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  • 751.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Svenska säkerhetsstrategier: 1810-20142015 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En nationell säkerhetsstrategi handlar ytterst om hur den politiska ledningen inriktar, utvecklar och utnyttjar olika former av maktmedel för att uppnå landets övergripande säkerhetspolitiska mål.

    I denna bok presenteras en sammanhållen analys av de olika säkerhetsstrategier som Sverige tillämpat under den 200-åriga fredsperioden sedan Napoleonkrigens slut. Bland dessa säkerhetsstrategier återfinns exempel på såväl olika former av neutralitetspolitik som olika former av allianspolitik samt strategier syftande till kollektiv säkerhet. De svenska vägvalen analyseras och förklaras med hjälp av teorier om säkerhetspolitiska strategier och internationell politik. Boken avslutas med en analys av dagens svenska försvarspolitik.

    Boken Svenska säkerhetsstrategier är främst avsedd att användas i utbildning på högskolenivå, men den avser också att lämna ett bidrag till forskning och debatt om svensk säkerhetspolitik.

  • 752.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    Sweden's Policy of Neutrality2013In: Neutrality in the 21st Century: Lessons for Serbia / [ed] Igor S. Novakovic, Belgrad: ISAC Fond , 2013, p. 49-54Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 753.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    The New Dynamics of Nordic Defence Cooperation2014In: Perspectives on European Security: STETE Yearbook 2013 / [ed] Kati Lepojärvi, Helsinki: STETE, The Finnish Committee for European Security , 2014, p. 60-67Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 754.
    Westergren, Philip
    Swedish Defence University.
    McRavens specialoperationsteori på Spetsnaz2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of special operations of today’s warfare has increased. Yet, researchers within the field claim that the research in special operations is insufficient. This increases the request for special operations theories. McRaven’s special operations theory is the most recognized and criticized. Still, his theory has not been subject for theory testing. McRaven’s special operations theory focuses solely on western operations. The focus on western operations is a problem that applies to most of the research in special operations. Can McRavens theory help explain Soviet success in special op-erations? This case study aims to test McRavens special operations theory on Soviet special opera-tions. The cases have been chosen primarily on sources availability and resulted in the capture of Ruzyne airfield in Prague 1968 and the assassination of Hafizullah Amin at the Tajbeg-palace in Kabul 1978. The results of this study show that McRaven’s special operations theory have enough explanatory power to illustrate why the soviets had success in their special operations. With correct appliance of the six theoretic principles the soviets reached relative superiority and completed their objectives. Distinguishing for both operations was the high level of deception that were used. To further verify if McRaven’s special operations theory can explain other countries special operations more research is needed.

  • 755.
    Wickman, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Svensk-Finsk marin interoperabilitet inför ett fördjupat försvarssamarbete: En jämförelse av Sveriges och Finlands militärstrategiska koncept ur en marin synvinkel2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A decision has been made that the Swedish and the Finnish Navy will expand their cooperation by creating the “Swedish-Finnish Naval Task Group” (SFNTG).

    Based on Michael Codner’s theory of interoperability, this essay’s aim is to investigate if the Swedish and the Finnish currently are interoperable with each other, due to their military strategic concepts.

    According to Codner, similarities between the cooperating nation’s military strategic concepts are required in order to reach a high degree of interoperability. This essay will analyze and compare Sweden and Finland’s military strategic concepts, based on three categories; Global Projection, Territorial Defence and Combat Capability.

    The conclusion is that there are differences between the Swedish and the Finnish military strategic concepts in every category, of varying degrees. By looking at the results of this investigation, it is clear in what direction the two nations have to adapt their concepts to enable a high degree of interoperability for the future of the SFNTG.

  • 756.
    Widen, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Theorist of Maritime Strategy: Sir Julian Corbett and his Contribution to Military and Naval Thought2012Book (Refereed)
  • 757.
    Widen, Jerker
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Sörenson, Karl
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Irregular Warfare and Tactical Change: The Case of Somali Piracy2011Report (Other academic)
  • 758.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    21st Century Mahan: Sound Military Considerations for the Modern Era2015In: Mariner´s mirror, ISSN 0025-3359, E-ISSN 2049-680X, Vol. 101, no 2, p. 252-253Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 759.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Book-review: Strategy and War Planning in the British Navy, 1887-19182013In: Mariner´s mirror, ISSN 0025-3359, E-ISSN 2049-680X, Vol. 99, no 3, p. 372-373Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 760.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Marint lärande: värdet av vetenskapligt tänkande och bildning2014In: Tidskrift i sjöväsendet, ISSN 0040-6945, no 3, p. 225-231Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 761.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Naval Diplomacy: A Theoretical Approach2011In: Diplomacy & Statecraft, ISSN 0959-2296, E-ISSN 1557-301X, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 715-733Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 762.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Nya perspektiv på Clausewitz och hans militära tänkande2008In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 1, p. 130-133Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 763.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Sir Julian Corbett and the Theoretical Study of War2007In: Journal of Strategic Studies, ISSN 0140-2390, E-ISSN 1743-937X, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 109-127Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 764.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Sjømilitær kompetanse og lederutvikling i 200 år: Sjøkrigsskolen 1817-20172018In: Norsk Militært Tidsskrift, ISSN 0029-2028, Vol. 188, no 2, p. 66-67Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 765.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Small navies: strategy and policy for small navies in war and peace2017In: Journal for maritime research, ISSN 2153-3369, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 81-82Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 766.
    Widén, Jerker
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Ångström, Jan
    Uppsala universitet.
    Modern Armed Forces and the Spread of the Idea of the Principles of War2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 767.
    Widén, Jerker
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Skall militäreori i förstås som teori eller praktik?2006In: Krigsvetenskaplig årsbok 2005 / [ed] Berndt Brehmer, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2006, p. 51-76Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 768.
    Wiesner, Robert
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hur tolkas Warden?2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    John A. Warden III är en av vår tids mest inflytelserika luftmaktsteoretiker och Wardens teori är vida omskriven och ligger till grund för flertalet undersökningar. Warden redogör själv för att teorin inte skall ses som en mall utan att det snarare är generella idéer och riktlinjer. Det gör att teorin går att applicera på många olika fall men det lämnar också utrymme för tolkning. Syftet med denna uppsatts är att undersöka ifall allmängiltigheten i Wardens teori gör att teorin tolkas olika. För att besvara frågeställningarna har en kvalitativ textanalys genomförts på ett antal utvalda uppsatser skrivna av studerande vid Försvarshögskolan. Det övergripande resultatet visar att allmängiltigheten i Wardens teori inte kan anses vara något problem då de undersökta författarna tolkat Wardens teori på ett liknande sätt.

  • 769.
    Wikström, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Palmgren, Anders
    Swedish Defence University, Directorate for Officer's Academic Education.
    Auftragstaktik och uppdragstaktik2018In: Militära arbetsmetoder: En lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm, Jerker Widén, Niklas Wikström, Malmö: Universus Academic Press , 2018, p. 49-84Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta kapitel inleds med en analys som kortfattat beskriver framväxten av Auftragstaktik i tysk militär kultur och historia med fokus på den centrala perioden 1869-1945 för att tydliggöra viktiga komponenter i ett vidare perspektiv. Därefter analyseras och synliggör kapitlet centrala element som tidigare generationer av svenska officerare plockade upp respektive tappade bort i konstruktionen av svensk uppdragstaktik. Medan den inledande beskrivningen och analysen av den tyska utvecklingen är tematisk, är analysen av den svenska tolkningen av uppdragstaktik kronologiskt ordnad i tre perioder genom sitt beroende av utvecklingen i Tyskland och Frankrike.

  • 770.
    Willers, Rasmus
    Swedish Defence University.
    Små staters doktriner: anpassade efter egna förhållanden eller avskilda från staternas verklighet?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research debate concerning small states and military doctrine development delivers two main arguments for and against the ability of these states to formulate doctrines specifically adapted to their strategic contexts. One argument supports the view that a small state has limited ability to develop properly adapted doctrines because they are influenced by larger states. The opposing argument claims that small states’ ability should be better than those of their larger counterparts due to the fact that small state organizations are smaller and are therefore likely to be more adaptable. These two arguments lay the foundation for this essay.

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Swedish military doctrines from 2012 and 2016 to determine the extent to which they are specifically adapted to Sweden’s conditions. Specific Swedish conditions have been identified in order to enable an analysis of the Swedish military doctrines and how they are attuned to these conditions. Findings of the analysis show that one of the military doctrines exhibits a low level of adaptation to Swedish conditions, while the later military doctrine is found to be partially adapted to Swedish conditions. These findings are vital to the debate on the relationship between small states and military doctrine development and expose the need for further research.

  • 771.
    Wolff, Filip
    Swedish Defence University.
    Nya generationens krigföring - ett gammalt koncept?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For the first time since 1979 Russia has invaded another country, Georgia and Ukraine. Both invasions drew the attention of military experts who insisted that this was future warfare, the new generation warfare. Many of them imply that this new kind of warfare will replace the old kind of war that we are used to. However, there are experts who also suggest that some parts of warfare will not change, but instead grow in importance, for instance, deception. The studies aim is to investigate how deception was used by Russia in both invasions. This to strengthen or weaken traditional theories explaining Russian deception. The study uses Michael Dewars and Barton Whaleys theories to explain traditional deception. The result showed that the deception used was connected to Maskirovka, a traditional method for deception used by the Russians. Therefor this study could strengthen and argue that deception used by the Russians in these invasions still can be referred to as traditional.

  • 772.
    Wåhlander, Oskar
    Swedish Defence University.
    Påverkan av kognitiva biaser på Försvarsmaktens systemanalysschema2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines the presence of cognitive biases in governmental acquisitions of technical systems. The four examined biases are Prior hypotheses and focusing on limited targets, Exposure to limited alternatives, Insensitivity to outcome probabilities and Illusion of manageability. These were examined through a case study of systems purchases for governmental agencies.

    The essay identified parts of Försvarsmaktens handbok i studiemetodik where the text was written in such a way where there was a risk of bias being present. These were identified through a qualitative text analysis and semi-structured interviews. Because of the presence of bias found in the text, a chapter dedicated to risk of bias was recommended, as well as certain amendments to the text to prohibit biased interpretations.

  • 773.
    Zanderholm, Malin
    Swedish National Defence College. Royal Military Academy, Brussels, Belgium.
    Another Failed State in the Gulf of Aden: Applying scenario-planning methodology on piracy in the Gulf of Aden2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Gulf of Aden holds one of the strategic chokepoint along the important Eurasian maritime trade route. On both sides of the Gulf of Aden lie countries in need of political stability. In the south lies Somalia, one of the worlds longest failed states and hosts of pirates violently disrupting maritime trade in the region. On its northern shores lies Yemen, one of the poorest countries in the world and home to the terrorist movement Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula.

    This thesis aims to look deeper into what effect on piracy another failed state in the region would have and to illustrate that the thesis describes a scenario where Yemen has followed Somalia’s footsteps and developed into a failed state. Applying Lindgren and Bandhold’s method of scenario planning and through a quantitative analysis, recent trends affecting piracy development were identified. Through a scenario cross four different scenarios were developed to illustrate the effects a failed state Yemen would have on piracy leading to which new challenges the EU might be faced with in the region.

    The overall conclusions are that a failed state Yemen would have a negative effect on the efforts in mitigating piracy and pirates, driven by opportunity and profit, would benefit from further instability in the region. The thesis supports previous research regarding the connection between maritime piracy in the Gulf of Aden and failed states and illustrate the multifaceted challenges the EU could face as a consequence of the new development of piracy. 

  • 774.
    Ängblom, Daniel
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Strategisk teori i cybermiljön ur ett flygmaktsperspektiv2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Moderna industrialiserade stater är under utveckling till post-moderna, globalt sammanflätade ekonomier och samhällen. Cybermiljöns strategiska betydelse är högaktuell då det finns en strävan att ersätta traditionella militära förmågor med långräckviddiga vapen och tekniska system. Tänkandet inom cybermiljön präglas emellertid fortfarande av teknikens möjligheter och dess taktiska tillämpningar och en historisk vetenskapsteoretisk utgångspunkt i avskräckningsstrategi som inte anses vara tillämpbar i cybermiljön. Cybermiljön militariseras men strategisk teori för hur maktmedlet skall användas saknas. Teoretiskt ramverk bör förankras i empiri, filosofi och historia. Den här studien undersöker hur flygmaktsteori kan utgöra vetenskapshistorisk utgångspunkt för att förankra cyberteori i strategin och hur luftmaktsteori kan utveckla strategisk teori i cyber?

    Analysen har visat att flygmaktsteori kan utgöra utgångspunkt för konceptuellt tankesätt och utveckling av teori i cybermiljön främst för att de strategiska grundelementen och effekten är teoretiskt jämförbara. Studien har utvecklat cyberteori för operativa metoder, konceptuellt tankesätt och den sammansatta effekten av cyberattacker. Studien har visat att flygmaktsteori utgår från en systemsyn på motståndarens sociala och tekniska system och målet är att genom strategiska attacker parallellt bekämpa tyngdpunkter för att nå en paralyserande effekt. Därigenom skall en psykologisk effekt påverka viljan till fortsatt kamp. Cyberattacker är mer strategiska och politiska men mindre våldsamma än flygmakt och kan på ett mer effektivt sätt uppfylla politiska mål än traditionellt militärt våld. Information, underrättelser och teknik är av permanent betydelse för strategi. Cybermiljön har en politisk och militär dimension och i likhet med de övriga militära maktmedlen är cybervapnet föremål för strategisk teori. Cybermiljön anses vara teoretiskt förankrad i den allmänna strategin med en tydlig spårbarhet till den indirekta strategin.

  • 775.
    Ådén, Anders
    Swedish Defence University.
    Nya principer - gamla krig: En teoriprövande ansats2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the dawn of military thinking, theorists have been trying to find the key to victory in armed conflict. theories of classic thinkers like Jomini and Carl von Clausewitz represented two positions in the debate regarding the principles of war as universally applicable rules for battle, or as a tool for planning not capable of fully overcoming the complex reality of war.

    In the wake of the first world war the principles of war as formulated by Fuller following his experiences of the war, found its way into doctrine. Naval theory on the principles of war developed under the influence of these thinkers through Alfred Mahan and Julian Corbett and is still found in naval doctrine. 

    The debate of the validity of the principles however, is still enduring. In a world of constant technological innovation and increasing complexity their relevance is questioned. Despite of this, modern theories on principles for warfare are still emerging from theorists like Geoffrey Till.

    The purpose of this study is to test the applicability of Till´s modern naval principles of war against historical battles, and thus, the timeless claim of the theory. 

    The study examines the theoretical reach of Till´stheory regarding principles of war, intended for naval warfare. This theory, much like its precursors, have adopted the Jominian school of thought, sharing the ambition of universal applicability. Geoffrey Tills Creating Decisive Victorywas tested against three historical cases of naval warfare. 

    The results of the study partially support the universal and timeless claim of Till´s theory by being represented, though not wholly, in every case. Additionally, the result indicates that the theory partially suffers from its modern design, impeding its timeless applicability. This claim, however, must be supported by further research.

     

  • 776.
    Åkergren, Oskar
    Swedish Defence University.
    En nations åverkan av en cyberattack: En fallstudie på cyberattacken mot Estland2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats beskrivs en fallstudie på överbelastningsattacken mot Estland 2007, där attackens skeden redovisas samt visar på vilka åtgärder som vidtogs för att stoppa attacken, samt på vilket sätt attacken drabbade Estlands befolkning. Därefter analyseras attacken med hjälp av Richard Stiennons teori, om cyberkrigets fyra pelare. Avslutningsvis diskuteras de två frågorna som rör; vilka möjligheter en nation har när det kommer till försvar mot cyberattacker samt vad som kan tänkas räknas som militära problem.  

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att visa på hur en nation drabbas, när den blir utsatt för en cyberattack och vilka handlingsåtgärder som är möjliga att vidta. Resultatet visar på att sättet Estland drabbades på, var att nationen var tvungen att isolera sig från det internationella internet, men att internet inom nationen kunde upprätthållas. Diskussionen mynnar ut i att en nation har mycket få handlingsmöjligheter till att försvara sig själv, när det kommer till cyberattacker från aktörer som inte är andra nationer. En viktig slutsats var att fallet Estland inte var ett militärt problem, utan kunde lösas helt civilt

  • 777.
    Åkermark, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Tröskelförsvar: En jämförelse mellan svenska och finska förmågor2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syftar till att jämföra svenska och finska förmågor rörande ett tröskelförsvar. Tröskelförsvaret bygger på strategin om anti-access/area denial, översatt till tillträdesförsvar och kontrollbestridande försvar. Tillträdesförsvaret syftar till att hindra en överlägsen motståndare att få tillträde till ett operationsområde och kontrollbestridande försvar syftar till att förneka motståndaren kontroll över operationsområdet i händelse av en väpnad konflikt. Denna strategi diskuteras flitigt i den internationella debatten men då främst hur stormakter som USA med allierade bäst skall bemöta de förmågor som svagare nationer bygger upp, inte hur det kan byggas upp. Detta tröskelförsvar har i uppsatsen tillämpats på Östersjön i vilket svenska och finska förmågor analyserats mot de grundläggande förmågorna verkan, rörlighet och skydd. Jämförelsen visar att Sverige har en tyngdpunkt i tillträdesförsvaret baserat på förmågan att möta en motståndare tidigt med sin offensiva undervattensförmåga, smyganpassade korvetter och flygburen sjömålsrobot. De brister som finns i Sverige utgörs främst av avsaknad av långräckviddig markattackförmåga samt förmågor i det kontrollbestridande försvaret. Finland har å andra sidan sin tyngdpunkt i det kontrollbestri-dande försvaret då de alltjämt har förmåga till markbaserad långräckviddig sjömålsbekäm-pande förmåga samt ett defensivt undervattensvapen i form av sjöminförmåga. Detta är för-mågor som Sverige avvecklat sedan 2000-talets inledning. Finlands brister är i tillträdesför-svaret där den offensiva undervattensförmågan saknas helt samt det begränsade antal platt-formar som kan verka framskjutet mot sjömål. Uppsatsen visar också att indelningen av till-trädesförsvar och kontrollbestridande försvar är en bra modell för att analysera nationers försvarsförmågor.

  • 778.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Escalation, Emulation, and the Failure of Hybrid Warfare in Afghanistan2017In: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, ISSN 1057-610X, E-ISSN 1521-0731, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 838-856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I argue that hybridization is a contingent result of the dynamics of some conflicts but not others. In particular, faced with opponents with great power, weaker powers seek a situation of asymmetry to gain victory. Drawing on within-case analysis of the conduct of war during the past thirty years in Afghanistan, I demonstrate that what we now consider to be "hybrid" represents an important continuity and strategic option in Afghan warfare. Still, the analysis also demonstrates that choosing "hybrid" has not been a strategy that has worked. Hezb-i-Islami's rather limited attempt for conventionalization of the war against the forces of Dostum and Massoud in 1992 failed and the Taliban's more far-reaching attempt for conventionalization has so far also failed to reap strategic success. This suggests that the threat of hybrid war is inflated.

  • 779.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Seger: ett begrepp i behov av nyansering2018In: Minnet av Narva: om troféer, parader och historiebruk / [ed] Klas Kronberg, Anna-Maria Forssberg, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2018, p. 213-234Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 780.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The US perspective on future war: why the US relies upon Ares rather than Athena2018In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 318-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses why the US in its military operations tends to focus on only one dimension in war – the military narrowly understood. More precisely, in the US case, its armed forces tend to be preoccupied with platforms and understand military capabilities as those that deliver death and destruction. I explain this one-sided understanding of the military dimension in war with how the US armed forces think about future war. How the US understands future war is, in turn, a reflection of how it organizes its long-term defense planning procedures. In particular, by approaching the concept of future as by and large structurally determined, a focus on platforms becomes natural. Investments in weapons systems, too, are more easily motivated to Congress since it is easier to attach a price to developing, for example, a new submarine than it is to attach a price to the cost of developing a military organization that is adaptive, learning and anticipating. The understanding of the future as something that happens whether you like it or not is particularly odd in the US context where of course a central tenet of the American dream is that the individual creates her own future.

  • 781.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Widen, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Contemporary military theory: the dynamics of war2015Book (Refereed)
  • 782.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Adopting a Recipe for Success: Modern Armed Forces and the Institutionalization of the Principles of War2012In: Comparative Strategy, ISSN 0149-5933, E-ISSN 1521-0448, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 263-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevailing explanation of the institutionalization of the principles of war is misleading. Although the introduction of the principles into Western doctrine coincided with total war and the need to train unprecedented numbers of soldiers and junior officers in tactics, the fact that the principles disappeared from doctrines immediately prior to and during the Second World War suggests that they were not institutionalized to meet an increased need to educate the military. Instead, we test two other explanations: one drawing on the principles’ military effectiveness and one drawing upon the principles’ explanatory power. We find that neither one of these hypotheses stand. Instead, we conclude by elaborating on how the institutionalization of the principles of war can be made understandable using non-rationalist frameworks, in particular the growth of a particular kind of identity of staff officers in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. According to this framework, the two world wars interrupted—rather than promoted—the institutionalization of the principles, since the wars with their large death tolls and mass recruitment increased the difficulties of creating a separate and unique identity for the burgeoning corps of staff officers.

  • 783.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Religion or reason?: exploring alternative ways to measure the quality of doctrine2016In: Journal of Strategic Studies, ISSN 0140-2390, E-ISSN 1743-937X, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 198-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we address the often ignored issue of quality standards for doctrine. In doing so, we contribute to the existing literature on military doctrine, since much of previous research has focused on outlining the effects of doctrine or the causes of particular doctrinal content, rather than how we should measure its quality. The predominant way of understanding quality of doctrine is based on the rationalist understanding of doctrine as a force multiplier. However, rationalist aims do not necessarily tell us anything about the contents of doctrine. Hence, a doctrine can be seemingly of high quality, but ultimately impede or lead armed forces astray. Rather than focusing on the utilitarian side of doctrine, we suggest that doctrine should mainly be understood as articles of faith or a belief system. And thus the quality of doctrine becomes inextricably linked to military norms and military identity. Writing doctrine thus becomes part of ritual, rather than reason.

  • 784.
    Åsander, Max
    Swedish Defence University.
    Man, kvinna eller soldat?: En diskursanalys av genusuttryck i Försvarsmaktens rekryteringsmaterial2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 785.
    Åsbom, Markus
    Swedish Defence University.
    NATOs avskräckning i en förändrad säkerhetsmiljö: En kvalitativ fallstudie på NATOs avskräckningsstrategi från 1999 till idag2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Alliances should have a big amount of capabilities and strong individual states to deter successfully. NATO needs to decide who their adversary is, what actions to deter and what countermeasures to deter them. They should also increase their conventional forces and willingness to use nuclear weapons as a response to aggression. With this background in previous research the problem of this thesis is how does an alliance deterring strategy look like and how is it tailored to fit the adversary, threat and countermeasures. The aim for this thesis is to explain how the deterring strategy of NATO looks like and how it has changed since after the cold war till today.

    The results show that the deterring strategy has changed focus. From the focus on territorial, broad and denial deterrence in the strategic concept from 1999. To the focus on territorial, extended, broad and denial deterrence in the NATO summit meeting in Warsaw 2016.

  • 786.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    Enduring war: Heroes’ Acre, ‘the empty throne’, and the politics of disappearance2016In: Critical Military Studies, ISSN 2333-7486, E-ISSN 2333-7494, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 155-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    War memorials are a common and often controversial part of the commemoration of past wars. In order to better grasp their importance for the way war endures below the surface of peace, this article stages an ethnographic encounter with a Namibian monument: Heroes’ Acre. The memorial embodies the official Namibian narrative on past wars by emphasizing a nationalist and quasi-religious symbolism, a framing that has been challenged by a number of writers pointing to the need for going beyond the state discourse. This article complements and complicates the way Heroes’ Acre appears in discourse by focusing on the interstices and absences at the site. By drawing upon my own visit to the monument as well as theoretical engagements, most notably Georgio Agamben’s discussion of ‘the empty throne’, I read Heroes’ Acre as a place where political power functions through emptiness, as it allows the future of war to endure in the present. Engaging particularly with the empty graveyard at the site, I argue that its emptiness needs to be understood as a guarantee for war – not in case it occurs – but as a ready-made symbol of glory, always virtually there, waiting to be fulfilled.

  • 787.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    Forget Clausewitz2014In: The International Journal of Baudrillard Studies, ISSN 1705-6411, E-ISSN 1705-6411, Vol. 11, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modern study of war originates in many ways in Carl von Clausewitz classic On War. One of Clausewitz most influential positions is the idea that war is political, summed up in the statement that ‘war is the continuation of politics by other means.’ Traditional approaches to war often draw on this idea to outline how tactics and operations work as means to strategic and political ends. Critical approaches on the other hand, have instead invoked Michel Foucault’s idea that ‘politics is the continuation of war by other means,’ enabling an understanding for how politics relate to a struggle of life and death. This paper outlines a critique of both ideas by drawing on Jean Baudrillard’s discussion of the Gulf-war. It argues that taking the link between war and politics for granted produces a reality which in many ways reflects and reifies war as a mode of politics, or politics as a mode of war. The text ends by arguing that if we are to think war seriously and critically we need to think it beyond politics, and a starting point to do so is to forget Clausewitz.

  • 788.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    Introduction: Baudrillard and War2014In: The International Journal of Baudrillard Studies, ISSN 1705-6411, E-ISSN 1705-6411, Vol. 11, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 789.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    Krigspropaganda i kejsardömet: Japan utbildar sina sjöofficerare för erövringskrig2014In: Krigspropaganda: från 1914 till idag / [ed] Anders Frankson & Andreas Nyberg, Sundbyberg: Semic , 2014, p. 36-46Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 790.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    War, transparency and control: the military architecture of operational warfare2016In: Cambridge Review of International Affairs, ISSN 0955-7571, E-ISSN 1474-449X, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 1132-1149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contemporary research, transparency is commonly understood to indicate and guarantee openness, in ways that make it synonymous with positive characteristics of governing. However, the allegedly benevolent link between transparency and governing has also been questioned, giving rise to arguments that transparency enables violent social control. Drawing upon this latter view, the article stages an encounter between critical debates on transparency and critical accounts of war to examine the way that they come together in the operationalization of warfare. Engaging particularly with Jean Baudrillard’s writing on transparency, the article inquires into the way control is socially manufactured and administered through military doctrines. It concludes that the operationalization of warfare is not, as many tend to argue, first and foremost about a response to practical problems when conducting wars. Rather, it consists of the potential to unveil global space and global time as an attempt to maintain and control future political becoming

  • 791.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Warfare as design: Transgressive creativity and reductive operational planning2018In: Security Dialogue, ISSN 0967-0106, E-ISSN 1460-3640, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 493-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that the politics of contemporary Western warfare finds an important reference point in discourses on military design. In the 2010s, military design has become a trending topic in military discourses on command and planning methodology. Since Clausewitz, warfare has been considered a phenomenon characterized by a tension between creativity and linear planning, and the ideal commander as someone with the vision to overcome this. By mapping and analyzing tactical, operational, and strategic narratives and practices, the article illustrates how they emphasize a warfare based both on experimentation and artistry and on traditional operational planning. In so doing, military design relies on reductive military concepts to push the tension identified by Clausewitz towards its extreme end-point, idealizing creativity as an objective of warfare. The article ends by asking to what extent military design risks spilling over into other dimensions of social and political life. It concludes that in pushing creativity as part of war, military design builds on and justifies transgressive political practices with the risk of becoming a vital aspect of future governing.

  • 792.
    Öhlund, Robert
    Swedish Defence University.
    Demokratiska krigsbrott: En studie av tyska krigsfångar i franska och amerikanska händer2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I studien kommer jag analysera skillnaden mellan norm och praxis i implementerandet av Genevekonventionen från 1929. Genom en fallstudie av två västerländska, demokratiska stater med samma norm, det vill säga 1929 års Genèvekonvention vill jag studera deras behandling, det vill säga praxis, av tyska krigsfångar från den 11 maj 1942 fram till Västtysklands grundande, den 23 maj 1949.

    Metoden jag har använt mig av i mitt arbete är en kvalitativ fallstudie, med utgångspunkt i tidigare intervjuer, rapporter och litteratur. I fallstudien kommer behandlingen av de tyska krigsfångarna att undersökas för att se hur Frankrike och USA implementerade Genèvekonventionen i praktiken.

    Därefter kommer resultatet att analyseras med hjälp av Zygmunt Baumans teorier. Bauman är en professor i sociologi som analyserat sambandet mellan moderniteten och förintelsen. Dessa teorier kommer att användas för att förklara och redogöra de bakomliggande orsakerna till varför det uppstår en skillnad mellan norm och praxis hos upplysta och demokratiska stater, när dessa stater ska implementera folkrätten vid behandlingen av krigsfångar.Bauman menar att västerlandet sen upplysningen har haft en stark strävan efter att uppnå rutiner och ett slags beteendemönster. Genom att normalisera upplevda händelser kan de lättare förstås och förklaras. Genom att applicera samma resonemang på våldsanvändningen vid behandlingen av krigsfångar skulle det kunna innebära ett kontinuerligt och fortlöpande övergrepp. Våldet skulle ha sin grund i att det blivit en vana, en rutin och således någonting man förväntar sig. Förutom rutinen talar Bauman om auktoriseringen och avhumanseringens som viktiga förutsättningar för våld och övergrepp.

    När Tyskland kapitulerade våren den 7 maj 1945 togs miljontals tyska soldater till fånga av de allierade. Fångarna samlades ihop i olika typer av koncentrations och fångläger. Syftet med mitt arbete blir att inledningsvis undersöka om de franska och amerikanska trupperna gjorde sig skyldiga till krigsbrott i och med hanterandet av tyska krigsfångar, under och efter andra världskriget.

  • 793.
    Ölund, Richard
    Swedish Defence University.
    Vilken faktor leder till att överraskning uppnås på en taktisk nivå?: En teoriprövande fallstudie på slaget vid Golanhöjderna och anfallet av Narviks hamn2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The principles of war are considered timeless and are described differently depending which scholar is studied. The purpose of the thesis is to further the discussion on the principles. This thesis focuses on surprise and conducts a case study with a theoretical framework based on Basil Liddell Hart and Jim Storr to examine if the framework can explain what factor was the most contributing for achieving surprise in the cases of the battle at Golan heights 1973 and the assault on the port of Narvik 1940.

    The results show that movement is the most contributing factor, but can be critiqued because of the dilemma posed by surprise. It can only be proven that surprise have been successfully achieved after knowing the outcome. The results also argues that the principles of war are based on previous observations and will therefore be able to explain the outcome of most events that take place within the realm of contemporary military theory.

  • 794.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Pridobivanje častnikov - izboljševanje procesa: Officer Recruitment - Improving the Process2018In: Sodobni vojaški izziv / Contemporary Military Challenges, ISSN 2232-2825, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 23-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The only way to become an officer in Sweden is to complete the three-year Officers’ Programme (OP). In the selection process for the OP, there is a large gap between the number of applicants and the number of individuals who start the programme. One consequence of this is that the OP has not been fully manned since 2008, thus leaving the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) with a shortage of officers. Manning the SAF with sufficient officers with the right qualifications is a priority, and henceforth the number of cadets must increase. Therefore, in 2014, a project was launched with the aim of examining recruitment to and selection for the OP, as well as identifying success factors and areas of improvement. An additional ambition was to introduce measures intended to increase recruiting efficiency based on the results, and the proportion of individuals who enter the OP.

    The project led to the implementation of a different recruitment strategy in 2016 and 2017. Early in the selection process applicants were contacted by cadets already studying on the OP, and were invited to an information meeting at the Swedish Defence University. Those who were selected to start the OP were also contacted by their future platoon commanders, who provided useful information. The outcomes show that the numbers of cadets starting the OP increased, and the dropout rate during the selection process was lower than before.

  • 795.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Klockare, Ellinor
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Eriksson, Bo
    Försvarsmakten.
    Metodutveckling för effektivare rekrytering av särskilda målgrupper (MER): Slutrappport2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Försvarsmaktens (FM) och Försvarshögskolans (FHS) projekt Metodutveckling för effektivare rekrytering av särskilda målgrupper (MER) syftar till att utveckla och utvärdera aktiviteter som attraherar och rekryterar målgrupper som FM har svårt att nå via de vanliga rekryteringsmetoderna. Under 2014-2015 var kvinnor som klarat rekryttestet den särskilda målgrupp som var i centrum. Det övergripande målet med projektet var att öka antalet och andelen kvinnor som tar anställning eller tecknar avtal efter genomförd grundläggande militär utbildning (GMU). Detta skedde bland annat genom kontaktskapande och aktiviter i perioden från godkänt rekryttest via antagningsprövning och fram till GMU, det vill säga jobba med individer som visat intresse och potential för FM, vilket också är kostnadseffektivt. Kontaktskapandet och aktiviteterna bidrar till att kvinnorna känner sig inkluderade och kan skapa sig ett bättre beslutsunderlag för vidare avancemang i FM eller inte.

    Sammanfattningsvis demonstrerar projektet att det verkar vara effektivt att arbeta i rekryteringsfasen med personer som har visat intresse och potential. Projektet bidrar med ny kunskap för ökad rekryteringseffekt. Genom att utveckla metoder, mäta utfall av kontakt, arbetssätt och aktiviteter kan vi mäta rekryteringseffekt och därigenom utveckla styrande dokument, metoder samt arbetssätt. En erfarenhet är att många som söker sig till FM är osäkra på vad ett jobb i FM innebär och många söker till FM utan att veta vad de vill eller kan göra inom organisationen. De individer som kontaktas av projektet har ofta frågor som relativt enkelt kan besvaras.

    Aktiviteterna i projektet är uppskattade och anses värdefulla av deltagarna. Aktiviteterna stärker intresset för att fortsätta i rekryteringsprocessen och ta anställning eller teckna avtal i FM och undanröjer onödiga hinder för att fortsätta mot anställning/avtal.

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