future research and implementation. Most importantly, we hope to widen the debate on the potentially synergic relationship between HMA and DDR, flag possible fallacies or oversimplifications, and challenge solely “top-down” approaches.

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  • 12.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Political Science and Law, Political Science Division.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Comparative Strategy – A New Framework for Analysis2023In: Comparative Strategy, ISSN 0149-5933, E-ISSN 1521-0448, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 80-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars of Strategic Studies have seldom problematized the concept of military strategy beyond identifying the three elements constituting the phenomenon, that is ends, means and ways. Moreover, we see a need for contextualizing the presumably universal conceptualization of military strategy. This article contributes to previous research by operationalize each of the three elements one-step further, thereby introducing an analytical framework for systematic comparisons of states’ different priorities regarding military strategy. Additionally, in order to explain these different priorities, the proposed analytical framework introduces tools related to both relative power and position in the international system, and to regional systems and unit-level characteristics. The usefulness of the analytical framework is illustrated by a summary of some of our findings from a research project on comparative strategy including more than 30 states.

  • 13.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Political Science and Law, Political Science Division.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Enighetens gränser: Konsensus eller konfrontation vid utformningen av den svenska försvarspolitiken?2023In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 125, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Political Science and Law, Political Science Division.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Military Strategies of the New European Allies: A Comparative Study2022Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book analyses how and to what extent ex-communist states have adjusted their defence strategies since joining the EU and NATO, and how differences and similarities between their strategies can be explained.

    Between 1999 and 2013, four phases of enlargement took place when the European Union (EU) and NATO allowed 11 new former communist states to enter both organisations. These states share some common attributes and experiences related to strategic culture and common experiences during the Cold War era that can potentially explain similarities in behaviour and preferences among them. However, the strategic adjustments among these states are far from uniform. In an effort to explain these differences, the book introduces three intervening variables: (1) differences in relative power and position in the international system, (2) national geographical characteristics; and (3) historical experiences related to formative periods of state-building processes as well as wars and armed conflicts. Empirically, the book strives to present and analyse the defence strategies of each of the new allies by conducting a structured focused comparison of official strategic documents from the twenty-first century for each of the 11 cases. Theoretically and methodologically, it introduces an analytical framework enabling us to explain both similarities and differences in the formulation of the strategies of the 11 states, and to shed light on their external and internal efforts to promote their strategic interest by operationalising the dependent variable - defence strategy. The analytical framework combines elements of structural realism with classical realism, and constructivist research on unit-level characteristics related to relative power and perceptions of strategic exposure.

    This book will be of much interest to students of strategic studies, European Union policy, NATO and International Relations in general.

  • 15.
    Eidenfalk, Joakim
    et al.
    University of Wollongong, (AUS).
    Doeser, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Integrating Strategic Culture and the Operational Code in Foreign Policy Analysis2023In: Foreign Policy Analysis, ISSN 1743-8586, E-ISSN 1743-8594, Vol. 19, no 1, article id orac032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contributes to theoretical integration in foreign policy analysis, by integrating two explanatory concepts that have mainly been used separately, namely the strategic culture of elites and the operational code of individual decision-makers. The explanatory power of using both concepts is illustrated in a case study of Australian foreign policy regarding the multinational coalition against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria. The main argument is that strategic culture can provide a reasonable explanation for Australia's overall military engagement in the coalition. However, to explain Australia's approach to the coalition, strategic culture must be complemented with the operational code. The article suggests that the character of strategic culture can influence the opportunities for decision-makers to have an individual impact on foreign policy.

  • 16.
    Ekman, Lisa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Military Duty during Mission Deployment: Exploring Local Relations and Dynamics of Cohesion—The Case of Swedish Troops2023In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores contemporary understandings of military duty and dynamics of cohesion during deployment with a focus on host–citizen relations. Duty is treated as a perception-based dynamic construct shaped, in part, by operational experiences. Traditionally, Western military duty is defined by conventional obligations of loyalty to the military unit and mission in the context of combat operations, in these ways linked to military cohesion. However, in response to increasingly “population-oriented” military operations, I argue the need to broaden the study of military duty and cohesion beyond interpersonal bonds of the military organization to include the role of host–citizen relations. In-depth interviews with Swedish service members reaffirm the centrality of conventional duty to the mission and military unit, yet also indicate varying levels and forms of obligations to local actors. Overall, understandings of duty matter to cohesion both as a unifying force and source of tension within the mission.

  • 17.
    Ekman, Lisa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Partnering to protect? UN mission leadership and civil-military relations: Research findings and policy implications2023Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Ford, Matthew
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Ukraine, Participation and the Smartphone at War2023In: Political Anthropological Research on International Social Sciences (PARISS), ISSN 2590-3284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitisation is redefining the battlefield. Whereas once only soldiers and embedded journalists had privileged access to the battlefield, now war is everywhere, brought to us by civilians and their smartphones. People produce, publish and consume media on the same device. They can be at the frontlines or on the other side of the world. Digital individuals may willingly participate in war or they may participate by virtue of being connected to the grid. In this sense it is participative in that everyone has the potential to be involved through the data they create. This produces dynamic information flows that amplify and accelerate both war and its representation bringing the relationship between the military targeting and media production cycles into alignment. In the process, the bystander has been removed from war and instead collapsed the relationship between audience and actor, soldier and civilian, media and weapon.

  • 19.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    War, Survival Units, and Citizenship: A Neo-Eliasian Processual-Relational Perspective, by Lars Bo Kaspersen, Routledge, 20202022In: Contemporary Sociology, ISSN 0094-3061, E-ISSN 1939-8638, Vol. 51, no 6Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Worlds of Uncertainty: War, Politics and Projects for Order2023Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years we have faced huge uncertainty and unpredictability across the world: Covid-19, political turbulence, climate change and war in Europe, among many other events. Through a historical analysis of worldviews, Peter Haldén provides nuance to the common belief in an uncertain world by showing the predictable nature of modern society and arguing that human beings create predictability through norms, laws, trust and collaboration. Haldén shows that, since the Renaissance, two worldviews define Western civilization: first, that the world is knowable and governed by laws, regularities, mechanisms or plan, hence it is possible to control and the future is possible to foresee; second, that the world is governed by chance, impossible to predict and control and therefore shocks and surprises are inevitable. Worlds of Uncertainty argues that between these two extremes lie positions that recognize the principal unpredictability of the world but seek pragmatic ways of navigating through it.

     Argues that the co-existence, conflict and co-constitution of two principally contradictory worldviews are what define and shape modern Western cultureAims to decrease the anxiety and uncertainty many people feel about the world and provide a realistic picture of how much they can control and overcome crisesOffers added value to military students, analysts and planners who will become more aware of the activities in which they are engaged and of the limits and possibilities within different ways of thinking

  • 21.
    Hamann, Eduarda
    et al.
    Brazilian Research Network on Peace Operations (REBRAPAZ), (BRA); Fundação Getúlio Vargas, (BRA).
    Siniciato Terra Garbino, Henrique
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    O preparo de civis para operações de paz da ONU: A experiência brasileira no "Exercício Viking"2022In: Azul da cor da paz? Perspectivas e debates sobre as operações de paz da ONU / [ed] Geraldine Rosas Duarte, Letícia Carvalho, Belo Horizonte: PUC Minas, 2022, p. 405-431Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In current multidimensional peacekeeping operations, UN civilian staff perform core substantive tasks, from facilitating peace processes to organising elections and from monitoring human rights abuses to reforming the security sector. Moreover, Special Political Missions and Good Offices Engagements are civilian-only peace operations dedicated to conflict prevention, peacemaking, and post-conflict peacebuilding. Still, the training of civilian staff lags behind their military and police counterparts. There are very few available courses and training opportunities, as well as standardized training materials. In this book chapter, we discuss how civilian training can be improved. In particular, we build on Brazil’s recent experiences at Exercise Viking – the largest multidimensional simulated exercise in the world – and suggest that greater integration with existing, often military, training infrastructure may be the way forward.  

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  • 22.
    Harig, Christoph
    et al.
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, (DEU).
    Jenne, Nicole
    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, (CHL).
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Operational experiences, military role conceptions, and their influence on civil-military relations2022In: European Journal of International Security, ISSN 2057-5637, E-ISSN 2057-5645, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A considerable amount of research within security studies has explored the military’s increasingly diverse and multifaceted tasks. However, this debate has been disconnected from the literature on civil-military relations to the effect that we still lack knowledge about how and why these operational tasks have consequences for the relations between the armed forces, civilian authorities, and society at large. In order to provide for a better understanding of these effects, this introduction to the Special Issue debates the concept of operational experiences to capture how the military’s routine activities affect the equilibria, logics, and mechanisms of civil-military relations. The article then provides an overview of the Special Issue’s six contributions, whose diverse and global perspectives shed light on different aspects of the relationship between military missions and the military’s roles in society and politics. Among other factors, they highlight role conceptions - the military’s shared views on the purpose of the institution - as crucial in shaping the dynamic relation between what the military does and what place it occupies within the state and society. The article concludes by describing potentially fruitful areas of future research.

  • 23.
    Harig, Christoph
    et al.
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, (DEU).
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Knocking on the barracks’ door: How role conceptions shape the military’s reactions to political demands2022In: European Journal of International Security, ISSN 2057-5637, E-ISSN 2057-5645, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 84-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Academic research on civil-military relations often assumes that dangers for democracy and civilian control mainly emanate from the military’s predisposition of ‘pushing’ its way into politics. Yet, civilian control frequently is a precondition for governments’ moves of ‘pulling’ the military into roles that may potentially be problematic. These can include the military’s involvement in political disputes or internal public security missions. Notwithstanding its empirical relevance, little academic work has been devoted to understanding how ‘pulling’ works. In this article, we aim to provide a first, exploratory framework of ‘pulling’ that captures the dynamics of the military’s reactions and indirect consequences for civil-military relations. We identify three analytically distinct phases in which pulling occurs. First, politicians initiate either operational or political pulling moves. Second, we situate the military’s reaction on a spectrum that ranges from refusal to non-conditional compliance. This reaction is driven by the military’s role conceptions about appropriate missions and their relation to politics. In a third phase, the military may slowly start shifting its role conceptions to adapt to its new roles. We illustrate our argument with case studies of two different instances of pulling: operational pulling in the case of France (2015-19) and operational - then-turned-political - pulling in the case of Brazil (2010-20).

  • 24.
    Honig, Jan Willem
    et al.
    Netherlands Defence Academy, Breda, (NLD), King’s College London, (GBR).
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    An Exemplary Defeat: The West in Afghanistan, 2001-20212023In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 989-1000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Western defeat in Afghanistan was due to an inadequate process of strategic reflection informed, first, by an overestimation of the attractiveness of the Western political agenda to Afghans and, second, by overconfidence in the effectiveness of its military approach. As a corollary, popular support for the Taliban was underestimated. The insurgents possessed a degree of what we term strategic cohesion-a sociopolitical and military embeddedness within society-that produced a far stronger strategic effectiveness than we could replicate in our Afghan allies. Furthermore, a military-professional mindset underestimated the degree to which political considerations permeated the battlefield. The political effect of military actions was insufficiently integrated into strategic practice. Specifically, the linchpin officer in staff planning and field operations in Western armies struggled to act as what we term strategic colonels. In both respects, the war continues to offer important lessons for Western involvement in future conflict, including with Russia and China.

  • 25.
    Karlén, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Proxy War Termination2023In: Routledge Handbook of Proxy Wars / [ed] Assaf Moghadam; Vladimir Rauta; Michel Wyss, Routledge, 2023, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most research to date has focused on understanding why states use proxies and the impact this indirect conflict strategy has had on various conflict dynamics. Much less thought has been devoted to the more pressing and policy-relevant question of what makes some proxy relationships endure while others break down. In this chapter, I review relevant research on this topic and present a framework that outlines various ways in which proxy relationships are terminated.

  • 26.
    Karlén, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Rauta, Vladimir
    University of Reading (GBR).
    Dealers and Brokers in Civil Wars: Why States Delegate Rebel Support to Conduit Countries2023In: International Security, ISSN 0162-2889, E-ISSN 1531-4804, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 107-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    External state support to non-state armed groups is commonly seen as a direct relationship between a state sponsor and a rebel group. But powerful states often use third-party states as conduits of military aid. These intermediary states are secondary, subordinate principals that are part of extended chains of “dual delegation.” Because intermediaries are likely to have their own separate agendas, powerful states often face a double principal-agent problem when providing material support to rebel groups. The difficulties and problems associated with controlling the agent are reflected in the relationship between the principal and the intermediary. States need to identify the alignment of interests at an early stage, or risk strategic failure. There are two ideal types of intermediaries—dealers and brokers. Case studies of the United States’ support to the Mujahideen in Afghanistan and to UNITA in Angola (channeled through Pakistan and Zaire, respectively) demonstrate that intermediaries affect the provision of external support. States engaging in counterterrorism need to look beyond sponsors of terrorism and explore the role of all states involved in the process of conflict delegation. That states use intermediaries when providing support to non-state armed groups indicates that holding states accountable for violating the nonintervention principle under international law should be reconsidered.

  • 27.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division. School of Social Sciences, Södertörn University, Stockholm, (SWE).
    Ambiguity and Methodological Transparency in the Study of Civil War: An Answer to Themner’s ‘Lingering Command Structures’ in Liberia2022In: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, E-ISSN 1743-968X, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 524-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers who study civil wars and other armed conflicts are bound to face ambiguities. This article continues the discussion about research brokers in conflict zones that started in a 2019 special issue of Civil Wars and scrutinises the finding that Liberian wartime command structures continue to linger in informal guises long to the post-conflict. Absent transparent acknowledging of the ambiguities it glosses over, past scholarship risks a far too neat story that imbues arguments with untested assumptions. The result neither captures the complexity of contemporary realities of Liberian former combatants nor helps Liberia to move forward from its difficult past.

  • 28.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Culture and Ethnography in Understanding the War in Ukraine2022Other (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Explaining the Finnish – and Swedish – Ascent to NATO2023In: Social Anthropology, ISSN 0964-0282, E-ISSN 1469-8676, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 134-137Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    ‘Once a combatant, always a combatant’? Revisiting assumptions about Liberian former combatant networks2022In: Journal of Modern African Studies, ISSN 0022-278X, E-ISSN 1469-7777, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 23-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on 15 months of ethnographic fieldwork, this article draws from military sociology to revisit past portrayals of Liberian former combatant networks and assesses four central assumptions connected to them: that formal wartime command structures continue as informal networks long after the end of the war; that former combatants are united by a wartime identity and form a community to an extent separated from the surrounding society; that wartime experiences have had a major disciplining effect on former combatants; and that former combatants are both good mobilisers and easy to mobilise in elections and armed conflict alike. Finding limited evidence close to two decades after the end of war to support these assumptions, I ultimately ask whether it would be more productive to both theory and Liberians alike to widen investigation from former combatants to structural issues that affect many more in the country.

  • 31.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Sodan teoria ja Venäjän sota Ukrainassa 2013–20222023In: Finnish Review of East European Studies, ISSN 1237-6051, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 4-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory of war and Russia’s war in Ukraine 2013–2023

    Why is it easier to recognise Russia’s large-scale invasion of Ukraine in February 2022 as war in comparison to the fighting in Donbas that begun in the spring of 2014? The simplest answer to the question can be found in our way of understanding war as large-scale interstate violence to disarm our opponents, as envisaged in the earlier works of Carl von Clausewitz. Until 2022, the war in Ukraine was considered too limited, and because of its politics, ambi-guous. This resulted in the passivity of Western countries. Theoretically, attempts were made to add prefixes to war to distinguish it from the “traditional” war described above. However, Clausewitz’s unfinished theory is contradictory: war can be understood to constitute both violence and politics. Clausewitz’s later theory allows an understanding of war as a broader and more political phenomenon. The modern concept of strategy – which focuses on the relationship between goals, means and ways – also derives from Clausewitz. Clausewitz’s theory emphasises war as a political instrument. His theory consists of concepts that form an analytical framework which can be used to understand, and ultimately win, wars. Various concepts of war are used in a chronological analysis of the situation in Ukraine, which spans from the end of 2013 to early 2023.

  • 32.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    The utility of ethnography for understanding (the Russo-Ukrainian) war2022In: HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory, ISSN 2575-1433, E-ISSN 2049-1115, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 677-685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Russo-Ukrainian war raises the question about the utility of ethnography in understanding interstate war. As anthropologyand sociology have historically punched below their weight when it comes to understanding interstate war and warfare, much ofthe academic study of war has been occupied by political science. In this article I discuss why this is unfortunate, yet not inev-itable. I also discuss three strengths of ethnography in studying war. First, ethnography helps us to restore ambiguity into po-larized understandings of war. Second, ethnography can assist us in understanding strategy because of its focus on people andthe societies we constitute. Third, ethnography helps with the ethical responsibility of giving war a human face. I conclude byarguing that war is too important to be left to generals and political scientists, but that this is inevitable if ethnographers con-tinue to distance themselves from the study of war.

  • 33.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Kankainen, Ville
    Tampere University, (FIN).
    On Wargames and War: Modeling Carl von Clausewitz's Theory of War2023In: Representing Conflicts in Games: Antagonism, Rivalry, and Competition / [ed] Björn Sjöblom, Jonas Linderoth, Anders Frank, London: Routledge, 2023, p. 75-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stated purpose of Carl von Clausewitz’s magnum opus On War, in which he presented the most comprehensive theory of war to date, was educational. Clausewitz saw that proper education departed from theory and concepts, which students were encouraged to reflect over and clarify. Although their common use in pedagogy, wargames often continue to struggle with incorporation of the seven factors always present at war in Clausewitz’ theory – violence, friction, chance, politics, trinity, victory and ethics. As a result, many games offer a rather conventional understanding of war that does not match reality. This chapter investigates how Clausewitz’s theory of war has been modelled in two popular ‘commercial-off-the-shelf’ tabletop wargames: Twilight Struggle and Paths of Glory. Based on an analysis of how the seven concepts of war have been modelled in these games, the chapter discusses how Clausewitz’s theory of war can be used to improve the pedagogy of war.

  • 34.
    Larsson Gebre-Medhin, David
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Kriget i Tigray: Är fred möjligt?2022Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Meier, Vanessa
    et al.
    Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Oxford, (GBR).
    Karlén, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Pettersson, Therése
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, (SWE).
    Croicu, Mihai
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, (SWE).
    External support in armed conflicts: Introducing the UCDP external support dataset (ESD), 1975–20172023In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 545-554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we present the most up-to-date, fine-grained, global dataset on external support in armed conflicts: theUCDP External Support Dataset (ESD). The dataset encompasses data on states and non-state actors as bothsupporters and recipients and provides detailed information on the type of support provided to warring parties inarmed conflicts between 1975 and 2017. We use it to highlight three broader trends in the provision of externalsupport: (1) a dramatic increase in the number of external supporters, (2) a larger share of pro-government interventions, and (3) the rise of direct military intervention as the predominant mode of external support. In conclusion,we identify several avenues worthy of future inquiry that could significantly improve our understanding of externalsupport in armed conflicts. 

  • 36.
    Michaels, Jeffrey H.
    et al.
    Institut Barcelona d’Estudis Internacionals, Barcelona, (ESP).
    Ford, Matthew
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Grand Strategy or Grant Strategy? Philanthropic foundations, strategic studies and the American Academy2023In: Journal of Strategic Studies, ISSN 0140-2390, E-ISSN 1743-937X, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 764-786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between Strategic Studies and the American academy has always been a tenuous one. Tolerated when fully funded, the field quickly lost its place on campus when it failed to attract grant money. Only with the support of philanthropic foundations did it manage to gain a foothold in American universities. What emerges from our investigation is how the field has feasted during times when foundation money was available and suffered periods of famine when these funds were withdrawn. In addition, we show that during and immediately after the Cold War, the political interests of philanthropic foundations were broadly balanced. By contrast, over the last two decades, the field has been increasingly linked to financial support provided by politically right-leaning foundations. This is happening while funding from more centrist and left-leaning foundations has become much less prominent. When looking ahead at the field’s future health, we cannot but help be concerned about the implications of this development.

  • 37.
    Passarelli Hamann, Eduarda
    et al.
    REBRAPAZ, (BRA).
    Siniciato Terra Garbino, Henrique
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    A participação de civis em treinamentos conjuntos para operações de paz: O patamar alcançado pelo Brasil no Exercício Viking 20222023In: A participação do Brasil no Exercício Viking (2022): Considerações para futuras simulações sobre operações de paz / [ed] Eduarda Passarelli Hamann and Guilherme Dias, Rio de Janeiro: Brazilian Network on Peace Operations , 2023, p. 118-126Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Brazil, for at least 15 years, civilians have participated in a series of training sessions for UN peacekeeping operations, generally organized by military personnel. Most of the time, this participation has been secondary. In 2022, Brazil once again hosted a remote site of Exercise Viking: this is an international mega-training, assisted by computer, which aims to prepare civilians, police and soldiers to be deployed in missions by international organizations in unstable contexts, including peacekeeping operations. By describing the participation of civilians in this Exercise and comparing it with the previous edition, from 2018, the article aims to demonstrate that, in contrast to the participation of civilians in other trainings in Brazil, Viking 22 broke with the existing paradigm by offering a opportunity to insert civilians in joint training, thus becoming an important precedent for future exercises on peace operations.

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  • 38.
    Puumala, Eeva
    et al.
    Tampere University, (FIN).
    Vastapuu, Leena
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division. Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Kynsilehto, Anitta
    Tampere University, (FIN).
    Muuttuva maailma ja Ukrainan sodan globaalit ulottuvuudet2022In: Kosmopolis, ISSN 1236-1372, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 3-7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Rietjens, Sebastiaan
    Netherlands Defence Academy, (NLD).
    Meaning making in peacekeeping missions: mandate interpretation and multinational collaboration in the UN mission in Mali2023In: European Journal of International Relations, ISSN 1354-0661, E-ISSN 1460-3713, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 53-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peacekeeping helps to prevent conflict and to protect civilians. But how does it work to achieve those aims? Notwithstanding a growing recognition that peacekeeping mandates alone do not directly determine what actually happens in the field, we still know little about how-once deployed-military units translate an ambiguous mandate into action. In this paper, we focus on one dimension of peacekeepers’ behavior that has become increasingly important, namely, how peacekeepers relate to other military units with whom they are supposed to implement their mandate. We systematically document how mandate interpretations emerge and how they influence peacekeepers’ understanding of other troops they work with. Central to this is peacekeepers’ meaning making, a concept we borrow from the sociological literature, which refers to the common and human process through which individuals give meaning to their surrounding context. Drawing on nearly 120 interviews with peacekeepers deployed to the United Nations (UN) mission in Mali (2014-2019), we identify three different ways by which peacekeepers interpret their mandate and interact with other contingents: Voltaire’s garden; building bridges; and othering. Acknowledging peacekeepers’ agency and the social dimension of peacekeeping has important implications for both scholarly and policy debates.

  • 40.
    Siniciato Terra Garbino, Henrique
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Measuring restraint against humanitarian norms: the case of landmines and similar explosive devices2023Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Why are some non-state armed groups more violent than others? Why do some groups resort to inhumane means and methods of war while others restrain from doing so? In trying to answer these questions, a growing number of scholars and practitioners have focused on the drivers of restraint behaviour. However, defining and measuring restraint can be challenging. In this post, Henrique Garbino, Doctoral Candidate at the Swedish Defence University, discusses how we can define and measure restraint focusing on the use of landmines and similar explosive devices by non-state armed groups. This post is based on Henrique’s recent article, “Rebels Against Mines? Legitimacy and Restraint on Landmine Use in the Philippines,” published in Security Studies on 23rd June 2023. 

  • 41.
    Siniciato Terra Garbino, Henrique
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    O processo de elaboração de incidentes em exercícios multidimensionais2023In: A participação do Brasil no Exercício Viking (2022): Considerações para futuras simulações sobre operações de paz / [ed] Eduarda Passarelli Hamann and Guilherme Dias, Rio de Janeiro: Brazilian Network on Peace Operations , 2023, p. 41-50Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Joint training is usually cited as a possible solution to the lack of coordination and cooperation between the various actors present in the area of a peace operation. Exercises are an opportunity to promote mutual understanding, trust, cooperation and interoperability among organizations, including civilian, law enforcement and military. Ironically, planning such exercises is itself a coordination and cooperation challenge. This article explores the multidimensional exercise planning process and offers advice on incident design. The recommendations deal with the composition of the planning team, the definition of participants and training objectives, the interaction between participants and between different levels, the multidimensional nature of the exercise and prioritizing the quality, not quantity, of incidents.

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  • 42.
    Siniciato Terra Garbino, Henrique
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Protecting the innocent, the land, and the body: traditional sources of restraint on landmine use2023Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What drives restraint in armed conflict? Recent studies have examined different factors contributing to restraint behaviour, mainly focusing on strategic incentives, such as seeking legitimacy from international audiences or securing support from local communities. In this post, Henrique Garbino, Doctoral Candidate at the Swedish Defence University, and Matthew Bolton, Professor at Pace University, explore, instead, how traditional humanitarian norms protecting the innocent, the land, and the body may influence restraint on the use of landmines and similar explosive devices. They conclude that we should not perceive such norms as inadequate alternatives to international humanitarian law; instead, they may serve as a basis for extending global norms beyond the existing laws of war.

  • 43.
    Siniciato Terra Garbino, Henrique
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Rebels against mines? Legitimacy and restraint on landmine use in the Philippines2023In: Security Studies, ISSN 0963-6412, E-ISSN 1556-1852, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 505-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rebels have become the most prolific users of landmines but still display significant variation in how they employ and restrict the weapon’s use. This article argues that how rebels exercise restraint on landmine use depends on which audiences they rely on most. In a comparative case study of three Philippine rebel groups—the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, the Abu Sayyaf Group, and the New People’s Army—this article highlights three main findings. First, rebels reliant on voluntary compliance from local communities are more likely to limit the effects of landmines on their perceived constituency. Second, when rebels have conciliatory relations with the government, they are more likely to comply with national law, reciprocate government behavior, and limit the effects of landmines on the government’s constituents. Finally, rebels seeking legitimacy from human-rights-conscious foreign sponsors are more likely to comply with international law related to landmine use. 

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  • 44.
    Sundberg, Ralph
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Svensk försvarsvilja är höljd i dunkel2022Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Vastapuu, Leena
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division. Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Beans, Bullets and Bandages? Gendered and Racialised Othering in the Depiction of Military Support WorkIn: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, E-ISSN 1743-968XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combat Service Support (CSS) refers to the direct and indirect sustainment services to the soldiers and units (potentially) engaged in combat activities. In the Global North militaries support work is called CSS and considered vital for the armed forces, while support work in ‘irregular’ forces of the Global South is rarely addressed, apart from feminist research. Through intersectional reading, I suggest that this discrepancy can be best explained by gendered and racialised forms of othering where ‘feminine’ care work (the first other) and ‘irregularity’ (the second other) are mutually reinforcing. Drawing on interview data with Oretha, as well as other Liberian CSS specialists, I show the practical implications of this form of (double-)othering in war and its aftermath.

  • 46.
    Vastapuu, Leena
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division. Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Functions and Perspective Division.
    Lyytikäinen, Minna
    University of Helsinki, (FIN).
    Gender Equality in Finnish Foreign Affairs from 2019 to 2022: Independent study commissioned by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reviews the ways in which Finland has promoted gender equality in its foreign affairs from January 2019 to October 2022. Drawing from expert interviews and document analysis, it examines policy and programmes across all areas of Finnish foreign policy. In addition, it undertakes a case study of Sweden and Spain, two countries that have exercised explicitly Feminist Foreign Policy (FFP) in recent years, and compares these findings to the baseline analysis of Finland. The results indicate that Finland has incorporated gender equality to some extent in all areas of foreign policy, and most effectively so in the areas of development cooperation and human rights policy. Finland has also reached gender parity in diplomatic leadership as well as near parity among experts seconded to civilian crisis management missions. However, Finland’s traditional security and defence policies in particular suffer from gender amnesia, which is well demonstrated in the recent policy documents related to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, and Finland’s ensuing NATO accession process in the spring of 2022.

    When gender equality is included in security policy, such as in the Women, Peace and Security Agenda, or in diplomatic efforts outside the human rights policy realm, Finland’s predefined priorities of sexual and reproductive health and rights, gender-based violence, disability inclusion and intersectionality are only rarely referred to. Instead, gender equality is promoted in more narrow terms primarily by increasing women’s participation through gender balancing. This is understandable since Finland does not currently have a clear strategy to guide its international gender equality efforts.The case studies of Sweden and Spain suggest that while adopting an explicit FFP has transformative potential, it is not a magic bullet if not planned and implemented with utmost care. At the same time, the adoption process provides a window of opportunity for governments to redefine and sharpen their gender equality policies in foreign affairs, as well as reinforce coordination efforts with other governmental actors and with civil society.

    Finland’s strong reputation and expertise in gender equality provides it with an excellent opportunity to develop a transformative and intersectional foreign policy, whether named as feminist or not. If backed with the necessary financial and human resources, and a carefully drafted dissemination strategy, it has all the possibilities to create something innovative and new. This is important in today’s polarised world, where gender equality, women’s rights, and human rights norms are under continuous attack.

  • 47.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    How small states manage to stay out of wars: Explaining Sweden’s 200 Years of Peace2022In: 200 years of peace: New perspectives on modern Swedish foreign policy / [ed] Nevra Biltekin, Leos Müller, Magnus Petersson, New York: Berghahn Books, 2022Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Svenska säkerhetsstrategier: Från neutralitetspolitik till ansökan om Natomedlemskap2023 (ed. tredje)Book (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of War Studies and Military History, Strategy Division.
    Seger och nederlag i Ukrainakriget2023In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 125, no 3, p. 669-692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Who will win the war in Ukraine? For centuries the outcome of war has been described in terms of victory and defeat. Since the Russian invasion began in February 2022, scores of articles in the daily press have touched on the issue of the Ukraine war. At the same time, an increasing number of analysts and scholars argue that the concepts victory/defeat are not the most adequate to describe the outcomes of several modern wars. It is empirically rare with unequivocal outcomes where one side unconditionally surrenders and war almost never follows a clear template. Superpowers are seemingly defeated by poor developing countries and planned blitzkrieg operations get stuck in the mud and lack of maintenance. At the same time, it is easy to see that there is a significant interest for the parties involved in a war to continue using the concepts victory/defeat because one of the few things that can legitimize the enormous costs of that war is precisely victory. In this text, the outcome of the Ukraine war – as it looks like in early 2023 – is analyzed according to Johnson and Tierney’s model of the so-called score-keeping and match-fixing.

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