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  • 51.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen.
    Holmberg, Arita
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Statsvetenskapliga avdelningen.
    Ångström, Jan
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Svensk säkerhetspolitik i omdaning2015Inngår i: Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt, Arita Holmberg, Jan Ångström, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2015, 2, s. 265-277Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 52.
    Haldén, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Conclusions: the transformations of the future2016Inngår i: Transforming warriors: The Ritual Organization of Military Force / [ed] Peter Haldén och Peter Jackson, London: Routledge, 2016, s. 223-231Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 53.
    Haldén, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    From Total to Minimal Transformation: German Oaths of Loyalty 1871-20142016Inngår i: Transforming Warriors: The Ritual Organization of Military Force / [ed] Peter Haldén och Peter Jackson, London: Routledge, 2016, s. 163-182Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter studies how three successive German societies constructed the boundary between peace and war: The German Empire (1871-1918), Nazi German (1933-45), and the Federal Republic of Germany (1949 –present). In each case the ritual of taking an oath of allegiance was central act, both collective and individual, in making an individual into a warrior. Oaths of allegiance have been a standard instrument in creating individual warriors and groups of warriors since at least antiquity. They are powerful tools of governmentality since they are means of controlling the conscience of a subject and linking personal salvation to compliance. In the Imperial and the Nazi period, taking the oath was considered a binding deed that transformed the individual and commanded his loyalty.

  • 54.
    Haldén, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Heteronymous politics beyond anarchy and hierarchy: The multiplication of forms of rule 750-13002017Inngår i: Journal of International Political Theory, ISSN 1755-0882, E-ISSN 1755-1722, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 266-281Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anarchy and hierarchy are two central concepts of international relations theory but as conventionally defined they cannot describe political life for most of Western history. Neither concept describes the structure of medieval politics well. Rather, many different principles of differentiation existed simultaneously, both stratificatory and segmentary. The situation was closer to anarchy as understood as the absence of overarching principles of order rather than as ‘anarchy’ in the conventional sense used in international relations and absence of government. The power of the Popes over temporal rulers was considerable, but it never corresponded to the concept ‘hierarchy’ as conventionally understood either. Between c. 700 and c. 1300, Europe became more heteronymous as time went by, not less. More principles of differentiation were developed, and both Popes and kings became more powerful. The reinvention of the papacy after the ‘Investiture Controversy’ (1075–1122) created a system of law and practices in which European monarchs and realms were embedded, but it did not create an all-powerful papacy.

  • 55.
    Haldén, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Kan dygdetiken bryta den "postheoriska" ängslan i 2000-talets risksamhälle?2017Inngår i: Mod i strid och filosofi: Dygdetiska perspektiv från Aristoteles till drönarkriget / [ed] Peter Haldén och Biörn Tjällén, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2017, s. 217-238Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 56.
    Haldén, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Kan dygdetiken bryta den “postheoriska” ängslan i 2000-talets risksamhälle?2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 57.
    Haldén, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Mod, dygd och militär habitus2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 58.
    Haldén, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Organized Armed Groups as Ruling Organizations2018Inngår i: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 44, nr 4, s. 606-625Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies of the cohesion of organized armed groups (OAGs) have made great progress, but they have mostly focused on units fighting for modern Western states. I argue that the study of OAGs that contain their own legitimacy requires a broadened theoretical framework. Such groups may be conceptualized as “ruling organizations” in Max Weber’s terminology. Examples of such groups range from early medieval warbands to modern militias and guerrillas. Members of ruling organizations obey commands for a combination of three reasons: rational, traditional, and charismatic—these in turn form the basis of the legitimacy of the organization. Pinpointing the foundations of obedience in a group provides us with another way of emphasizing weak points that we want to either target or reinforce. This study contributes theoretically to the study of cohesion by linking it to theories of legitimacy in political orders.

  • 59.
    Haldén, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Respublikanism i mirovaya politika: politsentichnyi poryadok i zaschita ot dominirovaniya2015Inngår i: Sovremenaya Respoblikanskaya Teoriya Svobody / [ed] Evgeny Roschin, St. Petersburg: European University at St. Petersburg, 2015Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 60.
    Haldén, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    "Respublikanism i mriovaya politika": politsentrichnyi poryadok i zaschita ot dominirovaniya2015Inngår i: Sovremennaya Respublikanskaya Teoriya Svobody / [ed] Evgeny Rochin, St Petersburg: European University at St. Petersburg, 2015, s. 293-326Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 61.
    Haldén, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    The Realm as a European Form of Rule: Unpacking the Warfare Thesis through the Holy Roman Empire2017Inngår i: Does War Make States?: Investigations of Charles Tilly's Historical Sociology / [ed] Lars Bo Kaspersen & Jeppe Strandsbjerg, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017, s. 154-180Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 62.
    Haldén, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    War, modernity and the origins of civilization: the old and new strengths of sociology2015Inngår i: Journal of Political Power, ISSN 2158-379X, E-ISSN 2158-3803, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 141-144Artikkel, omtale (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 63.
    Haldén, Peter
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Jackson, Peter
    Stockholms universitet.
    Introduction: Symbolic and Mythological Perspectives on War and Peace join the Archaic with the Modern2016Inngår i: Transforming Warriors: The Ritual Organization of Military Force / [ed] Peter Haldén och Peter Jackson, London: Routledge, 2016, s. 1-18Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 64.
    Haldén, Peter
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Jackson, PeterStockholms universitet.
    Transforming warriors: the ritual organization of military force2016Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    War changes people, however a less explored question is how different societies want people to change as they are turned into warriors. When societies go to war they recognize that a boundary is being crossed. The participants are expected to do things that are otherwise prohibited, or at least governed by different rules. This edited volume analyses how different cultures have conceptualized the transformations of an individual passing from a peacetime to a wartime existence to become an active warrior. Despite their differences, all societies grapple with the same question: how much of the individual’s peace-self should be and can be retained in the state of war? The book explores cases such as the Nordic berserkers, the Japanese samurai, and European knights, as well as modern soldiers in Germany, Liberia, and Sweden. It shows that archaic and modern societies are more similar than we usually think: both kinds of societies use myths, symbols, and rituals to create warriors. Thus, this volume seeks to redefine theories of modernization and secularization. It shows that military organizations need to take myths, symbols, and rituals seriously in order to create effective units.

  • 65.
    Haldén, Peter
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Karlborg, Lisa
    Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Esparraga, Francis
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen (upphört).
    Kulturarv i krig och konflikt: en forskningsöversikt2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Som denna forskningsöversikt visar finns det en hel del forskning om kulturarv i krig och konflikt inom statsvetenskap, kulturhistoria, juridik, historia m.fl. ämnen. Framför allt finns mycket forskning om de konsekvenser som krigen på Balkan under 1990-talet förde med sig för kulturarv och kulturskatter. Även kriget i Irak under 2000-talet och första och andra världskriget är väldokumenterade.Med tanke på den pågående katastrofen för kulturarvet i det östra Medelhavsområdet och den akuta risk som såväl islamiströrelsers verksamhet som bekämpandet av desamma utsätter kulturarvsplatser och föremål för över stora delar av den islamiska världen krävs dock mycket mer forskning. De nu pågående krigen aktualiserar en rad frågeställningar om hur kulturarv kan bevaras, skyddas men även exploateras i krig

  • 66.
    Haldén, Peter
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Tjällén, Biörn
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Inledning: Mod, dygd och militära miljöer2017Inngår i: Mod i strid och filosofi: Dygdetiska perspektiv från Aristoteles till drönarkriget / [ed] Peter Haldén och Biörn Tjällén, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2017Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 67.
    Haldén, Peter
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Tjällén, BiörnMittuniversitetet.
    Mod i strid och filosofi: Dygdetiska perspektiv från Aristoteles till drönarkriget2017Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mod är en egenskap som hyllats i alla krigförande kulturer. Konsten, litteraturen och filosofin har ofta tagit upp modet som tema, både för att befästa ett militärt ideal och för att problematisera denna egenskap. Men vad är egentligen mod? Var går gränsen till övermod? Vad utmärker mod i strid, och kan man träna soldater att bli modiga? Dessa frågeställningar tar plats även i vår tid där krig och försvar diskuteras i dagens militära miljöer, och frågor om etik är lika aktuella som frågor om effektivitet.

    Mod i strid och filosofi studerar författarna historiska perspektiv på mod och dagsaktuell forskning kring strid och militär utbildning. Förr talade man om mod eller tapperhet som en av flera eftersträvansvärda dygder – idag talar man hellre om professionalism. Men hur mycket skiljer sig egentligen den moderna tidens militära ideal från de historiska? Kan vi lära oss något av den dygdetik som i århundraden användes för att forma modiga individer och tappra krigare?

  • 68.
    Holmqvist-Jonsäter, Caroline
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen. Univ Libre Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium;Swedish Inst Int Affairs UI, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Always already war power, police power2015Inngår i: London Review of International Law, ISSN 2050-6325, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 329-334Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    War power and police power are, in Neocleous's rendition, always already intertwined. This short essay extracts the themes of time and temporality from Neocleous's text to ask how we might think political subjectivity and the possibility of resistance to the war machine.

  • 69.
    Jonsson, Oscar
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Russian Information Warfare and its Challenges to International Law2019Inngår i: Routledge Handbook of War, Law and Technology / [ed] James Gow, Ernst Dijxhoorn, Rachel Kerr and Guglielmo Verdirame, London: Routledge, 2019, s. 339-353Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes how Russian information warfare is changing and what challenges the poses for international law. It outlines the particularities of the Russian understanding of warfare and what has shaped this understanding. The chapter reviews the development in the information-psychological and the information-technical aspects of information warfare respectively. The information-technical domain of information warfare is concerned with the machine-driven data components, the means of transmission, and the information infrastructure. The possibilities within international law to counter information-psychological warfare are quite meagre. In the Vilnius regional court in Lithuania, action has been taken against Russian information warfare. In the war in Ukraine, Russia has showed an effective and well-coordinated effort on the information warfare front. The success of Russian information warfare is a development resulting from the bitter experiences on the information front during the First Chechen War in 1994–1996.The character of contemporary warfare has recently undergone significant transformation in several important respects: the nature of the actors, the changing technological capabilities available to them, and the sites and spaces in which war is fought. These changes have augmented the phenomenon of non-obvious warfare, making understanding warfare one of the key challenges. Such developments have been accompanied by significant flux and uncertainty in the international legal sphere. This handbook brings together a unique blend of expertise, combining scholars and practitioners in science and technology, international law, strategy and policy, in order properly to understand and identify the chief characteristics and features of a range of innovative developments, means and processes in the context of obvious and non-obvious warfare. 

  • 70.
    Jonsson, Oscar
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    The Russian Understanding of War: Blurring the Lines between War and Peace2019 (oppl. 1)Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This book analyzes the evolution of Russian military thought and how Russia's current thinking about war is reflected in recent crises. While other books describe current Russian practice, Oscar Jonsson provides the long view to show how Russian military strategic thinking has developed from the Bolshevik Revolution to the present. He closely examines Russian primary sources including security doctrines and the writings and statements of Russian military theorists and political elites. What Jonsson reveals is that Russia's conception of the very nature of war is now changing, as Russian elites see information warfare and political subversion as the most important ways to conduct contemporary war. Since information warfare and political subversion are below the traditional threshold of armed violence, this has blurred the boundaries between war and peace. Jonsson also finds that Russian leaders have, particularly since 2011-12, considered themselves to be at war with the United States and its allies, albeit with non-violent means. This book provides much needed context and analysis to be able to understand recent Russian interventions in Crimea and eastern Ukraine, how to deter Russia on the eastern borders of NATO, and how the West must also learn to avoid inadvertent escalation.

  • 71.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    All krigföring är av hybrid natur2016Inngår i: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 118, nr 4, s. 623-641Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    All Warfare is Hybrid.

    It has recently been argued that a new form of warfare – hybrid warfare – is fundamentally changing the way our enemies fight against us. This supposedly unprecedented form of warfare is characterized by the mixing of methods and ways of organization, as well as the blurring of the line between war and peace. This article argues that hybrid warfare is just the newest military buzzword around. While the concept highlights fundamental questions regarding war and democratic norms of civil-military relations, it provides no answers. Rather, it harks back to an imaginary past characterized by simpleness and clarity. A thorough reading of the extensive literature on modern warfare would show that the concept describes what has become the norm: all warfare is hybrid. As with other unclear concepts built on shaky foundations, it is difficult to see how hybrid warfare can contribute to better understanding or policymaking.

  • 72.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Bush generals and small boy battalions: military cohesion in Liberia and beyond2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    All organizations involved in war are concerned with military cohesion. Yet previous studies have only investigated cohesion in a very narrow manner, focusing almost solely on Western state militaries or on micro-level explanations. This dissertation argues for the need to broaden this perspective. It focuses on three classic sources of cohesion – coercion, compensation and constructs (such as identity and ideology) – and investigates their relevance in the Second Liberian Civil War (1999-2003). More specifically, this dissertation consists of an inquiry of how the conflict's three main military organizations – Charles Taylor’s Government of Liberia (GoL), the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD) and Movement for Democracy in Liberia (MODEL) – drew on these three sources to foster cohesion. Based on thirteen months of ethnographic fieldwork with former combatants, this dissertation contains five parts: an introduction, which focuses on issues of theory and method, and four essays that investigate the three sources of cohesion in the three organizations. Essay I focuses on the LURD rebels, and provides an insider account of their strategy. It shows that even decentralized movements like the LURD can execute strategy, and contends that the LURD fought its fiercest battles not against the government, but to keep itself together. Essay II focuses on coercion, and counters the prevailing view of African rebels’ extensive use of coercion to keep themselves together. Since extreme coercion in particular remained illegitimate, its use would have decreased, rather than increased, cohesion. Essay III investigates the government militias to whom warfighting was subcontracted. In a context characterized by a weak state and fragmented social organization, compensation may have remained the only available source of cohesion. Essay IV investigates identities as sources of cohesion. It argues that while identities are a powerful cohesive source, they must be both created and maintained to remain relevant. Taken together, this dissertation argues for a more comprehensive approach to the investigation of cohesion, and one that also takes into account mezzo- and macro-level factors.

  • 73.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Contracting war in West Africa: cohesion and the business of war in Charles Taylor's LiberiaManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the existing literature, compensation is often understood to be an inferior source of cohesion in military organizations. At the same time, African conflicts have especially been described as being driven by material factors. Through an investigation of the militia forces that fought for Charles Taylor’s Government of Liberia, this paper seeks to nuance these views. More specifically, it makes three claims. Firstly, the organization of these forces was looser than is often claimed in previous literature, which assumes tight and often coercive military patrimonialism. Resultantly, the militias did not enjoy the interpersonal bonds of solidarity that has dominated cohesion literature since the Second World War. Secondly, since Taylor chose to suppress attempts to build cohesion around ethnicity, it played a subordinate role in unifying the militias. Thirdly, Taylor instead relied on compensation, which allowed for the broad mobilization of forces. The combination of militias’ hopes of inclusion into the state patrimony and insufficient resources to realize this, left the cohesion of the militias fragile. Ultimately, this paper questions both whether Taylor had any choice but to resort to compensation in a context with weak state and fragmented social organization, but also whether the strategy is as inefficient as often thought.

  • 74.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Hoffman, Danny: Monrovia Modern. Urban Form and Political Imagination in Liberia2018Inngår i: Anthropos: Internationale Zeitschrift für Völker- und Sprachenkunde, ISSN 0257-9774, Vol. 113, nr 2, s. 734-734Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 75.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Liberia Incorporated: military contracting, cohesion and inclusion in Charles Taylor’s Liberia2017Inngår i: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 53-72Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the existing literature, compensation is often understood to be an inferior source of cohesion in military organisations. Through an investigation of the militias who fought for Charles Taylor’s government of Liberia, this paper makes three claims. Firstly, the organisation of these forces was looser than is often claimed in previous literature, which assumes tight and often coercive military patrimonialism. Consequently, the militias did not enjoy the interpersonal bonds of solidarity that have dominated recent cohesion literature. Secondly, since Taylor chose to suppress attempts to build cohesion around ethnicity, it played a subordinate role in unifying the militias. Thirdly, Taylor instead relied on military contracting and compensation, which allowed for the broad mobilisation of forces. The combination of militias’ hopes of inclusion into the state patrimony and insufficient resources to realise this left the cohesion of the militias fragile. Ultimately, this paper questions both whether Taylor had any choice but to resort to compensation in a context with a weak state and fragmented social organisation, and also whether the strategy is as inefficient as often thought.

  • 76.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Mystical and modern transformations in the Liberian Civil War2016Inngår i: Transforming Warriors: The Ritual Organization of Military Force / [ed] Peter Haldén and Peter Jackson, London/New York: Routledge, 2016, s. 126-143Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates military transformation within the context of the Liberian civil wars (1989-1996 and 1999-2003). Military transformation is understood as a process of turning a civilian into a fighter, and in Liberia two ideal types of fighters materialized: the trained soldier and the mystical combatant. Whereas the first drew from their professional military training and international military culture, the second drew on mystical protection. These two ways of transformation also became sources of authority within the military organizations that fought the wars. It was ultimately training that offered more than protection alone: the former military personnel dominated command positions. Training also succeeded in the creation of forming a shared identity, which continues to date. Whereas most combatants demobilized and not fought again since, the identities of soldiers are still very much alive. This has partly to do with the fact that the Liberian government continues to pay pensions to those that have served in the armed forces, which has led to the institutionalization of these identities. The view of military personnel as security professionals also helps to maintain these identities as relevant. While constructing and maintaining this kind of professional cohesion is important during conflicts, it can have long-term consequences for peace-building.

  • 77.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen. Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    "No Die, No Rest?": Coercive Discipline in Liberian Military Organisations2015Inngår i: Africa Spectrum, ISSN 0002-0397, E-ISSN 1868-6869, Vol. 50, nr 2, s. 3-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Discipline forms the backbone of all military organisations. While discipline is traditionally associated with draconian punishment, this association is increasingly only applied to non-Western contexts. African rebel movements and similar, weak organisations are represented especially often as lacking non-coercive means of instilling discipline. This article explores the utility of coercive discipline in one such context – the Second Liberian Civil War (1999–2003). I argue that Liberia’s weak military organisations faced significant restrictions when it came to employing direct coercion. Executions, which are often equated with coercion in existing literature, threatened to rive the already frail organisations. Even other formal instruments of discipline, such as military hierarchies and rules and regulations, remained contested throughout the war. Consequently, more indirect means were adopted. Ultimately, the main users of coercion were not military organisations, but peers. This suggests that it is easier for strong organisations to coerce their members, and that the relationship between coercion and organisational strength may need to be reassessed. Furthermore, existing positive perceptions of camaraderie between brothers-in-arms requires re-evaluation.

  • 78.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    On Brokers, Commodification of Information and Liberian Former Combatants2019Inngår i: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, E-ISSN 1743-968X, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 179-199Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates research brokers and commodification of information.When combined with inherently asymmetric research relationships and successfulgatekeeping, brokers create demand and become indispensable.Potential negative effects of brokerage and commodification of informationare discussed through experiences studying former combatants in Liberia.There bargains with brokers who could facilitate access to this hidden populationresulted in a vicious circle as brokers confirmed what researchers wantedto hear. The attention to this issue was first brought by subsequent ethnographyand participant observation, which also offer the promise of an ethicallydefensible way of collecting information.

  • 79.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    On Liberian secret societies and conflict resolution2019Inngår i: Nordic Journal of African Studies, ISSN 1235-4481, E-ISSN 1459-9465, Vol. 28, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent times have witnessed a rising interest in micro-level conflict resolution mechanisms in the form of religious and traditional leaders due to their perceived legitimacy central to peace. Based on 15 months of ethnographic fieldwork, this article updates the decades old literature on Liberian secret societies to post-conflict realities, focusing especially on these leaders’ peacebuilding potential. While states remain the main instrument for upholding domestic order, the weak Liberian state continues to rely on societies for legitimacy in conflict resolution and governance alike. The article offers a contemporary look at the Liberian societies, and especially their uneasy relationship with the state: the two are so entwined that it is difficult to separate the two. Yet this also poses problems for the societies, as the proximity threatens their ultimately local legitimacy. While peacemakers and statebuilders alike are tempted to co-opt societies to gain legitimacy, the article questions whether this is always desirable or possible.

  • 80.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Sodasta ja Yhteiskunnasta: Review of Miguel A. Centeno & Elaino Enriquez: War & Society2019Inngår i: Sosiologia, ISSN 0038-1640, E-ISSN 1904-500X, Vol. 56, nr 2, s. 194-197Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 81.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Strategy, State-centrism and Pessimism: the Case of Russia, 20192019Inngår i: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, nr 3, s. 132-136Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln tar upp debatten om Rysslands krig mot Ukraina, men fäster blicken på två övergripande och ofta framkommande aspekter av strategisk teori, fokus på staten som analysnivå samt pessimism. Båda är vanligt förekommande aspekter även i pågående debatt om Ryssland, inte minst den som rör det ryska hotet. I denna debatt ses Ryssland ofta som en monolit som kontrolleras av president Vladimir Putin. I slutändan korrelerar hans grad av kontroll över statsmakten med hot. Men, stämmer bilden av Putin som en mästerlig manipulator och strateg som har övertag över västvärlden? I artikeln frågas vad Ryssland ”är” och om ”den” gör strategi? Tendensen att se ”ett” Ryssland som kontrolleras av Putin har i sin tur bidragit till överskattning och pessimism. Detta har i sin tur hindrat bra strategi. Eftersom Finlands historiskt pessimistiska synsätt mot Ryssland ofta uppfattas ha lett till bra strategi är det i synnerhet finska exempel som tas upp i texten. I slutändan är det mycket som vi inte vet om Ryssland. Det är därför lättare att göra teoretiska poäng av situationen. Bra strategi bygger på korrekt analys av den rådande situationen. Medvetenhet om tendenser att fokusera på faktorerna stater och pessimism kan därför nyansera framtida debatter, och bidra till bättre strategi.

  • 82.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen. Uppsala Univ, Dept Peace & Conflict Res, Uppsala, Sweden.
    'Taylor Must Go': The Strategy of the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy2015Inngår i: Small Wars & Insurgencies, ISSN 0959-2318, E-ISSN 1743-9558, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 248-270Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1999, rebels rose to oppose the newly elected former warlord Charles Taylor in Liberia. Motivated by a variety of reasons, the minimal common denominator of these rebels, who assumed the name Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD), was that Charles Taylor must leave the country. The decentralized nature of LURD though stands out in their struggle, as they don't fit the unitary actor assumed by literature on strategy, nor the alternative conception of decentralized forces fighting for purely local reasons. Understanding such aberrations as LURD is the first step to finding strategies that can incorporate and manage them.

  • 83.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    The MODEL social structure of an armed group: From Liberian refugees to heroes of Côte d’Ivoire and liberators of the homeland2018Inngår i: Small Wars & Insurgencies, ISSN 0959-2318, E-ISSN 1743-9558, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 776-800Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the Movement for Democracy in Liberia (MODEL) through a revised Weberian framework that focuses on legitimacy and offers a thick description of the different phases of this armed group. The article argues that the key to fostering cohesion is the harmonization of the micro, meso, and macro levels. This proved a difficult undertaking for the MODEL. Not only did the MODEL lack material resources but it also relied on different and evolving kinds of legitimacy on these levels. With its sources of legitimacy exhausted after the war, the MODEL ceased to exist.

  • 84.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    The people's war in Ukraine2018Inngår i: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, nr 4, s. 180-183Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Review of Volunteer Battalions: Story of a Heroic Deed of Battalions That Saved Ukraine by Kateryna Hladka, Veronika Myronova, Oleg Pokalchuk, Vasilisa Trofymovych and Artem Shevchenko

  • 85.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    The Russo-Ukrainian War and the art of opportunism2019Inngår i: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, nr 2, s. 166-170Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 86.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    War as nothing but a duel: war as an institution and the construction of the Western military profession2018Inngår i: Journal of Military Studies, ISSN 2242-3524, E-ISSN 1799-3350Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Like all repetitive human interaction, even war has been institutionalized and fought according to conventions and norms. Historically, this institutionalization is apparent from the way war has been compared to the duel, first in the 14th century and most famously by Carl von Clausewitz 5 centuries later. This article continues this train of thought and argues that the observed limits of Western “professional orthodoxy” and “strategic vocabulary” can be traced to how war has been institutionalized by the military profession. This offers an alternative explanation to the prevailing views of why the West has struggled in contemporary wars: it is the fundamental mismatch between these professional norms in the West and those held by their opponents that forms the biggest asymmetry in contemporary war. As this asymmetry is unlikely to disappear, these professional norms need to be reconsidered: just like the aristocracy with the duel by the late 19th century, the Western military profession appears stuck in an institution that is increasingly becoming obsolete. Without such reconsideration, the attainment of decision – the central strategic objective in war – and hence victory in future wars will remain uncertain.

  • 87.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Haldén, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Full-Spectrum Social Science for a Broader View on Cohesion2019Inngår i: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In October 2018, Armed Forces & Society published a special issue dedicated to broadening the perspective on military cohesion from the narrow focus on 20th and 21st Western state militaries and the microlevel. The special issue emphasized the need for a theoretical and methodological broadening of the study of cohesion: In order to understand the majority of armed groups in the world, it is necessary to investigate macro- and mesolevel preconditions of microlevel cohesion. Such preconditions include the existence of states, nations, and modern military organization. These are specific to modern, Western contexts, and rarely feature in historical or non-Western cases. In many cases, investigating these preconditions requires qualitative methods. In a critical response, Siebold contested some of the arguments of the special issue, claiming that our argument was exaggerated and our methodologies inadequate. In this reply, we seek to clarify some of the issues and arguments at stake.

  • 88.
    Larsdotter, Kersti
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen. Norwegian Defence University College, Norway.
    Military Strategy and Peacekeeping: An Unholy Alliance?2019Inngår i: Journal of Strategic Studies, ISSN 0140-2390, E-ISSN 1743-937X, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 191-211Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the increased use of military force in peacekeeping operations in the twenty-first century, these operations are not included in traditional strategic theory. In this article, I outline the logic of four strategies for peacekeeping operations – defence, deterrence, compellence and offence – and trace the use of these strategies in two consecutive UN operations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: MONUC and MONUSCO. The article concludes that all four strategies are indeed used in the two operations, but they are neither comprehensive nor proactive, leaving the true potential of military strategy unrealised.

  • 89.
    Larsdotter, Kersti
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen. Norwegian Defence University College, Norway.
    Military Strategy in the 21st Century2019Inngår i: Journal of Strategic Studies, ISSN 0140-2390, E-ISSN 1743-937X, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 155-170Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue explores military strategy in the twenty-first century. The articles scrutinise strategy from three perspectives: the study of strategy, and how our understanding of strategy has changed over time; new areas for strategic theory, i.e., areas where the development of war has made strategy become more important, such as peacekeeping operations and cyberspace;and the makers of strategy, more specifically why states choses suboptimal strategies and how wars in the twenty-first century influence strategy makers.

  • 90.
    Ledberg, Sofia
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Analysing Chinese Civil-Military Relations: A bottom-Up Approach2018Inngår i: China Quarterly, ISSN 0305-7410, E-ISSN 1468-2648, Vol. 234, s. 377-398Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines Chinese civil-military relations using a bottom-up analytical approach and hitherto untapped sources, including interviews with military personnel in active service. It argues that traditional approaches to political control, which generally interpret the changing political-military relationship through military professionalism and institutional autonomy, miss out on important aspects and may generate erroneous conclusions. Here, focus is instead on the professional autonomy of the Chinese officer corps. Through an empirical study of the organization of military work at two of China’s top military education institutes, the article illustrates how professional autonomy and direct political control varies, both between hierarchical levels and issue areas. This highlights the multidimensionality of both control and professional manoeuvrability and underlines the fruitfulness of including an intra-organizational perspective in order to reach better informed conclusions about political control and civil-military relations in today’s China. 

  • 91.
    Ledberg, Sofia
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen. Försvarshögskolan.
    Officeren, staten och samhället: ett professionsperspektiv2019 (oppl. 1)Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    En fungerande demokrati förutsätter en god relation mellan militären, staten och samhället. Officerskåren, den militära professionen, förvaltar statens våldsmonopol och ansvarar ytterst för försvaret av viktiga samhällsfunktioner och demokratiska värden – en roll som kräver viss handlingsfrihet, om än begränsad.

    I Officeren, staten och samhället undersöker Sofia K. Ledberg hur relationen mellan militären och omvärlden påverkas av en rad pågående samhällsförändringar. Hotbilden i Europa har ändrats och de militära organisationerna ställs nu inför nya typer av utmaningar och uppdrag. Samtidigt präglas dagens samhälle av ökande individualism och heterogenitet vilket hotar att vidga klyftan till den traditionellt sett konservativa och hierarkiska militära byråkratin.

    Vilka nya krav ställer dessa förändringar på officerens expertis? Vilken betydelse har kårens representativitet värderingar för förankringen i och gemenskapen med det omkringliggande samhället? Med hjälp av ett professionsperspektiv belyser författaren både förändringar och utmaningar som utvecklingen medför

  • 92.
    Ledberg, Sofia
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Political Control and Military Autonomy: Reexamining the Chinese People’s Liberation Army2018Inngår i: Asian Security, ISSN 1479-9855, E-ISSN 1555-2764, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 212-228Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The first part of this article discusses the most common theoretical and analytical approaches to the study of political control over the armed forces in China. It argues that the focus on professionalism and professionalization at the level of the military institution that is common in previous studies has certain limitations when analyzing Chinese civil–military relations. Against this background, the second part of the article suggests an alternative approach that places the Chinese officer corps and its professional autonomy at the center of analysis. Its benefit is demonstrated in a case study of quality control at China’s top three military education institutes. The study shows that autonomy and direct political control varies, which indicate a need for more nuanced discussions about military professionalization in China.

  • 93.
    Lyckman, Markus
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Krigsvetenskapliga avdelningen (KVA), Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Global shadow war: conceptual analysis2015Inngår i: Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict, ISSN 1746-7586, E-ISSN 1746-7594, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 251-262Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The US strategic shift from nation-building to what has been labelled “light footprint” has carried with it a number of changes in the practices used when waging war on terrorism. These activities include covert and clandestine action by special operations and paramilitary forces, and others, operating under a shadowy mandate. It is essential to analyse these changes, due to the nature of the actions taken and the global reach and consequences of US foreign policies. The concept of “global shadow war” has been used by scholars and journalists alike to describe the practices associated with the light footprint framework, although the concept is ambiguous, lacks clear conceptual boundaries and is yet to be defined. This article attempts to resolve the problem of ambiguity through a systematic analysis of how and when the concept is used, in the process establishing its conceptual boundaries and definitional qualities. Using a method for concept analysis developed by Giovanni Sartori, the article provides a conceptual definition which is more clearly delineated, encompasses the characteristics found in the sources studied, and can be used when theorizing about the many practices taking place within the light footprint framework.

  • 94.
    Mohlin, Marcus
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Merchants of Security: Private Security Companies, Strategy and the Quest for Power2016Inngår i: The Routledge Research Companion to Security Outsourcing / [ed] Berndtsson, Joakim & Kinsey, Christopher, London: Routledge, 2016, 1, s. 109-116Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 95.
    Mohlin, Marcus
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Security Sector Reform as Trojan Horse?: New Security Assemblages of Privatized Military Training in Liberia2017Inngår i: Private Security in Africa: From the Global Assemblage to the Everyday / [ed] Higate, Paul & Utas, Mats, Zed Books, 2017, s. 107-120Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 96.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ekman, Lisa
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Psychological mechanisms behind military personnels sense of duty in contemporary warfareManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 97.
    Noreen, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Sjöstedt, Roxanna
    Lunds universitet.
    Ångström, Jan
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Why Small States join Big Wars: The Case of Sweden in Afghanistan 2002-20142017Inngår i: International Relations, ISSN 0047-1178, E-ISSN 1741-2862, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 145-168Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The security behavior of small states has traditionally been explained by different takes of realism, liberalism, or constructivism - focusing on the behavior that aims toward safeguarding sovereignty or engaging in peace policies. The issue of why states with limited military capacities and little or no military alignments or engagements decide to participate in an international mission has received limited attention by previous research. In contrast, this article argues that a three-layered discursive model can make the choices of small states more precisely explained and thereby contribute to an increased understanding of small states' security behavior beyond threat balancing and interdependence. Analyzing a deviant case of a non-aligned small state, this article explains why Sweden became increasingly involved in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission in Afghanistan. By focusing on the domestic political discourses regarding the Swedish involvement in this mission, it is suggested that a narrative shapes public perception of a particular policy and establishes interpretative dominance of how a particular event should be understood. This dominant domestic discourse makes a certain international behavior possible and even impossible to alter once established. In the Swedish case, it is demonstrated that this discourse assumed a catch-all' ambition, satisfying both domestic and international demands. In general terms, it should thus be emphasized that certain discourses and narratives are required in order to make it possible for a country to participate in a mission such as ISAF and prolong the mission for several years.

  • 98.
    Noreen, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Ångström, Jan
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    A Catch-All Strategic Narrative: Target Audiences and Swedish Troop Contribution to ISAF in Afghanistan2015Inngår i: Strategic Narratives, Public Opinion and War: Winning Domestic Support for the Afghan War / [ed] Beatrice de Graaf,George Dimitriu & Jens Ringsmose, London: Routledge, 2015Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 99.
    Persson, Mariam
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen. War Studies Department, King's College London, UK.
    Demobilized or Remobilized?: Lingering Rebel Structures in Post-War Liberia2012Inngår i: African Conflicts and Informal Power: Big Men and Networks / [ed] Utas, Mats, London: Zed Books, 2012, s. 101-118Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 100.
    Persson, Mariam
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    Kantor, Ana
    Liberian Vigilantes: Informal Security Providers on the Margins of Security Sector Reform2011Inngår i: The Politics of Security Sector Reform: Challenges and Opportunities for the European Union’s Global Role / [ed] Ekengren, Magnus & Simons, Greg, Farnham: Ashgate, 2011, s. 273-304Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
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