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  • 51.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Bakken, B.
    Indirect leadership: A quantitative test of a qualitatively developed model2007In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 771-778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the applicability of a previously developed model of indirect leadership (qualitative Grounded Theory case study) in a broader military context.

    Design/methodology/approach – The model was operationalised to specific questionnaires for high-level managers, middle-level managers, and lower-level employees. Data were obtained from 147 Norwegian and 134 Swedish military officers, representing all three levels, and serving in the Army and Air Force respectively.

    Findings – The theoretical model of indirect leadership was partly supported. Higher importance was attributed to image-oriented top-down influence, rather than to action-oriented influence via directly subordinate commanders, which may be understood using developmental, transformational, and authentic leadership formulations. Meaningful patterns of subgroup differences were obtained.

    Research limitations/implications – Indirect leadership is complex and bottom-up influences were not taken into account, not all aspects of the top-down influence process were covered, only military contexts were studied, and no meaningful analysis of possible gender-related differences was possible in this male-dominated context.

    Practical implications – The obtained support of the theoretical model legitimises its use as a tool in higher military management education and coaching.

    Originality/value – The measurement tools of indirect leadership and the quantitatively based support of a Grounded Theory model with a how-focus on indirect leadership.

  • 52.
    Malmio, Irja
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    The havoc of good intentions: destructive leadership through the gender lens2019In: Dark Sides of Organizational Behavior and Leadership / [ed] Fors Brandebo, Maria and Alvinius, Aida, London: IntechOpen , 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One important objective of the Swedish Armed Forces, which is expressed in the plan for implementing gender mainstreaming from 2015, is to increase the number of women in the organization and especially in the higher ranks. Recruiting more women to the officers’ program, while at the same time ensuring that women who have already enrolled as officers will remain in their occupation, is therefore of utmost importance. This chapter is based on a previously made qualitative study where six female cadets were interviewed regarding experiences of their time in training to become officers at the Swedish military academy, as well as how they perceive a future career in the Swedish Armed Forces. The result that emerged was analyzed as three factors: ambition, culture, and visibility. When reviewing the material from a leadership perspective, destructive leadership behaviors at strategic levels were identified as influencing the experiences of the cadets. Seen through a gender lens, destructive leadership in the Swedish Armed Forces describes a pattern where the design of equality work, which is based on good intentions, in some cases fosters leadership behaviors that have a negative impact on the room of action of women in the organization.

  • 53.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Civil and Military Leadership Processes in Situations of Extreme Environmental Demands2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Frames of public reaction in crisis2016In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 14-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the ways in which images and reactions of the public are described and framed in media articles and reports. Reporting from six major events affecting the Swedish public was studied using a thematic method of analysis. The results show three dynamic interrelated processes at work simultaneously in framing the public: identification, characterization and evaluation. A significant contribution of this study is the emphasis on how this often subtle and implicit framing influences the portrayal of human reactions, thus possibly influencing the expectations and evaluations of both the public in general and crisis managers in particular.

  • 55.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hede, Susanne
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Public reactions in crisis: representations and realities?2013In: Åre risk event 12–14 march 2013: Book of Abstracts, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Military leadership and emotion regulation in acute situations that contain moral dilemmas2017In: International Journal of Work Organisation and Emotion, ISSN 1740-8938, E-ISSN 1740-8946, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 269-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to gain a deeper understanding of individual emotion-focused coping strategies and institutionalised norms as regards emotion regulation in a short-and long-term perspective in relation to acute stressful situations that contain moral dilemmas. 15 participants at different hierarchical levels in the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) were interviewed. Several individual emotion regulation strategies and organisational norms for emotional expressiveness were identified. These were integrated into a theoretical model. The study contributes by explicating a context-specific emotion culture that gives limited space for emotional expression as it is necessary to remain firm and cold in acute situations that include moral dilemmas. Leaders must be able to minimise emotional displays in order to contribute to operational efficiency (termed emotional containing capacity). Potential conflicts between a well-developed emotional containing capacity in acute situations and long-term adaptation to organisational norms in daily life after missions and practical implications are discussed.

  • 57.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Olsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Militärt ledarskap och emotionshantering i akuta situationer som innehåller moraliska dilemman2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Militärt ledarskap i en insatsmiljö präglad av svårförutsägbar irreguljär krigföring ställer stora krav på officersprofessionen. Etiskt komplexa insatser kan bidra till starka stressrelaterade emotioner hos enskilda soldater och officerare. Förmågan att hantera dessa känslor är central för att bibehålla operativ effektivitet. Kraven ökar samtidigt på den militära organisationen att anpassa sina normer för vad som är acceptabla emotionella uttrycksformer. Studien belyser en militär emotionskultur som ger begränsat utrymme åt emotionella uttryck då det är nödvändigt att vara bestämd, kall och ”professionell” i akuta situationer som innehåller moraliska dilemman. Ledare kan genom att härbergera starka känslor bidra till operativ effektivitet (benämnd containerförmåga). Potentiella konflikter mellan en god containerförmåga i akuta situationer å ena sidan och långsiktig anpassning i vardagen efter insatser å andra sidan belyses.

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  • 58.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    "Damned if you do, damned if you don’t": Media frames of accountability and blame in handling a wildfire2020In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 69-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on media framing of wildfire has chiefly been concerned with the nature of wildfire in the context of climate change and with framing effects on policy and public opinion. Empirical studies on media content, hence what is mediated to crisis managers and the public concerning authorities’ and the public's response, seem to be largely missing. This is remarkable, given that the media represent main sources of information that may influence crisis management and shape public opinion. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify key media frames relating to portrayals of public and authority responses during and after a wildfire crisis. The study is based on media articles from two time periods: immediately after the fire and 1 year later. We used a thematic method of analysis (TA), thus an inductive, “bottom‐up” approach. A core frame, Responsibility/accountability is identified, underpinned by two sub‐themes. One sub‐theme relates to the causes of the fire and its escalation, revealing a number of different interrelated blame frames. The second sub‐theme refers to management of the crisis, reflecting both authorities’ and citizens’ responses. The deficiencies of the former are implicitly suggested to have forced citizens to act to compensate for their inadequacy. The main theoretical contribution is the identification of an interrelationship between frames in relation to different groups of individuals responding to a crisis, pointing to a more complex view of framing effects. In addition, results show how media tend to assess crisis management based on idealistic criteria, inevitably making the evaluation negative. This contributes to an understanding of how media blame frames, thus “blame games,” may unfold. Practical implications of these results are discussed.

  • 59.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Kallenberg, Kjell
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Leadership and Stress in Situations Involving Moral Dilemmas2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Fors, Maria
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ledarskap vid multinationella militära insatser: Etnocentriska föreställningar och samarbete2007Report (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Fors, Maria
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Utvärdering av indirekt ledarskap inom Nordic Battle Group2008Report (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Fors, Maria
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Utbildning i indirekt ledarskap: Lärarhandledning2007Report (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Fors, Maria
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Putting ideas into practice: The implementation of a theoretical model of indirect leadership2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Waaler, Gudmund
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Militära ledares hantering av akuta stressituationer: Med fokus på moraliska dilemman i kombination med ackumulerad stress2012Report (Other academic)
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  • 65.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Kallenberg, Kjell
    Örebro universitetssjukhus.
    Waaler, G.
    Hedmark University College, Norge.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Leadership and Moral Stress: Individual reaction patterns among first responders in acute situations that involve moral stressors2015In: Journal of Trauma & Treatment, E-ISSN 2167-1222, Vol. 4, p. 261-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to gain a deeper understanding of individual reaction patterns among professional first responders (emergency treatment, military officers, and police officers) during and after acute situations that involve moral stressors in combination with cumulative stress. Swedish and Norwegian informants within these professional groups were interviewed (n=37). Data were analyzed according to a grounded theory approach. A model was developed according to which long-term effects following such stress exposure depends on the character of the continued everyday living. In particular, the frequency and intensity of perceived daily hassles and uplifts is important. Cognitivebehavioral aspects are discussed to prevent and/or reduce negative long-term reactions.

  • 66.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Kallenberg, Kjell
    Örebro universitetssjukhus.
    Waaler, Gudmund
    Royal Norwegian Naval Academy, Norway.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Moral stress: Individual reaction patterns among first responders2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Frekvent tjänstgörande i internationella militära insatser: En enkätstudie2022Report (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Military professionalism of the Swedish Armed Forces in the 21st century2012In: Threats to Military Professionalism: International Perspectives / [ed] Jeff Stouffer och Douglas Lindsay, Kingston, Ontario: Canadian Defence Academy Press , 2012, p. 169-194Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Därför fick de inte PTSD: en kvalitativ studie av vardagsstress hos 15 svenska veteraner2016Report (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Därför fick de inte PTSD: En Kvalitativ studie av vardagsstress hos 15 svenska veteraner - Resultatbilaga (Arbetsmaterial)2016Report (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Internationell militär tjänstgöring och dess betydelse för parrelationer: En enkätstudie2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In general, Swedish veteran research shows that a majority of Swedish officers andsoldiers that have served abroad are doing relatively well, both psychologically andphysically. However, a recent study of Swedish veterans indicated a higher divorcerate (nearly double) and a less propensity to enter a new relationship after international military deployment. An initial qualitative interview study was conducted to gain a deeper understanding of the impact of international military deployment on couple well-being, which resulted in a theoretical model of proposed relationships. Since the developed theoretical model of influencing factors was based on a limited number of interviews, and thus cannot be regarded as generalizable, the aim of the present study was to test its relevance on a larger number of military veterans, more specifically to explore the relationships between the factors identified and a higher propensity to end a romantic relationship. In addition, the relationship identified between deployment and a lesser likelihood to enter a new relationship was investigated. A survey was filled out by 1962 veterans (33% response rate). Quantitative analyses were conducted to test the relationship between variables of interests and tocompare sub-groups. Overall, the results support the theoretical model that was developed, both as regards balance as a core variable to understand the impact of international military deployment on couple well-being, and the factors that have shown to affect the statistical relationship identified between deployment and a higher propensity to end a close relationship. The results show that deployment may cause systemic changes and challenges within families, however, they may also constitute an incentive for development, ultimately strengthening some relationships. Particularly, demands related to deployment appear to affect relationship quality after deployment, whilst the handling of relational tensions seems most meaningful during everyday life before the mission. The study also accounts for the importance of re-integration having returned home, as close relationships seem most vulnerable the first few years following deployment. Looking at the relationship between deployment and a lessened propensity to enter a new relationship, there appears to be two potential contributing factors. On the onehand, there seems to be an overrepresentation of individuals that because of deployment have sought professional help, and a majority of those individualsreported that they did not receive adequate support. Many reported experiencing alesser degree of positive work-related reintegration to everyday life after deployment and omitting from seeking social support and to plan/analyze to handle the hassles of everyday life after deployment. These reported difficulties may have contributed to the inability of these individuals to reassimilate back to their normal routines and to focus their energy on their relationships in their private lives. On the other hand, the results also indicate that individuals who deploy, also report having a high interest in adventure, to travel and to experience new things, which may also contribute to these individuals being less likely to commit to a close relationship. In the latter case, this may contribute to a higher propensity to not enter a new relationship by choice, which is appreciated, self-determined and a matter of priority. Practical implications are discussed.

  • 72.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    Militära professionen: Internationella insatser och separationer: Bilaga 1: FoT internationella insatser och separationer2020Report (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Lundqvist, Linda-Marie
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Waaler, Gudmund
    Sjøkrigsskolen, Norway.
    Bandlitz Johansen, Rino
    Forsvarets stabsskole, Norway.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Militärt ledarskap: Emotionskultur och emotionshantering i moraliska påfrestande situationer: Ett kvantitativt test av en kvalitativt framtagen modell2014Report (Other academic)
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  • 74.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Svensén, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    The health and well-being of deployed Swedish military veteransIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Weibull, Louise
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Internationella militära insatser: tjänstgöring och dess betydelse för parrelationer2019Report (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Kallenberg, Kjell
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Utbildningspaket i moralisk stress2011Report (Other academic)
  • 77.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Kallenberg, K.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Moralisk stress i internationella humanitära hjälp- och räddningsinsatser: En grounded theory studie2009Report (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Kallenberg, Kjell
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Insufficiency, powerlessness, and meaninglessness: The moral stress of humanitarian aid professionals2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Kallenberg, Kjell
    Örebro universitetssjukhus.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Moral stress in international humanitarian aid and rescue operations: A grounded theory study2011In: Ethics & behavior, ISSN 1050-8422, E-ISSN 1532-7019, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 49-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humanitarian aid professionals frequently encounter situations in which one is conscious of the morally appropriate action but cannot take it because of institutional obstacles. Dilemmas like this are likely to result in a specific kind of stress reaction at the individual level, labeled as moral stress. In our study, 16 individuals working with international humanitarian aid and rescue operations participated in semistructured interviews, analyzed in accordance with a grounded theory approach. A theoretical model of ethical decision making from a moral stress perspective was developed. The practical implications of the study are discussed.

  • 80.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Kallenberg, Kjell
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Moral stress in the Swedish Armed Forces2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Kallenberg, Kjell
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Moralisk stress i en militär kontext2009Report (Other academic)
  • 82.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Kallenberg, Kjell
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Moralisk stress vid internationella militära insatser: En enkätstudie2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Militär etik innefattar ett dualistiskt dilemma då officerare och soldater förväntas respektera mänsklig värdighet och rättfärdiga dödande på en och samma gång.

    Syftet med rapporten var att kartlägga förekomsten av moraliska dilemman vid internationella militära insatser, hur de hanteras och hur de påverkar den enskilde individen.  

    Data bearbetades med faktoranalys. Samband mellan dessa faktorer beräknades och jämförelser mellan olika undergrupper av respondenterna utfördes.

    Sju typer av moraliska dilemman, fyra hanteringsstrategier och tre olika typer av påverkan på individen identifierades. Studiens resultat visar att det finns ett svagt samband mellan typ av moraliskt dilemma och hanteringsstrategi. Likaså finns det bara ett svagt samband mellan hantering av moraliska dilemman och negativ påverkan på individen. Det finns dock ett starkt samband mellan hanteringsstrategin ”Följer egen moral även vid risk att bli bestraffad/avskedad” och positiv påverkan på individen. Resultaten visar också på ett starkt samband mellan moraliska dilemman och negativ påverkan på individen. Undergruppsskillnader har främst identifierats på basis av kön och ålder/grad.

    Kombinationen av en tidigare intervjustudie och denna enkätstudie har bidragit till framtagandet av ett separat utbildningsmaterial som riktar sig till officerare.

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  • 83.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Kallenberg, Kjell
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    ”Tänk om jag inte hade skjutit ...”: Om beslutsfattande, moraliska dilemman och moralisk stress i samband med internatio­nella militära insatser2010Report (Other academic)
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  • 84.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    A civil contingencies agency management system for disaster aid: a theoretical model2010In: International Journal of Organizational Analysis, ISSN 1934-8835, E-ISSN 1758-8561, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 412-429Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    A civil contingencies agency management system for disaster aid: Qualitative validation of an empirically grounded model2013In: International Journal of Organizational Analysis, ISSN 1934-8835, E-ISSN 1758-8561, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 154-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this article is twofold: validation of a theoretical model of a civil contingencies agency management system, and methodological development by employing qualitative means for analysis.

    Design/methodology/approach – The theoretical model to be validated serves as a starting point for a qualitative reanalysis of logic-deductive character, aimed at verification of the pre-existing theory that is already discovered and developed. Data from three previously published case studies were used as a frame of reference.

    Findings – The theoretical model of a civil contingencies management system for disaster aid is validated in most respects. The qualitative testing for high trustworthiness proves reasonable with regard to selected reference studies.

    Originality/value – The theoretical model of a civil contingencies agency management system for disaster aid was mostly confirmed and partly modified when being compared to empirical data and models from three previous case studies. Also, the qualitative approach to validating the theoretical model is, to the best knowledge of the authors, new.

  • 86.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Ett ledningssystem för katastrofhjälp i internationell miljö: En teoretisk modell2009Report (Other academic)
  • 87.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Ett ledningssystem för katastrofhjälp i internationell miljö: Generaliserbarhetsprövning av en teoretisk modell2009Report (Other academic)
  • 88.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Ledning av Räddningsverkets internationella insatser: Sammanfattande rapport2009Report (Other academic)
  • 89.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Räddningsverkets internationella insatser: Analys och utveckling av ledningssystemet2008Report (Other academic)
  • 90.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Svensén, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Utbildning i vardagsstress och hälsa: en lärarhandledning2018Report (Other academic)
  • 91.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    When the going gets tough, the tough get going: Stressors and challenges working in a military multinational environment2010In: Enhancing Human Performance in Security Operations: International and Law Enforcement Perspectives / [ed] Bartone, Paul T., Chicago: Charles C. Thomas Publisher Ltd., 2010, p. 399-423Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Att vara svensk officer på hög ledningsnivå vid påfrestande incidenter under internationella uppdrag: En intervjustudie2006Report (Other academic)
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  • 93.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Svenska officerare i internationella staber under press: Preliminär redovisning av en intervjustudie2005Report (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Nilsson, Sofia Alexandra
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Faculty of Public Health, College of Applied Sciences, Inland University, Elverum, Norway, (NOR).
    A qualitative study of military officers' perceptions of the adaptions couples make to meet the military organisation's implicit expectations2023In: International Journal of Organizational Analysis, ISSN 1934-8835, E-ISSN 1758-8561, Vol. 31, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate military officers’ perception of the implicit expectations the organisation has for the officer’s private life and what implications it may have for gender norms at the organisation, family and individual levels. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative approach, using an inductive thematic analysis, was performed. The data was based on 20 interviews with military officers, including 18 men and 2 women. Findings Two main themes, with three subsequent subthemes, were identified. These themes were interpreted as being necessary for the military officer to be able to manage organisational demands. The first included the implicit expectations the organisation had for the family. The three subthemes included the officer’s acceptance of frequent travel demands, adapting private life in accordance to organisational demands and picking a partner that matches the goals of the organisation. The second identified main theme included the military officer’s descriptions of implicit expectations the organisation held for the officer’s partner. Three subthemes were identified, including the partner’s need to be independent and psychologically strong, to take the main responsibility for managing family life and to engage in emotion work with the extended family. Originality/value The findings identify important perceptions that military officers have regarding the military’s expectations for their private life and the adaptive behaviors regularly performed. These adaptive behaviors allow the military officer to be able to engage in work that sustains the organisation.

  • 95.
    Scott, David
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hobbins, Jennifer
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Capturing the citizen perspective in crisis management exercises: possibilities and challenges2015In: International Journal of Emergency Services, ISSN 2047-0894, E-ISSN 2047-0908, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 86-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– Supporting and communicating with citizens is a vital part of societal crisis management. Training exercises may offer an opportunity to develop capabilities among managers in this regard. The purpose of this paper is to examine this potential in an analysis of how citizens were portrayed and perceived by participants in a major crisis management exercise.

    Design/methodology/approach– Observation, document analysis and short interviews during the exercise were used as data collection methods. Data were subjected to thematic analysis to capture core themes in relation to the research aim.

    Findings– Patterns in how citizens’ reactions were portrayed in the exercise were identified to form a citizen behaviour typology. Observations during the exercise also demonstrated some of the challenges in incorporating the citizen perspective. However, findings regarding the perception of the citizen perspective also demonstrate the ability of exercise participants to meet and respond to public behaviours with respect and seriousness.

    Originality/value– Variation is an important condition for learning in exercises, and the identified typology is suggested as a starting point for achieving this in incorporation of the citizen perspective in training scenarios. The results of the study are discussed in terms of a learning framework with the aim of explicitly developing crisis managers’ ability to interact and communicate with citizens in crisis situations.

  • 96.
    Sjöberg, Misa
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Kallenberg, K.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Moral stress in complex aid operations2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 97.
    Waaler, Gudmund
    et al.
    Royal Norwegian Naval Academy, The Norwegian Defence Univeristy College, Norway.
    Berntsen, Tor Arne S.
    Norwegian Command and Staff College, Norwegian Defence University College, Norway.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Avstand og nærhet som militæretisk utfordring2018In: Necesse, ISSN 2464-353X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 95-103Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 98.
    Waaler, Gudmund
    et al.
    Sjøforsvaret, Norge (NOR).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Voldsbruk og livsfare: Norske og svenske soldaters krigserfaringer fra Afghanistan2019 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [no]

    Voldsbruk og livsfare dokumenterer norske og svenske soldaters krigserfaringer fra Afghanistan. Basert på grundige intervjuer med soldatene, tegnes et levende bilde av hvordan dramatiske krigserfaringer påvirker soldathverdagen og hvordan erfaringene fortolkes og bearbeides i etterkant – både individuelt og kollektivt.Intervjuene med soldatene tolkes gjennomgående i lys av internasjonal faglitteratur og pågående fagdebatter. Boken drøfter blant annet spørsmål knyttet til forberedelser før avreise, stressmestring, moralske dilemmaer, motivasjon, sorgreaksjoner, profesjonsidentitet og profesjonalisering av soldatrollen. Boken inneholder i tillegg en grundig drøfting av reaksjonsmønstre knyttet til å ta liv i kamp.Voldsbruk og livsfare vil særlig ha interesse for studenter og forskere innenfor de militære utdanningene, men er også skrevet for alle med interesse for Forsvaret og Norges rolle i internasjonale, militære konflikter.

  • 99.
    Waaler, Gudmund
    et al.
    Sjøforsvarsstaben/Sjøkrigsskolen, Norge.
    Monsen, Rolf Eivind
    Sjøkrigsskolen, Norge.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    Å ta liv i kamp: En operativ, moralsk og psykologisk utfordring2018In: Necesse, ISSN 2464-353X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 10-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [no]

    I denne studien kartlegger vi hvordan det oppleves å ta liv i kamp. I forlengelse av det drøfter vi hva som skal til for å bli i stand til å drepe i skarpe operasjoner. Studien viser at soldater ikke opplever moralsk stress når de tar liv i situasjoner der de selv er truet. Våre funn peker i retning av at det er naturlig for mennesker å ta liv når situasjonen tilsier at det er helt nødvendig for å overleve samtidig som den sosiale rammen anerkjenner handlingen. Trening som vektlegger at soldater utsettes for sterkt gruppepress og rollemodeller med sterk autoritet, er ikke nødvendig for å sette soldater i stand til å drepe. Våre funn viser at soldater som har tatt liv i situasjoner der de har vært i livsfare, ofte opplever mestring og personlig vekst (PTG) etter hendelsen. I studien referer vi til et kvalitativt forskningsprosjekt der vi har intervjuet 28 soldater.1 Vi referer også til et kvantitativt materiale der 82 soldater deltok. I denne studien drøfter vi våre funn i relasjon til ulike teoretiske modeller som forsøker å svare på vår problemstilling.

    1Resultater fra denne undersøkelsen vil bli presentert i sin fulle bredde i bokform i 2018.

  • 100.
    Waaler, Gudmund
    et al.
    Sjøforsvaret, Norge.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Å ta liv: Erfaringer fra Afghanistan2017In: Michael, ISSN 1893-9651, E-ISSN 1893-0794, Vol. 14, p. 54-59Article in journal (Refereed)
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