Change search
Refine search result
1234567 51 - 100 of 963
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard-cite-them-right
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 51.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Institutional influence on assessments: the institutional analysis and development framework applied to military intelligence2018In: The International Journal of Intelligence, Security, and Public Affairs, ISSN 2380-0992, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 47-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can we understand intelligence assessments and intelligence work? The intelligence literature offers several plausible causes of failures and the consequences of such failures. However, there is a direct lack of theories or frameworks that connect these variables, that is, there is an incomplete understanding of both how those variables interact and their underlying mechanisms. Failures as such do only give one part of the picture. Why intelligence succeed is equally if not more important to understand. The military intelligence service from an institutional perspective may help to give this understanding.

    This study connects these variables with Ostrom’s Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework, which yields a model to understand the mechanisms of institutional on the assessment and lays a foundation for a common terminology. The study uses the Swedish military intelligence institution active in Afghanistan between 2008 and 2012 as a case.

  • 52.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Military intelligence analysis: institutional influence2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligence is vital for the outcome of battles. As long as humans wage war, there will be a need for decision support to military and civilian leaders regarding adversaries or potential adversaries. However, the production of intelligence is neither easy nor without pitfalls. There is a need to better understand the predicaments of intelligence analysis.

    Intelligence is bureaucratically produced as well as socially constructed and created in a distinct cultural context. The ‘institution’ captures these three aspects of influence. Therefore, with a particular focus on military intelligence, this thesis aims to deepen the understanding regarding institutional influence on intelligence assessments. The literature regarding intelligence has grown steadily over the last three decades. However, theories and frameworks aimed to understand the phenomenon are still sparse. This is even more true for literature regarding contemporary military intelligence. This thesis intends to contribute to bridging these research gaps. This is done by studying the Swedish military intelligence institution from several different perspectives: its rules-in-use, shared beliefs, and the incoming stimuli primarily related to conducting threat assessments.

    More precisely the thesis investigates the use of quantitative methods, doctrines (i.e. the formal rules), and shared beliefs connected to epistemological assumptions and threat assessments. The main contribution of this thesis is that it establishes and describes a casual link between a military intelligence institution and an assessment, by drawing upon rulesin-use and belief systems and their effect on the mental model and consequently the perception of the situation connected to a cognitive bias, and thereby its effect on a given assessment. The thesis makes an effort to render intelligence studies more generalizable, by way of adopting the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework. The metatheoretical language of the IAD is a promising avenue for explaining and describing the institutional influence on intelligence assessments.

  • 53.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Pitfalls in Military Quantitative Intelligence Analysis: Incident Reporting in a Low Intensity Conflict2016In: Intelligence and national security, ISSN 0268-4527, E-ISSN 1743-9019, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 49-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incidents are the key data for several of the statistical reports and analyses created within the military intelligence community. This paper discusses factors that affect the utility of quantitative methods in military intelligence analysis when used in a low intensity conflict. The first half of the paper presents the general critique of the use of quantitative methods. The second half applies this critique to the case of incident reporting in Afghanistan.

  • 54.
    Bang, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Influences on threat assessment in a military context2016In: Defense and Security Analysis, ISSN 1475-1798, E-ISSN 1475-1801, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 264-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The anchoring effect is a well-studied subject. This article connects the effect with the rules-in-use within a military intelligence institution. Particularly the rules-in-use that dictate that an analyst takes his or hers starting point from recently conducted assessments of the specific area or threat. The threat assessment as well as the written assessment were affected. The results show that officers have an aversion to lower a previous given threat assessment. This gives that to understand risk assessment we not only need to understand the methods used, we also need to understand the institutions in which they are used. This is especially relevant for military intelligence as the assessments are conducted in an environment of high uncertainty.

  • 55.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Command and Control Section. Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    A Practitioners Guide for C2 Evaluations: Quantitative Measurements of Performance and Effectiveness2018In: ISCRAM 2018 Conference Proceedings: 15th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] Boersma, Kees; Tomaszewski, Brian, Rochester, NY, USA: Rochester Institute of Technology , 2018, p. 170-189, article id 1546Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative evaluations are valuable in the strive for improvements and asserting quality. However, the field of Command & Control (C2) evaluations are hard to navigate, and it is difficult to find the correct measurement for a specific situation. A comprehensive Scoping Study was made concerning measurements of C2 performance and effectiveness. A lack of an existing appropriate framework for discussing C2 evaluations led to the development of the Crisis Response Management (CRM) Matrix. This is an analysis tool that assigns measurements into categories, and each category display unique strengths, weaknesses and trends. The analysis yielded results proving to be too rich for a single article, thusly, this is the first of two articles covering the results. In this article, the Practitioners Guide focus on results valuable for someone interested in evaluating C2. Each evaluation has specific requirements that, for best result, ought to be reflected in the chosen measurement.

  • 56.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Observing Sensemaking in C2: Performance Assessment in Multi-Organizational Crisis Response2016In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] Andrea H. Tapia, Pedro Antunes, Victor A. Bañuls, Kathleen Moore & João Porto de Albuquerque, ISCRAM, 2016, Vol. Command and Control Studies, article id 1385Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A crisis can involve multiple organizations during high pressure events, and it is up to the Command & Control (C2) unit to provide direction and coordination for the response (Brehmer, 2006). Hard as this problem is, there is still no ‘one-solution’. Dissimilar organizations with very different methods seem to be able to master the problem. This paper presents the initial development of a new evaluation method for C2 in the context of multi-organizational crisis response. The data is collected at an emergency water exercise series conducted in several cities in Sweden. Each exercise involves multiple agencies and organizations, with up to 76 participants from 15 unique organizations/units. The analysis is brief, but presents the possibility of observing Sensemaking as it unfolds, and that generic behavioral patterns can be found. The existence of generic and observable behavior patterns suggests the possibility of assessing, and maybe even quantifying, Sensemaking performance in C2.

  • 57.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division. Linköping University.
    Berggren, Peter
    FOI.
    Nählinder, Staffan
    Linköping University.
    Granlund, Rego
    Santa Anna IT Research Institute, Sweden.
    Turcotte, Isabelle
    Laval University, Canada.
    Tremblay, Sébastien
    Laval University, Canada.
    Assessing development of team training2014In: ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings. Book of Papers / [ed] Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Mark S. Pfaff, Linda Plotnick, Patrick C. Shih, The Pennsylvania State University, USA , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Baudin, Arne
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Manöverkrigföring2009In: Tankar om fälttåg: en bok om fälttåg och den gemensamma stridens komplexitet / [ed] Peter Ahlström och Ulf Högström, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2009, p. 233-241Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Baudin, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Högström, Ulf
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Kallak, Jaak
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Sulocki, Charles
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Thunholm, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Handbok i taktikutbildning, Mark: Inklusive generella anvisningar för planering och genomförande av krigsspel, fältövningar och stabstjänstövningar2012Book (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Baudin, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Forsberg, Ronald
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Multinationella fälttåg: Ett styrkemässigt vågspel2009In: Tankar om Fälttåg: en bok om fälttåg och den gemensamma stridens komplexitet / [ed] Peter Ahlström och Ulf Högström, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2009, p. 141-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Belin, Jean
    et al.
    Chaire Economie de défense.
    Hartley, Keith
    University of York.
    Lefeez, Sophie
    IRIS.
    Linnenkamp, Hilmar
    SWP.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Masson, Hélène
    FRS.
    Maulny, Jean-Pierre
    IRIS.
    Ungaro, Alessandro
    IAI.
    Defence industrial links between EU and US2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission’s initiatives in the field of armament should lead to a deeper integration of European DTIBs in the coming years. In parallel, the links between European and American DTIBs take the form of technological and armament cooperation, and of capital links between European or American companies. This report aims at analysing the links between the US DTIB and the EU DTIB, and the consequences these links carry on cooperation between European DTIBs.

    These links vary by country. France has strived to preserve its strategic autonomy when developing its DTIB. Its technological and capability-related reliance on the United States has thus remained limited. Nonetheless, cooperation is sought when it is mutually beneficial while French companies seek to invest in the US market, as do other European DTIBs.

    The German DTIB was rebuilt belatedly after World War II, partly on the basis of French-German cooperation. German industry is now privatised and the scope of the German DTIB’s partnerships has widened to other European countries and to the US. The German supply chain is now well established in American armament programmes.

    The Italian DTIB has consistently pursued a policy of active cooperation, whether with the US or with EU member states. Links with the US have notably been built in the context of NATO and through bilateral agreements. In parallel, Italy has developed partnerships with European countries. Rome’s cooperation policy is thus inclusive, and has considered diverse factors such as political links, capability requirements, the need to develop certain technologies and to preserve industrial capabilities and jobs in Italy.

    The British DTIB has historically enjoyed deeper links with US industry, as a result of the cultural closeness between the UK and the US, and of the strategic proximity that dates back to the end of World War II. The links between US and UK DTIBs thus follow a model of strategic partnership. Nevertheless, the UK’s industrial and defence policy is also pursued within a European framework. The missile manufacturer MBDA is nowadays considered as the deepest model of transnational industrial and defence integration in Europe.

    While Sweden seeks to preserve its industrial capabilities in two sectors – submarines and military aircraft – it appears to be most technologically reliant on the US among the surveyed countries. It is worth noting also that these links are long-standing, dating back to the cold war and the Soviet threat, despite Sweden not being a NATO member state.

    The links with the US are thus very different from one country to another, and carry varying implications. While the costs of acquiring American equipment can be low despite their high technological grade, there are often constraints on their use and restrictions on technologies that will not be transferred, or that will be unusable for other partnerships.

    These links are also formalised through bilateral agreements promoting armament cooperation, as is the case for UK-Italian cooperation. For its part, Sweden has signed interstate agreements with the US in the field of technological cooperation.

    DEFENCE INDUSTRIAL LINKS BETWEEN EU AND US / September 2017

    3

    Since the European Council meeting in December 2013 and in its 2016 Global Strategy, the EU has set itself the task of developing "a certain degree of strategic autonomy" supposed to encourage greater competitiveness of European DTIBs.

    In order to promote the development of this European defence industrial policy, we must seek to ensure that the links between US and EU DTIB are mutually beneficial. To do this, two conditions must be met:

    -That the rules governing relations between US and EU DTIB be based on the principle of reciprocity and on equal rules of regulation of respective DTIBs.

    -That the rules governing relations between US and EU DTIB be defined in the context of a dialogue between the European Union and the United States and not bilaterally between each European country and the United States.

    Today the multiplication of bilateral agreements between the United States and European Union member states are potential obstacles to the establishment of a level playing field governing the relations between European DTIBs;

    There is also a lack of reciprocity and equal regulation of EU and US DTIB. This concerns different areas: access to advanced capabilities, unrestricted use of exported armament, access to cooperated technologies, rules governing investment in US and European companies, rules governing property rights over technologies, rules governing export controls.

    Organizing the transatlantic relationship in the field of armaments in order to have a more balanced and profitable relationship, can be achieved in two complementary ways.

    At the European level, the European Defence Research Program (EDRP) will have strong implications for the relations between the companies of the US DTIB and the EDTIB. The rules governing access to finance and the ownership of intellectual property rights (IPR), which will be adopted for collaborative R&T projects involving European defence companies, will result in a common framework governing the relationship between these companies and the US EDTIB: the more Europeans will collaborate among themselves in the field of defence research, the more they will be able to set common and mutually beneficial rules in their relationship with the United States.

    It may also be considered that some EU States will decide to engage in enhanced cooperation in the industrial defence field which could include the following rules:

    -Obligation to achieve a level of 30% R&T in common among the members of the enhanced cooperation, which means 10% more than the target that was defined 10 years ago by the European Defence Agency and that is regularly reminded in the objectives of the European Union;

    -Obligation to inform members of enhanced cooperation of agreements on defence R&T cooperation concluded with the United States so as to ensure compatibility of these agreements with existing agreements between members of enhanced cooperation. The objective is to prevent agreements with the United States from subsequently restricting the scope of existing agreements between European countries;

    DEFENCE INDUSTRIAL LINKS BETWEEN EU AND US / September 2017

    4

     

    -Obligation to systematically consider the acquisition of military equipment manufactured by one of the member countries of enhanced cooperation. This should be accompanied by reinforced security of supply rules;

    -The need to bring the export policies of the member states of the enhanced cooperation closer together.

    These rules, complementary with, and not contradictory to, those which are being defined at European Union level, would accelerate industrial defence consolidation in Europe and make it possible to consider on a more balanced, mutually equally beneficial, basis relations between the United States and the European Union in the field of armaments. These rules would also be inspired by political principles: to strengthen the strategic autonomy of the European Union when necessary. Far from forbidding cooperation between the US and the EU DTIB, such enhanced cooperation would be facilitated because cooperation between US EDTIB and EU DTIB would not be a brake on European cooperation, as it is currently still too often the case.

  • 62.
    Berg, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Nanostrukturell ytbeläggning på utsatta delar av marina drivlinor2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays naval units are participating in international missions, where new and in many cases tougher conditions will affect their propulsion.

     

    This essay deals with some of the now developed nanostructure coatings and gives a presentation of how the coatings could function on some exposed parts of the naval powertrain. The essay investigates the possibility that the coatings can be used as a protective layer that will reduce or prevent wear on selected parts of the naval powertrains. As a basis for the essay, nanotechnology is described, as well as different reasons that wear occurs and application techniques for coatings

     

    The conclusion is that nanostructured coatings can be applied and provide a much better result on hardness and wear resistance as of naval powertrains compared to micro-structural coatings, both for manufacturing and renovation.

     

    The essay presents a few examples of the military utility of the nanostructure coatings as well as suggestions for further research.

  • 63.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn J E
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Information and Aeronautical Systems, Linköping, Sweden.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Assessing the quality of Shared Priorities in teams using content analysis in a microworld experiment2017In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 128-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective, easy to use, and easy to comprehend assessment methods for measuring shared understanding in teams are hard to find. This paper describes an experiment where a measure called Shared Priorities, which is based on ranking of self-generated strategic items, is assessed. Trained teams were compared to non-trained teams in a dynamic problem-solving task. The maturity of the participating teams was also assessed using a content analysis measure. The Shared Priorities measure was used alongside other well-documented measures of team awareness based on self-rating. Results show that the Shared Priorities measure correlates with task performance and could also distinguish between trained and non-trained teams. However, the Shared Priorities measure did not correlate with the other team measures (cf. CARS – Crew Awareness Rating Scale – and DATMA – Distributed Assessment of Team Mutual Awareness), suggesting that it captures a different quality of teamwork than the self-rating measures. Further, the Shared Priorities measure was found to be easily administered.

  • 64.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    FOI.
    Johansson, Björn JE
    FOI.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University.
    The shared priorities measure as a way of assessing team strategic awareness: a bridge between self-assessment and the deep blue sea of field recordings2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, ACM Digital Library, 2014, p. 13-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective, easy to use, easy to comprehend, high face-validity assessment methods for measuring shared awareness in teams are hard to find. This paper describes an experiment where a new measure called Shared Priorities, which is based on ranking of self-generated strategic items, is tested. Trained teams were compared to non-trained teams in a dynamic problem-solving task in terms of performance and shared awareness. The shared priorities measure was used alongside other, well-documented measures of team awareness based on self-rating. The results show that the Shared Priorities measure correlate with performance and could also distinguish between trained and non-trained teams. However, the Shared Priorities measure did not correlate with the other team measures, suggesting that it captures a different quality of team work than the self-rating measures. Further, the shared priorities measure was found to be easily administered and gained a high user acceptance.

  • 65.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    FOI.
    Johansson, Björn JE
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Turcotte, Isabelle
    Laval University, Canada.
    Tremblay, Sébastien
    Laval University, Canada.
    Assessing team focused behaviors in emergency response teams using the shared priorities measure2014In: Proceedings of the 11th International ISCRAM Conference / [ed] S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih, Pennsylvania, USA: ISCRAM , 2014, p. 130-134Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work in progress paper is to report on the method development of the Shared Prioritiesmeasure to include content analysis, as a way of gaining a deeper understanding of team work incrisis/emergency response. An experiment is reported where the performance of six trained teams is comparedwith the performance of six non-trained teams. The experiment was performed using an emergency responsemicroworld simulation with a forest fire scenario. Dependent measures were simulation performance, the CrewAwareness Rating Scale (CARS), and content analysis. Trained teams performed better and scored higher onmeasures of team behaviors.

  • 66.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    FOI.
    Johansson, Björn JE
    FOI.
    Svensson, Erland
    Pensionerad.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Statistical modelling of team training in a microworld study2014In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Sage Publications, 2014, p. 894-898Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A command and control environment is a dynamic and complex setting with complicated technical systems where teams of operators interact to reach shared goals. This study presents an experiment in which we, by means of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), explain the relations between basic concepts of command and control environments: mental workload, frustration, situational awareness, and performance. This paper reports a LISREL analysis of the Baroutsi, Berggren, Nählinder, & Johansson (2013) data. From that data, a new latent variable “Frustration” emerges, which now can be included in the model.

  • 67.
    Berglund, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Uppsala University.
    Persson, Anders
    Uppsala University.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University.
    Manufacturing Miniature Langmuir probes by Fusing Platinum Bond Wires2015In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 25, no 10, article id 105012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a novel method for manufacturing microscopic Langmuir probes with spherical tips from platinum bond wires by fusing for plasma characterization in microplasma sources. Here, the resulting endpoints, formed by droplets on the ends of a fused wire, are intended to act as spherical Langmuir probes. For studying the fusing behavior, bond wires were wedge bonded over a 2 mm wide slit, to emulate the final application, and fused with different voltages and currents. For electrical isolation, a set of wires were coated with a 4 μm thick layer of Parylene before they were fused. After fusing, the gap size, as well as the shape and area of the ends of the remaining stubs were measured. The yield of the process was also investigated, and the fusing event was studied using a high-speed camera for analyzing its dynamics. Four characteristic tip shapes were observed: spherical, folded, serpentine shaped and semi-spherical. The stub length leveled out at  ~400 μm as the fusing power increased. The fusing of the coated wires required a higher power to yield a spherical shape. Finally, a Parylene coated bond wire was integrated into a stripline split-ring resonator (SSRR) microplasma source, and was fused to form two Langmuir probes with spherical endpoints. These probes were used for measuring the IV characteristics of a plasma generated by the SSRR. In a voltage range between  −60 V and 60 V, the fused stubs exhibited the expected behavior of spherical Langmuir probes, and will be considered for further integration.

  • 68.
    Bergström, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    Tyskt operativt tänkande: del 22009In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 6, p. 73-104Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Bergström, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    Tyskt operativt tänkande efter 1945: del 12009In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 5, p. 63-88Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Bhatt, Parth
    et al.
    Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brasilien.
    Yano, Edgar Toshiro
    Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brasilien.
    Amorim, Joni
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Gustavsson, Per
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division. George Mason University, USA.
    A Cyber Security Situational Awareness Framework to Track and Project Multistage Cyber Attacks2014In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Cyber Warfare & Security, Academic Conferences Limited, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Bhatt, Parth
    et al.
    Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brasilien.
    Yano, Edgar Toshiro
    Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brasilien.
    Gustavsson, Per
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Towards a Framework to Detect Multi-Stage Advanced Persistent Threats Attacks2014In: Service Oriented System Engineering (SOSE), 2014 IEEE 8th International Symposium, IEEE Computer Society, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detecting and defending against Multi-Stage Advanced Persistent Threats (APT) Attacks is a challenge for mechanisms that are static in its nature and are based on blacklisting and malware signature techniques. Blacklists and malware signatures are designed to detect known attacks. But multi-stage attacks are dynamic, conducted in parallel and use several attack paths and can be conducted in multi-year campaigns, in order to reach the desired effect. In this paper the design principles of a framework are presented that model Multi-Stage Attacks in a way that both describes the attack methods as well as the anticipated effects of attacks. The foundation to model behaviors is by the combination of the Intrusion Kill-Chain attack model and defense patterns (i.e. a hypothesis based approach of known patterns). The implementation of the framework is made by using Apache Hadoop with a logic layer that supports the evaluation of a hypothesis.

  • 72.
    Björeman, Carl
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Var vi redo ?: Svenska armén under kalla kriget2013Book (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Björkaman, Torsten
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Officer: yrke eller profession2010Report (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Björkaman, Torsten
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Melin, Mertil
    Wikström, Niklas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Finlands militärstrategiska ledning och organisering2010Report (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Björkman, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Akademiseringen av officersutbildningen: En lång och krokig väg?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Akademiseringen av officersyrket i Sverige fick sitt genombrott när Försvarshögskolan fick examensrätt 2007. Föreliggande uppsats syftar till att undersöka akademiseringsprocessen inom Försvarsmakten och, om görligt, beskriva vilka konsekvenser och möjligheter akademiseringen gav. Ett vidare syfte är att beskriva vilka bevekelsegrunder som förelåg beslutet att akademisera officersutbildningen.

    Frågeställningarna är följande: Hur kan, utifrån valda huvuddokument och handlingar, akademiseringen av officersprofessionen i Sverige beskrivas? Vilka jämförelser gjordes med andra nationer och vilka effekter, vilken påverkan, fick detta för framtagandet av strukturen för Försvarshögskolans nuvarande militära utbildningar? Om vi betraktar officersutbildningen som en akademisk yrkesexamen, hur skulle då en alternativ utbildning med en civil akademisk examen och en kortare militär yrkesutbildning kunna vara uppbyggd?

    Arbetsmetoden är att kritiskt undersöka innehållet i källmaterialet och som mätinstrument används statsvetaren Nils Andréns teoretiska modell för säkerhetspolitisk analys. Arbetet utgår från hypotesen att långsiktiga politiska beslut avseende Försvarsmakten grundas på objektivitet och rationalitet.

    Undersökningen visar att akademiseringsprocessen löpt i två parallella spår med sinsemellan skilda motiv och tidsrymder. Vidare visar arbetet att jämförelser med andra nationer gjordes och att intryck från dessa, främst avseende att utbildningen skall vara akademisk, togs tillvara. Resultatet från undersökningen tyder också på att en civil akademisk examen och en kortare militär utbildning sannolikt inte är en lämplig modell för officersutbildning. Hypotesen visar sig kunna falsifieras, vilket tyder på att långsiktiga politiska beslut avseende Försvarsmakten inte alltid fattas på objektiva och rationella grunder.

  • 76.
    Björkman, Torsten
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies.
    Linje- och stabsorganisering2018In: Militära arbetsmetoder: en lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm, Jerker Widén, Niklas Wikström, Malmö: Universus Academic Press , 2018, p. 193-233Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Björkman, Torsten
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Melin, Mertil
    Wikström, Niklas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Den svenska försvarsmaktens högkvarter: analys av dess storlek och sammansättning2009Report (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Björkman, Torsten
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Melin, Mertil
    Wikström, Niklas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Den svenska försvarsmaktens högkvarter är inte större än våra grannländers2009In: Vårt Försvar, ISSN 0042–2800, no 3, p. 18-19Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 79.
    Björnehed, Emma
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Praktisk examination och examination av praktik: möjligheter och begränsningar2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om praktisk examination och hur man kan och bör examinera praktik är någonting som under en längre tid har varit uppe för diskussion på Försvarshögskolan (FHS). Denna artikel syftar till att diskutera möjligheter och begränsningar med praktisk examination. Fokus kommer att vara på utbildningen av officerare inom det ämne författarna verkar – krigsvetenskap. Artikeln tar sig an frågan med utgångspunkt i gällande rättsläge, högskolepedagogisk forskning- och praktik. Det övergripande syftet är att förstå vad man faktiskt får göra, hur det sker rättssäkert och hur det kan göras i praktiken. Artikeln diskuterar även vad som bör examineras praktiskt och hur detta då skall göras.

  • 80.
    Brandow, Carina
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Gustafson, Michael
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Irreguljär krigföring: Ledarskapsutmaningar vid olika taktiktyper2014Report (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Command and Control Research is a ”Science of the Artificial”2008In: Proceedings of the 13th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (13th ICCRTS), 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Command Without Commanders2009In: Proceedings of the 14th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    From Function to Form in the Design of C2 Systems2009In: Proceedings of the 14th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, Washington, D.C, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 84.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Harmony Rather than Unity:  A Command Concept for Complex Endeavours2011In: 16th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposia (ICCRTS): Collective C2 in Multinational Civil-Military Operations / [ed] CCRP, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses concepts of command for complex endeavors. The traditional concepts of Unity of Command and Unity of Effort are found wanting, the former because there is no single individual in command of a complex endeavor, the latter because there is often no time to develop the comprehensive plan required, and if there is time, it is nevertheless difficult because different organizations have different planning methods and different planning cultures. A new command concept, based on our experience from studies of peace support operations is proposed. It is called Harmony of Efforts and it is a C2 concept for complex endeavors that involve a number of organizations, each of which does what it usually does, and for which there is no one commander with authority to enforce unity of command or unity of effort. Under these circumstances, Harmony of Efforts is all that one can hope for. The command concept of Harmony of Efforts specifies the spirit in which C2 issues should be approached, which is cooperation, the method to be used, which is negotiation, and the substance of C2, i.e., what C2 can usefully be concerned with in complex endeavors, which is the management of interfaces between organizations.

  • 85.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Hur man åstadkommer en snabbare Ooda-loop: Överste Boyds syn på ledning2008In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 4, p. 42-68Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Insatsledning: ledningsvetenskap hjälper dig att peka åt rätt håll2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ämnet ledningsvetenskap har utvecklats för att bidra till utvecklingen av nya och bättre ledningssystem för militära och civila insatser. En viktig orsak till att ämnet kom till var de nya möjligheter inom ledningsområdet som blev följden av utvecklingen inom informationsteknologin. Ledningsvetenskap är en designvetenkap och begreppet designvenskap och vad som utmärker en sådan vetenskap till skillnad från en natur-, samhälls- eller beteendevetenskap diskuteras i boken. Boken är en lägesrapport. Den beskriver hur långt utvecklingen inom ämnet har hunnit under dess första femton år vid Försvarshögskolan. Syftet med boken är främst att ge en teoretisk grund för ämnet. Den beskriver grundläggande problem inom ledning av insatser, de lösningar dessa problem har fått och de kostnader som är förknippade med lösningarna. Diskussionen sker utifrån det som är ledningsvetenskapens speciella perspektiv, nämligen informationsperspektivet: vilken information som finns eller som kan (eller inte kan) göras tillgänglig och hur tillgänglig information används för att åstadkomma den inriktning och samordning som är ledningsfunktionens produkt i insatsen Boken ger också olika begrepp som skall göra det möjligt att diskutera ledning på ett ordnat sätt. Boken är skriven inte bara för att introducera ämnet utan också för att kunna tjäna som en första lärobok i ledningsvetenskap som ämnet utvecklats vid Försvarshögskolan.

  • 87.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Vad kan man åstadkomma med ledning när man möter en överlägsen fiende?2016In: Operativ ledning: Slutrapport 2013-2015 / [ed] Isabell Andersson, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 88.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Vad är ledningsvetenskap?2008In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 1, p. 43-72Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 89.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Kuylenstierna, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Toward an understanding of the commander´s "coup d´oeil"2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 90.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Kuylenstierna, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Rydmark, Joacim
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Olsson, Sten-Olof
    Försvarsmakten, Markstridsskolan.
    Towards Understanding the Commander´s "Coup d´Oeil". Part 22011In: 16th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposia (ICCRTS).: Collective C2 in Multinational Civil-Military Operations, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the second paper in a series where we try to understand what Clausewitz called the commander’s “coup d’oeil”, i.e., the ability to understand the situation on the battle field at a glance. We employ a standard paradigm from research on expertise where participants study a scenario and then reproduce it from memory. Last year we reported results consistent with other results from studies of expertise, viz., that experts recall meaningful scenarios better than meaningless scenarios whereas novices recall both types of scenarios equally badly. This year, we report four follow-up experiments. The first two study ex-perts’ and novices’ recall of scenarios after having seen how the scenario de-veloped over time and we do so under two conditions, one where the scenario develops violating constraints on how military units should move and one where they do not in an attempt to distinguish between two possible explana-tions for last year’s results: The constraints hypothesis and the pattern match-ing hypothesis. The results show that both experts perform better than novices but that both groups recall scenarios where the development did not violate constraints better than scenarios where the development violated constraints. We interpret these results as support for the constraints hypothesis. In Experi-ments 2 and 3 we vary the time allowed for inspecting static scenarios on the interpretation of these scenarios with both expert and novice participants. The results show that a short time for inspection affects the interpretation by novic-es to a greater extent than it affects the interpretation by experts, as was pre-dicted by Clausewitz. We interpret this to mean that novices and experts achieve their understanding of a military scenario in different ways.

  • 91.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Naehlinder, Staffan
    Achieving what cannot be done: Coping with the time constants in a dynamic decision task by doing something else2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 359-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how people handle the time constants in dynamic decision tasks, using a microworld called NEWFIRE which simulates forest fire fighting. The results showed that the participants did not adapt to the time constants, as shown by the fact that they did not discriminate between fires requiring different number of fire fighting units when varying the number of fire fighting units was a means of compensating for the time constants. If they were allowed to move units before the fire started their performance improved, suggesting that they could compensate for their problems with the time constants by restructuring the task in such a way that they did not need to consider them. It is suggested that such restructuring may well be how people handle dynamic tasks also in other circumstances, and that more effort should be put into studying what people actually do in dynamic tasks, rather than into only assessing whether or not they perform optimally.

  • 92.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Thunholm, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    C2 after contact with the adversary – Execution of military operations as dynamic decision making, (paper 091)2011In: Proceedings to 16th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium: Collective C2 in Multinational Civil-Military Operations, / [ed] Command and Control Research Program (CCRP), 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 93.
    Bruzelius, Nils
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    The Deployment of the Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarines and US Policy towards Scandinavia2008In: Stockholm Contributions in Military-Technology 2007 / [ed] Martin Norsell, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2008, p. 35-48Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Bruzelius, Nils
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Unilaterally if necessary: One motive behind the American Security guarantee to Sweden2008In: Tidskrift i Sjöväsendet, ISSN 0040-6945, no 1, p. 50-66Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 95.
    Bruzelius, Nils
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bäck, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Eklund, Jonas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Heilert, Kenny
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Stensson, Patrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Svantesson, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Lärobok i Militärteknik, vol. 5: Farkostteknik2010Book (Other academic)
  • 96.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Computer Security Training: A Military Officer Case Study2008In: Stockholm Contributions in Military-Technology 2007 / [ed] Martin Norsell, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2008, p. 49-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 97.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Using AI and games for decision support in command and control2007In: Decision Support Systems, ISSN 0167-9236, E-ISSN 1873-5797, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 1454-1463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developers of tomorrow's command and control centers are facing numerous problems related to the vast amount of available information obtained from various sources. On a lower level, huge amounts of uncertain reports from different sensors need to be fused into comprehensible information. On a higher level, representation and management of the aggregated information will be the main task, with prediction of future course of events being the uttermost goal. Unfortunately, traditional agent modeling techniques do not capture situations where commanders make decisions based on other commanders' reasoning about one's own reasoning. To cope with this problem, we propose a decision support tool for command and control situation awareness enhancements based on game theory for inference and coupled with traditional AI methods for uncertainty modeling.

  • 98.
    Bull, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Eliasson, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    An Experimental Approach to Improve on the Situational Awareness of Soldiers Transported in an Armored Vehicle2011In: Stockholm Contributions in Military-Technology 2010 / [ed] Åke Sivertun, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2011, 1, p. 95-106Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inside armored vehicles, such as e.g. Hägglunds CV90 or Mowag Piranha, the possibilities for looking out are rather limited. That is especially true for the soldiers being transported inside the personnel compartment. Because of this, the soldiers are in effect expected to put themselves into harms way with very limited knowledge of what is happening outside the vehicle. One possible way to improve the situational awareness inside an armored vehicle is to have screens showing live images of the outside environment. The current investigation utilizes a set of carefully placed cameras connected to screens streaming live images inside the vehicle. It is found that this will significantly improve the situational awareness of the soldiers inside the armored vehicle. Field trials conducted in a realistic environment show that a careful placement of the cameras and the screens will increase the safety, and the efficiency, of the soldiers when they dismount the vehicle. 

  • 99.
    Bull, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Eliasson, Per
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Tactical Optical Information System: improving the situational awareness inside an APC2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 100.
    Bull, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Ögren, Petter
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Grahn, P.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Hillerström, G.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Johansson, P.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Jändel, M.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Karlholm, J.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Karlsson, R.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Lundgren, L.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Mårtensson, T.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Nilsson, P.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Näsström, F.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Rensfelt, A.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Robinson, J.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Schubert, J.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Sparf, M.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Svenmarck, P.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Thoren, P.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Ulvklo, M.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Förstudie obemannade farkoster2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Unmanned vehicles are being used in many conflicts around the world today. This report gives a broad overview of the field of unmanned vehicles, and includes suggestions of how a future research activity within the field might look like.

    The overview is focussed on both systems and capabilities, as well as activities that are relevant for the Swedish Armed forces. By applying the capability areas defined in the armed forced development plan (FMUP) to both commercial systems and possible scenarios, we strive to limit the scope of the report to the most relevant topics.

    The recommendations are based upon a review of the development documents of the Swedish Armed Forces, as well as visits to units operating unmanned systems today, and the overview described above. The suggestions are as fol- lows. Broad, cross-disciplinary projects focussing on system types, e.g. UAV, UGV etc, should be formed. These should be interacting with the procure- ment process, and different level of planning activities. They should also bring together competencies across FHS and FOI, survey current research state-of- the-art, through competitions, conferences and collaborations, and transfer the results to the armed forces through demonstrations and simulations of sys- tems and subsystems. Simulations in particular are well suited to illustrate the benefits and drawbacks of a particular unmanned systems, as the interaction with such systems is mostly carried out through the computers of the control stations, even for the real systems. In this way, participants from the armed forces can get a feeling for both threats and possibilities associated with the different future and contemporary systems, which will be of use to both tactic development and procurement activities.

1234567 51 - 100 of 963
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard-cite-them-right
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf