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  • 5551.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    We want you as our new recruit: Prerequisites for recruitment to and retention in the Swedish Armed Forces2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to study the prerequisites for the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) in order to recruit sufficient numbers of suitable individuals to the organization, and to retain those within the organization.

    The thesis comprises three studies (Study 1-3) where Study One comprises data gathered, with a longitudinal design, when Sweden relied on conscription for the manning of the Armed Forces. Results show that those wanting to do international military service assessed themselves higher for required qualities than those individuals not volunteering for international military service. Study Two shows that job satisfaction, according to Hackman and Oldham´s Job satisfaction model, is higher when job characteristics are good, and they in turn affect the Critical Psychological States, as proposed by Hackman and Oldham. Study Three indicates that there is a relation between performance orientation, job characteristics, job satisfaction and retention. In sum, this thesis suggests that there are different incentives for recruiting and retaining personnel to a conscripted force, and an all-volunteer force. Furthermore, the thesis indicates that an all-volunteer force concept is not the best way of manning the armed forces, for Sweden and countries with similar society, size and likewise a critical geopolitical position. 

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  • 5552.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Petersson, Magnus
    Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies, Norway.
    Weak Party Escalation: An Underestimated Strategy for Small States2019In: Journal of Strategic Studies, ISSN 0140-2390, E-ISSN 1743-937X, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 282-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we develop the strategic rationale behind weak party escalation against stronger adversaries. There are, we suggest, four main strategies: to provoke a desired over-reaction from the stronger adversary; to compartmentalize conflict within a domain in which the weak party has advantages; to carve a niche with a stronger ally, and to forge a reputation of not yielding lightly. Spelling out these different logics contributes to the literature on small state strategies and escalation. It also suggests, contrary to much of the existing literature, that it can be rational for weak parties to escalate against great powers.

  • 5553.
    Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Weathering the world: recovery in the wake of the tsunami in a Tamil fishing village, by Hastrup, Frida2012In: Social Anthropology, ISSN 0964-0282, E-ISSN 1469-8676, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 344-345Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 5554.
    Larsson, Oscar
    Department of Government, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wendy Brown, Undoing the Demos: Neoliberalism’s Stealth Revolution (New York: Zone Books, 2015)2017In: Foucault Studies, ISSN 1832-5203, E-ISSN 1832-5203, Foucault Studies, ISSN 1832-5203, no 23, p. 174-178Article, book review (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 5555.
    Hackman, Julia
    Swedish National Defence College.
    "We're none of us at peace": Creating resistance through theatre2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay aims to begin to fill a potential gap in previous research when it comes to studying the political content of specific cultural practices, in this case the Freedom Theatre in Jenin. The theatre expressively refers to itself as a political theatre, calling themselves freedom fighters and places itself at the forefront of they call "cultural resistance". The creation of this cultural resistance is investigated here. This essay aims to explores, through examining the theatre's methods of practice, how cultural resistance could be transformed into political action and what problems that may hinder their political aspirations from becoming a true potential for political influence. The essay concludes that the theatre uses identity and narrative for political purposes in order to unite and strengthen the Palestinian collective identity, creating a civil resistance towards the Israeli occupation. This is however not an unproblematic process, and many of the same problems facing other nonviolent resistance movements are also present within the theatre. 

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    none_at_peace
  • 5556.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Bachmann, Sascha Dov
    Bournemouth University, United Kingdom.
    Western Denial and Russian Control: How Russia’s National Security Strategy Threatens a Western-Based Approach to Global Security, the Rule of Law and Globalization2017In: Polish Political Science Yearbook, ISSN 0208-7375, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 9-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Russian National Security Strategy of 2015 aims at achieving autarky from Western influences on global security, the rule of law and global trade. Russia aims at attaining this by applying a holistic mix of military, political and economic means to weaken the West and to strengthen its own role as a global player. The Russian approach builds on a strategy of reflexive control which as such is an old method, but the outcome of the application of this approach results in hybrid warfare which as such is a new emerging concept of warfighting. This short article looks at one particular aspect of this Russian strategy, namely using Hybrid, or non-linear, Warfare against its Western direct neighbours in particular and the West in general. We will discuss the underlying cultural logic in Russia’s actions and will reflect on the impact of Russia’s utilization of the existing cultural asymmetry as a form of warfare in regard to the West. The examples used in this text are taken from the context of the conflicts of Ukraine and Syria, but have to be seen as constituting a part of an on-going global conflict aimed at NATO and the EU. The text builds on years of research within the hybrid threat, warfare respectively, context by both authors.

  • 5557.
    Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Weszkalnys, Gisa (2010) “Berlin, Alexanderplatz: Transforming place in a unified Germany.” New York, Oxford: Berghahn Books. 214 pgs.2011In: Suomen Antropologi: Journal of the Finnish Anthropological Society, ISSN 0355-3930, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 57-Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 5558.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    What Can EU Civil Security Governance Learn from the Common Security and Defence Policy and the European Defence Agency?2015In: EU Civil Security Governance: Diversity and cooperation in crisis and disaster management / [ed] H. Hegemann and R. Bossong, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 233-255Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5559.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI); Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS).
    Cohen, Mika
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    What can we learn from enterprise architecture models?: An experiment comparing models and documents for capability development2018In: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 695-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise architecture (EA) has been established as a discipline to cope with the complex interactions of business operations and technology. Models, i.e., formal descriptions in terms of diagrams and views, are at the heart of the approach. Though it is widely thought that such architecture models can contribute to improved understanding and decision making, this proposition has not rigorously been tested. This article describes an experiment conducted with a real EA model and corresponding real traditional documents, investigating whether the model or the documents lead to better and faster understanding. Understanding is interesting to study, as it is a prerequisite to other EA uses. The subjects (N = 98) were officer cadets, and the experiment was carried out using a comprehensive description of military Close Air Support capability either (1) in the form of a MODAF model or (2) in the form of traditional documents. Based on the results, the model seems to lead to better, though not faster, understanding.

  • 5560.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    What Carl Schmitt Picked Up in Weber’s Seminar: A Historical Controversy Revisited2009In: The European Legacy, ISSN 1084-8770, E-ISSN 1470-1316, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 667-684Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5561.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    What is Difficult in Naval Sensemaking?2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5562.
    Gustafsson, Karl
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hagström, Linus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhetspolitik och strategi.
    What Is the Point?: Teaching Graduate Students how to Construct Political Science Research Puzzles2018In: European Political Science, ISSN 1680-4333, E-ISSN 1682-0983, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 634-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the key challenges graduate students face is how to come up with a good rationale for their theses. Unfortunately, the methods literature in and beyond political science does not provide much advice on this important issue. While focusing on how to conduct research, this literature has largely neglected the question of why a study should be undertaken. The limited discussions that can be found suggest that new research is justified if it (1) fills a ‘gap’; (2) addresses an important real-world problem; and/or (3) is methodologically rigorous. This article discusses the limitations of these rationales. Then, it proposes that research puzzles are more useful for clarifying the nature and importance of a contribution to existing research, and hence a better way of justifying new research. The article also explores and clarifies what research puzzles are, and begins to devise a method for constructing them out of the vague ideas and questions that often trigger a research process. 

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  • 5563.
    Jensen, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Sawicka, Agata
    What is the use of basic dynamic tasks?2006In: Proceedings of the 24th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
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    Jensen & Sawicka 2006 24 SDC
  • 5564.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    What makes some organizations better than others at handling crises?: Exploring state of the art public crisis management2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport görs en populärvetenskaplig sammanfattning av det arbete som har genomförts inom det MSB-finansierade post doc-projektet "What makes some organizations better than others at handling crises? Exploring state of the art public crisis management". Projektet leddes av Fil dr Edward Deverell vid Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap vid Försvarshögskolan 2011-2013. Utgångspunkten för projektets arbete var avhandlingen "Crisis-induced learning in public sector organizations" (Deverell, 2010). Avhandlingen ramade in krishanteringsstudier som kunskapsfält och betonade vikten av att i vidare studier undersöka organisationers roll i krishantering. Vidare framhölls vikten av att mer ingående studera organisationers lärprocesser i samband med kriser eftersom mer kunskap om lärande i relation till kriser behövs för att vi ska kunna skapa mer robusta organisationer och samhällen samt för att undvika att drabbas av liknande kriser framöver. I linje med det tidigare avhandlingsprojektet ämnade post doc projektet att fördjupa studiet av krishanteringsstudier med fokus på organisationers lärprocesser i relation till kriser. Detta genom att studera krishanteringslitteratur och fallstudier av verkliga kriserfarenheter. Föreliggande rapport ger en kortfattad beskrivning av de delstudier som sammanställdes under de två år som projektet löpte.

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  • 5565.
    Hedlund, Erik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    What Motivates Swedish Soldiers to Participate in Peacekeeping Missions: Research Note2011In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 1, no 37, p. 180-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last ten years, the Swedish Armed Forces has undergone a transformationin its shift toward worldwide peacekeeping operations. Subsequently, the Swedishgovernment is moving away from conscription to an all-voluntary recruitment system.This transition may lead to substantial challenges in recruiting new soldiers for theArmed Forces as well as for peacekeeping operations. A key to successful recruitment is understanding what motivates young men and women to participate in peacekeepingoperations. This research note addresses questions about what motivated Swedishpeacekeeping soldiers to join the 5th mission to Liberia and the 14th mission toKosovo in 2006. Fabrizio Battistelli’s motivation typology, paleomodern, modern, andpostmodern, is used in the analysis. The results show that all three motives were represented but that postmodern motives were by far the most common motivator

  • 5566.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum. Uppsala universitet.
    What Peacekeepers Think and Do: An Exploratory Study of French, Ghanaian, Italian, and South Korean Armies in the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon2014In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 199-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This exploratory article points out how armies differ in the performance of their daily military activities during a peacekeeping mission and analyses the role of contrasting perceptions of the mission operational environment in explaining this variation. As a first step, this article documents systematic variations in the way French, Ghanaian, Italian, and Korean units implement the mandate of the UN mission in Lebanon in their daily military activity. Second, it shows that the four armies also interpret or “construct” the operational environment differently and in a way that is consistent with their different military behavior. Third, preliminary evidence suggests that previous experiences of each army influence the way in which the operational environment is constructed. Data were collected combining participant observation in Southern Lebanon with questionnaires and interviews. This article thus builds on sociological works on different operational styles but takes a methodological approach closer to that in security studies.

  • 5567.
    Doeser, Fredrik
    Utrikespolitiska institutet.
    When governments ignore public opinion in foreign policy: Poland and the Iraq invasion2013In: European Security, ISSN 0966-2839, E-ISSN 1746-1545, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 413-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article asks why the Government of Poland participated in the invasion of Iraq in March 2003 when a large majority of the Polish public was opposed to national involvement in Iraq. The aim is to further an understanding of the circumstances under which democratic governments ignore public opinion in their foreign policy decision-making. The article argues that a combination of three circumstances increased the willingness of the government to ignore the public. First, the Iraq issue had relatively low salience among the Polish voters, which decreased the domestic political risks of pursuing the policy. Second, the government's Iraq policy was supported by a considerable consensus among the political elite. Third, the political elites were unified in their perceptions that participating in the invasion would yield essential international gains for Poland.

  • 5568.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    't Hart, Paul
    Australian National University; Utrecht University.
    When Power Changes Hands: The PoliticalPsychology of Leadership Succession in Democracies2006In: Political Psychology, ISSN 0162-895X, E-ISSN 1467-9221, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 707-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leadership succession in democratic governments and political parties is an ubiquitous but relatively understudied phenomen, where the political becomes intensely personal and vice versa. This article outlines the puzzles that leadership succession poses to political analysts, reviews the literature, and offers a conceptual framework deconstructing the process in terms of a flow from succession contexts and triggers via the role choices of key participants (incumbents and aspiring successors) through to the eventual succession outcomes. It concludes by presenting a series of testable hypotheses to describe and explain leadership successions.

  • 5569.
    Konow Lund, Maria
    et al.
    Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus, Norge.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security, CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    When Routines are Not Enough: Journalists' crisis management during the 22/7 domestic terror attack in Norway2016In: Journalism Practice, ISSN 1751-2786, E-ISSN 1751-2794, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 358-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in crisis management among journalism scholars grew in the wake of the terror attacks of September 11, 2001. Yet, few studies explore journalists and their organizations from a newsroom and organizational crisis management perspective. In this study, we study journalists’ ability to conduct news work when faced with a frame-breaking news event—in this case, the July 22, 2011 attacks in Norway. Dividing the journalistic response to these events into three stages, each with its own particular challenges, we have been able to unpack how these Norwegian journalists were capable of reporting on the events despite the chaos and uncertainty that followed in their wake, including the fact that the newsroom itself suffered severe damage from the bomb blast. This study shows that coping mechanisms in times of organizational stress will range from the expected (routine, habit) to the unexpected (improvisation, bricolage). The individual must pick up where the organization leaves off, relying upon experience and professionalism as well as face-to-face interaction and the assistance of whatever technology survive

  • 5570.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    When the going gets tough, the tough get going: Stressors and challenges working in a military multinational environment2010In: Enhancing Human Performance in Security Operations: International and Law Enforcement Perspectives / [ed] Bartone, Paul T., Chicago: Charles C. Thomas Publisher Ltd., 2010, p. 399-423Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5571.
    Palmcrantz, Conrad
    Swedish Defence University.
    When we see something that is well beyond our understanding: The duty of States to investigate war crimes and how it applies to autonomous weapons systems2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses States’ duty to investigate grave breaches of humanitarian law and how it applies to deep reinforcement learning autonomous weapons. It identifies basic technologic intricacies related to deep reinforcement learning and discusses what issues may arise if such software is used in weapons systems. The thesis applies a legal doctrinal method to study how the technology could frustrate the grave breaches regime and hamper States’ ability to investigate suspected incidents. Furthermore, investigative standards under humanitarian law and human rights law are examined in the context of autonomous weapons systems.  The main argument is that deep reinforcement learning algorithms create a black box that is virtually impossible to investigate and consequently causes accountability issues. 

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    Thesis-Conrad-Palmcrantz
  • 5572.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hede, Susanne
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Carlsson, Helena
    Whether ´tis better to vaccinate? Perceptions and experiences of the management of the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic in Sweden2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5573.
    Pettersson, Ulrica
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Command and Control Section.
    Uhr, Christian
    Department of Risk Management and Societal Safety, Lund University, Sweden.
    Who Commands Whom?: A Discussion on Bottom-up Behavior and its Consequencesin Military Influenced First Response Organizations2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rationale behind this paper is to explore and conceptualize the dynamics taking place when bottom-up influenced management meets top-down influenced management in spontaneous reactive first response operations. We employ an interdisciplinary approach based on theoretical perspectives from Systems science, Command & Control science, and Disaster sociology.

    In order to stimulate a discussion on theoretical gaps and practical challenges, a model illustrating what we call Command & Control dynamics in spontaneous reactive operations is suggested. The model is applied as a conceptual tool for analyzing the response of the Swedish Police to a terror attack in Stockholm 2017. Both primary data from interviews and secondary data from official investigations are utilized as a basis for the analysis.

    We then continue the analytical discussion regarding Command and Control dynamics, and suggest that spontaneous reactive operations give rise to quite different prerequisites for Command & Control compared to planned operations. There is a risk that both academic and practical discussions on how to improve capability do not acknowledge these differences.

    Spontaneous reactive operations are likely to initially generate strong bottom-up influences in the Command & Control arrangement of a single organization. Initial decision makers will make rapid decisions and generate a direction that the superior commanders, who are not present from the beginning of the operation, must adapt to. We argue that the intent of the subordinates “restrict” the solution space for commanders on higher levels. Furthermore, we argue that in a spontaneous reactive response there is no specific Commander’s Intent from the start, only a doctrine. This leads us to suggest that the idea on mission tactics in civil operations must be problematized.

  • 5574.
    Wibben, Annick T.R.
    et al.
    University of San Francisco.
    Rutazibwa, Olivia U.
    University of Portsmouth.
    Who do we think we are?2019In: Global Politics: A new introduction / [ed] Jenny Edkins and Maja Zehfuss, London: Routledge, 2019, 3, p. 79-101Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5575.
    Gunnarsson Popovic, Viktor
    Swedish Defence University.
    Who is Bosnian?: Ethnic Division in Bosnia and Herzegovina and its Implications for a National Identity2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with ethnic division in Bosnia and Herzegovina and its implications for a Bosnian collective national identity, in contrast to the ethnic identity of Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs. The 1995 Dayton Agreement paves the way for a Bosnian state where a collective national identity is based on the state’s structure and institutions. However, almost 25 years after the war, there are many challenges facing the creation of such an identity, and Bosnians are struggling to unite. The study investigates the formal and non-formal ways ethnic division is upheld, and how the division makes it difficult to agree on a collective identity. After examining the content of the Dayton Agreement, the study uses Abdelal et al.’s framework to explore examples of ethnic divisions in everyday life. The findings show that the Dayton Agreement formally institutionalizes ethnic divisions that are further enforced by politicians who use their autonomy to promote ethnic identities for their respective groups, which stand in conflict with a collective identity for all Bosnians.

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  • 5576.
    Koraeus, Mats
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Who knows?: The use of knowledge management in crisis2008Book (Other academic)
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 5577.
    Lindberg, Helena
    et al.
    Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap, MSB.
    Sundelius, Bengt
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Whole-of-Society Disaster Resilience: The Swedish Way2013In: The McGraw-Hill Homeland Security Handbook (2nd Edition) / [ed] David Kamien, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2013, 2, p. 1295-1319Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5578.
    Manigart, Philippe
    et al.
    Royal Military Academy, Belgium.
    Lecoq, Valerian
    Royal Military Academy, Belgium.
    Moelker, Rene
    Netherlands Defence Academy, Netherlands.
    op den Buijs, Tessa
    Netherlands Defence Academy, Netherlands.
    Brundtland Steder, Frank
    Department for Analysis, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Norway.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Szvircsev Tresch, Tibor
    Militärakademie (MILAK), Switzerland.
    Why are young people attracted to the armed forces? A comparison between five countries2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the demographic change taking place all over European societies, the number of young people entering the labor market will decline. As a result, European Defense organizations will likely face severe recruitment and retention problems and find themselves in ever more direct competition with the private sector to attract the best candidates. To offset the shrinking base of recruitment, they will have to become more attractive to potential recruits and to increase the number of candidates in previously under-represented segments (for example, women and ethnic-cultural minorities). The paper presents selected results from an online survey carried out between Spring 2015 and Spring 2016 in five countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland) among samples of young people. The paper presents how young people from these countries in general, view their armed forces, what their job expectations are, and what they think the armed forces can offer them. The multinational survey on which the analyses were based is part of a collaborative project conducted within the framework of the European Defense Agency on the impact of demographic change on the recruitment and retention of personnel in European armed forces.

  • 5579.
    Söderberg, Mats
    Swedish Defence University.
    Why did the Swedish Army not seize Brno?: An analysis out of the fundamental military abilities, according to the Swedish doctrine of land operations2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At 1645 the Swedish Army sieged the city of Brno. The Swedes suffered heavy losses but never managed to seize Brno.  The research question of the thesis is: “According to the Swedish doctrine of land operations, what fundamental military abilities were responsible for the outcome of the siege of Brno?”The research question will be answered conducting a case study of the Swedish siege of Brno derived from a qualitative study of literature. The result of the research conducted in the thesis concludes that the lack of the fundamental military ability command and control in the Swedish Army was the main reason why the Swedes were not able to size Brno and also to a lesser degree the lack of intelligence and information.

  • 5580.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Why do people sometimes fail when adapting to danger?: A theoretical discussion from a psychological perspective.2001In: International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, ISSN 0280-7270, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 145-180Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During life-threatening danger people may react in ways that decrease their chances of surviving or coping with the event. Several empirically demon­strated reactions have a potentially maladaptive effect on per­formance, due to limitations in our cognitive and emotional processing capacity or the activation of obsolete adaptation mechanisms. The possible psychological explanations for this are discussed in terms of assumptions derived from three major psychological paradigms: Darwian, Freudian, and cognitive psychology. These theoretical models all illustrate useful concepts and assumptions, which do not logically exclude one another, necessary to understand more thoroughly how psychological adaptation occurs in danger situations. However, no theory alone explains the empiri­cal find­ings and the various theories should be integrated into a model that includes different levels of psychological function, from consciously controlled processes to emotional and automatic process.

  • 5581.
    Bondesson, Sara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    Why Gender Does Not Stick: Exploring Conceptual Logics in Global Disaster Risk Reduction Policy2019In: Climate Hazards, Disasters, and Gender Ramifications / [ed] Kinnvall, Catarina & Rydström, Helle, London: Routledge, 2019, 1, p. 88-124Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter is an analysis of the Sendai Framework for action; the central policy document in the global field of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR). Since this Framework sets the agenda for the wider field of DRR practice across the globe, it is important to scrutinise for anyone interested in problems of gender-based disaster inequality. The Sendai Framework acknowledges issues of gender inequality yet, as discussed in this chapter, does so in a rather limited and somewhat problematic way. To understand the shortcomings the analysis makes use of Carol Bacchi’s “What’s the Problem Represented to Be?” (WPR) approach to policy analysis. With help of this analytical tool,  two conceptual logics are identified in the Framework that prevent full incorporation of a gender perspective. Firstly, a relief logic assumes a temporality of acuteness and prescribes male-dominated professional domains as experts. This makes a political analysis of gender inequality unintelligible. The relief logic also renders silent political solutions to alter gender inequalities. Secondly, a techno-managerial logic proposes technical and managerial solutions to problems of disaster risk. This rewrites solutions to structural inequalities as problems that can be solved technologically and managerially – in contrast to the types of political solutions needed to alter gender inequalities.

  • 5582.
    Hedberg, Albert
    Swedish Defence University.
    Why is 20/21st century warfare Commandable not Controllable and why do we still choose Restrictive Control instead of Directive Command: Aspects of Frictions interfering with the officer´s solution to command and control2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Bachelorarbeit aus HSU
  • 5583.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark). Swedish Institute of International Affairs (UI).
    Why is there a relative peace in the South China Sea?2014In: Entering Uncharterd Waters?: ASEAN and The South China Sea Dispute / [ed] Pavin Chachavalpongpun, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies , 2014, p. 36-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5584.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Why Libya?: Security Council Resolution 1973 and the Politics of Justification2014In: The NATO Intervention in Libya: Lessons Learned from the Campaign / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt, Charlotte Wagnsson & Marcus Mohlin, London: Routledge, 2014, p. 41-62Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5585.
    Noreen, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Sjöstedt, Roxanna
    Lunds universitet.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Why Small States join Big Wars: The Case of Sweden in Afghanistan 2002-20142017In: International Relations, ISSN 0047-1178, E-ISSN 1741-2862, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 145-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The security behavior of small states has traditionally been explained by different takes of realism, liberalism, or constructivism - focusing on the behavior that aims toward safeguarding sovereignty or engaging in peace policies. The issue of why states with limited military capacities and little or no military alignments or engagements decide to participate in an international mission has received limited attention by previous research. In contrast, this article argues that a three-layered discursive model can make the choices of small states more precisely explained and thereby contribute to an increased understanding of small states' security behavior beyond threat balancing and interdependence. Analyzing a deviant case of a non-aligned small state, this article explains why Sweden became increasingly involved in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission in Afghanistan. By focusing on the domestic political discourses regarding the Swedish involvement in this mission, it is suggested that a narrative shapes public perception of a particular policy and establishes interpretative dominance of how a particular event should be understood. This dominant domestic discourse makes a certain international behavior possible and even impossible to alter once established. In the Swedish case, it is demonstrated that this discourse assumed a catch-all' ambition, satisfying both domestic and international demands. In general terms, it should thus be emphasized that certain discourses and narratives are required in order to make it possible for a country to participate in a mission such as ISAF and prolong the mission for several years.

  • 5586.
    Lundqvist, Stefan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Why teaching comprehensive operations planning requires transformational learning2015In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 175-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that the method outlined in NATO’s Comprehensive Operations Planning Directive (COPD) manual is entirely based on systems theory and describes how to apply the principles for managing system change through comprehensive operations projects. Such systems thinking is based on conceptually different principles than traditional military planning methods. Students must therefore be provided with new conceptual tools to understand and handle the complex planning process outlined in the COPD manual. Thereto, they require knowledge of its founding scientific theories to meet academic standards. The concluding message is that military teachers and students must widen their individual mental frames of reference through a transformational learning process to obtain the comprehensive understanding required to fully manage the COPD process. Moreover, they need to prepare for facilitating dialogues in the less mature comprehensive operations planning teams of real-life situations.

  • 5587.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hede, Susanne
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Lajksjö, Örjan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Why worry?: Motivation for crisis preparedness work among municipal leaders in Sweden2015In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the responsibility for societal safety and crisis preparedness rests with local municipal leaders. These tasks are demanding, and often insufficiently prioritized and supported. The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing motivation to work with these issues, and to explore relationships among such factors. Two datasets, formed the basis of the analysis. From the qualitative analysis, a model was developed describing three main categories of motivational factors: person-related, organizational and activity-related. Actual crisis experience was found to influence factors in all three categories. Differences regarding motivational forces could be identified among different roles among officials. Self-determination theory is applied to the model, illustrating possible ways to influence motivation for work with preparedness issues.

  • 5588.
    Manigart, Philippe
    et al.
    Royal Military Academy, Belgium.
    Lecoq, Valerian
    Royal Military Academy, Belgium.
    Moelker, Rene
    Netherlands Defence Academy, Netherlands.
    Op Den Buys, Tessa
    Netherlands Defence Academy, Netherlands.
    Brundtland Steder, Frank
    Department for Analysis, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Norway.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Szvircesv Tresch, Tibor
    Militärakademie (MILAK), Switzerland.
    Otis, Nancy
    Director General Military Personnel Research and Analysis (DGMPRA), Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC), Canada.
    Why young people are not interested in a job in armed forces2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the demographic change taking place all over European societies, the number of young people entering the labor market is declining. As a result, the armed forces of Westernpostindustrial societies are facing severe recruitment problems and find themselves in ever more direct competition with the private sector to attract the best candidates. To offset the shrinking base of recruitment, they have to become more attractive to potential recruits and to increase the number of candidates in previously under-represented segments, particularly women. The paper presents selected results from an online survey carried out between Spring 2015 and December 2016 in 6 countries (Belgium, Canada, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland) among samples of young people. Following previous papers which dealt with the attractiveness of a military career among young people in general, and women and ethnic-cultural minorities in particular, this paper analyzes various factors that, presently, deter a lot of young women to consider joining the armed forces. The multinational survey on which the analyses are based is part of a collaborative research project conducted within the framework of the European Defense Agency on the impact of demographic change on the recruitment and retention of personnel in European armed forces.

  • 5589.
    Lilliestråle, Märtha
    Swedish Defence University.
    Will the conflict concerning the Human Terrain System continue?2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human Terrain System has been describes as: “Not since World War II has a military consulting been endorsed so publicly; not since Vietnam had it been condemned so fiercely.”

    The purpose of this essay is to describe what the controversy and the critique presented against HTS consists off and to see if there is a beginning to a solution in some way.

    HTS is embedding socials scientists within military deployed units and it is argued to violate the ethic codes of research. Pauline Kusiak has presented a solution to the conflict. By analysing the arguments in the public debate between the anthropologists against and HTS’s advocates the purpose is to answer if the U.S. Military recognise the tensions between anthropology methods and their embedding in HTS? To measure ‘recognition’ the model of ‘The Feedback Stair’ is used. The answer is that the tension is not recognised and it supports the hypothesis that the U.S. Military are not at the first step one the solution presented by Kusiak to diminish ‘the civilian-military gap.

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  • 5590.
    Nordin, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section. Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Will Trump make China great again?: The belt and road initiative and international order2018In: International Affairs, ISSN 0020-5850, E-ISSN 1468-2346, Vol. 94, no 2, p. 231-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under President Xi Jinping's leadership, Chinese foreign relations have moved from keeping a low profile, to a more assertive bid for international leadership that is beginning to take form in the ‘belt and road initiative’ (BRI). This initiative focuses on connectivity in policy coordination, facilities, trade, finance and people-to-people relations, in order to connect China to key parts of Asia, the south Pacific, east Africa and Europe. Networked capitalism and the national unit, which are often seen as spatial opposites in the global political economy, are both exercised through the BRI in mutually supporting ways. Networked capitalism is not challenging the national spatial unit, nor vice versa. Rather, they conglomerate to reinforce Chinese government narratives which portray China as the new trailblazer of global capitalism—thus illustrating and justifying a new Sinocentric order in east Asia. Likely winners of this constellation, if it is successful, are megalopolises in Eurasia, and most of all the Chinese Communist Party. Likely losers are countries that are not included in the BRI, most notably the United States. In a context where President Donald Trump is signalling a more protectionist stance and the United States is withdrawing from free trade pacts like the Trans-Pacific Partnership, Trump may ironically enable Xi's dream of making China great again.

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  • 5591.
    Larsson, Jonathan
    Swedish Defence University.
    William H. McRaven och stormningen av Tajbeg palats: en teoriprövande enkelfallstudie av Operation Storm-333, den sovjetiska specialoperationen i Kabul 19792019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The current global military and political state has brought about the term grey area. A grey area refers to an uncertain and ill-defined situation where activities that occur within the area do not relate to a set of rules. In an era without distinct boundaries between peace, crisis and war the utilization of unconventional methods of warfare increases. Therefore, the capability to conduct military operations with strategic outcomes by means of few resources and deniability is essential amongst armed forces. Special operations meet those requirements and have the ability to carry out military operations across the boundaries of warfare. 

    Admiral William H. McRaven has developed a unique theory regarding special operations and formulated the term relative superiority. In order to achieve relative superiority a special operation must be conducted with six principles in mind. These principles consist of simplicity, repetition, security, surprise, speed and purpose.  The scope of this thesis is to examine the theory’s transferability by conducting a case study of OPERATION STORM-333, the Soviet assault on Tajbeg palace in Kabul in 1979.

    The results of this study show that every principle of McRaven’s theory regarding relative superiority was present during the Soviet assault on Tajbeg palace. Furthermore, the results’ conclusions indicate that the theory’s transferability can be ascertained within a Soviet context. This study contributes to the research of special operations and brings a new perspective to McRaven’s theory.

  • 5592.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Winning 'Hearts and Minds'?: A Critical Analysis of Counter-Insurgency Operations in Afghanistan2010In: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, E-ISSN 1743-968X, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 282-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article conducts a critical analysis of the historical lessons, theassumptions and the conduct of ‘hearts and minds’ approaches to counterinsurgency.This results in challenges. Theoretically the ‘hearts and minds’approach is rooted in modernisation theory and a normative Western approachto legitimacy that fails to live up to the expectations of the local population.The approach is also based on lessons from past successes such as the British1950s campaign in Malaya. However, a great contextual shift has taken placesince then and the relevance of past experiences is therefore questionable ina context of complex state-building in the wake of intervention. This also haspractical consequences as we seek to rectify the often misapplied approachesof today.

  • 5593.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum. Georgetown University.
    Winning Legitimacy: counterinsurgency as the military approach to statebuilding2013In: New Agendas in Statebuilding: Hybridity, contingency and history / [ed] Robert Egnell and Peter Haldén, London: Routledge, 2013, p. 210-232Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5594.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Alam, MayeshaDepartment of Political Science, Yale University, USA.
    Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military: An International Comparison2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military compares the integration of women, gender perspectives, and the women, peace, and security agenda into the armed forces of eight countries plus NATO and United Nations peacekeeping operations. This book brings a much-needed crossnational analysis of how militaries have or have not improved gender balance, what has worked and what has not, and who have been the agents for change. The country cases examined are Sweden, the Netherlands, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Israel, Australia, and South Africa. Despite increased opportunities for women in the militaries of many countries and wider recognition of the value of including gender perspectives to enhance operational effectiveness, progress has encountered roadblocks even nearly twenty years after United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 kicked off the women, peace, and security agenda. Robert Egnell, Mayesha Alam, and the contributors to this volume conclude that there is no single model for change that can be applied to every country, but the comparative findings reveal many policy-relevant lessons while advancing scholarship about women and gendered perspectives in the military.

  • 5595.
    Brown, Christer M.
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Ivarsson, Sophia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Women as Crisis Managers: The Need to Consider Crisis Management from a Gender Perspective2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5596.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum. Georgetown University.
    Women in Battle: Gender Perspectives and Fighting2013In: Parameters, ISSN 0031-1723, E-ISSN 2158-2106, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 33-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many concerns related to women in combat roles stem from two related assumptions: (a) the existing structure and culture of the armed forces are well adapted to the requirements of combat; and (b) politically imposed change is harmful to the professionalism and effectiveness of the military. These can be dangerous assumptions. Instead, the traditional "truths" about the nature of unit cohesion and the optimal capabilities of individual soldiers and officers need to be periodically examined. Doing so can maximize the effectiveness of military organizations in a changing environment.

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  • 5597.
    Jidinger, Emma
    Swedish Defence University.
    "Women work, men talk": A study of the localization of gender equality in Port Vila, Vanuatu2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Government of Vanuatu has created a legal framework to promote gender equality, ratifying international agreements as the Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women. The Vanuatu government has however failed in fully implementing these laws, and is supposedly working with promoting women’s rights in a society where traditional structures remain patriarchal. Among many empowerment projects, an economic approach seem to have been the most successful in gaining acceptance in the rural settlement areas of the capital Port Vila. This study seeks to explain how the merge of local perceptions on gender roles and international ideas on gender equality has created a fruitful environment for economic empowerment, and why this approach is yet to have a significant impact on women in Vanuatu. Conclusively, the study has found that Ni-Vanuatu women in the rural settlement areas of Port Vila only have enjoyed limited effects of economic empowerment. 

  • 5598. Wilde Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Kvist, Linda
    Sandin-Bojö, Ann-Kristin
    Womens’ opinions on intrapartal care: development of a theory-based questionnaire2010In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 19, no 11-12, p. 1748-1760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim.

    To develop a patient questionnaire specific to intrapartal care, based on the theoretical foundation of the general instrument Quality from the Patient's Perspective (QPP).

    Background.

    Existing general patient questionnaires do not take intrapartal care aspects fully into account, and available intrapartal-specific patient questionnaires tend to have a weak theoretical foundation.

    Design.

    A cross-sectional, nationwide study carried out during a two-week period in 2007 at Swedish maternity units.

    Method.

    An intrapartal-specific QPP-questionnaire (QPP-I) was developed by combining a selection of 22 items from the short and long versions of the QPP with 10 newly constructed items. Responses were obtained from 739 women (63% response rate). The dimensionality of the QPP-I was assessed using structural equation modelling (a nested factor model). Non-parametric statistics were used for subgroup comparisons.

    Results.

    A nested model with a general factor including all 32 items and 10 subordinate factors was developed. Most scales had acceptable reliability coefficients (0 center dot 73-0 center dot 93), and a meaningful pattern of subgroup differences was obtained.

    Conclusions.

    The QPP-I is theory based and has its roots in a patient perspective. It was developed using a nationwide sample of Swedish women receiving intrapartal care, and an advanced statistical method was used. The outcome of this initial empirical trial was promising but needs to be tested in different countries and cultures.

    Relevance to clinical practice.

    By combining womens' responses on perceived reality and subjective importance ascribed to the various aspects of care measured, the QPP-I offers the care provider better guidelines on which elements to focus quality improvement work on, than would be the case if only a rank order of perceived reality ratings was available.

  • 5599.
    Konow Lund, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Journalism and Media Studies, Oslo, Norway; Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Bech, Isabel
    Department of Journalism and Media Studies, Oslo, Norway; Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Work First, Feel Later: How News Workers Reflect on Subjective Choices During a Terror Attack2017In: Putting a Face on It: Individual Exposure and Subjectivity in Journalism / [ed] Birgitte Kjos Fonn, Harald Hornmoen, Nathalie Hyde-Clarke and Yngve Benestad Hågvar, Cappelen Damm Akademisk / NOASP , 2017, p. 309-327Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In journalism studies, the discussion of objectivity as a strategic ritual is long stand-ing, while the impact of subjectivity and emotion upon journalism has received much less attention. During terror events, journalists’ notion of objectivity as a strategy is likely to be challenged due to unexpected autonomy. In order to explore how this unfolds, we have interviewed 24 journalists in three different news organ-isations shortly after the Norwegian terror attack in 2011, where 77 people were killed. Studies of what journalists experience during a terror attack, and how they reflect upon their experiences, are scarce. The present study addresses this gap, and in particular looks at how news workers deal with dilemmas where their percep-tions of professionalism are challenged.

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  • 5600.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Centrum för folkhälsoforskning, Högskolan i Karlstad.
    Setterlind, S.
    Work load/work control and health: Moderating effects of heredity, self-image, coping, and health behavior1990In: International Journal of Health Sciences, ISSN 0924-2287, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 79-88Article in journal (Refereed)
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