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  • 5501.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Wilde Larsson, Bodil
    Karlstads universitet.
    Värmlandskuppen: Kartläggning av vårdkvalitet vid Otto Bock Ortopedteknik AB, Centralsjukhuset i Karlstad1998Report (Other academic)
  • 5502.
    Wilde Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Värmlandskuppen: kartläggning av vårdkvalitet vid sjukhuset i Arvika 1997-1998 : arbetsrapport1999Report (Other academic)
  • 5503.
    Wilde Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Värmlandskuppen: kartläggning av vårdkvalitet vid sjukhuset i Säffle 1997-1998 : arbetsrapport1999Report (Other academic)
  • 5504.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Wilde Larsson, B.
    Boström, I.
    Värmlandskuppen: Kartläggning av vårdkvalitet vid syncentralen, Hagahuset i Karlstad1998Report (Other academic)
  • 5505.
    Wilde Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Värmlandskuppen: kartläggning av vårdkvalitet vid Vårdcentralen Hermes i Säffle 1998 : arbetsrapport1999Report (Other academic)
  • 5506.
    Berglund, Viktor
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Värnplikt eller frivillighet?: Nya krav på Försvarsmaktens ledare2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the changes in the objectives for the Swedish Armed Forces, where national defense is beingreplaced by international missions in defense of Sweden’s interests, some major changes are taking place within the organization. One of these is replacing the conscription-based army with a professional employed one. One can assume that the human resource direction will have consequences for the demands on the Armed Forces and its leaders. The focus of this paper is on the platoon commanders leadership and management. The aim of the paper is to determine if there are any differences between being a platoon commander over conscripts versus employed soldiers. The question this paper is attempting to answer is whether there is a difference in their leadership and management. The paper is based primarily upon literature concerning leadership and organizations and interviews with platoon commanders. The results of the paper can be summarized with two conclusions. The first is that through realistic and relevant goals, the units become more effective and motivated, unlike when goals are abstractand theoretical, as Sweden’s national defense once was. The second conclusion is that by using a transformational leadership that permeates the organization, personnel and training, end results are much better. The commitment, motivation and openness within the studied units became much higher when transformational leadership was applied.

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  • 5507.
    Hjelm, Emelie
    Swedish Defence University.
    Värnplikten: en återinförd samhällsinstitution eller bara ett verktyg?2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 5508.
    Ericson Wolke, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Värnplikten muckar2011In: Nationalencyklopedin 2010, Malmö: Nationalencyklopedin AB , 2011, p. 232-233Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5509.
    Forsberg, Peter
    Swedish Defence University.
    Värnplikten och vården av värdefulla varumärken2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2010 the primary source for recruiting future soldiers and employees for the Swedish Armed Forces was changed. Previously the foundation for recruiting was the annual cohort of conscript soldiers that was selected through enlistment tryouts in their late teens.

    Enlistment was mandatory, however, there has always existed volunteer choices for national service within the Armed Forces. One of these units was FJS (Special Forces Corps). Every year a lot of able conscripts were allowed to apply for selection and training with the FJS.

    What was the background, reason and persuation for them to volunteer for a more challenging conscription than they were needed to?

    This thesis examines which factors that was behind an effective recruiting process until the cancelation of conscription in 2010. Focus will be on one examined unit. With the support of  Organizational culture theories and Backhaus and Tikoo´s Employer branding framework this will be reviewed. The empirical background for the studie will be aqurired through a survey. The survey consist of three annual cohorts of soldiers, over three decades, until 2010.

    The results show that both external and internal factors stimulate the perceptance of the Employer Brand (EB). Furthermore it indicates the importance of Word of Mouth, familiarization and ambassadorship for further reinforcement of the EB. It also shows that no matter the era, there is a constant attraction with the Challenge, to try oneself out, as part of a coveted group.

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  • 5510.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    ”Värnplikten öppnar en värld av möjligheter”: Viljan att fortsätta i Försvarsmakten hos värnpliktiga på Livgardet år 20102010Report (Other academic)
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    presentationsbild
  • 5511.
    Karlberg, Christoffer
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Värnpliktens vara eller icke vara: En argumentationsanalys av riksdagsdebatten om försvarsproposition 2008/09:140, angående Svenska försvarsmaktens framtida personalförsörjning2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's government says in the bill 2008/09: 140 that military service should be suspended and replaced with a system based on voluntary recruitment. In the essay, I will make an argument analysis of the parliamentary debate on the bill from the 12th of June 2009 with the following questions: On what is the different side’s argument based on? Are the arguments essentially and factually substantiated? Is there a clear political party tendency among the for-/counter arguments? The method is a "Pro et contra" analysis, a logical systematization of the arguments. The analysis will take start in the headline; Conscription should be suspended in favour of a voluntary system based on contract employed soldiers. The presentation of arguments in the analysis will be guided by the chronological order. The main argument against the bill is a belief that this system will generate greater costs. Furthermore, results from studies performed on other countries that have recently changed from compulsory military service to contract employed soldiers shows difficulties in recruiting and retaining staff in a voluntary system. Moreover it is noted that the increase in battle readiness that this new system means, would be completely unjustified in view of prevailing threats against Sweden. Finally, it is argued that the common support is at risk when Sweden's defence affairs no longer become an obligation for every individual to contribute. The arguments for the bill believe that we need forces that are fit to use and available, to meet the new threats that is emerging and in which Sweden's participation in international missions is the focal point. The conflict in the debate is based mostly in the ideological distinctions and as a result of these also economic contradictions. As a direct consequence of this, most of the arguments are not substantiated with facts. However, there is traceability to arguments that historically have been used to justify the introduction of either of the systems. There is a clear party political tendency in the debate. Government parties stay united and the opposition parties are slightly more dispersed in their argumentation but still against the bill.

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  • 5512.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Värnpliktigas intresse för internationell tjänst och officersutbildning2008Report (Other academic)
  • 5513.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Väst har hamnat i en duellsituation2015In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 31/5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5514.
    Olausson, Carl
    Swedish Defence University.
    Västvärldens Counterinsurgency: Är Galulas teorier aktuella för den moderna svenska officersutbildningen?2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    David Galula var en fransk officer som 1964 skrev ner sina teorier om upprorsbekämpning.Dessa teorier har därefter fått ett enormt stort utrymme i både utbildningar och itillämpningar på konflikter världen över. Uppsatsen avhandlar skillnader och likhetermellan Galulas åtta operationella steg och NATO:s nya doktrin för COIN-operationer från2011.Syftet med uppsatsen är att studera de två verken för att utröna hur mycket Galulas teorieranvänds i en modern handbok gällande upprorsbekämpning. Kopplat till användet avGalula i doktrinen vill uppsatsen bedöma hur mycket plats Galulas teorier bör få i denmoderna svenska officersutbildningen.Uppsatsen har nyttjat sig av en kvalitativ textanalys samt en komparativ del där de tvåverken jämförs. NATO:s doktrin för COIN-operationer har analyserats med hjälp avGalulas åtta steg. Resultatet visar att Galulas teorier till viss del går att finna i doktrinen,men det är även mycket som ej går att koppla mellan verken.

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  • 5515.
    Nilsson, Henrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Vätgas och bränsleceller: Ny energi för Försvarsmakten?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the current status of fuel cell technology and to establish whether said technology is mature enough to be implemented into the Swedish Armed Forces. The question to be answered in this paper is as follows: Can hydrogen gas and fuel cells be used as an alternative source of energy within the Swedish Armed Forces?

    This paper is based on theoretical studies and reports from prior research done on fuel cells. By studying these facts a predictive answer has been obtained. The answer I have come to, is that the maturity of fuel cell technology is currently inadequate for the Swedish Armed Forces to implement, especially considering its harsh working conditions.

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  • 5516.
    Vikman, Erik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Vådabekämpning i luftarenan: En analys av situation awareness och confidence i vådaincidenter2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite advancements in modern technology the rates of casualties caused by friendly fire have increased. Studies show that technology on its own cannot eliminate friendly fire casualties due to the involvement of human factors. This thesis aims to develop a model to increase understanding of fratricide. The model is based on the relationship between situation awareness and confidence, with the hypothesis that fratricidal events are characterised by poor situation awareness and high level of confidence.

    The theory development is achieved through three case studies of fratricide in air operations, using mainly official reports and video footage in a qualitative analysis. The result of the thesis does not show a relationship between situation awareness and confidence according to the hypothesis. Situation awareness is poor in all three cases studied. Confidence however is considered low in two out of three cases, opposing the hypothesis and demanding further studies of causal mechanisms explaining the problem of fratricide.

  • 5517.
    Lukic, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Vådabekämpning: Kan det förhindras?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When it comes to military operations, fratricide is not a new phenomenon. In order to solve the problem of fratricide, one has to be aware of its major cause as well as the means by which the risk of fratricide can be decreased. This paper presents a qualitative study of literature concerning the phenomenon of fratricide from the time of Operation Desert Storm and after.

    The purpose of the paper is to learn how the work to prevent fratricide might be organized as well as outlining the major causes of fratricide.

     The analysis shows that there are several causes to fratricide. It also presents a number of actions that can be taken to decrease the risk of it happening. The result shows that even though the risk can indeed be reduced the phenomenon as such will never disappear completely.

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  • 5518.
    Nilsson, Pernilla
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre.
    Våldsanvändning och mänskliga rättigheter2010In: Mänskliga rättigheter: Juridiska perspektiv / [ed] Anna Lundberg, Malmö: Liber, 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5519.
    Gustafsson, Linus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Våldsbejakande islamistisk extremism och sociala medier2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syrien och Irak har kommit att bli den globala jihadismens epicentrum och personer inom våldsbejakande islamistiska extremistgrupper och rörelser som Islamiska staten och al-Qaida sprider sina budskap på sociala medier. Denna rapport syftar till att beskriva hur sociala medier används för propagandaspridning samt vilka motiv och orsaker som går att skönja i några av de svenskspråkiga Facebook-grupperna och profilerna under perioden 2012-2014.

    Studien visar att Facebook används som en plattform för svenskspråkiga grupper och profiler för att (1) sprida officiell propaganda från terroristorganisationer som Islamiska staten och al-Qaida. Facebook används också för att (2) sprida inofficiell propaganda till fördel för terroristorganisationer som Islamiska staten och al-Qaida. Facebook används som en plattform för försök till rekrytering till IS.

    Informationen som sprids sker dels från personer i Sverige och dels från personer som rest från Sverige till Syrien och IS-kontrollerade områden. Hyllningar till våldsbejakande islamistiska ideologer och terroristorganisationers ledare sprids genom texter, bilder, fotografier och videos. Personer från Sverige som befinner sig i Syrien kommunicerar ”hem” till Sverige genom reseberättelser från IS-kontrollerade områden.

    Inom dessa profiler och grupper går att finna ett antal motiv och orsaker till varför någon sympatiserar med våldsbejakande islamistiska ideologier och rörelser, samt argument för att någon ska resa till Syrien för att ansluta sig till IS. Ett antal faktorer varvas och överlappas: humanitära, religiösa, ideologiska motiv tillsammans med martyrskap och något som kan ses som äventyr, våld, vapen och gemenskap.

    Orsakerna och motiven kan inte ses som hela förklaringen till varför någon radikaliseras, väljer att sympatisera med, eller ansluta sig till, terroristorganisationer som Islamiska staten eller al-Qaida. Rapporten är dock försök till ett bidrag till en djupare kunskap om motiv och orsaker.

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  • 5520.
    Norsell, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Våldsspiralen med eskaleringar och deeskaleringar2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur eskalerar eller deeskalerar man våld? Vad finns för kunskap om detta, nationellt och internationellt? Vilka erfarenheter har man gjort i insatser, och finns dessa dokumenterade? Delprojektet våldsspiralen med eskaleringar och deeskaleringar har varit en del av Högkvarterets ledningsstabs utvecklingsavdelning, HKV LEDS UTV temaområde expeditionär förmåga. Studien har handlat om att studera information nationellt och internationellt om eskalering och deeskalering av militärt våld. Detta har gjorts genom att studera information som finns tillgängligt ur rapporter, studier och dokumenterade erfarenheter, samt intervjua personal med erfarenhet från expeditionära insatser.

    Ett antal faktorer har visat sig vara viktiga för att få ökad stabilitet i komplexa insatsmiljöer. De viktigaste av dessa faktorer har visat sig vara "mjuka" komponenter som t ex att på plats skapa säkerhet för civilbefolkningen, samarbeta med befolkningen på deras villkor och hjälpa till med utveckling och utbyggnad av det civila samhället. Samtidigt är rätt attityd, inställning och bemötande nyttiga faktorer för att kunna sänka våldsnivån i en konflikt.

    Av tekniska hjälpmedel har så kallade icke dödande vapen visat sig fungera väl internationellt. Sådana finns dock inte tillgängliga i Försvarsmakten idag. De alternativ som finns är att gradera verkan med de system som redan finns. Dock är steget långt mellan att tala med stor bestämdhet och att avlossa skott mot någon med en pistol eller automatkarbin, vilket är vad som finns att tillgå för enskilda soldater inom Försvarsmakten idag.

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  • 5521. Waplan, Rosanne
    våldsutövning och de psykologiska mekanismerna2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has its starting point in the theory that the healthy human has a built-in resistance to killing. To get around this resistance requires psychological mechanisms that activate something that can be likened to a moral decoupling and enable the practice of violence. This study aims to contribute with an understanding of the effect of these psychological mechanisms and its significance to the Swedish armed forces by examining whether these are applied in the education system. The examination intends to answer whether the psychological mechanisms deindividualization and dehumanization are applied in the regulations and manuals linked to basic soldier education. The study shows that deindividualization and dehumanization can be identified in analyzed empiricism. However, these mechanisms are nothing that is lifted in a direct way in the empiricism, but something that has been identified by text analysis as latent messages.

     

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  • 5522.
    Hansson, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Våra första internationella insatser: ett tecken på beslutsvilja?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to reveal the decision-making process at strategic andmilitary strategic level that led to the Swedish military UN engagement inSuez 1956, Congo 1960 and Cyprus 1964. Moreover, the aim is to study thedeployment phase. The purpose is therefore to find answers, which canexplain why these decisions and deployments were made quite rapidly andwhy there were differences between and within the two levels. The historymay help us to make fasts decisions in the near future – for example, when theSwedish / Nordic EU Battle Group will be used. Graham Allison’s theoriesabout Organizational Process and Governmental Politics constitute thescientific frame. These theories help us to understand the processes and thedifferences. The method to achieve this has been to make three case studieswhere the primary and secondary sources from archives, diaries and booksetcetera have been examined.The thesis shows that there has been a strong political will in two of the cases.In the last case however, the government has been doubtful whether to takepart in the mission or not. But generally, the decisions have been maderapidly and effectively before the consent of Parliament. One could thereforesee the government’s actions as a synthesis of resolute leading politicians witha well developed cabinet, which had good ability in coordinating their willagainst Parliament and the opposition in the advisory council on foreignaffairs, as well as against the military authorities. In every case there hashowever been some reluctance from leading military generals. The lack ofenthusiasm was due to their objective during the Cold War: to keep as manyofficers and non-commissioned officers as possible in Sweden at high militarypreparedness on purpose. However, the military authorities have shown greatloyalty to the political level – they have therefore quickly executed thepolitical decisions.Furthermore, the thesis shows that both UN and Sweden have been dependenton the United States’ Air Force when it comes to strategic airlifts. Thisdependence has also been shown earlier. The Swedish Supreme Commanderasked for better airlift capacity for the benefit of the UN as late as in thesixties. Graham Allison’s theories have helped to understand both the processand the differences that have been identified. However, the theories cannotexplain all the perspectives and varieties of the decision-making process. Forexample, the role and impact of Dag Hammarskjöld 1956 and 1960 and thepressure of ”the super powers” in 1964.

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  • 5523.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Centrum för folkhälsoforskning, Högskolan i Karlstad.
    Vård och omsorg: presentation av en modell för analys och prioritering av FoU-insatser1990Report (Other academic)
  • 5524.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Wilde Larsson, B.
    Boström, I.
    Carlberg, M.
    Vårdkvalitet för funktionshindrade: Vårdenheter i Sörmland och Värmland jämförs utifrån ett patient- och personalperspektiv1998Report (Other academic)
  • 5525.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Wilde Larsson, Bodil
    Karlstad Universitet, Sverige.
    Vårdkvalitet och patienttillfredsställelse2017In: Kvalitetsarbete för bättre och säkrare vård / [ed] A-M Boström, G. Nordström & B Wilde Larsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 2, p. 79-105Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5526.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Wilde Larsson, Bodil
    Karlstads universitet.
    Vårdkvalitet och patienttillfredsställelse: Sanningen bor i patientens öga2012In: Kvalitetsarbete för bättre och säkrare vård / [ed] Nordström G., Wilde Larsson, B., Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, p. 69-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5527.
    Borén, Stefan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    "Vårt förhållande till främmande makt är gott" - en studie av hur ledande svensk dagspress speglar svensk utrikes- och säkerhetspolitisk debatt:  2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad har hänt i den offentliga debatten kring svensk utrikes- och säkerhetspolitik? Utifrån teorin ommassmedias betydelse för offentlig debatt, textgranskas kommentarer och debattartiklar och intervjuasföreträdare för massmedia för att få svaret på detta. Avsikten är att presentera vad och hur svensk politiskdagspress väljer att debattera svensk utrikes- och säkerhetspolitik samt varför just detta innehåll debatteras.Undersökningen visar att massmedia vill vara med och sätta den säkerhetspolitiska dagordningen, menatt detta inte är enkelt inom detta traditionstyngda politikområde. Den svenska säkerhetspolitiska debattendomineras helt och hållet av frågorna kring Sveriges neutralitet och alliansfrihet, där det råder en mycketuttrycklig historisk motsättning mellan opinion och regeringsparti. En slutsats är att den politiska oenighetenom Sveriges framtida säkerhetspolitik är bestående och så länge ingenting påtagligt inträffar som förändrardenna situation, så kommer media få svårt att dra i gång en diskussion som på allvar engagerar beslutsfattareoch medborgare.

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  • 5528.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    War as nothing but a duel: war as an institution and the construction of the Western military profession2018In: Journal of Military Studies, ISSN 2242-3524, E-ISSN 1799-3350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Like all repetitive human interaction, even war has been institutionalized and fought according to conventions and norms. Historically, this institutionalization is apparent from the way war has been compared to the duel, first in the 14th century and most famously by Carl von Clausewitz 5 centuries later. This article continues this train of thought and argues that the observed limits of Western “professional orthodoxy” and “strategic vocabulary” can be traced to how war has been institutionalized by the military profession. This offers an alternative explanation to the prevailing views of why the West has struggled in contemporary wars: it is the fundamental mismatch between these professional norms in the West and those held by their opponents that forms the biggest asymmetry in contemporary war. As this asymmetry is unlikely to disappear, these professional norms need to be reconsidered: just like the aristocracy with the duel by the late 19th century, the Western military profession appears stuck in an institution that is increasingly becoming obsolete. Without such reconsideration, the attainment of decision – the central strategic objective in war – and hence victory in future wars will remain uncertain.

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  • 5529.
    Holmqvist-Jonsäter, Caroline
    Department of War Studies, King's College London, England.
    War as perpeutual policing2010In: The Character of War in the 21st Century / [ed] Holmqvist-Jonsäter, Caroline & Coker, Christopher, London: Routledge, 2010, p. 103-118Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5530.
    Norsell, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Jäppinen, I
    Finnish National Defence University.
    Eliasson, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    War Fighting Capabilities and Military-Technology Interaction2010Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 5531.
    Hagström, Linus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Hanssen, Ulv
    The Free University of Berlin.
    War is Peace: The Re-articulation of ‘Peace’ in Japan’s China Discourse2016In: Review of International Studies, ISSN 0260-2105, E-ISSN 1469-9044, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 266-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article demonstrates that a national identity defined by a normative commitment to peace is not necessarily an antidote to remilitarisation and war. More specifically, the article takes issue with the debate about the trajectory of Japan’s security and defence policy. One strand of the debate holds that Japan is normatively committed to peace while the other claims that Japan is in the process of remilitarising. This article argues that the two positions are not mutually exclusive – a point that has been overlooked in the literature. The article uses discourse analysis to trace how ‘peace’ was discussed in debates about China in the Japanese Diet in 1972 and 2009–12. It demonstrates how rearticulations by right wing discourses in the latter period have depicted peace as something that must be defended actively, and thus as compatible with remilitarisation or military normalisation. Japan’s changing peace identity could undermine rather than stabilise peaceful relations with its East Asian neighbours.

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  • 5532.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    War, modernity and the origins of civilization: the old and new strengths of sociology2015In: Journal of Political Power, ISSN 2158-379X, E-ISSN 2158-3803, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 141-144Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 5533.
    Bachmann, Jan
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Bell, ColleenUniversity of Saskatchewan, Kanada.Holmqvist, CarolineSwedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    War, police and assemblages of intervention2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book reflects on the way in which war and police/policing intersect in contemporary Western-led interventions in the global South. The volume combines empirically oriented work with ground-breaking theoretical insights and aims to collect, for the first time, thoughts on how war and policing converge, amalgamate, diffuse and dissolve in the context both of actual international intervention and in understandings thereof.

    The book uses the caption WAR:POLICE to highlight the distinctiveness of this volume in presenting a variety of approaches that share a concern for the assemblage of war-police as a whole. The volume thus serves to bring together critical perspectives on liberal interventionism where the logics of war and police/policing blur and bleed into a complex assemblage of WAR:POLICE. Contributions to this volume offer an understanding of police as a technique of ordering and collectively take issue with accounts of the character of contemporary war that argue that war is simply reduced to policing. In contrast, the contributions show how – both historically and conceptually – the two are ‘always already’ connected. Contributions to this volume come from a variety of disciplines including international relations, war studies, geography, anthropology, and law but share a critical/poststructuralist approach to the study of international intervention, war and policing.

    This volume will be useful to students and scholars who have an interest in social theories on intervention, war, security, and the making of international order.

  • 5534.
    Holmqvist, Caroline
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört). Centre for International Studies, London School of Economics and Political Science, UK.
    War, 'strategic communication' and the violence of non-recognition2013In: Cambridge Review of International Affairs, ISSN 0955-7571, E-ISSN 1474-449X, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 631-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary Western war-fighting is animated by the fictitious imagination of a war free from antagonism. In this logic, winning wars is about winning the ‘hearts and minds’ of local populations, about persuasion rather than confrontation. In recent years, the concept of ‘strategic communication’ (SC) has been elevated to the top echelons of strategic thinking in United States military circles, focusing attention on how to communicate ‘effectively’ with local populations. Via an analysis of the concept of SC, this article examines the ethico-political dimensions of contemporary Western-led ‘population-centric’ war. Through a reading inspired by Judith Butler's recent work in Precarious life (London: Verso 2006) andFrames of war (London: Verso 2009), and an analysis that turns on the link between ethics and ontology, I reflect on the significance of the ‘communications turn’ in warfare for our study of war in ontological terms.

  • 5535.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    War, transparency and control: the military architecture of operational warfare2016In: Cambridge Review of International Affairs, ISSN 0955-7571, E-ISSN 1474-449X, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 1132-1149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contemporary research, transparency is commonly understood to indicate and guarantee openness, in ways that make it synonymous with positive characteristics of governing. However, the allegedly benevolent link between transparency and governing has also been questioned, giving rise to arguments that transparency enables violent social control. Drawing upon this latter view, the article stages an encounter between critical debates on transparency and critical accounts of war to examine the way that they come together in the operationalization of warfare. Engaging particularly with Jean Baudrillard’s writing on transparency, the article inquires into the way control is socially manufactured and administered through military doctrines. It concludes that the operationalization of warfare is not, as many tend to argue, first and foremost about a response to practical problems when conducting wars. Rather, it consists of the potential to unveil global space and global time as an attempt to maintain and control future political becoming

  • 5536.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Duyvesteyn, Isabelle
    University of Utrecht.
    War, what is it good for?2010In: Modern War and the Utility of Force: Challenges, Methods, and Strategy / [ed] Jan Ångström & Isabelle Duyvesteyn, Routledge, 2010, Vol. 35, no 5Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5537.
    Wikman, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Department of Government, Uppsala University, Sweden; SCANCOR, Stanford University, USA.
    War with the Terrorists or Rebuilding a Nation in Need?: Dutch Public Opinion on Afghanistan : The Theory of the Principal Policy Objective Revisited2016In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. ERGOMAS, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article points to the need for a more complex understanding of the public's perception of the Principal Policy Objective (PPO) when it comes to citizens' attitudes toward foreign military interventions. In contrast to previous research, where one PPO has been linked to support either by experimental standards or survey practicality, this article uses a survey and a method which allow the analysis to account for conflicting PPOs and leaves the interpretation of the PPO to the individual respondent, increasing the validity of the results. This is done using a dataset based on a monthly survey, conducted during the Dutch military involvement in the Afghan province of Uruzgan (2006-2010), in which questions on support and perceptions of two PPO are separated in the questionnaire permitting a separation of two different PPO measurements on each value of public support. In the Dutch case two PPOs stand out as dominating the public discourse : War on Terror and the Reconstruction of Afghanistan. Both are included in the survey. Based on an OLS regression analysis, this article draws the conclusion that there is a significant relationship between each of the PPOs separately and public support, even when controlled for each other. Previous research has pointed to a dominating PPO that guides attitude behaviour ; however, this article finds instead that several PPOs could be driving support simultaneously and that each has a significant relationship to public support independent of one another. This article offers some possible theoretical insights as to how but additional research is necessary to further investigate how several perceptions of PPO relate to each other during the formation of attitudes amongst the citizenry.

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    Wikman 2016 War with the Terrorists
  • 5538.
    Bele, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Warden i Israel: En studie av Wardens tillämpning i Israels luftkrig 2006-20092013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den amerikanske luftmaktsteoretikern John A Warden III har skrivit ett flertal artiklar och böcker om vad han anser är det bästa sättet att använda luftmakt. Warden förordar luftmaktens offensiva natur och eftersträvar ett snabbt, för egen del, fördelaktigt slut på en konflikt. Warden har bl.a. liknat fienden vid ett system, där han menar att strävan skall ligga i att slå ut fiendens ledarskikt vilket får tillföljd att dess vilja till strid upphör.

    I detta arbete ges en sammanfattning av, enligt författaren, centrala delar av Wardens teorier. Sammanfattningen mynnar ut i tre stycken parametrar som kommer att utgöra Wardens teorier i detta arbete. De tre parametrarna är "enemy as a system", "center of gravity" samt "parallell attack". Dessa parametrar ligger sedan till grund för en analys av Israels luftkampanjer i dess krig mot Hizbollah 2006, Operation Change of Direction samt dess krig mot Hamas 2008-09, Operation Cast Lead.

    Syftet med detta är att ta reda på om Israel använde sig av Wardens teorier under dessa båda operationer.

    Anledningen till valet av dessa två konflikter är att Israel bl.a. sin doktrin slagit fast att de aldrig har råd att förlora ett krig. Detta tvingar Israel att optimera sin taktisering.

    Slutsatsen blev att det tydligt går att se att Wardens teorier genomsyrade Operation Change of Direction. Det var enbart "parallell attack" som inte tydligt efterföljdes genom hela operationen. Under Operation Cast Lead däremot så följde Israel Wardens teorier i mycket mindre utsträckning. Det var enbart "center of gravity" som följdes genom hela den operationen.

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  • 5539.
    Lewis-Olsson, Adam
    Swedish Defence University.
    Warden i småskaliga krig: Luftoperationer under Sydafrikanska gränskriget2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The conflicts in southern Africa during the second part of the 20th-century are today a piece of half-forgotten history that immediately invokes images of the South African apartheid regime. Under immense pressure from the outside world, South Africa fought a conflict against a communist force that enjoyed support from states such as Cuba and the Soviet Union.

    The conflict tended to rise and fall in intensity and during the latter part of the war; conventional operations were executed deep into Angolan territory in order to halt the enemy offensive. In this study the South African use of fighter jets are compared to John A. Warden III’s theories on how an air war should be fought.

    Wardens claim to fame came with the Gulf war and the following conflicts that used methods that spawned from his ideas on how airpower should be used. This essay examines to what extent Wardens ideas are applicable to the South African border war. 

    The analysis shows that specific events and operations correlate with Wardens ideas, however there are no significant signs of what might be interpreted as operations of the type of conceptual thinking that Wardens uses on the larger, strategic scale.

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    Warden i småskaliga krig: Luftoperationer under Sydafrikanska gränskriget
  • 5540.
    Rapp, Joel
    Swedish National Defence College.
    "Warden och den irreguljära konflikten": Har Wardens teorier spelat ut sin roll?2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    John A. Warden developed the Five ring model and the enemy as a system. These models where used as a tool to find the enemies weak points. These models proved useful in a conventional conflict, and where very effective during the planning and execution of Operation Desert Storm. In recent times Wardens theories has been a subject of a debate, stating that they have played out there role as an effect of irregular warfare. This essay is going to try to see if it is precision-guided munitions that save Wardens theories in the fields of modern air-warfare planning in irregular warfare.

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    Warden och den irreguljära konflikten
  • 5541.
    Byström, Joakim
    Swedish Defence University.
    Warden och Pape: En teoriprövning på Libyenkriget 20112017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Airpower has shown its usefulness throughout many wars and was seen as a key instrument in the Libyan war 2011. However, the use of airpower and how it should be applied has been a highly debated topic for as long as airpower has been around. Two theorists, John A. Warden III and Robert A. Pape, have received a lot of attention and there is a debate regarding which one of these theorists has the best solution on how to use airpower.

    The purpose with this essay is to apply some of the two theorists’ ideas on the Libyan war 2011 and investigate their explanatory power in the conflict. To reach an answer, a case study has been used with a theory testing method which would further seek to contribute to the debate that exists between the two theorists.

    Results show that some parts of the theorists’ ideas have a high explanatory power in the conflict and some parts do not. As individuals, they cannot explain the whole war, but together their ideas have a high explanatory power in the conflict.

    Based on the ongoing debate that provides two different ways of using airpower, the conclusions suggest that a combination of the two theorists’ ideas might be the answer to how airpower can be employed in the best way for future operations. Further research is required to investigate this thesis.

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    Joakim_Byström_SA
  • 5542.
    Wass, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Warden, Pape och Sexdagarskriget2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study intends to contribute to the understanding of air power theory by studying the contrasting theories of John A. Warden and Robert A. Pape onto a single case. Warden advocates strategic bombing, while Pape condemns it. The theories are applied onto the Israeli air power in the Six-Day War, a war which played an important role for air power and where air power played an important role for the outcome. Both theories are among the most discussed and criticized ones, including by the other author respectively. By thoroughly examining them onto the same single case, their generalizability is evaluated in relation to each other.

    The empirical data consisted of six descriptive works of the war, from which each event of air sorties was analysed and matched with the theories. The air sorties of each theory were then evaluated by occurrence and effect to the wars outcome, i.e. the contribution to the Israeli victory. The results of the analysis imply that Warden’s theory have a better ability to explain the success of the Israeli Air Force than Pape’s theory, but no major conclusions of their generalizability can be drawn. None of the theories where found fully sufficient to explain the case, i.e. some parts of the theories did not occur in Six-Day War according to the study.

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    Warden_Pape_och_Sexdagarskriget_2019
  • 5543.
    Aadland, Cornelia
    Swedish Defence University.
    Wardens fem ringar - ett koncept för framtida militära interventioner?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades airpower has become a useful tool for military interventions. Earlier research argues that air operations during the first Gulf war proved that strategic bombing could be effective due to modern technology and precision guided munitions. John Warden developed a theory based on strategic bombing, where he sees the enemy as a system, which is illustrated by a five-ring-model. The theory is widely discussed in the modern airpower debate, and has also been criticized because it has not been proved in any large-N study. Therefore, this essay aims to test Wardens five-ring-model in a comparative case study where two modern air operations have been chosen for investigation. The two operations are Operation Deliberate Force that took place Bosnia, 1995, and Operation Odyssey Dawn/Unified Protector that took place in Libya, 2011. The two operations have many similarities but differ in the time it took to reach their designated goals.

    The results indicate that Wardens theory is not capable of explaining why the two operations differed in the time it took to achieve its goals. The operations did not act according to Wardens five-ring-model to a sufficiently large extent when other targets were more frequently attacked than the ones that Warden advocates to be the most effective. Warden states that his theory is very general and can be used for any opponent, but the results of this essay indicate that it may be to general to be able to explain the outcome of an operation.

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  • 5544.
    Wadenholt, Jakob
    Swedish Defence University.
    Wardens fem ringar, slagen om Fallujah ur ett luftmaktsperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Air power alone cannot hold ground and secure the population. How then can air power contribute to irregular conflicts? Robert Johnson states in his article Predicting Future War that air power have the potential to determine the outcome of irregular operations. Even though air superiority was achieved during the two battles of Fallujah in Iraq 2004 there is a difference in the outcome of the two operations, Vigilant Resolve and Phantom Fury.

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine if Warden´s theory The Enemy as a System and his Five-Ring Model can explain the variation in the outcome of the two battles using a comparative case study.

    Research findings indicate that the Five-Ring Model cannot explain why the second operation, Phan-tom Fury was a victory. The findings indicate that striking the most critical ring, i.e. Leaders, did not contribute to victory. Instead, results indicate that the most critical ring leading to victory in the second operation were Infrastructure.

    The main conclusion of the thesis is that the theory cannot explain the variation in the outcomes and that Warden´s Five-Ring Model cannot be applied to an irregular enemy and therefore needs to be questioned and further researched. The findings further strengthen earlier research stating that the most critical part of an enemy may not always be represented by Leaders.

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  • 5545.
    Englundh, Jessica
    Swedish Defence University.
    Wardens femringsmodell, ett teoretiskt underverk? : En teoriutvecklande och teoriprövande studie på femringsmodellen anpassad mot upprorsbekämpande luftmakt2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how Wardens five-ring model can be altered to counterinsurgency center of gravity, to allow a more specific theory for airpower in counterinsurgency operations. The study has been undertaken since research regarding air power in counterinsurgency operations shows an absence for specified theory. Previous research tends to apply traditional airpower theories without taking into account the great differences in center of gravities of different warfare’s.

    A previous study has been made to adapt Wardens five-ring model to counterinsurgency warfare, where the theory development of this study continues from. The developed theory is strengthened by further theoretical arguments and literature to give it more scientific basis. The developed theory is examined by a single-case study of the second Lebanon war in 2006. 

    Results of the analysis reveal that Wardens five-ring model successfully can adapt to counterinsurgency center of gravities. Conclusions can be drawn to the possibilities and preferences of a more adaptable theory towards what war that is fought, rather than an all-embracing theory for all warfare’s. The study contributes to existing research by providing a scientifically improved model to analyze the use of air power in counterinsurgency.

  • 5546.
    Hjorth, Joakim
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Wardens inverkan på krigen i Irak2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Colonel John A. Warden III (USAF ret.) has since 1988 developed a theoryregarding how the enemy best can be defeated. His work is based on a deductiveapproach, i.e. one starts with the general picture and follows the trail down towardsthe smallest detail. The foundation of his theory is the enemy can be regarded as asystem which can be divided into subsystems. The process of determining centersof gravity is the central importance for the theory. The ultimate goal is to imposeour will on the enemy through parallel warfare and thus inflicting physical orpsychological damage to him. Warden credits new technology as a great enablerfor new opportunities.The empirical study consists of two cases, the Gulf War 1990-1991 and the IraqWar 2003. This study structures the basics concepts enabling the question to beanswered; Were both air operations in the wars conducted in accordance withWardens’ theory? The core element of Wardens’ theory will be used as variables inthe empirical study. This thesis will close with a discussion regarding the universalapplicability of Wardens’ theory. The discussion will also include the subject ofhow smaller nations with limited resources can apply Wardens’ theory.

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  • 5547.
    Weman, Rickard
    Swedish Defence University.
    Wardens teori i Kosovo och Libyen: en jämförande studie av två luftoperationer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The general use of airpower and how it can best be applied in certain conflicts has always been a highly debated topic. Previous research shows that the opinions differs regarding how to apply airpower capabilities in a context of an armed conflict or peace operation. Airpower theorist Warden claims that regardless of the opponent, his theory is applicable to any context using airpower. The purpose of this research paper is to apply Wardens theory to a comparative study that examines airpower and its usefulness as a key instrument. The cases are the Kosovo war 1999 and the Libyan war 2011. The study has been used with a theory testing strategy which would contribute to the research gap. The analysis reveals that Wardens theory has its shortcomings. This related to the operations goal excluding strategic paralysis and including protection of the opponent´s civilians.

    Air superiority is essential and after it is achieved the display of airpower to acquire a quick decisive victory is through air-interdiction attacking ground targets. In the effort to minimise the risk of killing or injuring non-combatants it is vital to use precision-guided weapons.

  • 5548.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Warfare as design: Transgressive creativity and reductive operational planning2018In: Security Dialogue, ISSN 0967-0106, E-ISSN 1460-3640, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 493-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that the politics of contemporary Western warfare finds an important reference point in discourses on military design. In the 2010s, military design has become a trending topic in military discourses on command and planning methodology. Since Clausewitz, warfare has been considered a phenomenon characterized by a tension between creativity and linear planning, and the ideal commander as someone with the vision to overcome this. By mapping and analyzing tactical, operational, and strategic narratives and practices, the article illustrates how they emphasize a warfare based both on experimentation and artistry and on traditional operational planning. In so doing, military design relies on reductive military concepts to push the tension identified by Clausewitz towards its extreme end-point, idealizing creativity as an objective of warfare. The article ends by asking to what extent military design risks spilling over into other dimensions of social and political life. It concludes that in pushing creativity as part of war, military design builds on and justifies transgressive political practices with the risk of becoming a vital aspect of future governing.

  • 5549.
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section. King's College London.
    Wargaming in Military Education for Army Officers and Officer Cadets2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wargaming has been part of military curricula for about 200 years since the introduction of Kriegsspiel, but it is still something of an art form. This thesis attempts to theorise the practice of military educational wargaming, and specifically to explore why such wargaming takes the form it does.

    The thesis is limited to army educational wargaming for officers and officer cadets. Wargaming for analytical purposes, and political and strategic gaming, are excluded.  Instead, the focus is on army educational wargaming at the tactical level, which is arguably more comparable between countries. The research method combines an exploratory approach influenced by grounded theory with a comparative case study approach encompassing three successive levels of army officer education in five countries: Sweden, Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States and Japan.

    The research indicates the central importance of individual game directors. This is particularly evident when wargaming forms evolve. The main concern of the individual game director is how to achieve instructor buy-in. This core category encompasses control, credibility and comfort. Three methods, or strategies, were discovered regarding how to achieve instructor buy-in. Those three strategies are: innovative active learning, simple standardising and control & veiling. This discovery contributes to new substantive theory, as it explains how specific army educational wargaming forms commence, evolve and are discontinued.

  • 5550.
    Holmqvist, Caroline
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum. Centre for International Studies, London School of Economics and Political Science, England.
    War/space: shifting spatialities and the absence of politics in contemporary accounts of war2012In: Global crime, ISSN 1744-0572, E-ISSN 1744-0580, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 219-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understandings of war – its shape, form, character and content – are conditioned by conceptualisations and narratives of social and political space. As such, the history of writing on war is also a history of spatiality, expressed through a particular circumstance and practice. Through analysis of early modern conceptualisations of space, politics and war, this article considers the shift in political spatiality associated with the demise of modern linear spatiality that firmly established the territorial state as site of politics and war. The central argument of this article is that contemporary accounts of war reveal a political spatiality in flux coupled with an insistence on the global, such that many accounts of war neglect its political content. Three key accounts of contemporary war are engaged: liberal discourses of war as ‘policing’; accounts of war as ‘biopolitical empire’; and discourses of war as ‘risk management’ – all found, in different ways and collectively, to disregard the political confrontation that war necessarily entails.

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