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  • 5351.
    Westerlund, Jörgen
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    HUMINT - En begreppsanalys2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under det senaste 10-15 åren finns ett ökande inslag av särskilda förband och enheter för inhämtning av information och underrättelser från mänskliga källor i de insatsområden som Sverige skickar trupp till. Dessa förband kan vara av typen Field Humint Teams (FHT) eller National Intelligence Cells (NIC). Ökningen av denna typ av förband samt ökningen av det militära behovet av att agera i miljöer som präglas av kontakter med människor har skapat en ökad användning av det engelska uttrycket HUMINT (Human Intelligence) i den svenska militära vokabulären.  HUMINT och Personbaserad inhämtning (PBI) är det två begrepp som i Sverige används för att beskriva inhämtningen av information och underrättelser från mänskliga källor. I Försvarsmaktens Underrättelsehandbok - Förhandsutgåva (FM UndH Fu) från 2006 används begreppet HUMINT trots sitt engelska ursprung och ingen tydlig svensk översättning är där gjord. De övriga underrättelsedisciplinerna är dock översatta till en svensk benämning. Begreppet personbaserad inhämtning nämns inte en enda gång i boken. 

    Inom Försvarsmakten finns det dessutom olika uppfattningar om vad som är HUMINT och PBI eller vad det inte är. Dessa två begrepp används ibland lite slarvigt och jämställs ibland med varandra.

    Det övergripande syftet med denna uppsats är att pröva hypotesen att de i Sverige vedertagna begreppen HUMINT och PBI uppfattas och värderas olika av individer och organisationer. Dessutom syftar uppsatsen till att jämföra de svenska definitionerna med andra försvarsmakter, organisationer och enskilda författares tolkningar av begreppen i syfte att utröna om dessa skiljer sig åt. Avslutningsvis syftar uppsatsen till att diskutera huruvida det har någon betydelse att begreppen tolkas olika.

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  • 5352.
    Westin, Jonas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Utökat ballistiskt skydd mot finkalibriga projektiler på ytstridsfartyg2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates which technical solutions can improve ballistic protection against small arm projectiles onboard Swedish naval surface warships.

    Since the construction of the ship itself has a basic protection against projectiles, this will be described first.

    By improving the protection capability with extra protection (supplementary protection), the ship can successfully handle several new threats that come with new tasks while also improving its length of life.

    A study of advantages and disadvantages of different technical solutions will show which solutions are realistic ones.

    The ship will probably be equipped with different kind of materials because of the need of prioritized areas and surfaces onboard. Different materials will be a compromise between the ballistic protection ability and construction strength.

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  • 5353.
    Westin, Jonas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Ytstridsfartygs ballistiska skydd mot finkalibriga projektiler2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is about the extent to which simplified penetration calculations ofsmall-caliber projectiles is a useful tool for assessing the physical protectioncapability. The work should be seen as an attempt to create an accessible tool inthe form of a simplified equation that allows for a better and safer use of thenaval vessels. The tool will also be used at different levels so that decisions andinstructions could be clearer.Performed calculations show a very limited capacity of a ship's basic design interms of physical protection against the use of small-caliber projectiles.How do we know that the calculations correct? By verifying the calculations withpractical shooting tests, a substantial condition to answer the question will becreated. To shoot against a material with two different thicknesses estimated toproduce perforation and non-perforation is a good approximation of the equationusability in the context.

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  • 5354.
    Westlund, Glenn
    Swedish Defence University.
    High Mobility Engineer Excavator eller Ingenjörbandvagn 120: Om olika fältarbetsfordon ger olika förmåga till fältarbeten för rörlighet2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The swedish engineer corps have recently aquired two new different combat engineeringvehicles: the HMEE and the Ingbv 120. One of the engineer corps main tasks is to createand maintain mobility for other military units, and the author argues that a study wherethese two new vehicles are compared by how well they manage to conduct field worksfor mobility is relevant. The HMEE and the Ingbv 120 will in 2014 be the backbone ofthe heavy engineer platoons in the two different engineer companies. Before thesevehicles were purchased, the heavy engineer platoons consisted of more traditionalengineering vehicles such as wheel loaders and excavators and this new structure cancreate both possibilities as well as limitations. Conclusions of the study indicates forexample that the Ingbv 120 is more able than the HMEE to conduct fieldworks formobility in urban operations and that both vehicles can conduct almost the same amountof different fieldworks for mobility, with one exception: the HMEE can not performmine breaching while the Ingbv 120 can.

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  • 5355.
    Westman, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Tekniska lösningar för att minimera civila offer vid checkpoints?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5356.
    Westman, Oskar
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Direkt och indirekt metod inom manöverkrigsföring: Hur kan de appliceras på IT-krigsföringen?2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Manöverkrigsföring är ett tillvägagångssätt för att undvika motståndarens starkare sida och angripa dess svaga, för att jämna ut styrkeförhållandena på slagfältet. B H Liddell Hart har sammanfattat detta i sin teori om den indirekta och direkta anfallet. I detta arbete har författaren prövat denna teori på IT-krigsföringen. Genom en kvalitativ textanalys har en teoriprövande undersökning genomförts med syftet att granska den svenska militärstrategiska doktrinen. Undersökningen har använt sig av tre olika analysenheter att pröva teorin på. Författaren konstaterade efter sin analys av resultatet att IT-system har starka och svaga sidor som går att angripa med den indirekta och direkta metoden. Författaren anser att en DDOS-attack är att klassa som en direkt metod medan användandet av malware är exempel på nyttjandet av den indirekta metoden. Det finns undantag på vissa punkter. Bland annat så är manöverförmågan reducerad för att genomföra ett indirekt anfall mot ett system, vilket går emot manöverkrigsföringens filosofi; hastighet och rörelse skapar utrymme för att slå mot motståndarens svagare sida.

    De väsentligaste slutsatserna stämmer överens med teorin. Det är möjligt att ”nöta ner” sin motståndare samt slå mot dennes svaga sida, med IT-krigsföring.

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  • 5357.
    Westrup, Pelle
    Swedish Defence University.
    Islamiska Staten och det revolutionära upproret2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2010 The Islamic State (IS) has resurrected from virtual extinction and has conquered vast territories in Iraq and Syria. It has transformed from a simple group of insurgents to a conventional army which has claimed to be a state of its own since it announced the for-mation of the Caliphate in mid-2014. Researchers have used many different theories to un-derstand the success of IS which has increased our knowledge of the phenomenon. Even so there are still questions that need to be answered in order to fully understand what we are facing in the Middle East (ME) today and what we might encounter in other parts of the world tomorrow.

    This essay uses revolutionary theories about Communism and Nationalism with the intent to expand our view of modern insurgencies. More precisely it investigates why IS has been so successful in its conquests, which are done through the narrative of its attitude towards the population of Iraq and Syria.

    The result reveals that IS uses a combination of the two above-mentioned ideologies. IS keeps conflicts going through constant terror against specific groups thus creating a gap be-tween the governments and the Sunnis in the region. Simultaneously it is trying to create an environment where the inhabitants can experience normal living conditions. The future of the ME is worrying since IS and its way of gaining conquests is hard to battle for whoever is intervening.

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  • 5358.
    Westöö, Andreas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Det svenska arbetssättet inom ett COIN-perspektiv: Den amerikanska doktrinen FM3-24 belyser ett sätt att nyttja sina resurser på och detta kan vara en doktrin som Sverige kan inspireras utav, men har vi möjligheten och skall Sverige låta sig inspireras av den?2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces have taken the step from an invasion defence to a defence response. This has led to the Swedish units may operate at different levels of conflict. This also allows Swedish units to operate in a conflict in an irregular context, such as Afghanistan. This paper aims to compare whether the Swedish contribution is working as the American doctrine FM3-24, this coupled with the execution of the operation. The paper describes the fifth chapter, conducting operations, from FM3-24. From theory formed a descriptive case study linked to the Swedish approach in Afghanistan from three officers with experience from various executive positions from the operation. The results show that the doctrine FM3-24 largely is implemented by the Swedish contribution. Some differences exist between the two, mainly linked to information operations against the rebel.

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  • 5359.
    Wetterberg, Niclas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Logistikprincipers användning vid militär planering: en studie av Falklandkriget 1982 och Gulfkriget 1991 utifrån fem principer för logistik2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Using experience, in the form of principles, in military planning is not a new phenomenon. SinceNapoleon there has been development of guidelines for military planning and execution in theform of Principles of War and principles for creating successful logistics. Examples of principlescan be found in most of the world’s defense forces’ doctrines.The overall aim of the thesis is to give examples of how to use principles for logistics to reflecton the logistic challenges you face, as a commander or a staff officer, in military planning.The empirical material used to test the principles against are the Falkland War and the Gulf War,from a British/American perspective. They are both conventional wars with a clear military endstate, but differ a lot in the logistic requirements, both in a time-, space- and forces comparison.The thesis uses the method of abduction. Five principles of logistics make five hypotheses forsuccess that are contrasted with the empirical evidence, in the form of the two wars. The wars arecompared to each other, with the principles as analytic tools, and the similarity and thedifferences in the comparison make it possible to draw conclusions about the principles’ content.The result shows that the principles have value and the analysis gives a number of conclusionsthat can be used in military planning. The principles should not be seen as requirements forsuccess, but rather as a support of, and as guidelines for your planning in order to make use ofprevious experience.

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  • 5360.
    Wettervik, Alexandra
    Swedish Defence University.
    Marin diplomati i Arktis: En teorikonsumerande studie av Ryssland och USAs marinstrategi2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Russia and the US are two great powers who have strategic interest in the Arctic. Research indicates increased military activities in the Arctic and a security dilemma is up to topic in the region. To understand whether military or territorial disputes can become future threats in the Arctic, states' strategic interest in the Arctic needs to be investigated from a war science perspective.

    To gain an understanding of the states' strategic use of military means in a marine environment, naval diplomacy will be used in the investigation to offer an understanding on how naval forces can utilize different Defence, Coercive, Symbolic or Supportive strategic value. By examining current Russian and US Arctic policy documents, and how the strategic values of naval diplomacy are described, can give an indication of how Russia’s and the US increased military in the Arctic can be understood.

    The conclusions of the examination involve Russia's marine strategy as for infrastructure for readiness, possibility for all year around presence of naval forces regardless of season and delimiting of other powers ability of interaction in specific areas. The US marine strategy can be understood from aspects of a periodic presence and surveillance purposes, both with collaborative partners and to coerce other powers.

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  • 5361.
    Weyhing, Jannie
    Swedish Defence University.
    Den cybernetiska loopen: en teoriprövande uppsats av John Boyds OODA-loop inom kontexten för cyberwar och netwar2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's society, our everyday life has become increasingly digitalized and our environment is dependent on the connection to international networks, electronic communication and radio connections. This accessibility creates new opportunities for antagonistic attacks and generates a whole new form of warfare where the entire world is available. Information Operations have therefore gained an increasing role in armed conflicts when affect campaigns can be used to disseminate information or influence the decision making of military or civilian actors by "getting inside" the decision cycle in accordance with John Boyd's OODA loop often used in the context of the decision making. But the OODA loop is not sufficiently tested and an application within the context of the digitized world is of interest, since its development may possibly affect military warfare in the future.

    The following study is a theoretical text analysis on Boyd’s model within the context of cyber- and netwar.

    Based on selected indicators taken from the theory of the OODA loop, three articles linked to the concepts of cyberwar and netwar were analyzed in order to discover correlations between Boyd's OODA loop and the concepts.

    The results show that the OODA loop is applicable to the concept, but further studies are required to measure the extent to which the OODA loop is applicable.

  • 5362.
    Wibben, Annick T.R.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Everyday Security, Feminism, and the Continuum of Violence2020In: Journal of Global Security Studies, ISSN 1864-6492, E-ISSN 1473-8376, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 115-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article returns to the original forum question “What is Global Security Studies?,” looking at it in relation to the theme of inclusion and exclusion to point out that security studies scholars exclude feminist scholarship on (everyday) security at their own peril. Showcasing the increasing body of feminist security studies scholarship, the article then highlights not only what scholarship might be included in a truly global security studies, but also the important insights (e.g., about the continuum of violence that spans peace- and wartime) that are missed without it. The article ends with a reflection on the need to also include a wider range of approaches as eminently valuable to global security studies.

  • 5363.
    Wibben, Annick T.R.
    et al.
    Gender, Peace & Security Research Group, University of San Francisco, USA.
    Confortini, Catia Cecilia
    Peace Studies, Wellesley College, USA.
    Roohi, Sanam
    Max-Weber-Kolleg: for Advanced Cultural and Social Studies, Erfurt University, Germany.
    Aharoni, Sarai
    Gender Studies Program, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Israel.
    Vastapuu, Leena
    Tampere Peace Research Institute,Tampere University, Finland.
    Vaittinen, Tiina
    Faculty of Social Sciences,Tampere University, Finland.
    Collective Discussion: Piecing-Up Feminist Peace Research2019In: International Political Sociology, ISSN 1749-5679, E-ISSN 1749-5687, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 86-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminist peace research is an emerging field of social sciences that is transdisciplinary, intersectional, and normative—as well as transnational. Although it draws from disciplines such as peace and conflict research (in and outside of international relations [IR]) as well as feminist security studies, it also differs from them in terms of research scope and research design. Consequently, it not only provides insights on what can be termed “spectacular” instances of violence or peace but also sharpens our analysis of the everydayness of reconciliatory measures and the mundaneness of both violence and peace. As a feminist endeavor, feminist peace research necessarily asks questions about unequal gender relations and power structures within any given conflict environment. In this collective discussion piece, a diverse group of scholars, who formed part of the recently convened Feminist Peace Research Network, explores and further develops the parameters of this emergent field through a set of short conversation pieces.

  • 5364.
    Wibben, Annick T.R.
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Donahoe, Amanda E.
    Centenial College of Louisiana, US.
    Peace and War in the Classroom2020In: Teaching Peace and War: Pedagogy and Curricula / [ed] Annick T.R. Wibben, Amanda E. Donahoe, London: Routledge, 2020, p. 1-5Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5365.
    Wibben, Annick T.R.
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Donahoe, Amanda E.Centenary Colleg of Lousiana, US.
    Teaching Peace and War: Pedagogy and Curricula2020Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 5366.
    Wibben, Annick T.R.
    et al.
    University of San Francisco.
    Rutazibwa, Olivia U.
    University of Portsmouth.
    Who do we think we are?2019In: Global Politics: A new introduction / [ed] Jenny Edkins and Maja Zehfuss, London: Routledge, 2019, 3, p. 79-101Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5367.
    Wiberg, Rickard
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Systemsäkerhet- ett dataprograms nytta i den vidmakthållande processen2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When problems with materiel are found after being delivered to the Swedish Armed Forces it is the maintaining organization that handles it. It sees to that the current problem is fixed and that similar problems are prevented. Many competent bodies in the Swedish Armed Forces are in-volved in the work, and therefore co-ordination and communication can be a problem for the activities.

    This thesis will investigate how a computer based co-operation system can simplify the maintain-ing process in the Swedish Armed Forces.

    The study shows that a computer based co-operation system can contribute to the process in a today functional maintaining organization.

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  • 5368.
    Wicander, Mårten
    Swedish Defence University.
    Requirements for Cross Country Movement in Land Warfare2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In modern military operations, the usage of command, control and communication systems is ever increasing, where Geographical Information Systems are used to increase the commanders’ situational awareness. The use of cross-country movement models in a Geographical Information System can further aid commanders in their decision-making and narrow down possible advancements on the battlefield. This study’s purpose is to examine the Czech Republic’s available methods for presenting cross-country movement in a geographical information system, to recognize what procedures the Swedish Armed Forces have to conduct in the future to have equivalent or better ability in calculating and presenting cross-country movement. 

    In order to determine this, Swedish geodata has been analysed with a simplified Czech cross-country model and compared to an extended analysis made in the Czech Republic. The method for information gathering was literature studies in the field of geography and cross-country movement, collection of geodata from the Swedish authority Lantmäteriet and two interviews about Swedish geodata and the current situation with Geographical Information Systems in the Swedish Armed Forces.

    The result shows that the available digital elevation model over Sweden is not accurate enough and that the vegetation database is limited. However, the available geodata over soil is adequate enough in structure to use in cross-country movement models. The author’s suggestion for the Swedish Armed Forces is to determine domestic trafficability parameters and create models that consider Sweden’s specific geographical conditions, with use of similar models that the Czech Republic uses. Further research should focus on investigating necessary parameters and how the cross-country models can be incorporated in a command, control and communication system.

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    Requirements for Cross Country Movement in Land Warfare - Mårten Wicander
  • 5369.
    Wickman, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Svensk-Finsk marin interoperabilitet inför ett fördjupat försvarssamarbete: En jämförelse av Sveriges och Finlands militärstrategiska koncept ur en marin synvinkel2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A decision has been made that the Swedish and the Finnish Navy will expand their cooperation by creating the “Swedish-Finnish Naval Task Group” (SFNTG).

    Based on Michael Codner’s theory of interoperability, this essay’s aim is to investigate if the Swedish and the Finnish currently are interoperable with each other, due to their military strategic concepts.

    According to Codner, similarities between the cooperating nation’s military strategic concepts are required in order to reach a high degree of interoperability. This essay will analyze and compare Sweden and Finland’s military strategic concepts, based on three categories; Global Projection, Territorial Defence and Combat Capability.

    The conclusion is that there are differences between the Swedish and the Finnish military strategic concepts in every category, of varying degrees. By looking at the results of this investigation, it is clear in what direction the two nations have to adapt their concepts to enable a high degree of interoperability for the future of the SFNTG.

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  • 5370.
    Wickstein, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Försvarsmakten ett särintresse i den svenska skolan: En studie om Försvarsmakten i samhällskunskapsläroböcker2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien har varit att undersöka om det finns ett informationsbehov om Försvarsmakten och dess uppgifter till elever i den svenska grund- och gymnasieskolan. Studien har genomförts genom att analysera det material som Försvarsmakten framställt och hänsvisar till vid förfrågan, läroplaner, kursplaner och ett urval av läroböcker i ämnet samhällskunskap i grundskolan och i gymnasiekurserna samhällskunskap 1a1 och 1b. Försvarsmaktens egna material är riktat mot rekrytering och information om Försvarsmakten som arbetsgivare. Läroböckerna redovisar Försvarsmakten bristfälligt men även folkrätten är ett område läroböckerna kunde beskrivit bättre. Framförallt då folkrätten nämns i klartext i kursplanerna. En handlingsrekommendation är att Försvarsmakten själv eller tillsammans med andra myndigheter bör utforma ett läromedels/informations material kopplat till kursplanerna som inte enbart är riktat mot rekrytering och gärna innehållande information om folkrätt.

  • 5371.
    Widelund, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Eminens eller inkompetens: En studie om taktisk kompetens2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att öka förståelsen för taktisk kompetens som omhändertar den inneboende komplexiteten i militär verksamhet. Problemet häri är att kompetens kan anses vara något sällsynt och att inkompetens snarare är normalbilden.

    Uppsatsen tar sig an detta arbete genom att operationalisera Bertil Rolfs teorier om militär kompetens och Stephen Biddles teori om the Modern System. Ur detta teoretiska utblicksblicksfönster utfaller ett analysfilter bestående av kategorierna praktisk kunskap, professionell kunskap, regler och praktik inom institutioner och traditioner. Huruvida dessa kan utgöra en grund för förståelsen av taktisk kompetens analyseras därefter med stöd av Israel Defense Forces taktiska prestationer under det andra Libanonkriget 2006.

    Resultatet är att taktisk kompetens är möjlig att förstå utifrån förutsättningarna att hantera den föränderliga helheten. Taktisk kompetens handlar om de organisatoriska villkoren att kritiskt granska och reflektera över rådande förhållanden och förutsättningarna för att åstadkomma förändring och utveckling. Att tänka annorlunda är nödvändigt men svårt och kanske obehagligt, eftersom det ofta inte välkommas i organisationen.

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    Eminens eller inkompetens
  • 5372.
    Widen, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Julian Corbett and the Current British Maritime Doctrine2009In: Comparative Strategy, ISSN 0149-5933, E-ISSN 1521-0448, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 170-185Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5373.
    Widen, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Theorist of Maritime Strategy: Sir Julian Corbett and his Contribution to Military and Naval Thought2012Book (Refereed)
  • 5374.
    Widen, Jerker
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Sörenson, Karl
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Irregular Warfare and Tactical Change: The Case of Somali Piracy2011Report (Other academic)
  • 5375.
    Widiyanto, Okky
    Swedish Defence University.
    The Culture of Leadership: The relationship between national culture and leadership models2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis is to discuss the influence of national culture in leadership within military organizations and also to explore the effectiveness of a specific leadership model in a multinational context. Developmental leadership (DL) is a model used by the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) since 2003. However, the aim is not to answer the question of if a certain leadership model has an effect or not and therefore legitimize or discard the use of it. It rather raises the question of why this leadership model has been chosen to become such an integral part of an organization. This thesis analyzes DL by classifying its components using Hofstede’s theory of cultural dimensions as a basis and compares the results with Sweden’s cultural dimensions to find a correlation. The results show a high correlation between DL and Sweden, but DL does not correlate with Belgium’s cultural dimensions. Sweden’s characteristics are also complemented by empirical data collected for the purpose of this thesis. According to this interview study with Swedish officers, even though DL is not consciously applied to their leadership styles, it coincides with the characteristics of their vision of an ideal leader. Moreover, DL consists of components that are suitable foundations for an effective multinational leadership.

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    TheCultureofLeadership_Widiyanto
  • 5376.
    Widén, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Svensk väpnad styrka som säkerhetspolitiskt instrument - en doktrinanalys2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with using armed forces as an instrument for Swedish security policy. Participationin Peace Support Operations (PSO) under the framework of The United Nations(UN) has been a part of Swedish Foreign Affairs and Security policy since 1948. In 1993, inthe beginning of the post cold-war period, Sweden sent armed forces to a somehow differentPSO in Bosnia-Herzegovina. This was in many ways a new kind of PSO acting under chapterVII of the UN Charter using all necessary means to enforce compliance with The UN SecurityCouncil Resolution. Swedish participation in a European crisis was possible due to the newpost cold-war security policy environment. Since 1993, Sweden has participated in PSO underthe command of THE UN, North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and European Union(EU).Post cold war security environment with no foreseeable military threat towards Sweden, hascaused a transformation of the Swedish armed forces. Today, new tasks put an emphasis onparticipation in PSO in close cooperation with other countries and organisations. Sweden hasarmed units on seven days alert to join a multinational PSO within 30 days. This means thatthe preparedness and willingness to use armed forces as an instrument for security policy hasincreased since the cold war ended. Under what conditions should this instrument be used andhow? Is it possible to track a Swedish doctrine for international operations? This inquiryanalyses the use of Swedish armed units in PSO between 1993 and 2004 on a politicalstrategiclevel.The Swedish constitution requires a decision from the parliament when Swedish armed unitsare sent abroad for more then Peace Keeping operations. Due to this fact, the use of armedforces as an instrument is subject to a parliamentary process that gives a lot of paper to analyse.The use of armed units in PSO is a good expression for practical security policy. Eventhough it is not possible to formulate a doctrine only by this inquiry it can be a building blocktogether with other inquiries. It is also worth mentioning that a doctrine like all other analysingtools is a simplification of the reality. The real use of armed forces is influenced by a lotof reasons. It is however useful to know the conditions for using armed forces in order to developthe right means to a certain policy.The tool for this inquiry has been developed by analysing foreign affairs policies and securitypolicies. A doctrine, in short, consists of three parts.The first thing is a description of what values or interests the doctrine is supposed to protect.The willingness of using armed forces needs certain interests to be at stake. What are theSwedish interests and do they have a national or an international dimension?Secondly there needs to be a description of the threats against those values and interests. Thedefinition of security and the threats to this security is in many ways contested. What is theSwedish point of view for using armed forces?Lastly a doctrine should deal with strategies for how to encounter those threats. How shouldthe use of armed units in multinational PSO be used to fulfil political and military objectiveswill therefore be the question in this inquiry?Analysing the use of armed units in PSO gives some guidelines to support the formulation ofa doctrine. The description of threats is the weakest link. This is possibly because of the difficultiesto define security and the threats to this security within the widened security agenda oftoday. This inquiry shows in a way that security and the use of armed forces to support thatsecurity is more than lack of military threats. The prevention of conflicts and crises on the European mainland is of strategic interest forSweden. Even the international law and the respect for The UN are strategic interests. Conflictsand crises in Africa and other places are to be looked upon as of moral/ideological interest.The use of armed forces implies certain risks. If the interests at stake are weak or are not sufficientto take the risk, some decision are strengthened with more or less practical interestssuch as experience for The Armed Forces or the need to show political will. Even an argumenton the need for The UN and The EU to cooperate in PSO is used as a reason for participatingin multinational operations. If Strategic interests are at stake Sweden is willing to usearmed forces for a long duration.Even if all operations have been working under the auspices of chapter VII of the UN charter,not all of them have included Peace Enforcement (PE). This is typical for what is called SecondGeneration Peace Keeping (SGPK). Although PE has been a part of the operation thetasks for Swedish units have been mostly SGPK. There are two major deviations from thispicture. In ISAF in Afghanistan, Swedish units were tasked to strengthen the security aroundKabul. This was more PE than something else. In Operation Artemis in Democratic Republicof Congo (DR Congo) Swedish units were tasked to facilitate the establishment of a UN missionin the eastern part of DR Congo. Also this operation was more PE than something else.The last one was also a EU-led operation. This could be a watershed that points out a newdirection for the use of armed forces in the framework of European Security and Defence Policy(ESDP).The use of armed forces could also be divided in Deterrence, Compellence and Brute Force.Brute Force aims at taking total control of a defined enemy and is not very common in PSO.Deterrence is supposed to prevent crises to arise or arise anew. This could be used as a meanSof prevention or in a peacekeeping situation. PE situation might need strategies for use of violence.Compellence aims to initiate target action or stop target action. The opposing actor canstop the violence by full compliance with the condition that gives the operation legitimacy.For Sweden, this condition must be a UN Security Council Resolution. Even if Swedish unitsonly in Operation Artemis and ISAF have used PE means, this tool is not abandoned. It ishowever significant that those operations were carried out by professional officers withinunits highly specialised.There is in many ways a need for clear policy lines and corresponding necessary means includingmilitary means. This is, if nothing else, the lessons learned of the Balkan crises. TheSwedish participation in PSO since the cold war could very well be the reason for EU expectingSweden to put up a Battle Group. Such a policy needs to be followed by some kind ofdoctrine. Ad hoc as policy strategy is only possible if the means to fulfil that policy allowsalmost endless amount of courses of action. This Inquiry could be a building block for such adoctrine.To conclude, this inquiry shows that small units specialised with high readiness should bedeveloped for use on the European mainland and has PE capabilities. Larger units could beput together for use in SGPK operation globally.

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  • 5377.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    21st Century Mahan: Sound Military Considerations for the Modern Era2015In: Mariner´s mirror, ISSN 0025-3359, E-ISSN 2049-680X, Vol. 101, no 2, p. 252-253Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 5378.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Bildningens roll i officersutbildningen2010In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 2, p. 164-169Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 5379.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Book-review: Strategy and War Planning in the British Navy, 1887-19182013In: Mariner´s mirror, ISSN 0025-3359, E-ISSN 2049-680X, Vol. 99, no 3, p. 372-373Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 5380.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Forskningsseminariet Marin taktik vid det kalla krigets slut: en slutrapport2010In: Tidskrift i Sjöväsendet, ISSN 0040-6945, no 3, p. 257-270Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5381.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Guerre Littorale: L'Expérience Suédoise2014In: Défense & Sécurité Internationale, ISSN 1772-788X, no 38, p. 56-58Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5382.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Marint lärande: värdet av vetenskapligt tänkande och bildning2014In: Tidskrift i sjöväsendet, ISSN 0040-6945, no 3, p. 225-231Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5383.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Naval Diplomacy: A Conceptual Investigation2010Report (Other academic)
  • 5384.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Naval Diplomacy: A Theoretical Approach2011In: Diplomacy & Statecraft, ISSN 0959-2296, E-ISSN 1557-301X, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 715-733Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5385.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Nya perspektiv på Clausewitz och hans militära tänkande2008In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 1, p. 130-133Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 5386.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Sir Julian Corbett and the Theoretical Study of War2007In: Journal of Strategic Studies, ISSN 0140-2390, E-ISSN 1743-937X, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 109-127Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5387.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Sjømilitær kompetanse og lederutvikling i 200 år: Sjøkrigsskolen 1817-20172018In: Norsk Militært Tidsskrift, ISSN 0029-2028, Vol. 188, no 2, p. 66-67Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 5388.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Small navies: strategy and policy for small navies in war and peace2017In: Journal for maritime research, ISSN 2153-3369, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 81-82Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 5389.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    The Wennerström Spy Case: A Western Perspective2006In: Intelligence and national security, ISSN 0268-4527, E-ISSN 1743-9019, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 931-958Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5390.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Väktare, ombud, kritiker: Sverige i amerikanskt säkerhetstänkande, 1961-19682009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok utgör den noggrannaste och mest djupgående beskrivningen hittills av USA:s syn på ­Sverige under det turbulenta 1960-talet. Få har grävt så djupt i amerikanska arkiv om Sveriges ­säkerhetspolitiska roll som författaren. I boken redovisas ett av de viktigaste fynd som gjorts i amerikanska arkiv. Ett tidigare okänt ­riktlinjedokument om USA:s planerade politik mot Sverige, undertecknat av Henry Kissinger från september 1975. Det är den ­första tydliga indikationen på USA:s syn på Sverige efter det så traumatiska ”frostens år” 1973. Dokumentet visar att USA:s syn på Sverige åter stabiliserades och att den positiva syn som funnits i början av 1960-talet åter dominerade. Författaren ger också den hittills mest detaljerade bilden av verksamheten vid den amerikanska ambassaden i Stockholm på 1960-talet, inklusive CIA:s arbete genom att innehållet i den amerikanske underrättelseagenten James Everetts opublicerade ­memoarer presenteras. Everett arbetade som illegal underrättelse­agent i Sverige för CIA:s räkning under åren 1960–67. Han berättar bl.a. om hanteringen av sovjetiska och kinesiska ­avhoppare, värvning och utnyttjande av agenter i Sverige, avlyssning mot sovjetiska och kinesiska mål.Vidare bedömer författaren amerikanskt agerande i samband med viktiga händelser:

    1. Den finländska notkrisen 1961: Den djupaste studie som hittills gjorts ur ett amerikanskt perspektiv.. Författaren konstaterar att USA initialt bedömde den sovjetiska noten som en förlängning av Berlinkrisen men på en ny arena medan man efter några veckor alltmer såg den sovjetiska aktionen som ett sätt att stärka ­Kekkonens maktposition och därigenom skaffa sig allt större kontroll över Finland. I kapitlet om notkrisen presenteras både State Department, Pentagons och CIA:s analyser av krisen och Kekkonens agerande. Här beskrivs även den roll som spelades av den sovjetiske avhopparen Golitsyn samt den hemliga framstöt som gjordes av amerikanska diplomater gentemot Erlander i januari 1962.

    2. Spionfallet Stig Wennerström 1963–64: I ett eget kapitel beskrivs ingående det samarbete som skedde mellan svenska och amerikanska myndigheter för att utreda flygöverstens spioneri mot Sverige och Väst. Här framkommer bl.a. att samarbetet mellan de svenska och amerikanska underrättelse- och säkerhetstjänsterna var betydligt mer ingående än vad som tidigare angivits. Även Olof Palmes viktiga roll i den känsliga politisk-diplomatiska hanteringen av fallet skärskådas. Slutligen beskrivs hur USA, i samband med Wennerströmaffären, försökte locka Sverige närmare Väst, bl.a. genom utökat militärt samarbete.

    3. Den svenska Vietnamkritiken och leveransproblemen med ­luftvärnsroboten Redeye 1968: I kapitlet framkommer vilken stabiliserande funktion det militära samarbetet hade och hur detta tenderade att kompensera för den kris som fanns i de politiska och diplomatiska relationerna. Avslutningsvis konstateras att Sverige hade tre roller i det amerikanska säkerhetstänkandet: rollen som militärstrategisk väktare vid Natos norra flank, rollen som politiskt ombud i internationella och regionala sammanhang, samt rollen som kritiker av stormakternas agerande i världen. Denna tredelning är ett viktigt bidrag i forskningen om Sveriges roll under det kalla kriget. Väktarrollen tenderade att vara stabil under perioden. Ombudsrollen däremot blev allt svårare att fylla pga. de negativa konsekvenserna av det utökade utrymmet för kritikerrollen.

  • 5391.
    Widén, Jerker
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Colman, Jonathan
    University of Salford.
    Lyndon B. Johnson, Alec Douglas-Home, Europe and the NATO Multilateral Force, 1963-642007In: Journal of Transatlantic Studies, ISSN 1479-4012, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 179-198Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5392.
    Widén, Jerker
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Colman, Jonathan
    University of Salford.
    The "Coalition of the Semi-Willing": American Diplomacy and the Recruitment of Allies in Vietnam, 1964-682008Report (Other academic)
  • 5393.
    Widén, Jerker
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Moores, Simon
    Moores, Simon
    En djärv tes utan empiriskt stöd: en källkritisk analys av teorin om Polarisubåtarnas operationer i Skagerrak2007In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 4, p. 71-85Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5394.
    Widén, Jerker
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Ångström, Jan
    Uppsala universitet.
    Modern Armed Forces and the Spread of the Idea of the Principles of War2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5395.
    Widén, Jerker
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Skall militäreori i förstås som teori eller praktik?2006In: Krigsvetenskaplig årsbok 2005 / [ed] Berndt Brehmer, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2006, p. 51-76Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5396.
    Widén, Sandra
    Swedish Defence University.
    EN FALLSTUDIE OM HUR KVINNOR I JEGERTROPPEN SKA KUNNA BIDRA TILL SPECIALOPERATIONER2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the Norwegian Special Forces’ [FSK] experiences about how women in the All-female SR platoon [Jegertroppen] are seen as a contribution to special operations. The research questions were (1) what qualities and characteristics does FSK seek from candidates of the all-female SR platoon in the light of Spulaks’s theory?, (2) What are FSK’s experience with the performance of woman in the all-female SR platoon in relation to Spulak’s theory?, (3) How does FSK experience the performance of the all-female SR platoon compared to the male special forces group?

     

    The data were collected using a qualitative approach, through interviews and was analyzed with a qualitative content of six analysis questions. A semi-structured interview guide containing three major themes was drawn up of (1) requested, (2) showed and (3) comparative to the male special forces group. The participants in this study were five respondents, from or related to FSK.

     

    The result revealed that FSK believes that women from the all-female SR platoon can contribute to special operations, regarding special reconnaissance, including the reporting of information. The conclusion of this study is that woman have attributes that can be valuable to special forces.

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  • 5397.
    Wiesner, Robert
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hur tolkas Warden?2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    John A. Warden III är en av vår tids mest inflytelserika luftmaktsteoretiker och Wardens teori är vida omskriven och ligger till grund för flertalet undersökningar. Warden redogör själv för att teorin inte skall ses som en mall utan att det snarare är generella idéer och riktlinjer. Det gör att teorin går att applicera på många olika fall men det lämnar också utrymme för tolkning. Syftet med denna uppsatts är att undersöka ifall allmängiltigheten i Wardens teori gör att teorin tolkas olika. För att besvara frågeställningarna har en kvalitativ textanalys genomförts på ett antal utvalda uppsatser skrivna av studerande vid Försvarshögskolan. Det övergripande resultatet visar att allmängiltigheten i Wardens teori inte kan anses vara något problem då de undersökta författarna tolkat Wardens teori på ett liknande sätt.

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  • 5398. Wigert, Lars
    Sjöminan under kalla kriget2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 5399.
    Wihlborn, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Dagens officersutbildning - en fråga om aktualitet: Utbildas vi för att möta verkligheten?2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande uppsats är att undersöka om dagens officersutbildning är korrekt anpassad för den verklighet som möter officeren när denne kommer ut i internationella insatser. Uppsatsenhar sin utgångspunkt i irreguljära konflikter i allmänhet och counterinsurgency i synnerhet.

    I denna uppsats preciseras kunskaps-/förmågekrav hos officerare i moderna konflikter. Utifrån dessa kunskaps-/förmågekrav utkristalliseras ett antal nyckelkunskaper. Genom en fallstudie av Officersprogrammet 08-11 sker en jämförelse mellan framtagna nyckelkunskaper och utbildningens kursplaner. Jämförelsen ger vid hand att Sverige inte har lyckats anpassa sin officersutbildning till den miljö som våra förband och enheter skall verka i på den internationella arenan. Medvetenheten i utländska officersutbildningar och doktriner avseende dessa kunskaps-/förmågekrav påvisas, likaledes framkommer det att den svenska officerskårens kompetensprofil är smal i förhållande till andra industrialiserade länders.

    Utifrån identifierad betydelse av ”nya kunskaper” lämnas förslag på ämnesområden som bör inkorporeras i officersutbildningen.

  • 5400.
    Wikholm, Erik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Konflikten i Kosovo: en kvalitativ studie om officerares uppfattningar2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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