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  • 1. Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik (Dov)
    et al.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Eyes Wide Shut: How Russia’s Hybrid Warfare Exposes and Exploits Western Vulnerabilities2017In: Georgetown journal of international affairs, ISSN 0315-0941, E-ISSN 2049-6060, no January 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2015 Russian National Security Strategy aims to achieve autarky from Western influences on global security, the rule of law, and global trade. By applying a holistic mix of military, political, and economic means to weaken the West, Russia is working hard to strengthen its own role as a global player. Militarily, Russia makes good use of Hybrid War against its Western neighbors, as seen in its intervention in Syria and in its efforts to undermine NATO and the EU.

  • 2.
    Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Antonina
    et al.
    Stockholm universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Michalski, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Nilsson, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Oxelheim, Lars
    Agder universitet, Kristianstad, Norge; Rsearch Institute of Industrial Economics, Stockholm, Sverige; Lund universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    The EU and the growing number of complex security threats2018In: The European Union: Facing the Challenge of Multiple Security Threats / [ed] Antonina Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Anna Michalski, Niklas Nilsson, Lars Oxelheim, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 1-17Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Antonina
    et al.
    Stockholm universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Michalski, AnnaUppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sverige.Nilsson, NiklasSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.Oxelheim, LarsAgder universitet, Kristianstad, Norge; Rsearch Institute of Industrial Economics, Stockholm, Sverige; Lund universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    The European Union: Facing the Challenge of Multiple Security Threats2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book addresses the challenges presented to the EU by an increasingly complex security environment. Through the interdisciplinary approach taken, researchers in economics, law and political science identify a range of problems relating to the multiple security threats that the EU faces, and present new means to address them within their respective fields of expertise. The contributions provide accessible and policy-relevant analyses of crucial challenges to the EU’s ability to function as a political union in the years ahead. 

  • 4.
    Björnehed, Emma
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Praktisk examination och examination av praktik: möjligheter och begränsningar2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om praktisk examination och hur man kan och bör examinera praktik är någonting som under en längre tid har varit uppe för diskussion på Försvarshögskolan (FHS). Denna artikel syftar till att diskutera möjligheter och begränsningar med praktisk examination. Fokus kommer att vara på utbildningen av officerare inom det ämne författarna verkar – krigsvetenskap. Artikeln tar sig an frågan med utgångspunkt i gällande rättsläge, högskolepedagogisk forskning- och praktik. Det övergripande syftet är att förstå vad man faktiskt får göra, hur det sker rättssäkert och hur det kan göras i praktiken. Artikeln diskuterar även vad som bör examineras praktiskt och hur detta då skall göras.

  • 5.
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Effective Learning at the Swedish Defence University: This chapter describes the practical application of Matrix games to higher education in Sweden2018In: The Matrix Games Handbook: Professional Applications from Education to Analysis and Wargaming / [ed] John Curry, Chris Engle and Peter Perla, The History of Wargaming Project , 2018Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter specifically adresses a generally percieved underlying challange of any educational game, namely the issue of educational effectiveness. This question is, however, almost impossible to answer, since it is dependent on context as well as a myriad of variables such as learning objectives, student background and educational theory like belief in active learning. From this perspective, the inclusion of the issue of educational effectiveness in this chapter is thus based on the experience with the game design and subsequent implementation of the two Matrix Games of Bellum Balticia and the Fictive Republic.

  • 6.
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Krigsspel som metod2018In: Militära arbetsmetoder: En lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm, Jerker Widén och Niklas Wikström, Universus Press, 2018, p. 255-294Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section. King's College London.
    Wargaming in Military Education for Army Officers and Officer Cadets2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wargaming has been part of military curricula for about 200 years since the introduction of Kriegsspiel, but it is still something of an art form. This thesis attempts to theorise the practice of military educational wargaming, and specifically to explore why such wargaming takes the form it does.

    The thesis is limited to army educational wargaming for officers and officer cadets. Wargaming for analytical purposes, and political and strategic gaming, are excluded.  Instead, the focus is on army educational wargaming at the tactical level, which is arguably more comparable between countries. The research method combines an exploratory approach influenced by grounded theory with a comparative case study approach encompassing three successive levels of army officer education in five countries: Sweden, Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States and Japan.

    The research indicates the central importance of individual game directors. This is particularly evident when wargaming forms evolve. The main concern of the individual game director is how to achieve instructor buy-in. This core category encompasses control, credibility and comfort. Three methods, or strategies, were discovered regarding how to achieve instructor buy-in. Those three strategies are: innovative active learning, simple standardising and control & veiling. This discovery contributes to new substantive theory, as it explains how specific army educational wargaming forms commence, evolve and are discontinued.

  • 8.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Book review of Nationalizing the past: Historians as nation builders in modern Europe2016In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 136, no 2, p. 260-265Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Book review of  År noll: Historien om 19452016In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 136, no 4, p. 744-746Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Bordieuan Field Theory as an Instrument for Military Operational Analysis2017 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book uses Pierre Bourdieu’s field theory as a lens through which to examine military operations. Novel in its approach, this innovative text provides a better, more nuanced understanding of the modern ‘battlespace’, particularly in instances of prolonged low-intensity conflict. Formed in two parts, this book primarily explores the scope of Bourdien theory before secondly providing a detailed case study of the Yugoslavian succession war of 1990-1992. Gunneriusson suggests that although theories do not necessarily provide answers, they do help us ask better questions. This volume suggests news lines of interdisciplinary investigation that will be of interest to members of armed forces, practitioners from NGOs, and policymakers.

  • 11.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Bachmann, Sascha Dov
    Bournemouth University, United Kingdom.
    Western Denial and Russian Control: How Russia’s National Security Strategy Threatens a Western-Based Approach to Global Security, the Rule of Law and Globalization2017In: Polish Political Science Yearbook, ISSN 0208-7375, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 9-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Russian National Security Strategy of 2015 aims at achieving autarky from Western influences on global security, the rule of law and global trade. Russia aims at attaining this by applying a holistic mix of military, political and economic means to weaken the West and to strengthen its own role as a global player. The Russian approach builds on a strategy of reflexive control which as such is an old method, but the outcome of the application of this approach results in hybrid warfare which as such is a new emerging concept of warfighting. This short article looks at one particular aspect of this Russian strategy, namely using Hybrid, or non-linear, Warfare against its Western direct neighbours in particular and the West in general. We will discuss the underlying cultural logic in Russia’s actions and will reflect on the impact of Russia’s utilization of the existing cultural asymmetry as a form of warfare in regard to the West. The examples used in this text are taken from the context of the conflicts of Ukraine and Syria, but have to be seen as constituting a part of an on-going global conflict aimed at NATO and the EU. The text builds on years of research within the hybrid threat, warfare respectively, context by both authors.

  • 12.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Lindahl, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Defensiven – begrepp och doktrinbakgrundIn: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, Vol. BihäfteArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I DENNA ARTIKEL kommer defensiven att belysas utifrån två olika perspektiv och genom två historiska exempel tagna från första respektive andra världskriget. Inledningsvis betraktas defensiven utifrån försvararen perspektiv och med ett exempel från Estland (Narva) 1944. Efter en historik bakgrundsbeskrivning, där bl a doktrinutvecklingen beskrivs, följer ett avsnitt avseende doktrin- och reglementsjämförelse mellan dåtida tyska och nutida svenska reglementen. Vi har i den delen valt att som metod söka efter vissa militärteoretiska indikatorer – fyra typiska begrepp inom defensiv och offensiv strid – för att diskutera likheter och olikheter mellan dåtid och nutid. De fyra valda begreppen är eldens (verkans) betydelse, terrängens betydelse, djupets betydelse och slutligen reservernas betydelse. Jämförelsen appliceras sedan på det taktiska exemplet innan denna del avslutas med en kort sammanfattning.

  • 13.
    Hagström, Linus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section. The Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section. The Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Hanssen, Ulv
    The Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Allt bör göras för att bygga relationer med Nordkorea2017In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Hanssen, Ulv
    et al.
    FU Berlin.
    Hagström, Linus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Tøffere press og sanksjoner mot Nord-Korea er ineffektivt og kanskje også kontraproduktivt2017In: Verdens gang, article id 9 oktoberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Air Power in Humanitarian Intervention: Kosovo and Libya in Comparative Perspective2018In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 39-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It would be hard to overstate the importance of air power in humanitarian intervention (HI) and the Responsibility to Protect (R2P). Yet, the role of air power in HI and R2P has been understudied. This article seeks to remedy the lack of systematic investigation. It does so by developing a framework for assessing the effectiveness of air power during military operations in HI and R2P and applies it to NATO’s air campaigns in Kosovo (Operation Allied Force) and Libya (Operation Unified Protector). Upon examination NATO is revealed to have fared better in Libya than Kosovo in positively accomplishing its stated humanitarian objectives, minimizing collateral damage and reducing the costs for the interveners, all of which are aspects considered by the model. The relative effectiveness of Operations Unified Protector is generally attributed to geography, diplomacy and technology. It is argued that better ground support, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and burden sharing are needed to enhance the utility of air power in HI and R2P even further.

  • 16.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Decapitation in Libya: Winning the Conflict and Losing the Peace2017In: The Washington quarterly, ISSN 0163-660X, E-ISSN 1530-9177, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 135-149Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Fully integrated content analysis in international relations2017In: International Relations, ISSN 0047-1178, E-ISSN 1741-2862, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 447-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Content analysis has once again come to the forefront of discussions regarding methods in International Relations (IR). The first wave of content analysis in IR lasted from the 1940s to the 1960s and was marked by a commitment to quantitative and manual analyses. The second wave of content analysis appeared around the third millennium and continues to pervade the discipline also proceeds in a predominantly quantitative manner but emphasizes computer-assisted analysis rather than manual analysis. Critics and advocates of the method alike have, highlighted numerous shortcomings with these approaches. In order to address these limitations, the present investigation argues for a fully integrated content analysis that has the potential to ameliorate the identified weaknesses that have hitherto plagued the method. It accomplishes this task by combining all facets of the method: quantitative, qualitative, manual, and computer-assisted content analyses within a single research project.

  • 18.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Intelligence and Diplomacy in the Security Dilemma: Gauging Capabilities and Intentions2018In: International Politics, ISSN 1384-5748, E-ISSN 1740-3898, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 519-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determining whether the opposition is benign or malign is central to the security dilemma. In this context, states have to decide whether the military capabilities of others are for defensive or offensive purposes. Despite the importance of this issue, states’ use of intelligence and diplomacy to gauge others’ capabilities and intentions and its implications for exacerbating, ameliorating and escaping the security dilemma have hardly been addressed. The few who have engaged with the topic have only done so superficially. This article engages with the subject matter at length and argues that both intelligence and diplomacy are double-edged swords in the security dilemma. Intelligence is particularly useful in attaining information regarding the capabilities of others and diplomacy is of great value in acquiring information about their intentions. Yet, they are both prone to error. The best prospects of mitigating and escaping the security dilemma are therefore by utilizing intelligence to gauge others’ capabilities and diplomacy to decipher their intentions, even though these efforts may instead end up aggravating the security dilemma dynamics due to mistakes.

  • 19.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section. Swedish Defence University.
    Swedish Air Power History: A Holistic Overview2018In: Air Power History, ISSN 1044-016X, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 7-14-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    The ethics of Carr and Wendt: Fairness and peace2018In: Journal of International Political Theory, ISSN 1755-0882, E-ISSN 1755-1722, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 314-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The classical realist writings of E.H. Carr and constructivist publications of Alexander Wendt are extraordinarily influential. While they have provoked a great number of reactions within the discipline of International Relations, the ethical dimensions of their works have rarely been studied at length. This article seeks to remedy this lack of examination by engaging in an in-depth scrutiny of the moral concerns of these two mainstream International Relations scholars. On investigation, it is revealed that Carr demonstrates a strong commitment to the ethical principle of fairness and Wendt a moral concern for the prevention of the use of organized violence. These concerns are shared by Rawlsians and cosmopolitans in International Relations, and these findings may thereby encourage closer engagement between these diverse communities that rarely speak to one another and strengthen disciplinary research on morals.

  • 21.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    The Past, Present and Future of Realism2018In: Realism in Practice: An Appraisal / [ed] Davide Orsi, J. R. Avgustin & Max Nurnus, Bristol: E-International Relations Publising , 2018, p. 29-42Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Hickman, Karl
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Weissmann, MikaelSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.Nilsson, NiklasSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.Bachman, Sascha-DominikBournemouth University.Gunneriusson, HåkanSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.Thunholm, PerSwedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Hybrid Threats and Asymmetric Warfare: What to do?2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The international security environment has seemingly departed from a post-cold war period of everlasting peace and has instead evolved into a volatile and increasingly grey area of war and peace. Security challenges arising from both hybrid wars and hybrid threats are high on security agendas in Sweden and Europe as well as internationally. However, despite the attention there is a lack of research that addresses how such “new” wars and threats should be handled. While studies do exist on specific issues, a comprehensive approach to how hybrid wars and threats are to be handled is still lacking. This is particularly the case when it comes to the sharing of experiences between states. This workshop constituted a first step towards developing such a comprehensive approach.

    The workshop’s aim was to be a bridge across disciplinary boundaries as well as between researchers and practitioners within and outside Sweden; integrating each group’s extensive experiences and knowledge into a coherent whole. Besides producing and disseminating new knowledge, the intention of the workshop was to establish a foundation for long-term collaboration; the first step in the creation of a European Network on Hybrid Warfare Capabilities that can work across borders and link state of the art of research and practice.

    Although mainly a scientific workshop, a number of practitioners were invited, with a mix of presentations by academics and practitioners. This was intended to foster innovative and reflective discussions across the academic-practitioner divide. The workshop also aimed to develop new ideas associated with hybrid threats/warfare in order to facilitate future cooperation

    These proceedings include a summary of the key points made by the presenters, along with conclusions and policy recommendations derived from the ensuing discussions. Conference programme and a list of abstracts for the papers and presentations can be found in the appendix.

  • 23.
    Högström, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark). Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Baudin, Arne
    Fältövning - steget mellan tanke handling2018In: Militära Arbetsmetoder: Lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm, Jerker Widén, Niklas wikström, Malmö: Universus Academic press , 2018, p. 295-309Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns ett antal pedagogiska koncept inom den militära professionen[1], vilka använts under lång tid (ca 200 år). Dessa baseras på beprövad erfarenhet[2]  där all slags erfarenheter tagits tillvara, inklusive vetenskap, tester och försök. Professionen har funnit dessa vara effektiva, vilket innebär att de är under ständigt användande och ständig utveckling. Framträdande koncept är applikatoriska exempel (applex), krigsspel, fältövningar och stabstjänstövningar vilka även kan kombineras med varandra och användas på ett flexibelt sätt utifrån syftet och målsättningen med verksamheten. Alla dessa koncept genomförs på olika sätt. De har utvecklats och gått i arv inom institutionerna i den militära professionen. Självklart används även andra koncept inom den militära utbildningen såsom lektioner, föreläsningar och litteraturstudier av militärhistoria, teknik, militärteori och inte minst ledarskap. Det militära yrket kan av lättförklarliga skäl sällan utövas i sitt mest extrema sammanhang. Den enskilde militären utövar sällan eller aldrig sitt yrkes våldsinslag i full skala. Således krävs det metoder för att kunna uppleva verklighetens vingslag i olika miljöer och sammanhang så nära som möjligt. Fältövning är en av dessa som syftar till att åstadkomma detta och denna militära metod har använts sedan tidigt 1800-tal.[3]

    Fältövning, krigsspel och applikatoriska exempel är alla koncept att simulera, förbereda och träna militär personal utan onödig blodspillan och skador. Fältövningar syftar till att krigsplanlägga, testa planer, utveckla taktik och stridsteknik och till att utbilda inom taktik och operationskonst.  Fältövning och krigsspel baseras på någon form av scenario (fiktivt eller verkligt) och är nära besläktade med varandra eftersom fältövning kan genomföras som ett krigsspel i terrängen. Att kunna skapa, planera och leda genomförandet av fältövningar är en viktig del av den militära professionen.

    [1] Brehmer Bernt, Från Yrke till profession, Försvarshögskolan 2011, sid 19. Bremer påpekar bl. a ”officersprofessionen har en kärna som gör den unik, nämligen att på legala grunder utöva våld till landets försvar grundat på förmågan att leda väpnad strid”.

    [2] Brehmer Bernt, Från Yrke till profession, Försvarshögskolan 2011, sid 23-32, angående beprövad erfarenhet i en profession av karaktär officersyrket; bl.a. att det i beprövad erfarenhet ingår all slags erfarenhet, relevant vetenskap, tester och försök. Vidare att den är formulerad och värderad, är under ständig prövning och har legal status bl.a. genom gällande reglementen och doktriner.

    [3]  I Allgeheime Kriegsschule i Berlin gjorde sig slagfältsexkursioner (i dag fältövningar) mer och mer gällande, från 1827/1828. Denna preussiska pedagogik kopierades i andra länder och blev en viktig del av den klassiska militära skoltraditionen. Hämtat från internt pm vid FHS 2006-05-16, av professor Kent Zetterberg och Gunnar Åselius. Framgår även i Artikel, The modern model of the battlefield tour and staff ride, Defence Studies ,Vol. 5, No 1, David Ian Hall,  King`s College, 2005.

  • 24.
    Högström, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Wistedt, Erik
    Progression vid utbildning i markoperationer och taktik2018In: Tankar om Defensiven / [ed] Tommy Jeppsson, Stockholm: Kungl. Krigsvetenskapsakademien och Försvarshögskolan , 2018Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to discuss the education and training of army officer’s cadets at the Swedish Defense University. During the resent year, the training program has gone through a larger development. Education in tactics and war science has changed. The discussion focuses on requirements concerning tactical objectives, tactical knowledge, tactical methods, military capability and ability to evaluate land operations. We also present our opinion on the army cadet’s tactical progression.

     

  • 25.
    Johansson, Linda
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin). Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Artificiell intelligens och konstgjord moral2018In: Religion & LivsfrågorArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Johansson, Linda
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Bör robotar få döda? Etiska aspekter på militära autonoma system2017In: Tidskrift i sjöväsendet, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Johansson, Linda
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Är det fegt att använda drönare?2017In: Mod i strid och filosofi: Dygdetiska perspektiv från Aristoteles till drönarkriget / [ed] Peter Haldén och Björn Tjällén, Nordic Academic Press, 2017, p. 195-217Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Lundqvist, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Continuity and Change in post-Cold War Maritime Security: A Study of the Strategies Pursued by the US, Sweden and Finland 1991-20162017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What explains continuity and change in post-Cold War maritime security strategies? What lessons can we learn from the employment of such comprehensive grand strategies in maritime regions where traditional and non-traditional threats converge? While many scholars have addressed particular maritime security issues, this author joins the few who engage themselves in the study of the conceptual development of maritime security.

    Through the lens of structural realism, this thesis examines the logic of the maritime security strategies employed in two distinguished regions by the US and EU member states Finland and Sweden. It concludes that while their maritime security concept remains broad, the recent increase in security pressure has renewed the priority assigned to the military sector of security. Navies are thus re-using the measures implemented by a broad set of civil agencies and the shipping industry to improve maritime security, to gain the level of maritime domain awareness required for establishing regional sea control and project power from the sea.

  • 29.
    Lundqvist, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Continuity and change in US post-Cold War maritime security strategyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Lundqvist, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    In Search of Cross-Domain Deterrence: Implications of Mutual Deterrence Strategies for the Rules-based Security Order in Europe2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Lundqvist, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    In Search of Deterrence: Implications of the Strategies pursued by Russia and the West2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Following Russia’s 2014 annexation of Crimea, Russia and the West have taken measures and counter-measures in multiple domains aimed at mutual deterrence. Russia’s move from a policy of cooperation to confrontation with the West followed processes of eastward expansion by the EU and NATO, and involved renewed geopolitical and geoeconomic ambitions in the post-Soviet space. Its economic growth in the 2000s, centralisation of power and launch of ambitious armament programmes premised the policy change, while the stepwise counter-measures implemented by the West risk escalating the conflict. Russia’s vulnerable economy provides an opportunity for the West to achieve a de-escalation outcome by jointly imposing also firm economic sanctions on Russia.

  • 32.
    Lundqvist, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst). Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Uppföljning och utvärdering av operationer2018In: Militära arbetsmetoder: En lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm; Jerker Widén; Niklas Wikström, Malmö: Universus Academic Press , 2018, p. 163-192Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppföljning och utvärdering av militära operationer utgör ett sammanhängande system som spänner över alla ledningsnivåer. Behovet av detta system har sitt ursprung i de ökade krav på spårbarhet och mätbarhet av resultat och progression vid genomförandet av militära operationer som ställs i Sverige, EU och Nato. Identifieringen av de parametrar som skall mätas med därför avsedda verktyg under den militära operationens genomförande är en process som tar sin början i de högre ledningsnivåerna, det givna uppdraget, samt operationens slutmål. Genomförandet är däremot en process som föds från de förband som är insatta i operationen, vars insamlade information samman­ställs enligt förberedda riktlinjer, aggregeras och tillvaratas på de olika militära ledningsnivåerna. Denna text beskriver inte bara uppbyggnaden av Sveriges och Natos system för uppföljnings- och utvärdering av militära operationer, samt introducerar de analysverktyg som används på olika ledningsnivåer för att mäta framdrivning och framsteg, den diskuterar även de utmaningar som är förknippade med att implementera en effektiv uppföljnings- och utvärderingsprocess.

  • 33.
    Nilsson, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark). Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Role Conceptions, Crises, and Georgia's Foreign Policy2018In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, ISSN 0010-8367, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the scope conditions of national role conceptions as reference points for foreign policy decision making during crises. It aims to contribute to a refined perspective of the agency of new states undergoing socialization processes in relations with significant others. Drawing on a primary material consisting of interviews with Georgian and US officials, the article analyzes the significance of Georgia’s role conceptions in the country’s relations with the USA in relation to two major crises: the 2007 riots in Tbilisi and the 2008 war with Russia. The article posits that crises provide situational circumstances where the requirements of appropriate behavior associated with role expectations may enter into conflict with the demands of the immediate situation. In order to resolve ensuing role conflicts, actors face the need to both rationalize role expectations, and to compensate for departures from them. In turn, these strategies relate to the possibility for change and stability in role conceptions, and by extension their enactment in foreign policy. The analysis of the Georgian government’s management of the two crises demonstrates actions that implied both rationalization and compensation, aiming to retain the credibility of its existing role conceptions in the eyes of its US counterparts.

  • 34.
    Nilsson, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Russian Hybrid Tactics in Georgia2018Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Nilsson, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section. Institutet för säkerhets- och utvecklingspolitik.
    Så här bedriver Ryssland hybridkrigföring mot Georgien2018In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 6 februariArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Nilsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark). Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Michalski, Anna
    Department of Government, Uppsala University.
    Resistant to Change? The EU as a Normative Power and Its Troubled Relations with Russia and China2018In: Foreign Policy Analysis, ISSN 1743-8586, E-ISSN 1743-8594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we investigate the European Union's (EU) role as a normative foreign policy actor and its troubled relations to Russia and China. We contend that the lack of preparedness of the EU to foresee the increasingly tense relations with these countries can be explained through a role theoretical perspective. We show that the attachment of the EU to its role as a normative international actor reduced its awareness of Russia's and China's growing refusal to accept the EU's ambition to diffuse liberal norms and principles. The EU's inability to read the changing role expectations of China and Russia hampered the shaping of an appropriate foreign policy leading up the diplomatic crises with these two countries in the late 2000s and early 2010s, respectively. Theoretically, the findings contribute with a novel understanding of role conceptions in terms of reducing an actor's preparedness to acknowledge changes to its international role position caused by challenges raised by antagonistic partners.

  • 37.
    Nordin, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section. Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Will Trump make China great again?: The belt and road initiative and international order2018In: International Affairs, ISSN 0020-5850, E-ISSN 1468-2346, Vol. 94, no 2, p. 231-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under President Xi Jinping's leadership, Chinese foreign relations have moved from keeping a low profile, to a more assertive bid for international leadership that is beginning to take form in the ‘belt and road initiative’ (BRI). This initiative focuses on connectivity in policy coordination, facilities, trade, finance and people-to-people relations, in order to connect China to key parts of Asia, the south Pacific, east Africa and Europe. Networked capitalism and the national unit, which are often seen as spatial opposites in the global political economy, are both exercised through the BRI in mutually supporting ways. Networked capitalism is not challenging the national spatial unit, nor vice versa. Rather, they conglomerate to reinforce Chinese government narratives which portray China as the new trailblazer of global capitalism—thus illustrating and justifying a new Sinocentric order in east Asia. Likely winners of this constellation, if it is successful, are megalopolises in Eurasia, and most of all the Chinese Communist Party. Likely losers are countries that are not included in the BRI, most notably the United States. In a context where President Donald Trump is signalling a more protectionist stance and the United States is withdrawing from free trade pacts like the Trans-Pacific Partnership, Trump may ironically enable Xi's dream of making China great again.

  • 38.
    Sörenson, Karl
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Comparable Deterrence: Target, Criteria and Purpose2017In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 198-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last decade has seen several advances in the study of deterrence. These advances have sparked some strong disagreements regarding interpretation of the models and what their contributions signify. This paper appraises the discussions from a model theoretic perspective. It is argued that when comparing rivalling models three aspects; (i) target, (ii) criteria and (iii) type of purpose should be taken into account in order to make a proper appraisal. Informed by these aspects it is evident that the three deterrence models analysed address different aspects, in different ways and to different ends. From this perspective, the so-called Perfect Deterrence model must be recognised as a clear advancement in the research field. Model comparison will always be context relative and a plurality of models should be viewed favourably.

  • 39.
    Sörenson, Karl
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Deterring the Dauntless: Appraising the effects of naval deterrence against the Somali piracy2018In: WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs (JoMA), ISSN 1651-436X, E-ISSN 1654-1642, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 31-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article considers whether the Somali pirates were deterred by the naval task forces between the years 2009 and 2013. By disaggregating data and using previously unpublished records regarding the naval operations, two areas of operations are identified as potential periods of deterrence. The article uses a model of asymmetric deterrence to study the outcomes and equilibria of the navy-pirate interaction. It is found that the naval operations eventually did deter the Somali pirates in the Gulf of Aden, but that this objective was not met in the Somali Basin. It is concluded that the operational focus on the Gulf of Aden coupled with the fact that the area is relatively smaller than the Somali Basin enabled the naval credibility, thus effectively denying the pirates access to the sea. Conversely, limited attention by the naval units and the long Somali southern coast with its open waters impeded naval control in the Somali Basin. In connection to these findings some conclusions regarding naval deterrence are discussed.

  • 40.
    Thunholm, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Militär doktrin2018In: Militära arbetsmetoder: Lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm, Jerker Widén, Niklas Wikström, Malmö: Universus Academic Press , 2018, p. 15-48Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I kapitlet diskuteras doktrinens roll som verktyg och arbetsmetod inom den militära sfären. Diskussionerna bygger primärt på forskning om doktrin, men även på beprövad erfarenhet från Sverige och några utvalda västländer. Kapitlet består av två delar, där den första diskuterar begreppet doktrin, vad det är och varför en doktrin anses viktig att ha i en militär organisation. Den andra delen handlar om hur doktriner utvecklas och implementeras samt vilka slutsatser man kan dra från sådana utvecklings- och implementeringsprocesser.

  • 41.
    Thunholm, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Militär Doktrin2018In: Militära arbetsmetoder: En lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm, Jerker Widén, Niklas wikström, Malmö: Universus Academic Press , 2018, p. 15-48Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Thunholm, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Wikström, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Introduktion: Militära arbetsmetoder2018In: Militära arbetsmetoder: Lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm, Jerker Widén, Niklas Wikström, Malmö: Universus Academic Press , 2018, p. 7-13Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken behandlar militära arbetsmetoder och syftet är att introducera och förklara de metoder som används för att förbereda, utföra och värdera militära operationer.

  • 43.
    Thunholm, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Widén, JerkerSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.Wikström, NiklasSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Militära arbetsmetoder: En lärobok i krigsvetenskap2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken behandlar militära arbetsmetoder och syftet är att introducera och förklara de metoder som används för att förbereda, utföra och värdera militära operationer. Boken är även avsedd att fylla en lucka i befintlig militär metodlitteratur genom att ge en historisk förankring och forskningsanknytning till de militära arbetsmetoderna. Genom att beskriva den historiska utvecklingen av en arbetsmetod och koppla den till befintlig forskning ger boken en unik bakgrundsbeskrivning och problematiserande analys av de vanligaste militära arbetsmetoderna. Boken innehåller några övergripande teman. Det första är kopplat till officerens roll som chef och stabsmedlem. Inom detta tema beskrivs de metoder som används i den militära ledningsprocessen, det vill säga planering, genomförandeledning, uppföljning och utvärdering. Det andra är kopplat till officerens roll som utbildare och inom detta tema beskrivs de militära utbildnings- och arbetsmetoder som används för analys av strid i rummet eller terrängen, till exempel krigsspel, fältövningar och terränganalys. Ett tredje tema i boken är kopplingen mellan arbetsmetod och aktuell forskning.

  • 44.
    Thunholm, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Widén, JerkerSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.Wikström, NiklasSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Militära Arbetsmetoder: En lärobok i krigsvetenskap2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Ahlström, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Endast genom anfall kan ett avgörande nås: Varför dominerar offensiven militärt taktiskt tänkande?2017In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 2, p. 6-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses why the offensive dominates tactical thinking among Swedish officers. Having found that the large majority of Swedish officers think that the offensive dominates tactical thinking in the armed forces (6:1, 16:1 in the case of the army) ten possible reasons are identified and analysed. It found that the key factors for the dominance are military culture and education which together produce and reproduce the offensive bias. These are the factors with the most direct and deepest impact on the officer identity and understanding, form the foundation for tactical thinking, and work as a prism for other important factors.

  • 46.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Ahlström, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Offensivens roll i taktiskt tänkande: Slaget vid Caporetto 19172018In: Tankar om defensiven / [ed] Tommy Jeppsson, Stockholm: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademien och Försvarshögskolan , 2018, p. 14-24Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta kapitel studerar vi offensivens roll i det taktiska tänkandet vid tolfte slaget om Isonzo, mer känt som slaget vid Caporetto, i oktober 1917. Underlag har utgjorts av litteraturen kring slaget samt av erfarenheter från en fältövning på plats i Slovenien. Författarna, tillsammans med lärarna på sektionen för markoperationer och chefen för militärhistoriska avdelningen vid Försvarshögskolan, analyserade på plats slaget och följde i fotspåren på dåvarande löjtnanten Erwin Rommel för att förstå de taktiska förutsättningarna, vägvalen, besluten och dess effekter.

    I detta kapitel utgår vi från resultaten av vår egen forskning kring militärt taktiskt tänkande bland svenska officerare, från existerande forskning kring taktiskt tänkande samt från svensk doktrin och reglementen med betoning på Arméreglemente taktik (ART).

    När man studerar slaget vid Caporetto finner man att det är uppenbart att offensiven och offensivt tänkande har varit förhärskande. Detta gäller såväl Caporetto som de föregående elva slagen om Isonzo liksom den efterföljande jakten efter de italienska trupperna mot Tagliamento. Men varför var offensiven förhärskande? De militära målen och operationsmiljön ger förstås en grundförklaring – då italienarna ville nå Trieste behövde de gå på offensiven, och när Österrike-Ungerns försvar närmade sig kollaps och det operativa rummet saknades var motoffensiv att föredra (i alla fall om tyskt stöd kunde uppbådas). Samtidigt står det klart att offensiven var dominerande i det militära taktiska tänkandet hos såväl italienare som tyskar – de två huvudaktörerna i det studerade fallet.

  • 47.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section. The Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Rappe, Elin
    The Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Sweden’s approach to China’s Belt and Road Initiative: Still a glass half-empty2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013 China’s President Xi Jinping launched the “One Belt, One Road” (OBOR) initiative, later renamed the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), which involves China undertaking to make infrastructure investments worth billions of US dollars in the countries along the old Silk Road connecting China with Europe. While commonly seen as an infrastructure initiative aimed at strengthening the Chinese economy, it is also a political project with far-reaching strategic aims.

    This UI Brief outlines how China has approached the BRI with Sweden, how Sweden has responded and the perceptions of major Swedish stakeholders. It finds that Swedish officials are often highly cautious, maintaining a wait-and see policy. While also cautious, members of the business community are cautiously optimistic and have been more actively following BRI-related developments, seeking out avenues for potential business. The actual impact of BRI in Sweden, however, is so far very limited.

    The Brief concludes that Sweden’s approach to BRI has been too reactive and too passive. It argues that both the government and the business community need to engage more actively with the BRI in order to maximize its possible benefits. To this end, a national strategy is needed that includes the government and the business sector. Better coordination is also needed between government agencies and to link existing intra-governmental cooperation with the business community. Their importance cannot be overemphasized as the BRI is a political project, not an idealistic free-market endeavour.

  • 48.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Sjømilitær kompetanse og lederutvikling i 200 år: Sjøkrigsskolen 1817-20172018In: Norsk Militært Tidsskrift, ISSN 0029-2028, Vol. 188, no 2, p. 66-67Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Small navies: strategy and policy for small navies in war and peace2017In: Journal for maritime research, ISSN 2153-3369, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 81-82Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Suicide, the only politically worthy act2016In: Narrative Global Politics: Theory, history and the personal in international relations / [ed] Elizabeth Dauphinee, Naeem Inayatullah, London: Routledge, 2016, first, p. 191-199Chapter in book (Refereed)
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