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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Högström, Ulf
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Fältövningarnas metod2009In: Tankar om fälttåg: en bok om fälttåg och den gemensamma stridens komplexitet / [ed] Peter Ahlström och Ulf Högström, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2009, p. 13-19Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Ahlström, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Högström, UlfSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Tankar om fälttåg: en bok om fälttåg och den gemensamma stridens komplexitet2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik
    et al.
    Bournemoth University, Storbritannien.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Hybrid wars: the 21st-centrury's new threats to global peace and security2015In: Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies, ISSN 2309-9682, E-ISSN 2224-0020, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 77-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses a new form of war, ‘Hybrid War’, under inclusion of aspects of ‘cyber-terrorism’ and ‘cyber – war’ before the backdrop of Russia’s ‘Ukrainian Spring’ and the continuing threat posed by radical Islamist groups in Africa and the Middle East. It discusses the findings of an on-going Hybrid Threat project by the Swedish National Defence College. This interdisciplinary article predicts that military doctrines, traditional approaches to war and peace and its perceptions will have to change in the future.

  • 4.
    Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik
    et al.
    Bournemouth University.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Terrorism and cyber attacks as hybrid threats: defining a comprehensive approach for countering 21st century threats to global peace and security2014In: Journal on terrorism and security analysis, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 26-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multimodal, low intensity, kinetic as well as non-kinetic threats to international peace and security including cyber war, low intensity asymmetric conflict scenarios, global terrorism, piracy, transnational organized crime, demographic challenges, resources security, retrenchment from globalization and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction were identified by NATO as so called "Hybrid Threats" (cf BI-SC Input for a New NATO Capstone Concept for The Military Contribution to Countering Hybrid Enclosure 1 to 1500/CPPCAM/FCR/10-270038 and 5000 FXX/0100/TT-0651/SER: NU0040, dated 25 August 2010). This submission aims to introduce the audience to this form of security threat with a particular focus on "cyber" terrorism and war. This new form of conflict in the fifth dimension has a truly hybrid risk potential and warrants a new holistic counter approach: from law enforcement, counter cyber strategies to kinetic responses. The authors will present the findings of an ongoing Hybrid Threat experiment, which is being undertaken at the Swedish Defence College, with a focus on the role of cyber attacks within the wider context of asymmetric conflict and how the existing legal framework governing the use of force and the law applicable to hostilities does not necessarily reflect on this new form of threat.

  • 5.
    Baudin, Arne
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Manöverkrigföring2009In: Tankar om fälttåg: en bok om fälttåg och den gemensamma stridens komplexitet / [ed] Peter Ahlström och Ulf Högström, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2009, p. 233-241Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Baudin, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Högström, Ulf
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Kallak, Jaak
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Sulocki, Charles
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Thunholm, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Handbok i taktikutbildning, Mark: Inklusive generella anvisningar för planering och genomförande av krigsspel, fältövningar och stabstjänstövningar2012Book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Baudin, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Forsberg, Ronald
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Multinationella fälttåg: Ett styrkemässigt vågspel2009In: Tankar om Fälttåg: en bok om fälttåg och den gemensamma stridens komplexitet / [ed] Peter Ahlström och Ulf Högström, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2009, p. 141-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Cayirci, Erdal
    et al.
    Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Bruzzone, Agostino
    University of Genova, Italy.
    Longo, Francesco
    Mobile and Distributed Systems Lab, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Universita di Messina, Italy.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    A Model to Describe Hybrid Conflict Environments2016In: 6th International Defense and Homeland Security Simulation Workshop (DHSS 2016) / [ed] Bruzzone, Agostino & Sottilare, Robert, Rende: CAL-TEK S.r.l. , 2016, p. 52-60Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the definition, implementation and testing of a model to describe Hybrid Conflict Environments. Without the need of citing specific cases or countries, it is clear that hybrid strategy and warfare are becoming more important. A hybrid strategy can affect policy makers, military operations, economics and financial trends, intelligence and legal activities as well as information and media. A conceptual model is introduced to define and to gain further insight into hybrid environments. The model is then implemented and tested by running experiments to provide evidence on its relevance. Finally, results are presented and discussed.

  • 9.
    Dittmer, Lowell
    et al.
    University of California, Berkeley.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark). Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    China’s Maritime Embroilments2015In: Asian Survey, ISSN 0004-4687, E-ISSN 1533-838X, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 447-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    China's maritime periphery or ‘‘near seas’’—the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea—are waters through which a great deal of vital commerce flows, as China, Japan, Korea, and numerous Southeast Asian countries are all major trading nations that import the energy and raw materials that sustain their thriving economies. Since 2009 the East and South China Seas have become increasingly fraught with tension. This has generally been attributed to rising Chinese assertiveness, but not because China has started making a lot of assertions it never made before. As the authors assembled here point out in replete detail, China’s explicit claims to the Diaoyu/Senkaku islets in the East China Sea date back at least to 1971, while it can trace its claim in the South China Sea back to the publication of the famous ‘‘nine-dashed line’’ map by the Nationalists in 1947 (at the time it contained eleven segmented lines; the victorious Communists subsequently dropped two). What has changed since 2009 is China’s more rigorous enforcement of existing claims. This too is brought out in the articles collected below: its actors have seized islands well within the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of neighboring Southeast Asian nations, detained fishing boats and confiscated their catch, cut the cables of ships engaged in oil exploration, harassed American surveillance vessels, and most recently undertaken ‘‘reclamation’’ of subsurface islets in order to construct airstrips and harbors. 

  • 10.
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Soviet Operational Art: Narratives on Manchuria, 19452014In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This text explores the Soviet military offensive into Japanese-held Manchuria in August 1945 by looking at two narratives: the Soviet and the Japanese. The former has dominating the latter, perhaps due to the Soviet success as Japan surrendered a few days into the operation. However, by adding rather than dismissing the Japanese perspective, Soviet performances on different levels can be scrutinized. For example, faults with logistical planning and the difficulties to achieve a 'deep battle' are found. It also highlights the main difference between the two operations, namely that the Soviet operation aimed for a double pincer movement, while the Japanese operation aimed for a withdrawal into a mountain redoubt.

  • 11.
    Elin, Rappe
    et al.
    The Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark). The Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    ‘One Belt, One Road’ in the Swedish Context2016In: Europe and China’s New Silk Roads / [ed] Frans-Paul van der Putten, John Seaman, Mikko Huotari, Alice Ekman & Miguel Otero-Iglesias, European Think-tank Network on China (ETNC) , 2016, p. 60-62Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the economic importance of China for Sweden, a project such as the ‘Belt and Road’ initiative should be expected to entail a great deal of interest among Swedish policy-makers and the business community alike. However, this has not been the case, as the response so far has been varied and often cautious. The focus among Sweden’s policy-makers and the business community alike has been a wait-and-see approach, so the impact of OBOR in Sweden has been very limited. Sweden’s business community has been somewhat more optimistic, in particular with regard to opportunities in Central Asia, while the policy-makers in general do not see much that is new with the OBOR project. In conclusion, very little has been done; much more could and should have been done. There is a great need for strong leadership and guidance if Sweden is not going to fall way too far behind other nations with respect to OBOR.

  • 12.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Arthur Stille2010In: Svenskt biografiskt lexikon, Stockholm: Svenskt biografiskt lexikon , 2010, Vol. 164, p. 489-493Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Biskopsämbetets transformering i Svenska kyrkan under 1900-talet2011In: Finsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0015-248X, no 9Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Biskopämbetets officiella och inofficiella strukturer2011In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 1, p. 119-124Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Field Theory: An operative theoretical approach to military operations2011In: The Human Social Culture Behavior (HSCB), Arlington: Darpa , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    The Human Social Culture Behavior (HSCB) Modeling Program: Focus 2010 conference was held August 5–7, 2009 at the Westfields Marriot in Virginia. Hosted by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) HSCB Modeling Program, the conference brought together leading scientific and technical experts from both inside the Department of Defense and other government agencies who showcased their work in the HSCB modeling arena. Focus 2010 drew over 600 attendees from the Department of Defense, other government organizations, industry, and academia and with backgrounds ranging from sociology and anthropology to computer science and engineering.

  • 16.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Fälttågsidé2009In: Tankar om fälttåg / [ed] Peter Ahlström & Ulf Högström, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2009, p. 47-67Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Första världskriget ur olika perspektiv2016In: Militärhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0283-8400Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Historiska föreningen i Uppsala: från centrum till perferi2012In: Historiker i vardag och fest: Historiska föreningen i Uppsala 1862-2012 / [ed] David Ludvigsson, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet , 2012, p. 215-224Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Hybrid warfare and law2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The weaponization of culture in Russia.

    The weaponization of Western weakness in the cases Ukraine & Syria.

    Western unwillingness to recognise Russian hostility: turned into a tool for Russia to undermine Western power.

  • 20.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Hybrid Warfare: Theoretical concept2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Krig, kultur och rationalitet i Västerlandet och i den islamska kulturkretsen2011In:  :  , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Legoknektar över alla gränser: Recension av Nir Arielli, och Bruce Collins (eds.), Transnational Soldiers: Foreign Military Enlistment in the Modern Era2015In: Militärhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0283-8400, Vol. 2014, no 2, p. 151-153Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Mau Mau-upproret och brittisk upprorsbekämpning i nytt ljus?: Recension av Huw Bennett, Fighting the Mau Mau: the British Army and Counter-Insurgency in the Kenya Emergency2014In: Militärhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0283-8400, Vol. 2014, no 2, p. 147-150Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Nothing is taken seriously until it get serious: Countering Hybrid Threats2012In: Defence Against Terrorism Review, ISSN 1307-9190, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 47-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid threats has transformed as a concept the recent years and here is a pallete of ways to intepret the concept as well as some examples.

  • 25.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Officersutbildningens akademisering2009In: Vårt Försvar, ISSN 0042-2800, no 4, p. 14-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Planning workshop talk2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Recension av Per Lundin, Niklas Stenlås & Johan Gribbe (red.): Science for welfare and warfare. Technologyand state initiative in cold war Sweden2011In: Lychnos, ISSN 0076-1648Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Stödmyndighetsutredningen2009In: Vårt Försvar, ISSN 0042–2800, no 3, p. 32-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Sweden2010In: Atlas of European Historiography: The Making of a Profession, 1800-2005 / [ed] Ilaria Porciani and Lutz Raphael, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This innovative Atlas - based on the work of more than 80 experts - maps for the first time the development of the historical profession and the core institutions of historiography in Europe since 1800. It gives a comprehensive overview of the making of the infrastructure of historical studies from archives to universities for all European countries as well as analyzing general trends and regional or national particularities of the historians' craft in contemporary Europe. Featuring a specially-commissioned set of maps and a systematical integration of texts and images, it provides an accessible teaching instrument and essential reading for scholars interested in the development of European culture and the history of European nationalism.

  • 30.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    “Teaching in the trenches": A discussion on German tactical frontline training at the end of the First World War”2017Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Texten diskuterar den omorganisation som skedde i den kejserliga tyska armén inför våroffensiverna 1918. Detta görs utifrån primärkällor i det tyska landsarkivet i Karlsruhe, som inte tidigare använts. Såväl det snabba systemet för att tillvarata de senaste erfarenheterna från fronten diskuteras, som upplägget för att bokstavligen utbilda och omorganisera arméenheterna i skyttegravarna. Hanteringen av erfarenheter belyses genom en rapport som dels innehöll viktiga slutsatser, dels hanterades mycket snabbt från slaget i fråga, till de väpnade styrkornas befälhavares (Eric von Ludendorff) förord och vidare ned i tryckt form vid förband på Västfronten. Det andra exemplet visar på den snabba men ad hoc liknande process som vidtog vid omorganisationen av arméenheter till stormtruppstaktik. Förutsättningarna för att detta kan göras berörs i inledningen och anknyter till några faktorer såsom institutionell tillit och utbildning i det tyska civila samhället som underlättade det som sedan skedde i armén.  Perspektivet brygger från det allmänna i Tyskland till specifika dagorders vid Västfronten. Det senare går inte att komma åt annat än genom att använda de dokument som producerades för användande i den välfungerande byråkratiska hanteringen vid fronten.

  • 31.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Väst har hamnat i en duellsituation2015In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 31/5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Bachmann, Sascha
    Bournemouth Univerrsity.
    Military teaching for the future2015In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, Vol. 2, p. 131-145Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med nya militära utmaningar ställs frågan vad taktisk utbildning egentligen? Många sysselsätter sig med att undervisa i taktisk utbildning, men ställer man dem frågan vad taktik är så händer det ofta att svaret blir svävande och vagt. Är den taktiska utbildningen något som är tidsbundet och daterat? Tesen är att det centrala vid den taktiska utbildningen är förmedlandet och hanterandet av ett taktiskt språk. För att visa på detta inleds med ett exempel från det första världskrigets kejserliga tyska armé där relationen stat, krigsmakt, taktik och språk diskuteras. Stora taktiska förändringar kan genomfras på kort tid, under pågående konflikt med miljontals människor inblandade bara förutsättningarna finns. En välorganiserad stat med hög utbildnings och organisationsnivå är viktigt för en militär organisation då den bara är en exponent av samhället i stort. Denna del följs av taktisk utbildning vid två olika tillfällen i Sverige under det nära förflutna, dels vid stabsprogrammet, dels på officersprogrammet. Vid båda tillfällena är det uppenbart att skolandet i ett uniformt och effektivt taktiskt språk är centralt i undervisningen, oaktat den hierarkiska skillnaden vid tillfällena. Sammanfattningsvis kan sägas att på ytan må den taktiska undervisningen te sig bunden av sina scenarion och fall men att den på ett djupare plan uppehåller sig vid något mer allmänt som språk som också i lika hög grad är viktigt.

  • 33.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Bachmann, Sascha
    University of Bournemouth.
    Terrorism and Cyber Attacks as Hybrid Threats: Defining a Comprehensive Approach for Countering 21st Century Threats to Global Risk and Security2013In: A Multidisciplinary Conference on Cyberterrorism: Final Report / [ed] Macdonald, S., Jarvis, L. & Chen, T., Birmingham: Swansea University , 2013, p. 12-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Dominik Bachmann, Sascha
    Russia’s Hybrid Warfare in the East: Using the Information Sphere as Integral to Hybrid Warfare2015In: Georgetown journal of international affairs, ISSN 0315-0941, E-ISSN 2049-6060, Vol. Oktober, p. 199-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future adversaries will increasingly rely on technological means to execute their operations, utilizing cyber capabilities to control or support ‘Hybrid Threats.’ Hybrid Threats are multimodal, low intensity, kinetic as well as non-kinetic threats to international peace and security. Examples of Hybrid Threats include asymmetric conflict scenarios, global terrorism, piracy, transnational organized crime, demographic challenges, resources security, retrenchment from globalization and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.Cyber-conflict and cyber-warfare are great examples of the use of new technologies within the scope of Hybrid Threats. Cyber-war refers to a sustained, computer-based cyber-attack by a state (or non-state actor) against the IT infrastructure of a target. The combination of new technology and its availability make cyber-supported or cyber-led Hybrid Threats so potent. Cyber threats strike at the core of modern war fighting by affecting Command and Control abilities, which have become vulnerable to such cyber-attacks.Russia has been one of the most prolific users of cyber capabilities. In 2007, Russia attempted to disrupt Estonia’s Internet infrastructure as retribution for the country’s removal of a WWII Soviet War Memorial from the center of Tallinn. Russia also augmented its conventional military campaign in Georgia with cyber capabilities, which severely hampered the functioning of government and business websites.In the present conflict in Eastern Ukraine, Russia has effectively used the information sphere as an integral tool in its Hybrid War against the people of Ukraine.

  • 35.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Ottis, Rain
    Tallinn University of Technology.
    Cyberspace from the Hybrid Threat Perspective2013In: Journal of Information Warfare, ISSN 1445-3312, Vol. 12, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid threats use conventional and unconventional means to achieve their goals. In this paper we explore the cyber threats as one possible aspect of hybrid threats. We describe three ways of approaching cyberspace (operations) from the hybrid threats perspective: supporting conventional operations, exploiting non-military systems, and exploring the opportunities provided by this environment. In particular, we highlight the aspects that are or likely will be relevant to the military community.

  • 36.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Ottis, Rain
    University of Jyväskylä & Tallinn University of Technology.
    Cyberspace from the Hybrid Threat Perspective2013In: Papers Presented at the 12th European Conference on Information Warfare and Security / [ed] Kuusisto, Rauno & Kurkinen, Erkki, Reading: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited , 2013, p. 98-105Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid threats use conventional and unconventional means to achieve their goals. In this paper we explore the cyber threats as one possible aspect of hybrid threats. We describe three ways of approaching cyberspace (operations) from the hybrid threats perspective: supporting conventional operations, exploit-ing non-military systems, and exploring the opportunities provided by this envi-ronment. In particular, we highlight the aspects that are or likely will be relevant to the military community.

  • 37.
    Högström, Ulf
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Behov och förmågor för fredsframtvingande insatsstyrkor i lågintensiva konflikter: Lärdomar från Somalia2005In: Reviderade texter i krigsvetenskap från 2000-2002: Krigsvetenskapliga institutionen, Försvarshögskolan / [ed] Anders Cedergren, Vällingby: Elanders Gotab AB , 2005, p. 519-531Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Högström, Ulf
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Fältövningsmetodik2009In: Tankar om fälttåg / [ed] Peter Ahlström & Ulf Högström, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Högström, Ulf
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Lära om taktik: Några tankar om utbildning och undervisning i taktik2011In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, ISSN 0023-5369, no 1, p. 116-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Taktik är en central del både för arméns förmåga och utveckling samt i de kurser i krigsvetenskap som genomförs på FHS. Området taktik är omfattande och denna text förklarar inte vad taktik är utan försöker endast öka förståelsen för lärandet om taktik. Vad innebär det att lära om taktik, finns det särskilda pedagogiska utmaningar att förhålla sig till? Taktik är inte bara praktik det finns även en utvecklad militärteori som kan användas som stöd i utbildningen. Lärarrollen i taktik innebär att officeren förutom att vara en god officer och föregångsman även behöver ha en god pedagogisk förmåga. Handledarrollen är central och kräver både omdöme och ödmjukhet. De militära utbildningsmetoderna behöver dels dokumenteras samt fortsatt utvecklas. Lärare i taktik behöver kontinuerligt tränas och kompetensutvecklas i både militära som civila pedagogiska metoder. Att lära om taktik är att träna en kollega i att tänka och välja för att lösa en komplex militär uppgift. Detta innebär att även taktikläraren måste tänka och välja de medel och metoder som bäst gynnar denna process med lärandet i fokus.

  • 40.
    Högström, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark). Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Baudin, Arne
    Fältövning - steget mellan tanke handling2018In: Militära Arbetsmetoder: Lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm, Jerker Widén, Niklas wikström, Malmö: Universus Academic press , 2018, p. 295-309Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns ett antal pedagogiska koncept inom den militära professionen[1], vilka använts under lång tid (ca 200 år). Dessa baseras på beprövad erfarenhet[2]  där all slags erfarenheter tagits tillvara, inklusive vetenskap, tester och försök. Professionen har funnit dessa vara effektiva, vilket innebär att de är under ständigt användande och ständig utveckling. Framträdande koncept är applikatoriska exempel (applex), krigsspel, fältövningar och stabstjänstövningar vilka även kan kombineras med varandra och användas på ett flexibelt sätt utifrån syftet och målsättningen med verksamheten. Alla dessa koncept genomförs på olika sätt. De har utvecklats och gått i arv inom institutionerna i den militära professionen. Självklart används även andra koncept inom den militära utbildningen såsom lektioner, föreläsningar och litteraturstudier av militärhistoria, teknik, militärteori och inte minst ledarskap. Det militära yrket kan av lättförklarliga skäl sällan utövas i sitt mest extrema sammanhang. Den enskilde militären utövar sällan eller aldrig sitt yrkes våldsinslag i full skala. Således krävs det metoder för att kunna uppleva verklighetens vingslag i olika miljöer och sammanhang så nära som möjligt. Fältövning är en av dessa som syftar till att åstadkomma detta och denna militära metod har använts sedan tidigt 1800-tal.[3]

    Fältövning, krigsspel och applikatoriska exempel är alla koncept att simulera, förbereda och träna militär personal utan onödig blodspillan och skador. Fältövningar syftar till att krigsplanlägga, testa planer, utveckla taktik och stridsteknik och till att utbilda inom taktik och operationskonst.  Fältövning och krigsspel baseras på någon form av scenario (fiktivt eller verkligt) och är nära besläktade med varandra eftersom fältövning kan genomföras som ett krigsspel i terrängen. Att kunna skapa, planera och leda genomförandet av fältövningar är en viktig del av den militära professionen.

    [1] Brehmer Bernt, Från Yrke till profession, Försvarshögskolan 2011, sid 19. Bremer påpekar bl. a ”officersprofessionen har en kärna som gör den unik, nämligen att på legala grunder utöva våld till landets försvar grundat på förmågan att leda väpnad strid”.

    [2] Brehmer Bernt, Från Yrke till profession, Försvarshögskolan 2011, sid 23-32, angående beprövad erfarenhet i en profession av karaktär officersyrket; bl.a. att det i beprövad erfarenhet ingår all slags erfarenhet, relevant vetenskap, tester och försök. Vidare att den är formulerad och värderad, är under ständig prövning och har legal status bl.a. genom gällande reglementen och doktriner.

    [3]  I Allgeheime Kriegsschule i Berlin gjorde sig slagfältsexkursioner (i dag fältövningar) mer och mer gällande, från 1827/1828. Denna preussiska pedagogik kopierades i andra länder och blev en viktig del av den klassiska militära skoltraditionen. Hämtat från internt pm vid FHS 2006-05-16, av professor Kent Zetterberg och Gunnar Åselius. Framgår även i Artikel, The modern model of the battlefield tour and staff ride, Defence Studies ,Vol. 5, No 1, David Ian Hall,  King`s College, 2005.

  • 41.
    Kallak, Jaak
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Analys av en operation ur ett svenskt doktrinperspektiv2009In: Tankar om fälttåg / [ed] Peter Ahlström & Ulf Högström, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2009, p. 97-107Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Kallak, Jaak
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Behovet av beprövad erfarenhet vid utbildning i militära operationer2008In: Krigsvetenskaplig årsbok 2007 / [ed] Dan Öberg, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2008, p. 131-141Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Larsdotter, Kersti
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Culture and the Outcome of Military Interventions: Developing some Hypotheses2007In: Understanding Victory and Defeat in Contemporary War / [ed] Jan Angstrom & Isabelle Duyvesteyn, London: Routledge, 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Larsdotter, Kersti
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Exploring the utility of armed force in peace operations: German and British approaches in northern Afghanistan2008In: Small Wars & Insurgencies, ISSN 0959-2318, E-ISSN 1743-9558, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 352-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The robust approach of the American forces in for example Afghanistan and Iraq is often criticised and compared to the more soft approach of the British forces. However, there are surprisingly few systematic studies on the relationship between the conduct of force and the outcome of peace operations. Two kinds of military conduct in Afghanistan have been explored in this article, one that could be called 'minimum force' and one that could be called 'show of force'. Contradicting the commonly held idea of the superiority of 'minimum force', 'show of force' correlated with a better outcome than the 'minimum force' approach. However, before arguing that a 'show of force' approach is a better way to conduct peace operations, more reliable data on the outcome, and additional case studies, are needed.

  • 45.
    Larsdotter, Kersti
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Kulturförståelse i den militära utbildningen2008In: Krigsvetenskaplig årsbok 2007 / [ed] Dan Öberg, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2008, p. 195-206Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Larsdotter, Kersti
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Military Interventions in Internal Wars: The Study of Peace or the Study of War?2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis sets out to increase our understanding on how to conduct successful military interventions in internal wars, such as the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. But, instead of investigating different variables which might contribute to success, the focus is on the practice of knowledge production.

    Numerous scholars have focused on how to conduct military interventions in internal wars successfully. However, research is conducted in different disciplines, such as Peace Studies and War Studies. According to interdisciplinary advocates, this might impede a rational advancement of knowledge. The aim of this thesis, therefore, is to scrutinise whether military interventions in internal wars are understood and approached differently in different disciplines, and to investigate whether these differences result in different knowledge about how to conduct successful military interventions in internal wars. The investigation has been conducted in two steps.

    In the first step – focusing on theory – research on peace operations and counterinsurgencies was compared, regarding underlying assumptions, independ­ent and dependent variables, causal mechanisms and methodology. Several differences were identified. Not only are the underlying assumptions, theories, and variables different between the two research areas of peace operations and counterinsurgencies, there are also differences in methodological approaches, such as the unit of analysis. These differences could imply that disciplines frame the way we understand the object of study and how we conduct research.

    In the second step – focusing on practice – the ISAF mission in Afghanistan was interpreted from the two disciplinary perspectives. Several differences were identified here as well, suggesting that disciplinary approaches influence our knowledge of how to conduct successful military interventions in internal wars. Departing from the differences found between the two research areas in the first part of the thesis, different ways to overcome these differences are suggested. Following these suggestions, research on military interventions in internal wars might become more rational, potentially increasing our understanding of how to conduct these operations successfully.

  • 47.
    Larsdotter, Kersti
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    New Wars, Old Warfare?: Comparing US Tactics in Afghanistan and Vietnam2005In: Rethinking the nature of war: Clausewitz and His Critics Revisited / [ed] Jan Angstrom & Isabelle Duyvesteyn, London: Frank Cass Publishers, 2005Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Larsdotter, Kersti
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    The Changing Character of Peace Operations: The Use of Force at the Tactical Level2009In: War and Peace in Transition: Changing Roles of External Actors / [ed] Karin Aggestam & Annika Björkdahl, Lund: Nordic Academic Press , 2009, p. 90-106Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Larsdotter, Kersti
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Avslutning: att välja rätt bland rivaliserande kunskaper om operation och krigsvetenskap2008In: Krigsvetenskaplig årsbok 2007 / [ed] Dan Öberg, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2008, p. 215-232Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Lyckman, Markus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Global shadow war: conceptual analysis2015In: Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict, ISSN 1746-7586, E-ISSN 1746-7594, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 251-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The US strategic shift from nation-building to what has been labelled “light footprint” has carried with it a number of changes in the practices used when waging war on terrorism. These activities include covert and clandestine action by special operations and paramilitary forces, and others, operating under a shadowy mandate. It is essential to analyse these changes, due to the nature of the actions taken and the global reach and consequences of US foreign policies. The concept of “global shadow war” has been used by scholars and journalists alike to describe the practices associated with the light footprint framework, although the concept is ambiguous, lacks clear conceptual boundaries and is yet to be defined. This article attempts to resolve the problem of ambiguity through a systematic analysis of how and when the concept is used, in the process establishing its conceptual boundaries and definitional qualities. Using a method for concept analysis developed by Giovanni Sartori, the article provides a conceptual definition which is more clearly delineated, encompasses the characteristics found in the sources studied, and can be used when theorizing about the many practices taking place within the light footprint framework.

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