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  • 1.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    A Case study report on signature engineering: The SEP multipurpose armored vehicle and the Visby class corvette2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report is to present consolidated results from case studies of the development processes of the SEP multipurpose armored vehicle and the Visby class corvette respectively.

    The report is intended as an annex to a journal article named “Key requirements in the procurement of future Low Observable combat vehicles: A European perspective” published in the journal of Systems Engineering in 2017.

    Results filtered from interviews and document reviews are presented based on the structure of the Friedman-Sage framework (Friedman & Sage, 2004) for case studies on systems engineering. Firstly, data collected from the two case studies are presented and then the lessons identified consistent with both cases. The sources, an overview of the two cases studied and the application of the framework are described in the journal article.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Key requirements in the procurement of future low observablecombat vehicles: a European perspective2018In: Systems Engineering, ISSN 1098-1241, E-ISSN 1520-6858, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 3-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to propose guidelines for the systems engineering of future stealth combat vehicles using Low Observable Technology (LOT). A case study approach, based on interviews and document reviews, was used to analyze the systems engineering processes of the SEP multirole armored vehicle and the Visby class corvette respectively. The result is a thorough investigation of what worked in the cases studied, butwith lessons extrapolated into recommendations for future development programs. These will have to deal with an increasingly complex sensor threat and a transformed, multilateral, European procurement environment. The main conclusion is that coherence and traceability between military needs on the battlefield and signature requirements is expected to be particularly challenging. A workflow tailored for requirements analysis in LO combat vehicle programs has, therefore, been derived and is presented here. In addition, themost important enablers for future multilateral development programs involving LOT have been identified as: establishing common best practices, demonstrator programs, an integrated product team approach, and, in line with similar work on combat aircraft, establishing stealth as a key architectural  principle.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    On the Military Utility of Spectral Design in Signature Management: a Systems Approach2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ongoing duel between military sensor development and developments in signature management. The last decade, with warfare characterized by joint expeditionary operations and asymmetry, has favored sensors. However, on account of the worsening security situation in Europe, there is now also an increasing interest in efforts to increase survivability of own military platforms. Spectral design is one of several promising technologies with extensive research potentially suitable for Low Observable platforms. It involves creating desired spectral optical responses from surfaces, in this case reducing contrast to background, by choosing suitable materials and structures. The challenge to a military decision-maker, faced with inherent uncertainties concerning the future and with limited resources, is how to choose among alternative capabilities, technologies or equipment. Correspondingly, on account of the system character of the signature attribute, researchers in technologies for signature management has difficulties communicating relevant basis for these decisions. The scope of this thesis is therefore to find and analyze patterns in decision situations involving technology or technical systems for military use, and the purpose is to propose conceptual and methodological contributions to support future decisionmaking. The technology focus is on spectral design and the application in focus is signature management of Low Observable military platforms. The research objective is addressed from a military system and capability centric perspective using methods from several disciplines in the military sciences domain. The result is synthesized from four separate studies: 1) on spectral design using systematic review of literature, 2) on military utility using a concept formation method, 3) on modeling for how to operationalize a link between spectral design and measures of military utility using methods of military operations research, and, 4) on cases of systems engineering of military Low Observable platform designs. In summary, the result of the work presented in this thesis is a compilation of related work in military sciences, systems engineering and material optics into a framework to support effective decision-making in relevant contexts. The major contribution to theory is a proposed concept called Military Utility, capturing how to communicate the utility of technical systems, or technology, in a military context. It is a compound measure of Military Effectiveness, Military Suitability and Affordability. Other contributions can be expected to support decision-making in practice; - the so-called Ladder-model is a template for how to quantitatively operationalize the military effectiveness dimension of Military Utility regarding the use of spectral design; - an applied Ladder-model is demonstrated, useful for analyzing the military utility of spectral designs in Low Observable attack aircraft; - a probabilistic framework for survivability assessments is adopted into a methodology for doing the analysis, and lastly; - a generic workflow is identified, from relevant development programs, including decision-situations that can benefit from the adopted methodology.

  • 4.
    Axelson, Mattias
    et al.
    FOI.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Olsson, Per
    FOI.
    Öhrn-Lundin, Josefin
    FOI.
    Förutsättningar för undervattensförmåga - dagens resurser och morgondagens effekter2018Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Institutional influence on assessments: the institutional analysis and development framework applied to military intelligence2018In: The International Journal of Intelligence, Security, and Public Affairs, ISSN 2380-0992, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 47-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can we understand intelligence assessments and intelligence work? The intelligence literature offers several plausible causes of failures and the consequences of such failures. However, there is a direct lack of theories or frameworks that connect these variables, that is, there is an incomplete understanding of both how those variables interact and their underlying mechanisms. Failures as such do only give one part of the picture. Why intelligence succeed is equally if not more important to understand. The military intelligence service from an institutional perspective may help to give this understanding.

    This study connects these variables with Ostrom’s Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework, which yields a model to understand the mechanisms of institutional on the assessment and lays a foundation for a common terminology. The study uses the Swedish military intelligence institution active in Afghanistan between 2008 and 2012 as a case.

  • 6.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Military intelligence analysis: institutional influence2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligence is vital for the outcome of battles. As long as humans wage war, there will be a need for decision support to military and civilian leaders regarding adversaries or potential adversaries. However, the production of intelligence is neither easy nor without pitfalls. There is a need to better understand the predicaments of intelligence analysis.

    Intelligence is bureaucratically produced as well as socially constructed and created in a distinct cultural context. The ‘institution’ captures these three aspects of influence. Therefore, with a particular focus on military intelligence, this thesis aims to deepen the understanding regarding institutional influence on intelligence assessments. The literature regarding intelligence has grown steadily over the last three decades. However, theories and frameworks aimed to understand the phenomenon are still sparse. This is even more true for literature regarding contemporary military intelligence. This thesis intends to contribute to bridging these research gaps. This is done by studying the Swedish military intelligence institution from several different perspectives: its rules-in-use, shared beliefs, and the incoming stimuli primarily related to conducting threat assessments.

    More precisely the thesis investigates the use of quantitative methods, doctrines (i.e. the formal rules), and shared beliefs connected to epistemological assumptions and threat assessments. The main contribution of this thesis is that it establishes and describes a casual link between a military intelligence institution and an assessment, by drawing upon rulesin-use and belief systems and their effect on the mental model and consequently the perception of the situation connected to a cognitive bias, and thereby its effect on a given assessment. The thesis makes an effort to render intelligence studies more generalizable, by way of adopting the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework. The metatheoretical language of the IAD is a promising avenue for explaining and describing the institutional influence on intelligence assessments.

  • 7.
    Belin, Jean
    et al.
    Chaire Economie de défense.
    Hartley, Keith
    University of York.
    Lefeez, Sophie
    IRIS.
    Linnenkamp, Hilmar
    SWP.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Masson, Hélène
    FRS.
    Maulny, Jean-Pierre
    IRIS.
    Ungaro, Alessandro
    IAI.
    Defence industrial links between EU and US2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission’s initiatives in the field of armament should lead to a deeper integration of European DTIBs in the coming years. In parallel, the links between European and American DTIBs take the form of technological and armament cooperation, and of capital links between European or American companies. This report aims at analysing the links between the US DTIB and the EU DTIB, and the consequences these links carry on cooperation between European DTIBs.

    These links vary by country. France has strived to preserve its strategic autonomy when developing its DTIB. Its technological and capability-related reliance on the United States has thus remained limited. Nonetheless, cooperation is sought when it is mutually beneficial while French companies seek to invest in the US market, as do other European DTIBs.

    The German DTIB was rebuilt belatedly after World War II, partly on the basis of French-German cooperation. German industry is now privatised and the scope of the German DTIB’s partnerships has widened to other European countries and to the US. The German supply chain is now well established in American armament programmes.

    The Italian DTIB has consistently pursued a policy of active cooperation, whether with the US or with EU member states. Links with the US have notably been built in the context of NATO and through bilateral agreements. In parallel, Italy has developed partnerships with European countries. Rome’s cooperation policy is thus inclusive, and has considered diverse factors such as political links, capability requirements, the need to develop certain technologies and to preserve industrial capabilities and jobs in Italy.

    The British DTIB has historically enjoyed deeper links with US industry, as a result of the cultural closeness between the UK and the US, and of the strategic proximity that dates back to the end of World War II. The links between US and UK DTIBs thus follow a model of strategic partnership. Nevertheless, the UK’s industrial and defence policy is also pursued within a European framework. The missile manufacturer MBDA is nowadays considered as the deepest model of transnational industrial and defence integration in Europe.

    While Sweden seeks to preserve its industrial capabilities in two sectors – submarines and military aircraft – it appears to be most technologically reliant on the US among the surveyed countries. It is worth noting also that these links are long-standing, dating back to the cold war and the Soviet threat, despite Sweden not being a NATO member state.

    The links with the US are thus very different from one country to another, and carry varying implications. While the costs of acquiring American equipment can be low despite their high technological grade, there are often constraints on their use and restrictions on technologies that will not be transferred, or that will be unusable for other partnerships.

    These links are also formalised through bilateral agreements promoting armament cooperation, as is the case for UK-Italian cooperation. For its part, Sweden has signed interstate agreements with the US in the field of technological cooperation.

    DEFENCE INDUSTRIAL LINKS BETWEEN EU AND US / September 2017

    3

    Since the European Council meeting in December 2013 and in its 2016 Global Strategy, the EU has set itself the task of developing "a certain degree of strategic autonomy" supposed to encourage greater competitiveness of European DTIBs.

    In order to promote the development of this European defence industrial policy, we must seek to ensure that the links between US and EU DTIB are mutually beneficial. To do this, two conditions must be met:

    -That the rules governing relations between US and EU DTIB be based on the principle of reciprocity and on equal rules of regulation of respective DTIBs.

    -That the rules governing relations between US and EU DTIB be defined in the context of a dialogue between the European Union and the United States and not bilaterally between each European country and the United States.

    Today the multiplication of bilateral agreements between the United States and European Union member states are potential obstacles to the establishment of a level playing field governing the relations between European DTIBs;

    There is also a lack of reciprocity and equal regulation of EU and US DTIB. This concerns different areas: access to advanced capabilities, unrestricted use of exported armament, access to cooperated technologies, rules governing investment in US and European companies, rules governing property rights over technologies, rules governing export controls.

    Organizing the transatlantic relationship in the field of armaments in order to have a more balanced and profitable relationship, can be achieved in two complementary ways.

    At the European level, the European Defence Research Program (EDRP) will have strong implications for the relations between the companies of the US DTIB and the EDTIB. The rules governing access to finance and the ownership of intellectual property rights (IPR), which will be adopted for collaborative R&T projects involving European defence companies, will result in a common framework governing the relationship between these companies and the US EDTIB: the more Europeans will collaborate among themselves in the field of defence research, the more they will be able to set common and mutually beneficial rules in their relationship with the United States.

    It may also be considered that some EU States will decide to engage in enhanced cooperation in the industrial defence field which could include the following rules:

    -Obligation to achieve a level of 30% R&T in common among the members of the enhanced cooperation, which means 10% more than the target that was defined 10 years ago by the European Defence Agency and that is regularly reminded in the objectives of the European Union;

    -Obligation to inform members of enhanced cooperation of agreements on defence R&T cooperation concluded with the United States so as to ensure compatibility of these agreements with existing agreements between members of enhanced cooperation. The objective is to prevent agreements with the United States from subsequently restricting the scope of existing agreements between European countries;

    DEFENCE INDUSTRIAL LINKS BETWEEN EU AND US / September 2017

    4

     

    -Obligation to systematically consider the acquisition of military equipment manufactured by one of the member countries of enhanced cooperation. This should be accompanied by reinforced security of supply rules;

    -The need to bring the export policies of the member states of the enhanced cooperation closer together.

    These rules, complementary with, and not contradictory to, those which are being defined at European Union level, would accelerate industrial defence consolidation in Europe and make it possible to consider on a more balanced, mutually equally beneficial, basis relations between the United States and the European Union in the field of armaments. These rules would also be inspired by political principles: to strengthen the strategic autonomy of the European Union when necessary. Far from forbidding cooperation between the US and the EU DTIB, such enhanced cooperation would be facilitated because cooperation between US EDTIB and EU DTIB would not be a brake on European cooperation, as it is currently still too often the case.

  • 8.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    Univ Southern Queensland, Deputy Vice Chancellors Off Res & Innovat, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;Univ Southern Queensland, Fac Hlth Engn & Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Sustainable Dev Environm Sci & Engn, KFH Internat Groundwater Arsen Res Grp, Teknikringen 76, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Maity, Jyoti Prakash
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;Natl Chung Cheng Univ, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, 168 Univ Rd, Min Hsiung 62102, Chiayi County, Taiwan..
    Mushtaq, Shahbaz
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Vithanage, Meththika
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;Natl Inst Fundamental Studies, Chem & Environm Syst Modeling Res Grp, Kandy 20000, Sri Lanka..
    Seneweera, Saman
    Univ Southern Queensland, Ctr Crop Hlth, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Schneider, Jerusa
    Univ Estadual Campinas, Sch Civil Engn Architecture & Urban Design, Sanitat & Environm Dept, BR-11308388 Campinas, SP, Brazil..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Sustainable Dev Environm Sci & Engn, KFH Internat Groundwater Arsen Res Grp, Teknikringen 76, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Khan, Nasreen Islam
    Australian Natl Univ, Coll Med Biol & Environm, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.;Int Rice Res Inst, GIS Social Sci Div, Los Banos 4031, Laguna, Philippines..
    Hamawand, Ihsan
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Guilherme, Luiz R. G.
    Fed Univ Lavras UFLA, Dept Soil Sci, Campus Univ,Caixa Postal 3037, BR-37200000 Lavras, MG, Brazil..
    Reardon-Smith, Kathryn
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Parvez, Faruque
    Columbia Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Environm Hlth Sci Mailman, 722 West 168th St, New York, NY 10032 USA..
    Morales-Simfors, Nury
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Ghaze, Sara
    Univ Southern Queensland, Fac Hlth Engn & Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Pudmenzky, Christa
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Kouadio, Louis
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Chen, Chien-Yen
    Natl Chung Cheng Univ, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, 168 Univ Rd, Min Hsiung 62102, Chiayi County, Taiwan..
    Medical geology in the framework of the sustainable development goals2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 581, p. 87-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to geogenic contaminants (GCs) such as metal(loid)s, radioactive metals and isotopes as well as transuraniums occurring naturally in geogenic sources (rocks, minerals) can negatively impact on environmental and human health. The GCs are released into the environment by natural biogeochemical processes within the near-surface environments and/or by anthropogenic activities such as mining and hydrocarbon exploitation as well as exploitation of geothermal resources. They can contaminate soil, water, air and biota and subsequently enter the food chain with often serious health impacts which are mostly underestimated and poorly recognized. Global population explosion and economic growth and the associated increase in demand for water, energy, food, and mineral resources result in accelerated release of GCs globally. The emerging science of "medical geology" assesses the complex relationships between geo-environmental factors and their impacts on humans and environments and is related to the majority of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals in the 2030 Agenda of the United Nations for Sustainable Development. In this paper, we identify multiple lines of evidence for the role of GCs in the incidence of diseases with as yet unknown etiology (causation). Integrated medical geology promises a more holistic understanding of the occurrence, mobility, bioavailability, bio-accessibility, exposure and transfer mechanisms of GCs to the food-chain and humans, and the related ecotoxicological impacts and health effects. Scientific evidence based on this approach will support adaptive solutions for prevention, preparedness and response regarding human and environmental health impacts originating from exposure to GCs.

  • 9.
    Carlerby, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Command and Control Section.
    Johansson, Björn J.E.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut.
    The lack of convergence between C2 theory and practice2017In: The 22nd International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, 2017, p. 1-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to discuss and make conclusions from more than 15 years research within the field of C 2 and what possible impact that has been accomplished. The point of departure is accordingly a paper presented just after the shift of the millennium where the possible impact of novel ideas and technologies for command and control (C2), such as the network centric approach and radical views on the design of command posts were in focus. Some of the fundamental ideas of what was in vogue at the time was questioned and the “old” was put in contrast with the “new.” Looking back, our thoughts as well as other contributors from that time, and the progression of theory within the field of C2, we suggest that we are at a status quo. What actually has been achieved, may be the worst of the two straw men worlds that where suggested at the time. We suggest that it is necessary to: 1) further develop adaptive approaches to the organization and conduct of military operations, 2) develop enabling instead of controlling technologies, 3) switch focus from structure to function, 4) develop tools for assessing adaptive capacity in sociotechnical systems.

  • 10.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI); Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS).
    Cohen, Mika
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    What can we learn from enterprise architecture models?: An experiment comparing models and documents for capability development2018In: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 695-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise architecture (EA) has been established as a discipline to cope with the complex interactions of business operations and technology. Models, i.e., formal descriptions in terms of diagrams and views, are at the heart of the approach. Though it is widely thought that such architecture models can contribute to improved understanding and decision making, this proposition has not rigorously been tested. This article describes an experiment conducted with a real EA model and corresponding real traditional documents, investigating whether the model or the documents lead to better and faster understanding. Understanding is interesting to study, as it is a prerequisite to other EA uses. The subjects (N = 98) were officer cadets, and the experiment was carried out using a comprehensive description of military Close Air Support capability either (1) in the form of a MODAF model or (2) in the form of traditional documents. Based on the results, the model seems to lead to better, though not faster, understanding.

  • 11.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Risk level in peacetime Swedish naval operations: Meta lessons identified2018In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, Vol. 2018, no 1, p. 160-180Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2010, the Swedish Navy introduced a new rule re-defining the sea area of safe operation for respective classes of naval vessels. The new rule is based on an EU directive developed for civilian passenger ships. The described investigation examines the safety effects of this rule in relation to the safety level in the Swedish Navy. The investigation is conducted in accordance with the process defined by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in the Formals Safety Assessment (FSA). The identified risk levels are compared to risk criteria from civilian shipping and to criteria developed specifically for the Swedish Navy with approaches as defined by the IMO. In the period studied, there have been safety issues leading to higher than negligible risks. However, the proactive analysis shows that the examined approach for limiting the sea areas of safe operations for the Swedish Navy is not cost effective. The lessons identified is that an analysis such as this can show if a regulation affects safety in the manner intended and if there are other means by which the regulation affects operations. An approach such as the FSA is useful and is also needed for organizations outside the traditional focus of the IMO. The investigation particularly highlights the need for an approach for analyzing the proposed safety changes in terms of both effectiveness and suitability. In general, it is therefore concluded that the proactive perspective of the FSA investigation can unearth principal aspects of how a rule affects the operation studied.

  • 12.
    Liwång, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Rosén, Anders
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    A framework for investigating the potential for operational measures in relation to intact stability2018In: / [ed] Naoya Umeda, Toru Katayama, Atsuo Maki, Kobe, 2018, p. 488-499Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operational safety measures are an important aspect of a holistic safety approach for intact stability. With the aim to facilitate and further investigate potential operational measures this researchaims to describe a framework for prioritizing intact stability issues suitable for being addressed withoperational safety measures. The proposed framework identifies that there are different potentialsand uncertainties in relation to operational safety measures dependent on the operation type understudy. It is demonstrated that there is not one solution that facilitates operational measures and thereliability of potential measures varies.

  • 13.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    The development of the Swedish defence technology complex2013In: Export Voorusheny, no No 1, p. 20-29Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    A Comparison of two Books on Systems of Systems2014In: Le Libellio, ISSN 1269-8644, E-ISSN 2268-1167, ISSN 2268-1167, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 59-60Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this text is to carry out a comparative analysis of the general features regarding System of Systems (SoS) in the books System of Systems Engineering: Innovations for the Twenty-First Century (Jamshidi, 2009) and Systems of Systems (Luzeaux & Ruault, 2010).

  • 15.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    A Review of the Book Systems of Systems 2014In: Le Libellio, ISSN 1269-8644, E-ISSN 2268-1167, ISSN 2268-1167, Vol. 0, no 3, p. 55-57Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This review consists first of a brief description of the general features of Systems of Systems (SoS) through the book Systems of Systems by Luzeaux & Ruault (2010). The review then continues to address Chapter 4, written by Ruault (2010) on Human Factors within the context of SoS.

  • 16.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Are Systems of Systems a New Reality?2014In: Le Libellio, ISSN 1269-8644, E-ISSN 2268-1167, ISSN 2268-1167, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 47-54Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Marcus, Carina
    et al.
    Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden; Linköpings Universitet, Sweden.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section. National Defence University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Åkerlind, Christina
    Försvarets Forskningsinstitut, FOI, Sweden; Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Balancing the radar and long wavelength infrared signature properties in concept analysis of combat aircraft – A proof of concept2017In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 71, p. 733-741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing combat aircraft with high military effectiveness, affordability and military suitability requires balancing the efforts of many engineering disciplines during all phases of the development. One particular challenge is aircraft survivability, the aircraft's ability to avoid or withstand hostile actions. Signature management is one way of increasing the survivability by improving the ability to avoid detection. Here, the long-wave infrared and radar signatures are studied simultaneously in a mission context. By establishing a system of systems approach at mission system level, the risk of sub optimization at a technical level is greatly reduced. A relevant scenario is presented where the aim is to incapacitate an air-defense system using three different tactics: A low-altitude cruise missile option, a low and medium altitude combat aircraft option. The technical sub-models, i.e. the properties of the signatures, the weapons and the sensors are modeled to a level suitable for early concept development. The results from the scenario simulations are useful for a relative comparison of properties. Depending on the situation, first detection is made by either radar or infrared sensors. Although the modeling is basic, the complexity of the infrared signature and detection chain is demonstrated and possible pivot points for the balancing of radar and IR signature requirements are identified. The evaluation methodology can be used for qualitative evaluation of aircraft concepts at different design phases, provided that the technical models are adapted to a suitable level of detail.

  • 18.
    Pede, Elena
    et al.
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    The Potential of Proactive Role of Citizens: Geo-information and communication technology in crisis management2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Persson, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Division of Microsystems Technology, Uppsala, Sweden; Uppsala University, Ångström Space Technology Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berglund, Martin
    Uppsala University, Division of Microsystems Technology, Uppsala, Sweden; Uppsala University, Ångström Space Technology Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Khaji, Zahra
    Uppsala University, Division of Microsystems Technology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section. Uppsala University, Division of Microsystems Technology, Uppsala, Sweden; Uppsala University, Ångström Space Technology Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Söderberg, Johan
    Uppsala University, Division of Microsystems Technology, Uppsala, Sweden; Uppsala University, Ångström Space Technology Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University, Division of Microsystems Technology, Uppsala, Sweden; Uppsala University, Ångström Space Technology Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Optogalvanic spectroscopy with microplasma sources: Current status and development towards a lab on a chip2016In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 26, no 10, article id 104003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Miniaturized optogalvanic spectroscopy (OGS) shows excellent prospects for becoming a highly sensitive method for gas analysis in micro total analysis systems. Here, a status report on the current development of microwave-induced microplasma sources for OGS is presented, together with the first comparison of the sensitivity of the method to conventional single-pass absorption spectroscopy. The studied microplasma sources are stripline split-ring resonators, with typical ring radii between 3.5 and 6mm and operation frequencies around 2.6 GHz. A linear response (R2 = 0.9999), and a stability of more than 100 s are demonstrated when using the microplasma source as an optogalvanic detector. Additionally, saturation effects at laser powers higher than 100 mW are observed, and the temporal response of the plasma to periodic laser perturbation with repletion rates between 20 Hz and 200 Hz are studied. Finally, the potential of integrating additional functionality with the detector is discussed, with the particular focus on a pressure sensor and a miniaturized combustor to allow for studies of solid samples.

  • 20.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Hult, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Command and Control Section.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    von Gerber, Carl
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Technology Forecast 2017 - Military Utility of Future Technologies: A Report from Seminars at the Swedish Defence University’s (SEDU) Military-Technology Division2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two technology forecast reports from the Fraunhofer Institute, three reports from the Swedish Defence Research Institute (FOI) and two publications from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have been reviewed by staff at the Military-Technology Division at the Swedish Defence University (SEDU). The task given by the Defence Material Administration (FMV) was to assess the military utility of the given technologies in a time frame to up 2040, from a Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) perspective.

    In the review we assessed the military utility of certain technologies as possible contributions to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, based on identified and relevant scenarios. Because a new capability catalogue is under development at the SwAF Headquarters, this report only presents general assessments of the capability impact of the technologies studied.

    The technologies were grouped into four classes: potentially significant, moderate, negligible, or uncertain military utility.

    The classification uncertain military utility was given to technologies that are difficult to put in the other three classes, it was not because the technology readiness level (TRL) will not bereached by 2040.

    The following technologies were assessed to have the potential for significant military utility:

    - Nanocarbons for photonic applications

    The following technologies were assessed to have a potential for moderate military utility;

    - Internet of things (IoT)

    - Materials and technologies for protection against chemical agents

    The following technologies were assessed to have uncertain military utility;

    - Post-quantum cryptography

    - New applications for hyperspectral image analysis for chemical and biological agents

    No technology was found to have negligible military utility.

    The method used in this technology forecast report was to assign each report to one reviewer in the working group. Firstly, each forecast report was summarized. The Fraunhofer assessment of technical readiness level (TRL) in the time period was held to be correct. Each technology was then put into one or more scenarios that were assessed to be suitable for assessing the military utility as well as indicating any possibilities and drawbacks. Based on a SWOTanalysis, the assessed contributions to the fundamental capabilities, and to the factors DOTMPLFI (Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Leadership, Personnel, Facilities and Interoperability), were listed. Furthermore, the expected SwAF R&D requirements, to facilitate the introduction of the technology are given. The Military utility was assessed using a model developed by the Military-Technology Division. Finally, conclusions and an overall rating of the potential military utility of each technology were presented.

    The chosen definition of military utility clearly affects the result of the study. The definition used here (“the military utility of a certain technology is its contribution to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, within identified relevant scenarios”) has been used in our Technology Forecasts since 2013.

    Our evaluation of the method used shows that there is a risk that assessments can be biased by the participating experts’ presumptions and experience from their own field of research. It should also be stressed that the seven technologies’ potential military utility was assessed within the specific presented scenarios and their possible contribution to operational capabilities within those specific scenarios, not in general. When additional results have been found in the analysis, this is mentioned.

    The greatest value of the method used is its simplicity, cost effectiveness and that it promotes learning within the working group. The composition of the working group and the methodology used are believed to provide a broad and balanced coverage of the technologies being studied. This report should be seen as an executive summary of the research reports and the intention is to help the SwAF Headquarters to evaluate the military utility of emerging technologies within identified relevant scenarios.

    Overall, the research reports are considered to be balanced and of high quality in terms of their level of critical analysis regarding technology development. These reports are in line with our task to evaluate the military utility of the emerging technologies.

  • 21.
    Spak, Ulrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Command and Control Section.
    The common operational picture: A powerful enabler or a cause of severe misunderstanding?2017In: / [ed] Dr. David S Alberts, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The representation of the operational environment is crucial in all military operations because it is a necessity for the command and control (C2) function that provides the operation with direction and coordination. The representation, typically in the form of a common operational picture (COP), is considered the key element for establishing situation awareness and understanding for the commander and his/her staff. This article begins by presenting a theoretical overview of the COP concept. Thereafter, empirical support is given that officers conceptualize the COP differently, relating it to different stages of the C2 process and referring to the COP as sometimes an artifact and sometimes a mental state or a product in the human mind. For example, some officers may focus on the representation of the current operational environment; others may focus on representations of courses of actions whereas others may focus on future planned events. This may cause severe misunderstanding when officers use the COP concept in communication.

    This article provides a proposition to make the COP concept more specific – connecting the different stages in the C2 process to specific instantiations of the COP. Moreover, regardless of which stage in the C2 process the instantiations of the COP relate to, it has to be adapted to that specific stage in order to be a powerful enabler. This article concludes by introducing a new concept, the Prepared Common Operational Picture (PCOP).

  • 22.
    Sturesson, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    On the Applicability and Military Utility of Microsystems in Military Jet EnginesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Sturesson, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Klintberg, Lena
    Uppsala University.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University.
    Pirani Microgauge Fabricated of High-Temperature Co-fired Ceramics with Integrated Platinum WiresIn: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the integration and pressure sensor operation of platinum bond wires in High- Temperature Co-fired alumina (HTCC). Devices were fabricated with a 50 μm diameter wire suspended across a 500 μm wide cavity in green-body state HTCC, electrically connected to screen printed alumina conductors. The substrate shrinkage during sintering to a cavity width of 400 μm causes the wire element to elevate from the cavity ́s bottom surface. Resulting devices were compared with reference devices, containing screen-printed sensor elements, as Pirani gauges operated at 100 °C in constant-resistance mode, and in dynamic mode with a feeding current of 1 A in a pressure range from 10-4 Torr to atmospheric pressure. Also, devices with wire lengths between 500 and 3500 μm were operated and studied in constant-resistance and dynamic mode. Lastly, a device is demonstrated in operation at a mean temperature of 830 °C. The results include wire elements with a consistent elevation from their substrate surfaces, with irregularities along the wires. The wire devices exhibit a faster pressure response in dynamic mode than the reference devices do but operate similarly in constant-resistance mode. Increasing the wire element length shows an increasing dynamic pressure range but a decreasing maximum sensitivity. The sensitivity is retained in high temperature mode, but the dynamic range is extended from about 10 Torr to about 700 Torr.

  • 24.
    Sturesson, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Seton, Ragnar
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Klintberg, Lena
    Uppsala University.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University.
    Persson, Anders
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Effect of Resistive and Plasma Heating on the Specific Impulse of a Ceramic Cold Gas ThrusterIn: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research and development of small satellites has continued to expand over the last decades. However, propulsion systems with adequate performance have persisted to be a great challenge. In this paper, the effects of three different heaters on the specific impulse and overall thrust efficiency of a cold gas microthruster are presented. They consisted of a conventional, printed resistive thick-film element, a freely suspended wire, and a stripline split-ring resonator microplasma source and were integrated in a single device made from high-temperature co-fired ceramics (HTCC). The devices were evaluated in two setups, where the first measured thrust and the other shock cell geometry. In addition, the resistive elements were evaluated as gas temperature sensors. The microplasma source was found to provide the greatest improvement in both specific impulse and thrust efficiency, increasing the former from an un- heated level of 44 s to 55 s when heating with a power of 1.1 W. This corresponded to a thrust efficiency of 53 %. This could be compared to the results from the wire and printed heaters which were 50 s and 18 %, and 45 s and 14 %, respectively. The combined results also showed that imaging the shock cells of a plasma heated thruster was a simple and effective way to determine its performance compared to the traditional thrust balance method.

  • 25.
    Sturesson, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section. Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Angstrom Space Technol Ctr, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Div Microsyst Technol, Sweden.
    Zahra, Khaji
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Div Microsyst Technol, Sweden.
    Lena, Klintberg
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Div Microsyst Technol, Sweden.
    Greger, Thornell
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Angstrom Space Technol Ctr, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Div Microsyst Technol, Sweden.
    Ceramic Pressure Sensor for High Temperatures: Investigation of the Effect of Metallization on Read Range2017In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 2411-2421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A first realization of membranes by draping a graphite insert with ceramic green body sheets, and a study on the relationship between circuit metallization, made by double- layer screen-printing of platinum and electroplating of silver on top of platinum, and the practical read range of ceramic LC resonators for high-temperature pressure measurements, are presented. As a quality factor reference, two-port microstrip meander devices were positively evaluated. To study interdiffusion between silver and platinum, test samples were annealed at 500, 700, and 900 °C for 4, 36, 72, and 96 hours. The LC resonators were fabricated with both metallization methods, and the practical read range at room temperature was evaluated. Pressure sensitive membranes were characterized for pressures up to 2.5 bar at room temperature, 500 and up to 900°C. Samples electroplated with silver exhibited performance equal to or better than double-layer platinum samples for up to 60 hours at 500°C, 20 hours at 700°C, and for 1 hour at 900°C, which was correlated with the degree of interdiffusion as determined from cross- sectional analysis. The LC resonator samples with double-layer platinum exhibited a read range of 61 mm, and the samples with platinum and silver exhibited a read range of 59 mm. The lowest sheet resistance, and, thereby, the highest read range of 86 mm, was obtained with a silver electroplated LC resonator sample after 36 hours of annealing at 500°C. 

  • 26.
    Vatsel, Soames
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Laestadius, Nils
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Martinsson, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Lindh, Jens
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Lärobok i militärteknik - exempelsamling: Problem och övningsbok med ledningar2018Book (Other academic)
1 - 26 of 26
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