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  • 51.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhetespolitik och strategi.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Military Strategy of Middle Powers: Competing for Security, Influence and Status in the 21st Century2020Book (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The alignment strategies of great powers: Managing power asymmetries and structural changes in the international system2022In: Comparative Strategy, ISSN 0149-5933, E-ISSN 1521-0448, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 97-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractThe article aims to contribute to previous research in two main ways. First, we intervene in the debate on the stability of the present unipolar system by offering an analytical framework and an empirical approach for exploring and categorizing the actual strategies pursued by the major powers in the contemporary international system. In doing so, we present an analysis of how the strategies of the five system-determining states interact and affect the stability of the system. Second, in order to be able to explain why states pursue different strategies, we complement the analytical framework of structural realism with insights from research on Power Transition Theory (PTT). Hereby, we offer a new comprehensive theoretical approach for analyzing how asymmetric power relations affect strategic choices of major powers.

  • 53.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The Defence Strategies of Middle Powers: Competing for security, influence and status in an era of unipolar demise2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhetespolitik och strategi.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The defense strategies of middle powers: Competing for security, influence and status in an era of unipolar demise2020In: Comparative Strategy, ISSN 0149-5933, E-ISSN 1521-0448, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 171-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do middle powers develop similar defense strategies? Is middle powers a useful category for exploring the diversity of strategies among different categories of states? This article presents a great variation of strategies among the selected cases. Concurrently, similarities between middle powers belonging to similar regional security complexes (RSC) are revealed. The higher degree of great power penetration into a RSC, the lesser options for middle powers to develop individual strategies and vice versa. Furthermore, by comparing our findings with the strategies of more and less resourceful states, common elements among middle powers in terms of ends, means and ways, appear.

  • 55.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Kopplingen mellan säkerhet och utveckling: Civil-militär samverkan och genusperspektiv i svensk säkerhetspolitik2015In: Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt, Arita Holmberg och Jan Ångström, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2015, 2, p. 145-164Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Georgetown University, Washington D.C., USA.
    Ucko, David
    National Defense University, Washington D.C., USA.
    Counterinsurgency Operations Revisited2015In: International Military Operations in the 21st Century: Global Trends and the Future of Intervention / [ed] Per M. Norheim-Martinsen, Tore Nyhamar, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2015, 1, p. 59-80Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Afghanistan: Krig utan slut?2017In: Om Krig och Fred: En introduktion till freds- och konfliktstudier / [ed] Karin Aggestam och Kristine Höglund, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 2, p. 153-172Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Ekman, Lisa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Conflicting Calls of Duty in Contemporary Intervention: Exploring the Role of Host Citizens in Understandings of Military Duty2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores understandings of military duty in contemporary international intervention. The concept of military duty is increasingly complex in unfolding global security dynamics. Western armed forces, principally trained, socialized and tasked with fighting wars with the use of force are now expected to conduct ‘population-oriented’ interventions to protect local populations at risk. In a context of increased regional instability, which has renewed focus on national security, military defense, and the reinstatement of conscription in several European states, a number of European armed forces nevertheless continue to deploy elsewhere to conduct military operations that address the political and security concerns of host nations. Coexisting calls of duty to defend at home and protect populations abroad raise a number of questions, including how do host citizens feature in military members’ understandings of military duty? Informed by the literatures on military intervention and cohesion, the study draws on semi-structured interviews with Swedish military members with experiences of international deployment to illustrate the relational qualities of military duty, and specifically explore the role of obligations to host citizens. In doing so, the study identifies a number of tensions between the general idea of military duty as principally defined by a commitment to national defense and the strength of interpersonal bonds and loyalties within the military organization, and military members’ sense of duty––perceived obligations––in the context of mission deployment.

  • 59.
    Ekman, Lisa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Fighting for Strangers?: Military Duty in Contemporary War2017In: Leadership in Extreme Situations / [ed] Michael Holenweger, Michael Karl Jager, and Franz Kernic, Springer, 2017, p. 167-180Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores the concept of military duty in the context of contemporary war. It focuses on the recent developments in the normative and strategic frameworks of Western military operations, which emphasize that mission effectiveness is largely dependent on the security and wellbeing of the local population. This has seemingly stretched the traditional notion of military duty, which is to master and apply organized military force to achieve political objectives and defeat the enemy on the battlefield. Based on empirical insights from the U.S. military and its recent missions in Iraq and Afghanistan, the chapter argues that this development has created tensions between political and military understandings of duty, as well as between organizational and individual notions of duty within the U.S. military. Conflicting notions of military duty hold important policy implications to both domestic civil-military relations and U.S. military power abroad because they challenge the integrity of political objectives and threaten military cohesion and unity of effort with regard to the management of local populations during war.

  • 60.
    Ekman, Lisa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Local Ties that Bind?: Exploring Noncombat Contact and Understandings of Military Duty in Afghanistan2021In: Journal of Global Security Studies, ISSN 2057-3170, E-ISSN 2057-3189, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1-19, article id ogaa014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary “population-oriented” military intervention and the objectives of protecting, supporting, and fighting alongside host-nation authorities and populations pose new challenges to Westernarmed forces’ traditionally combat-oriented understanding of duty. The article argues that militarypersonnel who engage in unarmed and nonthreatening interaction—noncombat contact—with hostcitizens are more likely to develop a stronger sense of duty—perceived obligations—toward the hostnation population. Interviews with US Army officers with experiences from Afghanistan show thatnoncombat contact with Afghan citizens led to increased willingness to safeguard the interests andwell-being of the Afghan population and adapt the mission accordingly.

  • 61.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Holmberg, AritaSwedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.Ångström, JanSwedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad betyder det svenska medlemskapet i den Europeiska Unionen för svensk säkerhets- och försvarspolitik? I vad består och vem bedriver svensk säkerhetspolitik idag? Vilka former tar sig svensk säkerhetspolitik? Vilka beröringspunkter finns med andra politikområden? Vad betyder det nordiska samarbetet? Frågorna ställs i den reviderade andra upplagan av "Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen" och analyseras utifrån en rad olika perspektiv; från teoretiska till praktiska, från militära till civila och från beslut till implementering.

  • 62.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Holmberg, Arita
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Svensk säkerhetspolitik i omdaning2015In: Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt, Arita Holmberg, Jan Ångström, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2015, 2, p. 265-277Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Hagen, Jamie J.
    et al.
    School of History, Anthropology, Philosophy and Politics, Queen’s University Belfast, (GBR).
    Wibben, Annick T.R.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Digital Media Team editorial2021In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 674-675Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Conclusions: the transformations of the future2016In: Transforming warriors: The Ritual Organization of Military Force / [ed] Peter Haldén och Peter Jackson, London: Routledge, 2016, p. 223-231Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Family Power: Kinship, War and Political Order in Eurasia, 500-20182020 (ed. 1st)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book demonstrates that elite families and political order evolved in symbiosis throughout European, Central Asian and Middle Eastern History. Noble families and royal dynasties were preconditions of stability and legitimacy of political orders. The state did not evolve in opposition to kinship-groups or to kinship-based principles of legitimacy. By re-telling the development of the state this book pinpoints exacly how kinship-based groups can both support and undermine political order. This book analyses Europe, the Middle East, Eurasian Steppe Polities, and the Ottoman Empire from the early Middle Ages to the present. The book pushes against conventional state-formation theory. Interdependence rather than conflict characterized the relation between powerful kinship groups and the political order. Hence, political science and sociology have overemphasised the coercive aspect of the state and the centrality of a monopoly of legitimate violence for the existence of political order. I offer a new understanding of successful political orders by emphasising co-operation with power elites in a common framework. Doing so in turn allows us to understand how to build stable polities today.

    Download (png)
    cover
  • 66.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    From Total to Minimal Transformation: German Oaths of Loyalty 1871-20142016In: Transforming Warriors: The Ritual Organization of Military Force / [ed] Peter Haldén och Peter Jackson, London: Routledge, 2016, p. 163-182Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter studies how three successive German societies constructed the boundary between peace and war: The German Empire (1871-1918), Nazi German (1933-45), and the Federal Republic of Germany (1949 –present). In each case the ritual of taking an oath of allegiance was central act, both collective and individual, in making an individual into a warrior. Oaths of allegiance have been a standard instrument in creating individual warriors and groups of warriors since at least antiquity. They are powerful tools of governmentality since they are means of controlling the conscience of a subject and linking personal salvation to compliance. In the Imperial and the Nazi period, taking the oath was considered a binding deed that transformed the individual and commanded his loyalty.

  • 67.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Heteronymous politics beyond anarchy and hierarchy: The multiplication of forms of rule 750-13002017In: Journal of International Political Theory, ISSN 1755-0882, E-ISSN 1755-1722, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 266-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anarchy and hierarchy are two central concepts of international relations theory but as conventionally defined they cannot describe political life for most of Western history. Neither concept describes the structure of medieval politics well. Rather, many different principles of differentiation existed simultaneously, both stratificatory and segmentary. The situation was closer to anarchy as understood as the absence of overarching principles of order rather than as ‘anarchy’ in the conventional sense used in international relations and absence of government. The power of the Popes over temporal rulers was considerable, but it never corresponded to the concept ‘hierarchy’ as conventionally understood either. Between c. 700 and c. 1300, Europe became more heteronymous as time went by, not less. More principles of differentiation were developed, and both Popes and kings became more powerful. The reinvention of the papacy after the ‘Investiture Controversy’ (1075–1122) created a system of law and practices in which European monarchs and realms were embedded, but it did not create an all-powerful papacy.

  • 68.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Kan dygdetiken bryta den "postheoriska" ängslan i 2000-talets risksamhälle?2017In: Mod i strid och filosofi: Dygdetiska perspektiv från Aristoteles till drönarkriget / [ed] Peter Haldén och Biörn Tjällén, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2017, p. 217-238Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Kan dygdetiken bryta den “postheoriska” ängslan i 2000-talets risksamhälle?2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Mod, dygd och militär habitus2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Organized Armed Groups as Ruling Organizations2018In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 606-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies of the cohesion of organized armed groups (OAGs) have made great progress, but they have mostly focused on units fighting for modern Western states. I argue that the study of OAGs that contain their own legitimacy requires a broadened theoretical framework. Such groups may be conceptualized as “ruling organizations” in Max Weber’s terminology. Examples of such groups range from early medieval warbands to modern militias and guerrillas. Members of ruling organizations obey commands for a combination of three reasons: rational, traditional, and charismatic—these in turn form the basis of the legitimacy of the organization. Pinpointing the foundations of obedience in a group provides us with another way of emphasizing weak points that we want to either target or reinforce. This study contributes theoretically to the study of cohesion by linking it to theories of legitimacy in political orders.

  • 72.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    "Respublikanism i mriovaya politika": politsentrichnyi poryadok i zaschita ot dominirovaniya2015In: Sovremennaya Respublikanskaya Teoriya Svobody / [ed] Evgeny Rochin, St Petersburg: European University at St. Petersburg, 2015, p. 293-326Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 73.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The Realm as a European Form of Rule: Unpacking the Warfare Thesis through the Holy Roman Empire2017In: Does War Make States?: Investigations of Charles Tilly's Historical Sociology / [ed] Lars Bo Kaspersen & Jeppe Strandsbjerg, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017, p. 154-180Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Haldén, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    War, modernity and the origins of civilization: the old and new strengths of sociology2015In: Journal of Political Power, ISSN 2158-379X, E-ISSN 2158-3803, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 141-144Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Haldén, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Jackson, Peter
    Stockholms universitet.
    Introduction: Symbolic and Mythological Perspectives on War and Peace join the Archaic with the Modern2016In: Transforming Warriors: The Ritual Organization of Military Force / [ed] Peter Haldén och Peter Jackson, London: Routledge, 2016, p. 1-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Haldén, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Jackson, PeterStockholms universitet.
    Transforming warriors: the ritual organization of military force2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    War changes people, however a less explored question is how different societies want people to change as they are turned into warriors. When societies go to war they recognize that a boundary is being crossed. The participants are expected to do things that are otherwise prohibited, or at least governed by different rules. This edited volume analyses how different cultures have conceptualized the transformations of an individual passing from a peacetime to a wartime existence to become an active warrior. Despite their differences, all societies grapple with the same question: how much of the individual’s peace-self should be and can be retained in the state of war? The book explores cases such as the Nordic berserkers, the Japanese samurai, and European knights, as well as modern soldiers in Germany, Liberia, and Sweden. It shows that archaic and modern societies are more similar than we usually think: both kinds of societies use myths, symbols, and rituals to create warriors. Thus, this volume seeks to redefine theories of modernization and secularization. It shows that military organizations need to take myths, symbols, and rituals seriously in order to create effective units.

  • 77.
    Haldén, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Karlborg, Lisa
    Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Esparraga, Francis
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Kulturarv i krig och konflikt: en forskningsöversikt2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Som denna forskningsöversikt visar finns det en hel del forskning om kulturarv i krig och konflikt inom statsvetenskap, kulturhistoria, juridik, historia m.fl. ämnen. Framför allt finns mycket forskning om de konsekvenser som krigen på Balkan under 1990-talet förde med sig för kulturarv och kulturskatter. Även kriget i Irak under 2000-talet och första och andra världskriget är väldokumenterade.Med tanke på den pågående katastrofen för kulturarvet i det östra Medelhavsområdet och den akuta risk som såväl islamiströrelsers verksamhet som bekämpandet av desamma utsätter kulturarvsplatser och föremål för över stora delar av den islamiska världen krävs dock mycket mer forskning. De nu pågående krigen aktualiserar en rad frågeställningar om hur kulturarv kan bevaras, skyddas men även exploateras i krig

  • 78.
    Haldén, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Tjällén, Biörn
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Inledning: Mod, dygd och militära miljöer2017In: Mod i strid och filosofi: Dygdetiska perspektiv från Aristoteles till drönarkriget / [ed] Peter Haldén och Biörn Tjällén, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Haldén, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Tjällén, BiörnMittuniversitetet.
    Mod i strid och filosofi: Dygdetiska perspektiv från Aristoteles till drönarkriget2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mod är en egenskap som hyllats i alla krigförande kulturer. Konsten, litteraturen och filosofin har ofta tagit upp modet som tema, både för att befästa ett militärt ideal och för att problematisera denna egenskap. Men vad är egentligen mod? Var går gränsen till övermod? Vad utmärker mod i strid, och kan man träna soldater att bli modiga? Dessa frågeställningar tar plats även i vår tid där krig och försvar diskuteras i dagens militära miljöer, och frågor om etik är lika aktuella som frågor om effektivitet.

    Mod i strid och filosofi studerar författarna historiska perspektiv på mod och dagsaktuell forskning kring strid och militär utbildning. Förr talade man om mod eller tapperhet som en av flera eftersträvansvärda dygder – idag talar man hellre om professionalism. Men hur mycket skiljer sig egentligen den moderna tidens militära ideal från de historiska? Kan vi lära oss något av den dygdetik som i århundraden användes för att forma modiga individer och tappra krigare?

  • 80.
    Hedström, Jenny
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Everyday Justice in Myanmar: Informal Resolutions and State Evasion in a Time of Contested Transition. Edited by Helene Maria Kyed. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2020. 367 pp.2021In: Sojourn, ISSN 0217-9520, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 358-361Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Hedström, Jenny
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    On violence, the everyday, and social reproduction: Agnes and Myanmar’s transition2021In: Peacebuilding, ISSN 2164-7259, E-ISSN 2164-7267, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 371-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article brings into conversation feminist political economy with critical studies in peace and conflict to examine how Myanmar’s transition is experienced though everyday gendered sites and with what consequences for women living in rural areas of the country, where lives are shaped as much by the actuality as the possibility of violence. The everyday is where these insecurities are felt, feared and negotiated. To illustrate this, I draw on the experiences of Agnes, a woman growing up within the context of prolonged conflict in rural Myanmar. I demonstrate how Agnes’s home, and her bodily labour and vulnerability, is at the locus of a gendered political economy (re)produced both within the home and at the national level. I show how the transition has for women like Agnes resulted in a continuation of insecurity, challenging the legitimacy of Myanmar’s neoliberal reform initiatives as a meaningful pathway towards sustainable peace and security. 

  • 82.
    Hedström, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Elisabeth, Olivius
    Umeå Universitet, (SWE).
    The politics of sexual violence in the Kachin conflict in Myanmar2021In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 374-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conflict-related sexual violence has been the focus of significant international activism and policy attention. International legal norms and frameworks have evolved to recognize it as a war crime, and a representation of sexual violence as a “weapon of war” is now widely endorsed. This article examines how international norms about conflict-related sexual violence are adopted and utilized in multiple ways in the armed conflict in Kachin state in northern Myanmar. Throughout decades of civil war, international norms on sexual violence have constituted key resources for international advocacy and awareness raising by local women’s rights activists. Further, activists have drawn on international norms to effect changes in gendered relations of power within their own communities. However, international norms on sexual violence in conflict have also been effectively used as tools for ethno-nationalist identity politics, rallying support behind the armed insurgency and mobilizing women’s unpaid labor in the service of war. Thus, international norms on conflict-related sexual violence have simultaneously opened up space for women’s empowerment and political agency and reproduced gendered forms of insecurity and marginalization. Exploring these contradictions and complexities, this analysis generates novel insights into the politics of international norms in contexts of armed conflict.

  • 83.
    Holmqvist-Jonsäter, Caroline
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Univ Libre Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium;Swedish Inst Int Affairs UI, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Always already war power, police power2015In: London Review of International Law, ISSN 2050-6325, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 329-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    War power and police power are, in Neocleous's rendition, always already intertwined. This short essay extracts the themes of time and temporality from Neocleous's text to ask how we might think political subjectivity and the possibility of resistance to the war machine.

  • 84.
    Jonsson, Oscar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Russian Information Warfare and its Challenges to International Law2019In: Routledge Handbook of War, Law and Technology / [ed] James Gow, Ernst Dijxhoorn, Rachel Kerr and Guglielmo Verdirame, London: Routledge, 2019, p. 339-353Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes how Russian information warfare is changing and what challenges the poses for international law. It outlines the particularities of the Russian understanding of warfare and what has shaped this understanding. The chapter reviews the development in the information-psychological and the information-technical aspects of information warfare respectively. The information-technical domain of information warfare is concerned with the machine-driven data components, the means of transmission, and the information infrastructure. The possibilities within international law to counter information-psychological warfare are quite meagre. In the Vilnius regional court in Lithuania, action has been taken against Russian information warfare. In the war in Ukraine, Russia has showed an effective and well-coordinated effort on the information warfare front. The success of Russian information warfare is a development resulting from the bitter experiences on the information front during the First Chechen War in 1994–1996.The character of contemporary warfare has recently undergone significant transformation in several important respects: the nature of the actors, the changing technological capabilities available to them, and the sites and spaces in which war is fought. These changes have augmented the phenomenon of non-obvious warfare, making understanding warfare one of the key challenges. Such developments have been accompanied by significant flux and uncertainty in the international legal sphere. This handbook brings together a unique blend of expertise, combining scholars and practitioners in science and technology, international law, strategy and policy, in order properly to understand and identify the chief characteristics and features of a range of innovative developments, means and processes in the context of obvious and non-obvious warfare. 

  • 85.
    Jonsson, Oscar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The Russian Understanding of War: Blurring the Lines between War and Peace2019 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book analyzes the evolution of Russian military thought and how Russia's current thinking about war is reflected in recent crises. While other books describe current Russian practice, Oscar Jonsson provides the long view to show how Russian military strategic thinking has developed from the Bolshevik Revolution to the present. He closely examines Russian primary sources including security doctrines and the writings and statements of Russian military theorists and political elites. What Jonsson reveals is that Russia's conception of the very nature of war is now changing, as Russian elites see information warfare and political subversion as the most important ways to conduct contemporary war. Since information warfare and political subversion are below the traditional threshold of armed violence, this has blurred the boundaries between war and peace. Jonsson also finds that Russian leaders have, particularly since 2011-12, considered themselves to be at war with the United States and its allies, albeit with non-violent means. This book provides much needed context and analysis to be able to understand recent Russian interventions in Crimea and eastern Ukraine, how to deter Russia on the eastern borders of NATO, and how the West must also learn to avoid inadvertent escalation.

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  • 86.
    Karlén, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Changing Commitments: Shifts in External State Support to Rebels2022In: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, E-ISSN 1743-968X, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 73-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The provision of external state support to non-state armed groups in civil wars is a dynamic process. The calculus of state sponsors varies over time, which means that assistance provided to the armed opposition fluctuates. While we know much about the initiation of external support and its effects, we know less about why state sponsorship changes over time. To address this, I propose a theoretical argument that can account for policy adjustments over time. The theory builds on the notion that leaders change their support commitment when there is adverse feedback and that support increases as long as the causes of policy failure can be attributed to external actors, while cutbacks occur when failure is attributed to the state sponsor’s own actions. Process-tracing is used to illustrate the value of this framework in a within-case analysis of the United States’ support commitment to the armed opposition in Nicaragua in the 1980s. The study demonstrates the utility of focusing on shifts in leaders’ perceptions and domestic attribution processes rather than structural features of the international system or rebel behavior to understand temporal variation in external support.

  • 87.
    Karlén, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Escalate to De-Escalate? External State Support and Governments’ Willingness to Negotiate2023In: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, ISSN 1057-610X, E-ISSN 1521-0731, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 1323-1344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policymakers sometimes argue that material assistance to rebels involved in a civil war can create a ‘ripe moment’ that is favorable for negotiations. Ripeness theory provides support for this idea. However, this notion has never been systematically assessed. This article evaluates this claim by using global data on negotiations in all intrastate armed conflicts from 1975 to 2009. Contrary to popular belief, the article demonstrates that external state support to rebel groups does not increase the prospect of negotiations. Instead, the results suggest that external support is likely to reduce the likelihood of negotiations between the warring parties, especially if the state sponsor is a great power. The study contributes to our understanding of civil war processes by demonstrating that military assistance hinders rather than promotes the onset of negotiations and by questioning the utility of ripeness theory as the most suitable framework for understanding this phenomenon.

  • 88.
    Karlén, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Rauta, Vladimir
    University of Reading, Reading, (GBR).
    Salehyan, Idean
    University of North Texas, Denton, (USA).
    Mumford, Andrew
    University of Nottingham, Nottingham, (GBR).
    San-Akca, Belgin
    Koç University, Istanbul, (TUR).
    Stark, Alexandra
    New America, Washington, (USA).
    Wyss, Michel
    Military Academy at ETH Zurich, Zurich, (CHE).
    Moghadam, Assaf
    Reichman University, Herzliya, (ISR).
    Duursma, Allard
    ETH Zurich, Zurich, (CHE).
    Tamm, Henning
    University of St Andrews, St Andrews, (GBR).
    Jenne, Erin K
    Central European University, Vienna, (AUT).
    Popovic, Milos
    Leiden University, Leiden, (NLD).
    Siroky, David S
    Arizona State University, Tempe, (USA).
    Meier, Vanessa
    University of Oxford, Oxford, (GBR).
    Chinchilla, Alexandra
    Dartmouth College, Hanover, (USA).
    Rickard, Kit
    University College London, London, (GBR).
    Spatafora, Giuseppe
    University of Oxford, Oxford, (GBR).
    Forum: Conflict Delegation in Civil Wars2021In: International Studies Review, ISSN 1521-9488, E-ISSN 1468-2486, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 2048-2078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This forum provides an outlet for an assessment of research on the delegation of war to non-state armed groups in civil wars. Given the significant growth of studies concerned with this phenomenon over the last decade, this forum critically engages with the present state of the field. First, we canvass some of the most important theoretical developments to demonstrate the heterogeneity of the debate. Second, we expand on the theme of complexity and investigate its multiple facets as a window into pushing the debate forward. Third, we draw the contours of a future research agenda by highlighting some contemporary problems, puzzles, and challenges to empirical data collection. In essence, we seek to connect two main literatures that have been talking past each other: external support in civil wars and proxy warfare. The forum bridges this gap at a critical juncture in this new and emerging scholarship by offering space for scholarly dialogue across conceptual labels.

  • 89.
    Krampe, Florian
    et al.
    Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SWE).
    Ekman, Lisa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Post-War Legitimacy: A Framework on Relational Agency in Peacebuilding2020In: Local Legitimacy and International Peacebuilding / [ed] Oliver P. Richmond & Roger Mac Ginty, Edinburgh University Press, 2020, p. 215-239Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing interest in the role of legitimacy in post-war societies as an indicator of social and political stability. In this chapter we propose an analytical framework that examines post-war peacebuilding processes by focusing on two central concepts: legitimacy and actors. We understand peacebuilding as rooted in the relationship between politics, namely the state in particular, and the wider society. Peacebuilding is the process wherein the structural-normative setup of the post-war state vis-à-vis society is renegotiated through various interactions between domestic state and non-state actors with, or without, the involvement of international or other external actors. The degrees to which this domestic relationship will be sustainable and peaceful is largely contingent on whether society finds it legitimate, or not. This understanding of legitimacy is important because it recognizes the importance of relational agency, which neither rejects the role and existence of the state, nor understates the agency of society in the process of rebuilding countries after internal armed conflict. Applying the framework on empirical insights from Afghanistan and Nepal, this chapter highlights the importance of relational agency and the perceived legitimacy of the domestic state-society relationship.

  • 90.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    A Conventional War: Escalation in the War in Donbas, Ukraine2021In: Journal of Slavic Military Studies, ISSN 1351-8046, E-ISSN 1556-3006, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 24-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The War in Donbas was in its early phases largely fought between non-state volunteer battalions and separatist forces. Yet unlike the expected theories of non-state actors, the war witnessed limited and symmetrical acts of escalation and rather conventional warfare. Building on primary Ukrainian sources, I argue that this limited escalation stems in part from shared cultural and military norms — a common normative framework — possessed by the belligerents. The contribution of this article is an empirical chronology of the War in Donbas, as well as a discussion of the influence of culture and norms in escalatory dynamics and use of force.

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  • 91.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    All krigföring är av hybrid natur2016In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 623-641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All Warfare is Hybrid.

    It has recently been argued that a new form of warfare – hybrid warfare – is fundamentally changing the way our enemies fight against us. This supposedly unprecedented form of warfare is characterized by the mixing of methods and ways of organization, as well as the blurring of the line between war and peace. This article argues that hybrid warfare is just the newest military buzzword around. While the concept highlights fundamental questions regarding war and democratic norms of civil-military relations, it provides no answers. Rather, it harks back to an imaginary past characterized by simpleness and clarity. A thorough reading of the extensive literature on modern warfare would show that the concept describes what has become the norm: all warfare is hybrid. As with other unclear concepts built on shaky foundations, it is difficult to see how hybrid warfare can contribute to better understanding or policymaking.

  • 92.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Department of Sociology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Broadening the Perspective on Military Cohesion2018In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 571-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is difficult to underestimate the importance of cohesion for armed groups or organizations specialized and engaged in organized violence. This article argues that the recent debate on military cohesion has been far too narrow as it focused on Western state militaries during the 20th and 21st centuries, and even then only on the microlevel. It is necessary to broaden the perspective in order to construct theories that encompass even the vast majority of armed groups—the non-Western, nonstate, and nonmodern. This article advocates two ways of doing so: the investigation of cases that belong to these three types and broadening analysis to two new levels of analysis—the meso-level of armed groups and the macro-level, which contains state and society. Cohesion is established through harmonizing these three levels, which necessitates including them in the analysis in the first place.

  • 93.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Bush generals and small boy battalions: military cohesion in Liberia and beyond2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    All organizations involved in war are concerned with military cohesion. Yet previous studies have only investigated cohesion in a very narrow manner, focusing almost solely on Western state militaries or on micro-level explanations. This dissertation argues for the need to broaden this perspective. It focuses on three classic sources of cohesion – coercion, compensation and constructs (such as identity and ideology) – and investigates their relevance in the Second Liberian Civil War (1999-2003). More specifically, this dissertation consists of an inquiry of how the conflict's three main military organizations – Charles Taylor’s Government of Liberia (GoL), the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD) and Movement for Democracy in Liberia (MODEL) – drew on these three sources to foster cohesion. Based on thirteen months of ethnographic fieldwork with former combatants, this dissertation contains five parts: an introduction, which focuses on issues of theory and method, and four essays that investigate the three sources of cohesion in the three organizations. Essay I focuses on the LURD rebels, and provides an insider account of their strategy. It shows that even decentralized movements like the LURD can execute strategy, and contends that the LURD fought its fiercest battles not against the government, but to keep itself together. Essay II focuses on coercion, and counters the prevailing view of African rebels’ extensive use of coercion to keep themselves together. Since extreme coercion in particular remained illegitimate, its use would have decreased, rather than increased, cohesion. Essay III investigates the government militias to whom warfighting was subcontracted. In a context characterized by a weak state and fragmented social organization, compensation may have remained the only available source of cohesion. Essay IV investigates identities as sources of cohesion. It argues that while identities are a powerful cohesive source, they must be both created and maintained to remain relevant. Taken together, this dissertation argues for a more comprehensive approach to the investigation of cohesion, and one that also takes into account mezzo- and macro-level factors.

  • 94.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Conflict chatnography: Instant messaging apps, social media and conflict ethnography in Ukraine2020In: Ethnography, ISSN 1466-1381, E-ISSN 1741-2714, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 71-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social media and instant messaging are fast becoming an integral part of contemporary life, and subsequently of ethnographic research. As ethnography is essentially a process defined by relations between people, this article investigates how online interaction influenced my relationships with the people I studied: Ukrainian volunteer battalions. Framed in a broader context of conflict ethnography, the resulting chatnography made access to informants tremendously easier, and allowed for remote data collection. Chatnography nevertheless exacerbated ethical challenges posed by study of armed conflict. The blending of offline and online also led to despatialization, and the blurring of personal and professional. This questions the traditional notion of the ‘field’, while more immediately threatening to limit my private life. While not a magic bullet, the convenience of chatnography means that it will be here for years to come. This article offers an attempt to investigate what this entails in practice.

  • 95.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Conflict Ethnography Goes Online: Chatnography of the Ukrainian Volunteer Battalions2020In: The Companion to Peace and Conflict Fieldwork / [ed] Roger Mac Ginty, Roddy Brett, Birte Vogel, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, p. 207-221Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses how conflict ethnography—ethnography attuned to the challenges of researching armed conflict—went online in my study of Ukrainian volunteer battalions. This online turn was both unexpected and exciting. While I had never been particularly interested in online research, social media and instant messaging nevertheless appeared to offer unforeseen opportunities for remotely researching a scantly studied conflict. In this chapter, I describe three revelatory moments that marked the rise, fall and plateau of the resulting chatnography, or the interaction through instant messaging apps and social media. Ultimately, I advocate caution when it comes to the use of digital methods in the study of armed conflict: while chatnography may be unavoidable, it can only work as one dimension of a broader ethnographic effort.

  • 96.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Contracting war in West Africa: cohesion and the business of war in Charles Taylor's LiberiaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the existing literature, compensation is often understood to be an inferior source of cohesion in military organizations. At the same time, African conflicts have especially been described as being driven by material factors. Through an investigation of the militia forces that fought for Charles Taylor’s Government of Liberia, this paper seeks to nuance these views. More specifically, it makes three claims. Firstly, the organization of these forces was looser than is often claimed in previous literature, which assumes tight and often coercive military patrimonialism. Resultantly, the militias did not enjoy the interpersonal bonds of solidarity that has dominated cohesion literature since the Second World War. Secondly, since Taylor chose to suppress attempts to build cohesion around ethnicity, it played a subordinate role in unifying the militias. Thirdly, Taylor instead relied on compensation, which allowed for the broad mobilization of forces. The combination of militias’ hopes of inclusion into the state patrimony and insufficient resources to realize this, left the cohesion of the militias fragile. Ultimately, this paper questions both whether Taylor had any choice but to resort to compensation in a context with weak state and fragmented social organization, but also whether the strategy is as inefficient as often thought.

  • 97.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Covid-19, Ebola, and the Ethnographic Distance2020Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 98.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Hoffman, Danny: Monrovia Modern. Urban Form and Political Imagination in Liberia2018In: Anthropos: Internationale Zeitschrift für Völker- und Sprachenkunde, ISSN 0257-9774, Vol. 113, no 2, p. 734-734Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 99.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Hybridisodan evoluutio ja sen seuraukset2021In: Sotilasaikakauslehti, no 7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [fi]

    Hybridisota on siitä harvinainen sotatieteellinen käsite, että sen ovat valjastaneet yleisesti käyttöön niin tutkijat, media kuin päätöksentekijätkin. Käsitteestä on kirjoitettu paljon, mutta keskustelussa on viime aikoina nähty harvoja tuoreita näkökulmia. Yksi olennainen ja tähänastisessa keskustellussa puuttunut näkökulma on hybridisodan evoluutio ja tämän seuraukset. Kirjoittaja käsittelee hybridisotakäsitteen alkuperää ja käsitteen laajentumista osana nykyaikaisen sodan sodankäynnin muutosta.

  • 100.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Department of Sociology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Introduction to the Armed Forces & Society Forum on Broadening the Perspective on Military Cohesion2018In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 563-570Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Armed Forces & Society forum concentrates on broadening the perspective on military cohesion. This introduction, and the five articles that it acts as a preamble to, argues for the need to widen the scope of the recent debate on military cohesion, which in part took place in this very journal. This debate narrowly focused on Western state militaries during the 20th and 21st centuries and even then on the microlevel. The articles in this issue contribute to this broadening by exploring military cohesion in non-Western or nonmodern contexts, as well as through new methods, thus individually and collectively suggesting new ways forward to further our understanding of military cohesion.

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