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  • 1.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Institutional influence on assessments: the institutional analysis and development framework applied to military intelligence2018In: The International Journal of Intelligence, Security, and Public Affairs, ISSN 2380-0992, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 47-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can we understand intelligence assessments and intelligence work? The intelligence literature offers several plausible causes of failures and the consequences of such failures. However, there is a direct lack of theories or frameworks that connect these variables, that is, there is an incomplete understanding of both how those variables interact and their underlying mechanisms. Failures as such do only give one part of the picture. Why intelligence succeed is equally if not more important to understand. The military intelligence service from an institutional perspective may help to give this understanding.

    This study connects these variables with Ostrom’s Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework, which yields a model to understand the mechanisms of institutional on the assessment and lays a foundation for a common terminology. The study uses the Swedish military intelligence institution active in Afghanistan between 2008 and 2012 as a case.

  • 2.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Military intelligence analysis: institutional influence2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligence is vital for the outcome of battles. As long as humans wage war, there will be a need for decision support to military and civilian leaders regarding adversaries or potential adversaries. However, the production of intelligence is neither easy nor without pitfalls. There is a need to better understand the predicaments of intelligence analysis.

    Intelligence is bureaucratically produced as well as socially constructed and created in a distinct cultural context. The ‘institution’ captures these three aspects of influence. Therefore, with a particular focus on military intelligence, this thesis aims to deepen the understanding regarding institutional influence on intelligence assessments. The literature regarding intelligence has grown steadily over the last three decades. However, theories and frameworks aimed to understand the phenomenon are still sparse. This is even more true for literature regarding contemporary military intelligence. This thesis intends to contribute to bridging these research gaps. This is done by studying the Swedish military intelligence institution from several different perspectives: its rules-in-use, shared beliefs, and the incoming stimuli primarily related to conducting threat assessments.

    More precisely the thesis investigates the use of quantitative methods, doctrines (i.e. the formal rules), and shared beliefs connected to epistemological assumptions and threat assessments. The main contribution of this thesis is that it establishes and describes a casual link between a military intelligence institution and an assessment, by drawing upon rulesin-use and belief systems and their effect on the mental model and consequently the perception of the situation connected to a cognitive bias, and thereby its effect on a given assessment. The thesis makes an effort to render intelligence studies more generalizable, by way of adopting the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework. The metatheoretical language of the IAD is a promising avenue for explaining and describing the institutional influence on intelligence assessments.

  • 3.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    Univ Southern Queensland, Deputy Vice Chancellors Off Res & Innovat, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;Univ Southern Queensland, Fac Hlth Engn & Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Sustainable Dev Environm Sci & Engn, KFH Internat Groundwater Arsen Res Grp, Teknikringen 76, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Maity, Jyoti Prakash
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;Natl Chung Cheng Univ, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, 168 Univ Rd, Min Hsiung 62102, Chiayi County, Taiwan..
    Mushtaq, Shahbaz
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Vithanage, Meththika
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;Natl Inst Fundamental Studies, Chem & Environm Syst Modeling Res Grp, Kandy 20000, Sri Lanka..
    Seneweera, Saman
    Univ Southern Queensland, Ctr Crop Hlth, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Schneider, Jerusa
    Univ Estadual Campinas, Sch Civil Engn Architecture & Urban Design, Sanitat & Environm Dept, BR-11308388 Campinas, SP, Brazil..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Sustainable Dev Environm Sci & Engn, KFH Internat Groundwater Arsen Res Grp, Teknikringen 76, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Khan, Nasreen Islam
    Australian Natl Univ, Coll Med Biol & Environm, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.;Int Rice Res Inst, GIS Social Sci Div, Los Banos 4031, Laguna, Philippines..
    Hamawand, Ihsan
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Guilherme, Luiz R. G.
    Fed Univ Lavras UFLA, Dept Soil Sci, Campus Univ,Caixa Postal 3037, BR-37200000 Lavras, MG, Brazil..
    Reardon-Smith, Kathryn
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Parvez, Faruque
    Columbia Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Environm Hlth Sci Mailman, 722 West 168th St, New York, NY 10032 USA..
    Morales-Simfors, Nury
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Ghaze, Sara
    Univ Southern Queensland, Fac Hlth Engn & Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Pudmenzky, Christa
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Kouadio, Louis
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Chen, Chien-Yen
    Natl Chung Cheng Univ, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, 168 Univ Rd, Min Hsiung 62102, Chiayi County, Taiwan..
    Medical geology in the framework of the sustainable development goals2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 581, p. 87-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to geogenic contaminants (GCs) such as metal(loid)s, radioactive metals and isotopes as well as transuraniums occurring naturally in geogenic sources (rocks, minerals) can negatively impact on environmental and human health. The GCs are released into the environment by natural biogeochemical processes within the near-surface environments and/or by anthropogenic activities such as mining and hydrocarbon exploitation as well as exploitation of geothermal resources. They can contaminate soil, water, air and biota and subsequently enter the food chain with often serious health impacts which are mostly underestimated and poorly recognized. Global population explosion and economic growth and the associated increase in demand for water, energy, food, and mineral resources result in accelerated release of GCs globally. The emerging science of "medical geology" assesses the complex relationships between geo-environmental factors and their impacts on humans and environments and is related to the majority of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals in the 2030 Agenda of the United Nations for Sustainable Development. In this paper, we identify multiple lines of evidence for the role of GCs in the incidence of diseases with as yet unknown etiology (causation). Integrated medical geology promises a more holistic understanding of the occurrence, mobility, bioavailability, bio-accessibility, exposure and transfer mechanisms of GCs to the food-chain and humans, and the related ecotoxicological impacts and health effects. Scientific evidence based on this approach will support adaptive solutions for prevention, preparedness and response regarding human and environmental health impacts originating from exposure to GCs.

  • 4.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI); Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS).
    Cohen, Mika
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    What can we learn from enterprise architecture models?: An experiment comparing models and documents for capability development2018In: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 695-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise architecture (EA) has been established as a discipline to cope with the complex interactions of business operations and technology. Models, i.e., formal descriptions in terms of diagrams and views, are at the heart of the approach. Though it is widely thought that such architecture models can contribute to improved understanding and decision making, this proposition has not rigorously been tested. This article describes an experiment conducted with a real EA model and corresponding real traditional documents, investigating whether the model or the documents lead to better and faster understanding. Understanding is interesting to study, as it is a prerequisite to other EA uses. The subjects (N = 98) were officer cadets, and the experiment was carried out using a comprehensive description of military Close Air Support capability either (1) in the form of a MODAF model or (2) in the form of traditional documents. Based on the results, the model seems to lead to better, though not faster, understanding.

  • 5.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Risk level in peacetime Swedish naval operations: Meta lessons identified2018In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, Vol. 2018, no 1, p. 160-180Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2010, the Swedish Navy introduced a new rule re-defining the sea area of safe operation for respective classes of naval vessels. The new rule is based on an EU directive developed for civilian passenger ships. The described investigation examines the safety effects of this rule in relation to the safety level in the Swedish Navy. The investigation is conducted in accordance with the process defined by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in the Formals Safety Assessment (FSA). The identified risk levels are compared to risk criteria from civilian shipping and to criteria developed specifically for the Swedish Navy with approaches as defined by the IMO. In the period studied, there have been safety issues leading to higher than negligible risks. However, the proactive analysis shows that the examined approach for limiting the sea areas of safe operations for the Swedish Navy is not cost effective. The lessons identified is that an analysis such as this can show if a regulation affects safety in the manner intended and if there are other means by which the regulation affects operations. An approach such as the FSA is useful and is also needed for organizations outside the traditional focus of the IMO. The investigation particularly highlights the need for an approach for analyzing the proposed safety changes in terms of both effectiveness and suitability. In general, it is therefore concluded that the proactive perspective of the FSA investigation can unearth principal aspects of how a rule affects the operation studied.

  • 6.
    Liwång, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Rosén, Anders
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    A framework for investigating the potential for operational measures in relation to intact stability2018In: / [ed] Naoya Umeda, Toru Katayama, Atsuo Maki, Kobe, 2018, p. 488-499Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operational safety measures are an important aspect of a holistic safety approach for intact stability. With the aim to facilitate and further investigate potential operational measures this researchaims to describe a framework for prioritizing intact stability issues suitable for being addressed withoperational safety measures. The proposed framework identifies that there are different potentialsand uncertainties in relation to operational safety measures dependent on the operation type understudy. It is demonstrated that there is not one solution that facilitates operational measures and thereliability of potential measures varies.

  • 7.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Hult, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Command and Control Section.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    von Gerber, Carl
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Technology Forecast 2017 - Military Utility of Future Technologies: A Report from Seminars at the Swedish Defence University’s (SEDU) Military-Technology Division2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two technology forecast reports from the Fraunhofer Institute, three reports from the Swedish Defence Research Institute (FOI) and two publications from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have been reviewed by staff at the Military-Technology Division at the Swedish Defence University (SEDU). The task given by the Defence Material Administration (FMV) was to assess the military utility of the given technologies in a time frame to up 2040, from a Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) perspective.

    In the review we assessed the military utility of certain technologies as possible contributions to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, based on identified and relevant scenarios. Because a new capability catalogue is under development at the SwAF Headquarters, this report only presents general assessments of the capability impact of the technologies studied.

    The technologies were grouped into four classes: potentially significant, moderate, negligible, or uncertain military utility.

    The classification uncertain military utility was given to technologies that are difficult to put in the other three classes, it was not because the technology readiness level (TRL) will not bereached by 2040.

    The following technologies were assessed to have the potential for significant military utility:

    - Nanocarbons for photonic applications

    The following technologies were assessed to have a potential for moderate military utility;

    - Internet of things (IoT)

    - Materials and technologies for protection against chemical agents

    The following technologies were assessed to have uncertain military utility;

    - Post-quantum cryptography

    - New applications for hyperspectral image analysis for chemical and biological agents

    No technology was found to have negligible military utility.

    The method used in this technology forecast report was to assign each report to one reviewer in the working group. Firstly, each forecast report was summarized. The Fraunhofer assessment of technical readiness level (TRL) in the time period was held to be correct. Each technology was then put into one or more scenarios that were assessed to be suitable for assessing the military utility as well as indicating any possibilities and drawbacks. Based on a SWOTanalysis, the assessed contributions to the fundamental capabilities, and to the factors DOTMPLFI (Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Leadership, Personnel, Facilities and Interoperability), were listed. Furthermore, the expected SwAF R&D requirements, to facilitate the introduction of the technology are given. The Military utility was assessed using a model developed by the Military-Technology Division. Finally, conclusions and an overall rating of the potential military utility of each technology were presented.

    The chosen definition of military utility clearly affects the result of the study. The definition used here (“the military utility of a certain technology is its contribution to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, within identified relevant scenarios”) has been used in our Technology Forecasts since 2013.

    Our evaluation of the method used shows that there is a risk that assessments can be biased by the participating experts’ presumptions and experience from their own field of research. It should also be stressed that the seven technologies’ potential military utility was assessed within the specific presented scenarios and their possible contribution to operational capabilities within those specific scenarios, not in general. When additional results have been found in the analysis, this is mentioned.

    The greatest value of the method used is its simplicity, cost effectiveness and that it promotes learning within the working group. The composition of the working group and the methodology used are believed to provide a broad and balanced coverage of the technologies being studied. This report should be seen as an executive summary of the research reports and the intention is to help the SwAF Headquarters to evaluate the military utility of emerging technologies within identified relevant scenarios.

    Overall, the research reports are considered to be balanced and of high quality in terms of their level of critical analysis regarding technology development. These reports are in line with our task to evaluate the military utility of the emerging technologies.

  • 8.
    Sturesson, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    On the Applicability and Military Utility of Microsystems in Military Jet EnginesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Vatsel, Soames
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Laestadius, Nils
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Martinsson, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Lindh, Jens
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Lärobok i militärteknik - exempelsamling: Problem och övningsbok med ledningar2018Book (Other academic)
1 - 9 of 9
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