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  • 51.
    Melin, Jeanette
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Measurement Science and Technology Unit, Division of Safety and Transport, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg.
    Fridberg, Helena
    Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, (SWE).
    Ekvall Hansson, Eva
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, (SWE).
    Smedberg, Daniel
    Division of Geriatric Medicine, Skåne University Hospital, (SWE).
    Pendrill, Leslie R
    Measurement Science and Technology Unit, Division of Safety and Transport, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg, (SWE).
    Exploring a New Application of Construct Specification Equations (CSEs) and Entropy: A Pilot Study with Balance Measurements2023In: Entropy, E-ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 25, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both construct specification equations (CSEs) and entropy can be used to provide a specific, causal, and rigorously mathematical conceptualization of item attributes in order to provide fit-for-purpose measurements of person abilities. This has been previously demonstrated for memory measurements. It can also be reasonably expected to be applicable to other kinds of measures of human abilities and task difficulty in health care, but further exploration is needed about how to incorporate qualitative explanatory variables in the CSE formulation. In this paper we report two case studies exploring the possibilities of advancing CSE and entropy to include human functional balance measurements. In case study I, physiotherapists have formulated a CSE for balance task difficulty by principal component regression of empirical balance task difficulty values from Berg’s Balance Scale transformed using the Rasch model. In case study II, four balance tasks of increasing difficulty due to diminishing bases of support and vision were briefly investigated in relation to entropy as a measure of the amount of information and order as well as physical thermodynamics. The pilot study has explored both methodological and conceptual possibilities and concerns to be considered in further work. The results should not be considered as fully comprehensive or absolute, but rather open up for further discussion and investigations to advance measurements of person balance ability in clinical practice, research, and trials.

  • 52.
    Melin, Jeanette
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE), Division Safety and Transport, Department of Measurement Science and Technology, Gothenburg.
    Göschel, Laura
    Department of Neurology, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, NCRC—Neuroscience Clinical Research Center, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, (DEU).
    Hagell, Peter
    The PRO-CARE Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, (SWE).
    Westergren, Albert
    The PRO-CARE Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kristianstad University, The Research Platform for Collaboration for Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, (SWE).
    Flöel, Agnes
    Department of Neurology, University Medicine Greifswald, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Greifswald, (DEU).
    Pendrill, Leslie R
    Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE), Division Safety and Transport, Department of Measurement Science and Technology, Gothenburg, (SWE).
    Forward and Backward Recalling Sequences in Spatial and Verbal Memory Tasks: What Do We Measure?2023In: Entropy, E-ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 25, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are different views in the literature about the number and inter-relationships of cognitive domains (such as memory and executive function) and a lack of understanding of the cognitive processes underlying these domains. In previous publications, we demonstrated a methodology for formulating and testing cognitive constructs for visuo-spatial and verbal recall tasks, particularly for working memory task difficulty where entropy is found to play a major role. In the present paper, we applied those insights to a new set of such memory tasks, namely, backward recalling block tapping and digit sequences. Once again, we saw clear and strong entropy-based construct specification equations (CSEs) for task difficulty. In fact, the entropy contributions in the CSEs for the different tasks were of similar magnitudes (within the measurement uncertainties), which may indicate a shared factor in what is being measured with both forward and backward sequences, as well as visuo-spatial and verbal memory recalling tasks more generally. On the other hand, the analyses of dimensionality and the larger measurement uncertainties in the CSEs for the backward sequences suggest that caution is needed when attempting to unify a single unidimensional construct based on forward and backward sequences with visuo-spatial and verbal memory tasks.

  • 53.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Frekvent tjänstgörande i internationella militära insatser: En enkätstudie2022Report (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Internationell militär tjänstgöring och dess betydelse för parrelationer: En enkätstudie2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In general, Swedish veteran research shows that a majority of Swedish officers andsoldiers that have served abroad are doing relatively well, both psychologically andphysically. However, a recent study of Swedish veterans indicated a higher divorcerate (nearly double) and a less propensity to enter a new relationship after international military deployment. An initial qualitative interview study was conducted to gain a deeper understanding of the impact of international military deployment on couple well-being, which resulted in a theoretical model of proposed relationships. Since the developed theoretical model of influencing factors was based on a limited number of interviews, and thus cannot be regarded as generalizable, the aim of the present study was to test its relevance on a larger number of military veterans, more specifically to explore the relationships between the factors identified and a higher propensity to end a romantic relationship. In addition, the relationship identified between deployment and a lesser likelihood to enter a new relationship was investigated. A survey was filled out by 1962 veterans (33% response rate). Quantitative analyses were conducted to test the relationship between variables of interests and tocompare sub-groups. Overall, the results support the theoretical model that was developed, both as regards balance as a core variable to understand the impact of international military deployment on couple well-being, and the factors that have shown to affect the statistical relationship identified between deployment and a higher propensity to end a close relationship. The results show that deployment may cause systemic changes and challenges within families, however, they may also constitute an incentive for development, ultimately strengthening some relationships. Particularly, demands related to deployment appear to affect relationship quality after deployment, whilst the handling of relational tensions seems most meaningful during everyday life before the mission. The study also accounts for the importance of re-integration having returned home, as close relationships seem most vulnerable the first few years following deployment. Looking at the relationship between deployment and a lessened propensity to enter a new relationship, there appears to be two potential contributing factors. On the onehand, there seems to be an overrepresentation of individuals that because of deployment have sought professional help, and a majority of those individualsreported that they did not receive adequate support. Many reported experiencing alesser degree of positive work-related reintegration to everyday life after deployment and omitting from seeking social support and to plan/analyze to handle the hassles of everyday life after deployment. These reported difficulties may have contributed to the inability of these individuals to reassimilate back to their normal routines and to focus their energy on their relationships in their private lives. On the other hand, the results also indicate that individuals who deploy, also report having a high interest in adventure, to travel and to experience new things, which may also contribute to these individuals being less likely to commit to a close relationship. In the latter case, this may contribute to a higher propensity to not enter a new relationship by choice, which is appreciated, self-determined and a matter of priority. Practical implications are discussed.

  • 55.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Svensén, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    The health and well-being of deployed Swedish military veteransIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Bandlitz Johansen, Rino
    Norwegian Defence University, Norway, (NOR).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    An exploratory Study of the Association between the Big-Five Personality Dimensions, the Use of Infuencing Behavors with Military Staff Members' Percepived Performance2022In: International Journal of Behavior Organizations, E-ISSN 2687-6272, Vol. 8, p. 12-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to explore the association between the Big Five personality dimensions, the use of influencing behaviors (influencing tactics and political skill) with military staff members’ perceived performance. The sample included 185 Armed Forces staff members from various countries (predominantly the Baltic countries, Sweden, Norway and the USA). A hierarchical multiple regression indicated that the Big-Five dimensions Extraversion and Openness made statistically significant contributions (albeit low) in step 1 of the regression analysis in relation to performance, however, their contribution was weakened after the influencing behaviors were added in step 2 of the analysis. Two influencing behaviors (influencing tactic Rational persuasion and Political skill) demonstrated to be unique statistically significant contributions to perceived performance in the model as a whole, with political skill being the strongest. Practical considerations and future research directions are suggested.

  • 57.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Social effektivitet i arbetslivet2022Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Social effektivitet i arbetslivet handlar om hur individen använder sin sociala kompetens i arbetslivet, är socialt effektiv, för att nå organisationens mål. Begreppet ligger nära det man brukar kalla social kompetens, vilket är bredare och mer generellt. Social effektivitet fokuserar mer på individens förmåga att läsa av, påverka och anpassa sig i olika situationer. Det handlar om att förstå spelregler, sociala koder och organisationens emotionskultur för att bättre kunna både anpassa sig och påverka andra. 

  • 58.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Nilsson, Sofia Alexandra
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Faculty of Public Health, College of Applied Sciences, Inland University, Elverum, Norway, (NOR).
    A qualitative study of military officers' perceptions of the adaptions couples make to meet the military organisation's implicit expectations2023In: International Journal of Organizational Analysis, ISSN 1934-8835, E-ISSN 1758-8561, Vol. 31, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate military officers’ perception of the implicit expectations the organisation has for the officer’s private life and what implications it may have for gender norms at the organisation, family and individual levels. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative approach, using an inductive thematic analysis, was performed. The data was based on 20 interviews with military officers, including 18 men and 2 women. Findings Two main themes, with three subsequent subthemes, were identified. These themes were interpreted as being necessary for the military officer to be able to manage organisational demands. The first included the implicit expectations the organisation had for the family. The three subthemes included the officer’s acceptance of frequent travel demands, adapting private life in accordance to organisational demands and picking a partner that matches the goals of the organisation. The second identified main theme included the military officer’s descriptions of implicit expectations the organisation held for the officer’s partner. Three subthemes were identified, including the partner’s need to be independent and psychologically strong, to take the main responsibility for managing family life and to engage in emotion work with the extended family. Originality/value The findings identify important perceptions that military officers have regarding the military’s expectations for their private life and the adaptive behaviors regularly performed. These adaptive behaviors allow the military officer to be able to engage in work that sustains the organisation.

  • 59.
    Olsson Gardell, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Political Science and Law, Political Science Division.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Political Science and Law, Political Science Division.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    The Evolving Security Landscape: Citizens’ Perceptions of Feminism as an Emerging Security Threat2022In: European Journal for Security Research, ISSN 2365-0931, E-ISSN 2365-1695, no 7, p. 67-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we explore how Swedish citizens perceive security threats, and how threat perceptions overlap with ideology, trust and demographics. The results show that concerns over security threats are foremost connected to an authoritarian outlook. In addition, four typical groups of security orientations were identifed. On the one end of the spectrum, we found one group with anti-immigrant, anti-feminist and anti-egalitarian opinions and low confdence in media and institutions. At the other end, we identifed a group dominated by women with university degrees, who believe in egalitarian tolerance and display trust in societal institutions. Even though the findings are in line with previous research on the radical right globally, we were intrigued by the existence of a clearly defned group of respondents that oppose feminism to the extent that it is even seen as a security threat. This is particularly striking given that Sweden is thought of as one of the most equal countries in the world, with a government pursuing a feminist foreign policy.

  • 60.
    Oskarsson, Emma
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Lundell, Emil
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Results from a work-life balance survey: A comparative study in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden2022Report (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Pendrill, Leslie R
    et al.
    Measurement Science and Technology, Division Safety and Transport, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg, (SWE).
    Melin, Jeanette
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Measurement Science and Technology, Division Safety and Transport, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg.
    Stavelin, Anne
    Noklus, The Norwegian Organisation for Quality Improvement of Laboratory Examinations, Bergen, (NOR).
    Nordin, Gunnar
    Equalis, Uppsala, (SWE).
    Modernising Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves2023In: Algorithms, E-ISSN 1999-4893, Vol. 16, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The justification for making a measurement can be sought in asking what decisions are based on measurement, such as in assessing the compliance of a quality characteristic of an entity in relation to a specification limit, SL. The relative performance of testing devices and classification algorithms used in assessing compliance is often evaluated using the venerable and ever popular receiver operating characteristic (ROC). However, the ROC tool has potentially all the limitations of classic test theory (CTT) such as the non-linearity, effects of ordinality and confounding task difficulty and instrument ability. These limitations, inherent and often unacknowledged when using the ROC tool, are tackled here for the first time with a modernised approach combining measurement system analysis (MSA) and item response theory (IRT), using data from pregnancy testing as an example. The new method of assessing device ability from separate Rasch IRT regressions for each axis of ROC curves is found to perform significantly better, with correlation coefficients with traditional area-under-curve metrics of at least 0.92 which exceeds that of linearised ROC plots, such as Linacre’s, and is recommended to replace other approaches for device assessment. The resulting improved measurement quality of each ROC curve achieved with this original approach should enable more reliable decision-making in conformity assessment in many scenarios, including machine learning, where its use as a metric for assessing classification algorithms has become almost indispensable.

  • 62.
    Sahlin, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Education, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden, (SWE).
    Sjöstrand, Monica
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Styf, Maria
    Education, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden, (SWE).
    Lund, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden, (SWE).
    Novice principals coping strategies during the Covid-19 pandemic in SwedenIn: Educational Management Administration & Leadership, ISSN 1741-1432, E-ISSN 1741-1440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents findings from a qualitative case study where principals (n = 193), studying a national principal training programme, participated in a study exploring novice principals’ perceptions of how their leadership was impacted during the recent Covid-19 pandemic. A model classification of stressful situations related to coping strategies was used as the theoretical framework for the study and used in the content analysis with a deductive approach. In small groups, the principals used a specific conversation model and discussed their experiences of how their leadership had been affected during the pandemic. The findings showed that principals identified a lack of clarity and situations linked to the adaption to new rules required over time when staff and student absenteeism were consistent challenges. The majority of situations that the principals described can be linked to unclear but affectable situations, where they had to make uncomfortable decisions but also provide security and solutions. Principals mainly used problem-oriented stress management strategies by searching for information, analysing and finding new solutions.

  • 63.
    Stensvehagen, Marianne Torp
    et al.
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Elverum (NOR).
    Bronken, Berit Arnesveen
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Elverum (NOR).
    Lien, Lars
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Elverum (NOR), University of Oslo (NOR), Innlandet Hospital Trust, Brumunddal (NOR).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences Elverum, (NOR).
    Association of daily hassles, daily uplifts, coping styles and stress‐related symptoms among women exposed to sexual abuse: A cross‐sectional study2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 117-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Women who experience physical or sexual violence report poor self-perceived health. Knowledge of daily hassles, daily uplifts and coping styles, as well as how these factors can affect health and well-being among survivors of sexual abuse, is important for healthcare professionals to understand and target their needs.

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to explore the association of daily hassles, daily uplifts, coping strategies and stress-related symptoms among female survivors of sexual abuse.

    Methods: A group of women (n = 57), exposed to sexual abuse, were recruited from nine support centres in Norway. Participants completed a questionnaire that addressed demographics, socioeconomic conditions, trauma history, daily hassles, daily uplifts, coping styles and stress-related symptoms. Two groups of participants were compared: one group that had above-median scores on uplifts and adaptive coping styles and one group that had above-median scores on daily hassles and maladaptive coping styles.

    Results: Results indicate that women who experienced more daily hassles and used maladaptive coping styles reported significantly more stress-related symptoms, and particularly emotional symptoms, than women who experienced more daily uplifts and used adaptive coping styles. There were few differences between the two groups related to socioeconomic conditions and trauma history.

    Conclusion: The results indicate that women in both groups struggle with stress-related physical, emotional, cognitive and target group-specific symptoms. However, high incidence of daily hassles and the use of maladaptive coping styles were associated with an increase in stress-related symptoms. Novell's findings indicate that despite severe traumatic experiences, adaptive coping styles and favourable perceptions of stress in everyday life were associated with a lower frequency of stress-related symptoms. It may therefore be helpful to focus on altering maladaptive coping styles to reduce stress-related symptoms among sexual abuse survivors.

  • 64.
    Svensén, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Validering av urvalsprocessen till Officersprogrammet: Resultat av samtliga tre mätningar 2020-20222022Report (Other academic)
  • 65.
    Svensén, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Centre for Societal Security, Leadership Concepts Division.
    Rekryteringsunderlaget 20212022Report (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Van Baalen, Miriam
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Braunerhielm, Lotta
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation, ämnet Kulturgeografi (SWE).
    Karlsson, Svante
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation, ämnet Kulturgeografi (SWE).
    Försvarsetableringens geografier: Åter- och nyetablering av regementen ur ett rumsligt perspektiv2023Report (Other academic)
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  • 67.
    Wall, Erika
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (SWE).
    Hobbins, Jennifer
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    I smittspridningens spår: Arbetsintensifiering inom vården2023In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, E-ISSN 2002-343X, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 23-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Baserat på trettiotre djupintervjuer med undersköterskor, sjuksköterskor och läkare analyseras betydelsen av smittspridningen av sars-coronavirus-2 för arbete inom vård- och omsorgssektorn i Sverige. Resultaten visar att arbetssituationen upplevs som i grunden förändrad vilket inkluderar relationer till patienter (hygien, vårdplanering), anhöriga (kontakt) och kollegor emellan (personalplanering, kommunikation). Samtidigt beskrivs arbetet fortgå som vanligt i relation till patienter (hygien, nära vård, medicinering). Utifrån en diskussion kring betydelsen arbetsintensifiering och flexibilitet bidrar analysen till en förståelse för dynamiken mellan kontinuitet och förändring på mikronivå, i det vardagliga, praktiska arbetet för personal inom vård och omsorgssektorn i Sverige.

  • 68.
    Wisén, Niclas
    et al.
    Department of Experimental Traumatology, Institution of Neuroscience at Karolinska Institute, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden, (SWE).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Arborelius, Ulf
    Department of Experimental Traumatology, Institution of Neuroscience at Karolinska Institute, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden, (SWE).
    Risling, Mårten
    Department of Experimental Traumatology, Institution of Neuroscience at Karolinska Institute, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden, (SWE).
    Measuring the impact of operational stress: The relevance of assessing stress-related health across the deployment cycle2023In: Military medicine, ISSN 0026-4075, E-ISSN 1930-613X, Vol. 188, no 7-8, p. 2126-2132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Mental health issues from intense or prolonged stress are a common concern in regard to military deployment. Deployments can objectively vary in stress exposure, but it is the individuals' perception of that stress that affects sustainability, mental health, and combat fitness, which calls for the need of a protocol to evaluate and maintain a current estimation of stress impact. So, how can we assess the impact of stressors during different phases of deployment?

    Materials and methods: We used three psychological self-rating forms, the PSS14-Perceived Stress Scale, SMBM-Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure, and KSQ-Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire, to measure the impact of stress before (T1), during (T2), and at homecoming (T3). We also wanted to see if T1 or T2 results could predict T3 results to be able to better prepare the homecoming program.The forms were handed out to Swedish soldiers deployed in Mali in 2017. The forms were collected as a way to assess the status of the mental health load at three timepoints based on the personnel function as a way to assess the current "psychological fitness level".

    Results: The results show that stress measured using PSS14 was high at homecoming. The same result was observed for SMBM. No measures from T1 or T2 could however predict the T3 results.

    Conclusions: Taken together, we found that screening of all contingent staff is relatively easy and provides personnel with relevant data on mental health and stress at the current time. We also found that test results correlated between T1 and T2 but not with T3. This indicates that there might be different stressors that affect staff at different timepoints.

  • 69.
    Wisén, Niclas
    et al.
    Department of Experimental Traumatology, Institution of Neuroscience at Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden, (SWE).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Risling, Mårten
    Department of Experimental Traumatology, Institution of Neuroscience at Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden, (SWE).
    Arborelius, Ulf
    Department of Experimental Traumatology, Institution of Neuroscience at Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden, (SWE).
    Is conduct after capture training sufficiently stressful?2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conduct after capture (CAC) training is for personnel at risk of being captured. To be effective, it needs to be stressful. But how do we know if it is stressful enough? This study uses biomarkers and cognitive measures to evaluate CAC. Soldiers undergoing CAC were measured by the stress hormone cortisol from saliva samples at baseline and during training. The training consisted of being taken capture and put through a number of realistic and threatening scenarios, targeting survival strategies taught in the preceding week. Between scenarios, the trainees were held in a holding cell where they were monitored by a guard. The saliva samples were taken in conjunction with the scenarios. The whole training took place over a period of ~24 h. Cognitive performance was measured at baseline and after training. Three groups took part Group A (n = 20) was taken after 48 h of intense tasks leaving them in a poor resting state. Group B (n = 23) was well rested at CAC onset. Group C (n = 10) was part of a survival, evasion, resistance, and escape (SERE) instructor course. The CAC training was the same for all groups. Group A exhibited a high increase in cortisol during CAC, compared to baseline levels were multiple times as high as “expected” values. Group B exhibited elevated levels slightly lower than those of group A, they also “dropped” to “normal” levels during the latter part of the exercise. Group C displayed the least increase with only slightly elevated levels. CAC training is stressful and cortisol levels were elevated enough to satisfy the prerequisite for effective stress inoculation. No cognitive performance drop could be identified; however, several participants “froze” during the exercise due to intensive stress.

  • 70.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Centre for Societal Security, Leadership Concepts Division.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Views on an officer career: the relationship between personality, leadership expectations and perceived qualities2024In: Current Issues in Personality Psychology, ISSN 2353-4192, Vol. 12, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    The Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) have had difficulties in recruiting a sufficient amount of cadets to the officer program during the period with an all-volunteer force.

    Participants and procedure:

    Data were collected from different officer programs. 318 respondents fostered in the all-volunteer force (AVF) system completed the questionnaire and a cross-sectional design was used where cadets received a questionnaire at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of their training.

    Results:

    The results show that the informants perceived a clear distinction between leadership challenges in the short and long term. The cadets rate their practical knowledge/experience and gaining trust as most challenging in the short term, and personnel supply and reorganization in the long term. Younger cadets rate leadership challenges higher than older cadets do, which is in line with maturing as a human being and gaining more experience. Results based on personality were consistent with previous studies. Two of the future challenges for cadets, short-term leadership and knowledge challenges, showed associations with extraversion and neuroticism.

    Conclusions:

    The results illustrate important topics to be stressed during the three year long officer program, in order to prepare cadets both with knowledge and skills but also with confidence and trust. This is of particular importance as the need to increase the number of cadets graduating from the academic officer program is growing. It implies that more and more cadets will be recruited directly from the basic military training, i.e., being young with relatively low military and leadership experience.

  • 71.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Jalmarsson, Leif
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Kompanibefälsuttagnas upplevelser av sin värnpliktsutbildning och viljan till engagemang i Försvarsmakten: Utvärdering efter pilotinförandet år 20202022Report (Other academic)
  • 72. Ċesnuitytė, V
    et al.
    Ferst, T
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Centre for Societal Security, Leadership Concepts Division.
    Kasearu, K
    Lillimäe, E
    Novagrockiené, J
    Salo, M
    Salminien, M
    Sederholm, T
    Steder, F
    Svensén, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Szviricserv Tresch, T
    Truusa, T
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    The present and future of conscription in Europe in the 21st century2022Conference paper (Other academic)
12 51 - 72 of 72
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