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  • 51.
    Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik
    et al.
    Bournemouth University.
    Gunneriusson, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Terrorism and cyber attacks as hybrid threats: defining a comprehensive approach for countering 21st century threats to global peace and security2014In: Journal on terrorism and security analysis, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 26-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multimodal, low intensity, kinetic as well as non-kinetic threats to international peace and security including cyber war, low intensity asymmetric conflict scenarios, global terrorism, piracy, transnational organized crime, demographic challenges, resources security, retrenchment from globalization and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction were identified by NATO as so called "Hybrid Threats" (cf BI-SC Input for a New NATO Capstone Concept for The Military Contribution to Countering Hybrid Enclosure 1 to 1500/CPPCAM/FCR/10-270038 and 5000 FXX/0100/TT-0651/SER: NU0040, dated 25 August 2010). This submission aims to introduce the audience to this form of security threat with a particular focus on "cyber" terrorism and war. This new form of conflict in the fifth dimension has a truly hybrid risk potential and warrants a new holistic counter approach: from law enforcement, counter cyber strategies to kinetic responses. The authors will present the findings of an ongoing Hybrid Threat experiment, which is being undertaken at the Swedish Defence College, with a focus on the role of cyber attacks within the wider context of asymmetric conflict and how the existing legal framework governing the use of force and the law applicable to hostilities does not necessarily reflect on this new form of threat.

  • 52.
    Backlund, Karl
    Swedish Defence University.
    Svenskt offensivt agerande: En enfallstudie av den svenska insatsen i Afghanistan 2009–20122018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This case-study examines the Swedish armed forces in Afghanistan between 2009 and 2012. The aim of this study is to explore how it comes that an organization that is promoting security and stabilizing operations in a post conflict setting in northern Afghanistan gaudily turns in to an aggressive fighting force. The analytic framework is based on Theo Farrells theory of military adaption as well as Lauren Wilcox’s theory of the role of gender as an explanation of military organisations offensive bias. The results show that the Swedish behaviour should be understood as a combination of adaption to demands form allied forces, a result of pollical will to achieve national political goals and a strong offensive bias.

  • 53.
    Baehrendtz, Ludvig
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hur används stridsflyget i Afghanistan?: Och tillämpas de lärdomar som Corum och Johnson har dragit avseende användandet av luftmakt inom irreguljära konflikter?2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 7 oktober 2001 startade kriget i Afghanistan, en konflikt som idag har pågått i nästan 12 år. Målet med operationen var att driva den talibanska ledningen från makten, samt att tillfångata Usama bin Ladin och andra ledare inom al-Qaida och därmed få ett slut på den säkra tillflyktsort som al-Qaida och andra terroristgrupper haft i Afghanistan.

    Corum och Johnson är två militärteoretiker som har forskat inom användandet av luftmakt i irreguljära konflikter. Dessa två har i sin bok Airpower in Small Wars formulerat 11 lärdomar som de anser att man bör ha i beaktning då man använder luftmakt i irreguljära konflikter. Fem av dessa lärdomar går att applicera direkt vid en analys på stridsflygsfunktionen, medan de andra sex behandlar områden som strategi, lufttransport och utbildning.

    I analysen framkommer det att vissa av dessa fem lärdomar går till stor del att skönja i hur stridsflyget har använts i kriget i Afghanistan, medan andra har tillämpats i mindre omfattning. De två punkter där utvecklingspotentialen bedöms vara hög avseende nyttjandet av stridsflyget är inom Undvika civila offer samt Använda markmålsoperationer vid konventionell krigföring. De tre andra lärdomar som har använts i analysen; Viktig roll för tekniskt avancerade flygsystem och vapen, Väl tillämpad jointförmåga samt Irreguljära krig är underrättelseintensiva ser man användas i större utsträckning, dock med visst utrymme för förbättring även här.

  • 54.
    Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Antonina
    et al.
    Stockholm universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Michalski, AnnaUppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sverige.Nilsson, NiklasSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.Oxelheim, LarsAgder universitet, Kristianstad, Norge; Rsearch Institute of Industrial Economics, Stockholm, Sverige; Lund universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    The European Union: Facing the Challenge of Multiple Security Threats2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book addresses the challenges presented to the EU by an increasingly complex security environment. Through the interdisciplinary approach taken, researchers in economics, law and political science identify a range of problems relating to the multiple security threats that the EU faces, and present new means to address them within their respective fields of expertise. The contributions provide accessible and policy-relevant analyses of crucial challenges to the EU’s ability to function as a political union in the years ahead. 

  • 55.
    Bang, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Influences on threat assessment in a military context2016In: Defense and Security Analysis, ISSN 1475-1798, E-ISSN 1475-1801, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 264-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The anchoring effect is a well-studied subject. This article connects the effect with the rules-in-use within a military intelligence institution. Particularly the rules-in-use that dictate that an analyst takes his or hers starting point from recently conducted assessments of the specific area or threat. The threat assessment as well as the written assessment were affected. The results show that officers have an aversion to lower a previous given threat assessment. This gives that to understand risk assessment we not only need to understand the methods used, we also need to understand the institutions in which they are used. This is especially relevant for military intelligence as the assessments are conducted in an environment of high uncertainty.

  • 56. Banic, Filip
    OM DU VILL HA FRED, RUSTA FÖR CYBERKRIG: sveriges cyberförsvar ur ett avskräckningsperspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In accordance with the EU Network and Information Security directive (NIS directive), the Swedish government made it mandatory for specific authorities and organizations to report IT-related incidents to the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB). In their report from 2017, MSB stated that due to the low frequency of incoming information, the report doesn’t give an accurate picture of the actual circumstances. The same year the European Commission adopted a cybersecurity package containing multiple initiatives aimed to further better member states resilience, deterrence and handling of cyber-attacks. Due to the insufficient information in MSBs’ report, it´s difficult to determine whether the Swedish cyber defence has the ability to deter antagonistic states to conduct cyber operations or not.

     

    The purpose of this theory-consuming single-case study was to examine the Swedish cyber defence from a deterrence perspective and thereby provide new understanding regarding Swedens’ ability to deter within the cyber domain. To do this, a conceptual framework was constructed constituting of  Phil Williams’ theory on the requirements of successful deterrence, and David J. Lonsdales’ model for cyber deterrence. Contemporary Swedish political documents, doctrines, reports and statements made up the empirical material that has been examined through qualitative text analysis.

     

    The result of the analysis revealed that the Swedish cyber defence, from a deterrence perspective, can be described as inadequate. Despite meeting the basic requirements for deterrence to succeed, the Swedish cyber defence lacks what Lonsdale calls a comprehensive flexible cross-domain offensive capability. The absence of a cross-domain retaliatory capability in the Swedish cyber defence repertoire has a negative incidental impact on deterrence credibility. According to Williams, it’s imperative that the defender possess necessary capabilities to fulfil a threat, otherwise the deterrence won’t seem credible and therefor lack effectiveness.

  • 57.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Command and Control Section. Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    A Practitioners Guide for C2 Evaluations: Quantitative Measurements of Performance and Effectiveness2018In: ISCRAM 2018 Conference Proceedings: 15th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] Boersma, Kees; Tomaszewski, Brian, Rochester, NY, USA: Rochester Institute of Technology , 2018, p. 170-189, article id 1546Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative evaluations are valuable in the strive for improvements and asserting quality. However, the field of Command & Control (C2) evaluations are hard to navigate, and it is difficult to find the correct measurement for a specific situation. A comprehensive Scoping Study was made concerning measurements of C2 performance and effectiveness. A lack of an existing appropriate framework for discussing C2 evaluations led to the development of the Crisis Response Management (CRM) Matrix. This is an analysis tool that assigns measurements into categories, and each category display unique strengths, weaknesses and trends. The analysis yielded results proving to be too rich for a single article, thusly, this is the first of two articles covering the results. In this article, the Practitioners Guide focus on results valuable for someone interested in evaluating C2. Each evaluation has specific requirements that, for best result, ought to be reflected in the chosen measurement.

  • 58.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Observing Sensemaking in C2: Performance Assessment in Multi-Organizational Crisis Response2016In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] Andrea H. Tapia, Pedro Antunes, Victor A. Bañuls, Kathleen Moore & João Porto de Albuquerque, ISCRAM, 2016, Vol. Command and Control Studies, article id 1385Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A crisis can involve multiple organizations during high pressure events, and it is up to the Command & Control (C2) unit to provide direction and coordination for the response (Brehmer, 2006). Hard as this problem is, there is still no ‘one-solution’. Dissimilar organizations with very different methods seem to be able to master the problem. This paper presents the initial development of a new evaluation method for C2 in the context of multi-organizational crisis response. The data is collected at an emergency water exercise series conducted in several cities in Sweden. Each exercise involves multiple agencies and organizations, with up to 76 participants from 15 unique organizations/units. The analysis is brief, but presents the possibility of observing Sensemaking as it unfolds, and that generic behavioral patterns can be found. The existence of generic and observable behavior patterns suggests the possibility of assessing, and maybe even quantifying, Sensemaking performance in C2.

  • 59.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division. Linköping University.
    Berggren, Peter
    FOI.
    Nählinder, Staffan
    Linköping University.
    Granlund, Rego
    Santa Anna IT Research Institute, Sweden.
    Turcotte, Isabelle
    Laval University, Canada.
    Tremblay, Sébastien
    Laval University, Canada.
    Assessing development of team training2014In: ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings. Book of Papers / [ed] Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Mark S. Pfaff, Linda Plotnick, Patrick C. Shih, The Pennsylvania State University, USA , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Baudin, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Elg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Högström, Ulf
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Kallak, Jaak
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Sulocki, Charles
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Thunholm, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Handbok i taktikutbildning, Mark: Inklusive generella anvisningar för planering och genomförande av krigsspel, fältövningar och stabstjänstövningar2012Book (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Beck, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Ledningsfilosofi i luftvärnet: Uppdragstaktik - Från decentralisering till centralisering2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    War is nothing but a duel on an extensive scale, an act of violence to compel our opponent to fulfil our will.

    The aim of the action in war is to disarm the enemy. If our opponent is to be made to comply with our will, we must place him in a situation which is more oppressive to him than the sacrifice which we demand. Every change in this position which is produced by a continuation of the war, should therefore be a change for the worse. Many theories and doctrines are based on this truth. To succeed to place our opponent in an adverse situation one must lead the battle and do it faster than the opponent. This is also what Colonel Boyd saw in his studies of the air fights during the war in Korea. The OODA loop or Boyd’s cycle is now a basic theory of maneuver warfare. William S. Lind writes in his handbook in maneuver warfare that the purpose itself of maneuver warfare is to go through the OODA loop faster than your enemy. As remark number 1 in the guidance for succeeding with that task, Lind state that only a decentralized force can go through the cycle of decision fast. This conclusion can be found in all doctrines and handbooks in the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF). Mission type tactics with decentralized control is ordered, or recommended and described in all service doctrines. It is the base for command and control within the whole organization. In all doctrines and regulations in the SAF there are exceptions when mission type tactics with direct control is preferred or an imperative necessity.

    After closer inquiries one can see that sometimes mission type tactics are carelessly used to describe both a philosophy and a method. After several years of service within the Ground Based Air Defense troops, my experience is that mission type control is not used as much as centralized control. This entails very little space for subordinated to take any initiative in the air war. Is that desirable, inevitable or on the whole consistent with mission type tactics? Is it possible that the GBAD with its unique position in both the ground- and air troops can go through the OODA loop faster than its opponents without decentralized control, as Lind alleged as rule number 1?

    Through a elucidation of mission type tactics as both philosophy and as a method, a comparison between how airpower and maneuver theory treat mission type tactics and together with the conditions for GBAD the answer to how the GBAD can apply mission type tactics will be found. Mission type tactics is a sine qua non for the GBAD in order to be able to use centralized control and to lead through command. Detailed guidance is right now inevitable and necessary with the conditions now at hand. At the same time the ability for the GBAD to be effective in the air is founded through the mission type tactics.

  • 62.
    Beck, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Luftvärn, defensiv luftmakt och tröskeleffekt : Luftvärnets förmåga att höja tröskeleffekten och bidra till avskräckning2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag finns inga vetenskapliga belägg huruvida luftvärn kan bidra till att avskräcka en utmanare. Bristen på kunskap kring detta kan kopplas till bristen på forskning kring defensiv luftmakt då det i luftmaktskretsar främst varit offensiva teorier om luftmakt som härskat.

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka kausala samband mellan nyttjande av luftvärn och en ökad tröskeleffekt i syfte att avskräcka en utmanare.

    Utgångspunkten är duellen mellan luftvärn och offensiva luftmaktsresurser i kampen om luftherravälde. Resultatet visar att det finns ett kausalt samband mellan luftvärnets förmåga att bestrida en utmanares luftherravälde och ökade genomförandekostnader för en utmanare vid utövandet av luftmakt, med ökad tröskeleffekt som följd. Ett kausalt samband mellan luftvärnets förmåga och en lägre grad av luftkontroll för utmanaren att genomföra luftoperationer ifrån kan inte påvisas.

    Undersökningen visar även på ett möjligt kausalt samband mellan att uppträda med kombinerade luftvärnssystem och höjda genomförandekostnader för utmanaren.

    Resultatet ger insikt i hur luftvärn kan påverka en tröskeleffekt och bidra till avskräckning samt utökar teoribasen för defensiv luftmakt med ett luftvärnsfokus.

  • 63.
    Belin, Jean
    et al.
    Chaire Economie de défense.
    Hartley, Keith
    University of York.
    Lefeez, Sophie
    IRIS.
    Linnenkamp, Hilmar
    SWP.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Masson, Hélène
    FRS.
    Maulny, Jean-Pierre
    IRIS.
    Ungaro, Alessandro
    IAI.
    Defence industrial links between EU and US2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission’s initiatives in the field of armament should lead to a deeper integration of European DTIBs in the coming years. In parallel, the links between European and American DTIBs take the form of technological and armament cooperation, and of capital links between European or American companies. This report aims at analysing the links between the US DTIB and the EU DTIB, and the consequences these links carry on cooperation between European DTIBs.

    These links vary by country. France has strived to preserve its strategic autonomy when developing its DTIB. Its technological and capability-related reliance on the United States has thus remained limited. Nonetheless, cooperation is sought when it is mutually beneficial while French companies seek to invest in the US market, as do other European DTIBs.

    The German DTIB was rebuilt belatedly after World War II, partly on the basis of French-German cooperation. German industry is now privatised and the scope of the German DTIB’s partnerships has widened to other European countries and to the US. The German supply chain is now well established in American armament programmes.

    The Italian DTIB has consistently pursued a policy of active cooperation, whether with the US or with EU member states. Links with the US have notably been built in the context of NATO and through bilateral agreements. In parallel, Italy has developed partnerships with European countries. Rome’s cooperation policy is thus inclusive, and has considered diverse factors such as political links, capability requirements, the need to develop certain technologies and to preserve industrial capabilities and jobs in Italy.

    The British DTIB has historically enjoyed deeper links with US industry, as a result of the cultural closeness between the UK and the US, and of the strategic proximity that dates back to the end of World War II. The links between US and UK DTIBs thus follow a model of strategic partnership. Nevertheless, the UK’s industrial and defence policy is also pursued within a European framework. The missile manufacturer MBDA is nowadays considered as the deepest model of transnational industrial and defence integration in Europe.

    While Sweden seeks to preserve its industrial capabilities in two sectors – submarines and military aircraft – it appears to be most technologically reliant on the US among the surveyed countries. It is worth noting also that these links are long-standing, dating back to the cold war and the Soviet threat, despite Sweden not being a NATO member state.

    The links with the US are thus very different from one country to another, and carry varying implications. While the costs of acquiring American equipment can be low despite their high technological grade, there are often constraints on their use and restrictions on technologies that will not be transferred, or that will be unusable for other partnerships.

    These links are also formalised through bilateral agreements promoting armament cooperation, as is the case for UK-Italian cooperation. For its part, Sweden has signed interstate agreements with the US in the field of technological cooperation.

    DEFENCE INDUSTRIAL LINKS BETWEEN EU AND US / September 2017

    3

    Since the European Council meeting in December 2013 and in its 2016 Global Strategy, the EU has set itself the task of developing "a certain degree of strategic autonomy" supposed to encourage greater competitiveness of European DTIBs.

    In order to promote the development of this European defence industrial policy, we must seek to ensure that the links between US and EU DTIB are mutually beneficial. To do this, two conditions must be met:

    -That the rules governing relations between US and EU DTIB be based on the principle of reciprocity and on equal rules of regulation of respective DTIBs.

    -That the rules governing relations between US and EU DTIB be defined in the context of a dialogue between the European Union and the United States and not bilaterally between each European country and the United States.

    Today the multiplication of bilateral agreements between the United States and European Union member states are potential obstacles to the establishment of a level playing field governing the relations between European DTIBs;

    There is also a lack of reciprocity and equal regulation of EU and US DTIB. This concerns different areas: access to advanced capabilities, unrestricted use of exported armament, access to cooperated technologies, rules governing investment in US and European companies, rules governing property rights over technologies, rules governing export controls.

    Organizing the transatlantic relationship in the field of armaments in order to have a more balanced and profitable relationship, can be achieved in two complementary ways.

    At the European level, the European Defence Research Program (EDRP) will have strong implications for the relations between the companies of the US DTIB and the EDTIB. The rules governing access to finance and the ownership of intellectual property rights (IPR), which will be adopted for collaborative R&T projects involving European defence companies, will result in a common framework governing the relationship between these companies and the US EDTIB: the more Europeans will collaborate among themselves in the field of defence research, the more they will be able to set common and mutually beneficial rules in their relationship with the United States.

    It may also be considered that some EU States will decide to engage in enhanced cooperation in the industrial defence field which could include the following rules:

    -Obligation to achieve a level of 30% R&T in common among the members of the enhanced cooperation, which means 10% more than the target that was defined 10 years ago by the European Defence Agency and that is regularly reminded in the objectives of the European Union;

    -Obligation to inform members of enhanced cooperation of agreements on defence R&T cooperation concluded with the United States so as to ensure compatibility of these agreements with existing agreements between members of enhanced cooperation. The objective is to prevent agreements with the United States from subsequently restricting the scope of existing agreements between European countries;

    DEFENCE INDUSTRIAL LINKS BETWEEN EU AND US / September 2017

    4

     

    -Obligation to systematically consider the acquisition of military equipment manufactured by one of the member countries of enhanced cooperation. This should be accompanied by reinforced security of supply rules;

    -The need to bring the export policies of the member states of the enhanced cooperation closer together.

    These rules, complementary with, and not contradictory to, those which are being defined at European Union level, would accelerate industrial defence consolidation in Europe and make it possible to consider on a more balanced, mutually equally beneficial, basis relations between the United States and the European Union in the field of armaments. These rules would also be inspired by political principles: to strengthen the strategic autonomy of the European Union when necessary. Far from forbidding cooperation between the US and the EU DTIB, such enhanced cooperation would be facilitated because cooperation between US EDTIB and EU DTIB would not be a brake on European cooperation, as it is currently still too often the case.

  • 64.
    Bengtsson, Erik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Luftmaktsteori: en analys av Warden och Pape2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens övergripande syfte är att undersöka författarens hypotes om att Warden och Papes teorier om luftmakt utgår från ett stormaktsperspektiv vilket minskar deras överförbarhet för mindre stater. I uppsatsens redogörs och blottläggs Wardens och Papes luftmaktsteorier för att förstå deras bakomliggande resonemang och krav.

    Ett urval av teoretikernas texter har analyserats enligt Fabers analysmodell vilket genererat en fragmenterad men analyserbar bild över respektive teori. Underlaget möjliggjorde för författaren att besvara uppsatsens två frågor: Vilka är huvuddragen i respektive teori? Vilka grundläggande förmågor är framträdande i respektive teori?

    Huvuddragen i Wardens teori kan sammanfattas med samhällets sårbarhet, parallell attack samt systemkollaps. Huvuddragen i Papes teori kan sammanfattas med att orsaka förluster, gemensam operation samt vinna territorium. Undersökningen visade att underrättelser, rörlighet samt skydd är framträdande förmågor i Wardens teori samt att uthållighet är framträdande i Papes teori.

    Avslutningsvis anser författaren att undersökningens resultat verifierar uppsatsens hypotes om luftmaksteoriernas stormaktsperspektiv minskar dess överförbarhet för mindre stater.

  • 65.
    Bengtsson, Ingemar
    Swedish Defence University.
    Militärteknikens betydelse för operationskonst – en fallstudie utav operativ planering2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats tar sin utgångspunkt i att den tekniska utvecklingen påverkar hur krig genomförs idag, där strid på operativ nivå utövas med sensor- och vapensystem från någon form av plattform. Därmed kommer teknik i högre grad påverka utgången av militära operationer. Vilket gör att det är viktigt att förstå hur militärteknik påverkar operationskonst. Då operativ planering kan ses som operationalisering av operationskonst torde militär-tekniska perspektiv återfinnas i planeringsmetodbeskrivningar. För att påvisa det kausala sambandet mellan operationskonst och militärteknik formulerades hypotesen – Militärteknik omhändertas i operativ planering genom att utgöra perspektiv på operationskonstens beståndsdelar. Denna hypotes prövades sedan gentemot två svenska planeringsmetoder, utan att kunna förkastas. Därmed är hypotesen tills vidare verifierad.

    Även om hypotesen prövats på svenska planeringsmetoder finns det stöd för att hypotesen även är giltig för andra planeringsmetoder. Faktum är att det snarare är detaljeringsgraden på metodbeskrivningarna som avgör om hypotesens indikatorer kan återfinnas. Då operations-konst kan vara både vetenskap och konst, räcker det inte med en tydlig metodbeskrivning. Chefer och planerare måste själva omsätta underlaget till en faktisk plan. Därför är det viktigt att dessa har kunskap och vetskap om hur de ska tänka. Vilket gör att militärteknik måste vara en naturlig del av utbildningen när operationskonstens beståndsdelar diskuteras.

  • 66.
    Bengtsson, Kristofer
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Golanhöjderna, den strategiska betydelsen 1967-19732009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of this essay is the strategic importance of the Golan Heights during the period 1967-1973, specifically targeting the following questions;

    -          Why were the heights strategically important?

    -          What are the gains of either of the states in controlling the Golan Heights?

    A theoretical framework based on Jerker Widén´s and Jan Ångström´s Militärteorins grunder (The fundamentals in Military Theory) and its chapter regarding the strategic context will be used as an analytical framework.

    The framework has been applied on the specific conditions of the Golan Heights during a given and limited period of time; stretching from 1967 to 1973, however, the study will not deal with the war of attrition in 1970 as the impact on the Golan Heights and the surrounding geographical strategically important area was limited if at all. The two wars waged during this particular time are used in an attempt to give a somewhat objective picture of the strategic importance of the area.

    The conclusions are that the importance of the Golan heights during the selected period was significant as the Golan Heights provided a “strategic lock” both ways and provides a favourable area to deploy artillery, intelligence and surveillance sensors.

  • 67.
    Berg, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hybridkrigföring och svenska strategiska inriktningar2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid warfare is a phenomenon that have gained an ever increasingly amount of attention in the aftermath of the events in Ukraine 2014. A war broke out between on one hand Ukraine and the other hand an opponent who seems to be composed of so called “little green men”. The war has been waged with methods that has reached beyond the conventional way of waging. And while there are many discussions amongst the cadets at the Swedish Military Academy concerning what exactly hybrid warfare is, not much have been said about what to do about it.

     The following essay will address hybrid warfare and defence against hybrid warfare and with the help of a theoretical framework based upon military science investigate how Sweden responds to the threats connected to hybrid warfare on a strategic level.

     The result of the research done will show how Swedish strategic doctrines identifies the threats of hybrid warfare and suggests a holistic approach in both how to deny the opponent the opportunity to use hybrid warfare and how to counter hybrid threats.

     

  • 68.
    Bergdahl, Oscar
    Swedish Defence University.
    Dynamiken i slaget om befolkningens stöd: Upprorsmakarnas misslyckande i Malaya2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The military interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq in the early 21st century evolved into extended counterinsurgency operations based on lessons from The Malayan Emergency 1948-1960. However, these lessons have been questioned as the study of the emergency has concentrated on one-sided studies, looking to explain the outcome merely as a result of the counterinsurgent’s actions. Furthermore, the case contradicts former research stating that the use of coercive measures leads to failure, which indicates that other factors also affect the outcome. Therefore - to be able to draw correct lessons from cases of counterinsurgency - it is not only needed to study the acts of the counterinsurgent, but also the actions of the insurgent. Hence, this case study examines what measures the insurgent used and how these, combined with the acts of the counterinsurgent, affected the outcome. The study suggests that the insurgent embraced an enemy-centric strategy which, through the substantial use of coercive measures, outweighed the coercive measures of the counterinsurgent and consequently alienated the insurgent’s cause from the population. Therefore, the findings complement past explanations to why the uprising failed and highlights the dynamics of insurgency warfare.

  • 69.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn J E
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Information and Aeronautical Systems, Linköping, Sweden.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Assessing the quality of Shared Priorities in teams using content analysis in a microworld experiment2017In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 128-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective, easy to use, and easy to comprehend assessment methods for measuring shared understanding in teams are hard to find. This paper describes an experiment where a measure called Shared Priorities, which is based on ranking of self-generated strategic items, is assessed. Trained teams were compared to non-trained teams in a dynamic problem-solving task. The maturity of the participating teams was also assessed using a content analysis measure. The Shared Priorities measure was used alongside other well-documented measures of team awareness based on self-rating. Results show that the Shared Priorities measure correlates with task performance and could also distinguish between trained and non-trained teams. However, the Shared Priorities measure did not correlate with the other team measures (cf. CARS – Crew Awareness Rating Scale – and DATMA – Distributed Assessment of Team Mutual Awareness), suggesting that it captures a different quality of teamwork than the self-rating measures. Further, the Shared Priorities measure was found to be easily administered.

  • 70.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    FOI.
    Johansson, Björn JE
    FOI.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University.
    The shared priorities measure as a way of assessing team strategic awareness: a bridge between self-assessment and the deep blue sea of field recordings2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, ACM Digital Library, 2014, p. 13-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective, easy to use, easy to comprehend, high face-validity assessment methods for measuring shared awareness in teams are hard to find. This paper describes an experiment where a new measure called Shared Priorities, which is based on ranking of self-generated strategic items, is tested. Trained teams were compared to non-trained teams in a dynamic problem-solving task in terms of performance and shared awareness. The shared priorities measure was used alongside other, well-documented measures of team awareness based on self-rating. The results show that the Shared Priorities measure correlate with performance and could also distinguish between trained and non-trained teams. However, the Shared Priorities measure did not correlate with the other team measures, suggesting that it captures a different quality of team work than the self-rating measures. Further, the shared priorities measure was found to be easily administered and gained a high user acceptance.

  • 71.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    FOI.
    Johansson, Björn JE
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Turcotte, Isabelle
    Laval University, Canada.
    Tremblay, Sébastien
    Laval University, Canada.
    Assessing team focused behaviors in emergency response teams using the shared priorities measure2014In: Proceedings of the 11th International ISCRAM Conference / [ed] S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih, Pennsylvania, USA: ISCRAM , 2014, p. 130-134Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work in progress paper is to report on the method development of the Shared Prioritiesmeasure to include content analysis, as a way of gaining a deeper understanding of team work incrisis/emergency response. An experiment is reported where the performance of six trained teams is comparedwith the performance of six non-trained teams. The experiment was performed using an emergency responsemicroworld simulation with a forest fire scenario. Dependent measures were simulation performance, the CrewAwareness Rating Scale (CARS), and content analysis. Trained teams performed better and scored higher onmeasures of team behaviors.

  • 72.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    FOI.
    Johansson, Björn JE
    FOI.
    Svensson, Erland
    Pensionerad.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Statistical modelling of team training in a microworld study2014In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Sage Publications, 2014, p. 894-898Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A command and control environment is a dynamic and complex setting with complicated technical systems where teams of operators interact to reach shared goals. This study presents an experiment in which we, by means of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), explain the relations between basic concepts of command and control environments: mental workload, frustration, situational awareness, and performance. This paper reports a LISREL analysis of the Baroutsi, Berggren, Nählinder, & Johansson (2013) data. From that data, a new latent variable “Frustration” emerges, which now can be included in the model.

  • 73.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Om höga chefer trivs/inte trivs på jobbet - "smittar det av sig" ända ned till soldater och sjömän?2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med undersökningen var att få fördjupad förståelse om upplevelsen av engagemang i arbetet ”smittar” mellan hierarkiska nivåer. Avsikten var att belysa denna form av påverkan såväl uppifrån och ned som nedifrån och upp. Intervjuer med totalt 26 informanter genomfördes på följande fyra nivåer: (1) Produktions-avdelningen på Högkvarteret, (2) förbands och bataljons-/divisionsledning, (3) kompani och plutons-/fartygsledning och (4) soldater och sjömän.

    Resultatredovisningen fokuserar på betydelsen av informanternas eget handlande för andras engagemang i arbetet och betydelsen av andras handlande för informanternas engagemang i arbetet. Både positiva och negativa aspekter tas upp.

    Resultatet visar att det finns en viss smittoeffekt uppifrån och ned på så sätt att handlingar utförda av ledningen på Högkvarteret har en effekt på förbands-ledningsnivå, som i sin tur har en viss effekt på kompaniledningsnivå, som slutligen har en viss effekt på soldat/sjömansnivå. Smittoeffekten finns i hela den hierarkiska kedjan men är svag när man är två eller fler hierarkiska nivåer från ”smittspridaren”.

    Smittokraften kan däremot vara stark gentemot närmsta hierarkiska nivå, framförallt nedåt i hierarkin. På soldat/sjömansnivå, som är den viktigaste för Försvarsmaktens personalförsörjning, innebär detta att de som betyder mest är de officerare och specialistofficerare som soldaterna och sjömännen dagligen möter. Sannolikt förhåller det sig så att engagerade befäl på denna nivå kan övervinna att ogynnsamt engagemang högre upp i hierarkin. På ett likartat sätt kan sannolikt en brist på engagemang på den lägsta befälsnivån kullkasta effekten av ett stort engagemang högre upp i organisationen.

    Ur personalförsörjningssynpunkt är det således angeläget att den lägsta chefsnivån är engagerad och att organisationen gör sitt yttersta för att optimera förutsättningarna för detta engagemang. Enkelt uttryckt, det är viktigare att gruppchefer, instruktörer samt plutons- och kompanibefäl är engagerade än att förbandsledning och försvarsmaktsledning är det.

  • 74.
    Bergman, Amanda
    Swedish Defence University.
    Sveriges avskräckningsstrategi som småstat under två perioder2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Deterrence was during the cold war and is still today an important part of being war deterrent. The military defence of Sweden has since the end of the cold war been under disarmament. Despite the disarmament of the Swedish military, the military strategic policy is still that Sweden shall be able to deter a superpower.

    In what way has the deterrence strategy changed between the periods 1957 to 1963 and 2014 to 2017, regarding the strategic threat, security policy and military capability?

    The aim with this thesis is to mediate an understanding, how Sweden as a small state is trying to accomplish deterrence against a superpower and how Sweden has changed its view of deterrence.

    The analysis show that there has been a change of the deterrence strategy, based on the strategic threat, security policy and military capability, but still some parts remain the same. The biggest change between to two periods is that today deterrence is regarded best achieved together with other countries rather then alone.

     

  • 75.
    Bergqvist, Tuula
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för arbetsvetenskap.
    Hobbins, Jennifer
    Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för arbetsvetenskap.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för arbetsvetenskap.
    YOUNEX WP4 National Report Sweden2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 76.
    Bergström, Alfred
    Swedish Defence University.
    Littoral Warfare: Two Perspectives2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Littoral warfare implies a disproportionate advantage to the coastal navy or “defending” side. Small navies sometimes lean on larger navies in doctrinal production. A coastal navy’s goals, methods and capabilities can be considered thought to be different from that of a larger navy’s regarding in regards to littoral warfare. This paper answers the question “What does littoral warfare mean for different types of states?”.

    An ideal type analysis was used to answer the question, and the doctrines of Sweden (type A state), USA (type B), and the UK (type B) were analysed in regards to the research question. This paper found inds that each type of state viewed littoral warfare in regards to themselves, from their own perspective; a type A state can be seen as a defender and a type B state as an aggressor. In the context of littoral warfare context, each the types of states employed different goals, methods and means as pertaining to littoral warfare.

  • 77.
    Berlin, Mats
    Swedish Defence University.
    Luftmaktsteoriers koppling till svensk doktrin: En kvalitativ undersökning av svensk doktrin2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish armed forces doctrine does not disclose where the knowledge about the use of airpower was acquired. Earlier research supports the fact that doctrine needs to contain theory to support its legitimacy.  The purpose of this study is to examine whether the doctrine contains air power theory. The author believes that increased internationalization may have caused international air power theories to have been integrated in the doctrine. 

    The research was conducted as a qualitative research of the Swedish air force doctrine documents. The research intended to see if the air power theories of John Warden and Shaun Clark have influenced the doctrine. 

    The result of this study shows that the ideas of Shaun Clarke had a much higher presence than the ideas of John Warden. The study has shown that the Swedish air force doctrine has theoretical support. The study concludes that internationalizing has affected but not to the point where the Swedish air force blindly copied air power theories without it suiting the Swedish air force.

  • 78.
    Bjarnesen, Mariam
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    From Perpetrator to Protector?: Post-War Rebel Networks as Informal Security Providers in Liberia2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dismantling of rebel structures at the end of civil war is often considered to be one of the most important aspects of a successful transition to peace. Combatants are expected to lay down their weapons, but also to abandon their wartime networks. Yet, peace agreements and subsequent Disarmament Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) processes do not automatically, or necessarily, destroy rebel networks. In Liberia such structures have lingered since the war came to an end in 2003 and networks of ex-combatants are still active, though maintained and mobilised for new purposes.

    The security political situation in Liberia, with weak formal security institutions and a history of predatory behaviour, has created an environment where informal initiatives for security and protection are called upon. In such an environment informal security groups have a natural platform. Based on original interview material and findings from fieldwork this thesis examines how post-war rebel networks are organised and operate in the informal security arena, while describing the rationale behind these lingering features of war. By doing so this thesis sheds light on how the adaptive capacity of former rebel soldiers is utilised by various Liberian actors, and the risks, but also possible positive outcomes, of such a development.

    This dissertation follows individuals, former rebel commanders in particular, in post-war rebel networks from the time of war to 2013. We will see them, and ex-combatants around them, mobilised as ‘recycled’ warriors in times of regional wars and crisis, as vigilantes and informal security providers for economic and political purposes. Yet, we will also meet them when there are no specific event ex-combatants could be mobilised to fully examine the relevance of post-war rebel networks and ex-combatant identity in contemporary Liberia. In the conclusions basic underlying aims and purposes with the processes of demobilisation and reintegration are challenged. And as this thesis finds, one might even argue that these ex-combatants have succeeded in reintegrating themselves due to, not despite, the fact that they have not been demobilised.

  • 79.
    Bjursten, Fanny
    Swedish Defence University.
    Fungerande multinationell försvarslogistik - verklighet eller vision?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research paper is to investigate and assess the interoperability of the Swedish Armed Forces Logistics organizations with Nato. The paper also seeks to identify differences in interoperability within the dimensions of organization, behaviour and logistics, and evaluate the possibilities of streamlining cooperation.

    The study is based on Michael Codners theory Dimensions of Multinational Interoperability. The analytical tool that is used in the research paper is based on the OIM model, which was developed to measure organizational interoperability in a military context. The study´s findings indicate significant differences of interoperability in the three dimensions of organization, behavioural and logistics. In addition, the study shows that the Swedish Armed Forces Logistics organization is more interoperable in the dimensions of organization and logistics and less so with regard to behaviour. To attain a higher level of interoperability the two organizations must have a more unified aim regarding the logistics organizations. 

    The study recommends an analysis of the technical dimension of interoperability, which was not analysed in this study, in order to gain a greater overall picture of the Swedish Armed Forces interoperability with Nato regarding logistics. Furthermore the study recommends conducting a more detailed analysis of each of the dimensions in order to achieve greater understanding of each one.

  • 80.
    Björk, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Logistikteori för Specialförband vid genomförande av specialoperationer2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Specialförband och specialoperationer beskrivs ofta i förhållande till reguljära enheter och konventionella operationer. De beskrivs som något som ligger utanför reguljära förbands förmågor. Detta kan i sin tur ställa andra krav på specialförbandslogistiken än på logistiken för reguljära förband.

     

    Den logistikteori som finns idag är i huvudsak baserad på fallstudier av konventionell krigföring. Det saknas alltså ett teoretiskt ramverk för specialförbandslogistik och idag baseras det på doktriner och handböcker som bygger på praktiskt vunna erfarenheter. Syftet med denna uppsats är att analysera fram viktiga principer för specialförbandslogistik och i och med det ge ett bidrag för att öka förståelsen för just fenomenet specialförbandslogistik vid genomförande av specialoperationer.

     

    Genom att analysera specialförbands och specialoperationsempirin, både deduktivt med hjälp av befintlig logistikteori och induktivt genom extensiv läsning, har logistikteorin utvecklats. Några principer från logistikteorin har nyanserats och omarbetats, någon har strukits och några tillkommit. Principerna för specialförbandslogistik vid genomförande av specialoperationer är integrering, framsynthet, improvisation, flexibilitet, tillgänglighet, tempo, enkelhet, överlevnad, effektivitet, kreativitet, operationssäkerhet och interoperabilitet.

  • 81. Björklund, Gabriel
    Robert Pape och Falklandskriget - En teoriprövande enfallsstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Robert A. Pape, an American political scientist, have created a universally known theory about how to successfully conduct military coercion. In his comprehensive quantitative research from multiple cases of coercion Pape’s conclusion is that the denial strategy of air power is what historically have been working. From his cases where he draws his conclusion there is one case missing. Pape has excluded the case of the Falklands war. According to some researchers, the Falklands war which was won by Great Britain, had a successful outcome due to their utility of the air power. This essay aims to test if Papes theory of military coercion has the potential to explain the victory of Great Britain in the Falklands War. By conducting a single case study by means of a qualitative text analysis, the answer is to be found.

    The results shows that Great Britain mainly used a denial strategy with the air powers. The Falklands war could have been predicted by this usage. Although it is a conventional conflict, involving both the navy, army and the airforce, it is hard to believe it was only because of the air powers the war was won. The use of a denial strategy can therefore not explain the victory for Great Britain, but it can be a part of the explanation.

  • 82.
    Björklund, Stéphanie
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University.
    Malmio, Irja
    Swedish Defence University.
    “Jag är inte en kvinnlig kadett. Jag är en kadett på Karlberg.”: En kvalitativ studie om kvinnliga kadetters upplevelse av sin situation på Militärhögskolan Karlberg under studierna vid Officersprogrammet och i Försvarsmakten.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the content from the Swedish Armed Forces plan from 2015 for implementing gender mainstreaming, there are aspirations to increase the number of women in the organisation and in higher ranks (Försvarsmakten, 2015). One solution is to recruit more women to the Officers’ programme, but also ensuring that women who have already enrolled as officers will remain in their occupation (Österberg, Jonsson, Brandow, Klockare & Eriksson, 2017). In order to elucidate how female cadets experience their situation during their training and their situation within the Swedish Armed Forces a qualitative study was performed where six female cadets were interviewed. A thematic analysis was used to analyze the results and three factors emerged; ambition, culture and visibility. Ambition relates to expectations before and during the education, personal grit, perceived demands and family planning. Culture embodies traditions, personal treatment and jargon, idealizing of masculinity, as well as strategies for adaption. The last factor, visibility, derives from the way women are made visible from belonging to a minority where the identity of being a woman is further enhanced through the recruitment and marketing campaigns of the Swedish Armed Forces, who often focus on women. Women are made visible because of their sex, not for their achievements. Suggestions for improvement according to this study is that the Swedish Armed Forces should reconsider their focus on women in their internal and external communication. Further suggestions include involving employees at lower levels of the organisation in the work related to implementing the value system, where practical accomplishment of the value system is an integrated part of the education at the Officers’ programme and to introduce mentors for the female cadets.

  • 83.
    Björkman, Torsten
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies.
    Linje- och stabsorganisering2018In: Militära arbetsmetoder: en lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm, Jerker Widén, Niklas Wikström, Malmö: Universus Academic Press , 2018, p. 193-233Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 84.
    Björnfors, Martin
    Écoles de Saint-Cyr Coëtquidan.
    Insurgent Organisation Structure: A Neglected Subject?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On 1 November, 1954 an armed insurgency against French rule commenced with a large scale terrorist attack throughout various parts of Algeria. France responded by sending troops from the continent to Algeria and was soon involved in a full out counterinsurgency against the Front Liberé National (FLN), a revolutionary movement organised in a classical communist insurgent pattern.

    Many of the experiences the French gained conducting counterinsurgency in Algeria have been examined by writers of COIN literature. The conclusions have been incorporated into counterinsurgency doctrines of many countries, and the works of Galula, who experienced the war, is considered basic literature for many counterinsurgency courses. This has been inherited by modern COIN literature. The US FM 3.24 draws from the French experiences and theorists in its main body.

    This essay examines whether modern counterinsurgency literature derived from French experiences and theories gained, fighting FLN fails to address the question on how the insurgent organisation is structured. It provides a few arguments why we should know this, such as knowing your enemy’s structure will help you understand his vulnerabilities. To archive this and lay a foundation for the argumentation it first compares the Algerian FLN to modern day Taliban to establish if their organisational structures are different or similar.

  • 85.
    Blix, Karl
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Framgång med vilseledning: En uppsats om framgångsfaktorer inom militärvilseledning2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT:

    General Sun tzu said ”All warfare is based on deception.” This quote acknowledges the importance of deception in warfare. History is filled with examples of deceit and deception in war. But what is it that makes a deceptive operation successful?

     

    This thesis is a single case study and the purpose is to recognize the key factors for success in a deceptive operation, by analyse of a deceptive operation during the second world war named Mincemeat. It is of great importance to know the methods and principles behind deception. First of all it may provide helpful knowledge for planning of such operations. It might also decrease the risk of being misled by your enemy.

              

    The choice of operation Mincemeat is based on the fact that it is known to be one of the most spectacular and successful deceptive operations. Instruments for evaluation have been two theories about deception, Dewar’s six principles and Bell & Whaley’s theory of cheating. With these two theories the study resulted in six key factors, which made the operation a success.  

  • 86.
    Blomqvist, Martin
    Swedish Defence University.
    NATO:s misslyckande att undvika civila dödsfall i Libyen 20112015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study revolves around the NATO-led Operation Unified Protector in Libya 2011. The military campaign was executed under a UN mandate to protect the Libyan civilian population. Despite the mandate civilians died because of NATO bombings. The purpose of this study is to identify inadequate measures in avoiding civilian casualties during the operation and to continue to work towards minimizing civilian casualties caused by military organizations in international interventions.

    Early in the operation, NATO’s objective altered from protecting the civilians to over­throwing the Libyan regime. At the same time NATO changed its military targeting. This study concludes that the alteration of the primary objective to have increased the risk of harming innocent civilians in the area of operation because the protection of civilians became a secondary objective.

  • 87.
    Blomqvist, Niklas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Likformighet i ledning?: Hur omhändertar försvarsmakten begreppet ledning?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syftar till att analysera hur försvarsmakten omhändertar krigsvetenskapens variabler för ledning –teknik, människa och metod– i dess tre nivåer; den militärstrategiska, den operativa samt den taktiska.Metoden som används utgörs av en kvalitativ metod som analyserar försvarsmaktens inriktande och styrande dokumentation.Resultatet visar att försvarsmakten till stor del omhändertar krigsvetenskapens teorier om ledningssystem.Det finns idag en otydlighet hur begreppet ledning omhändertas av försvarsmakten. Från att historiskt varit en egenskap hos en befälhavare har ledning i nutid utvecklats till något som har karaktäriserats till att utgöra ett system där människor möter metoder och teknik med syfte att skapa en planerad samordning av en given verksamhet med givna komponenter i en mer eller mindre känd kontext. Ledning inom försvarsmakten definieras olika beroende på vilket reglemente, doktrin eller anvisning som behandlar området.Forskningsmässigt är ämnesområdet är relativt nytt, även om företeelsen ledning troligvis har funnits så länge som människan har ägnat sig åt strid och krigskonst. Genom systematisering, vetenskapligt intresse och inte minst en teknisk utveckling, har behovet av att studera krigets ledning ökat för att kunna behålla och utveckla krigföringsförmåga.

  • 88.
    Blysa, Gustav
    Swedish Defence University.
    Kombinerad bekämpning som metod för verkan: Lätt infanteritaktik under brittiska markoperationerna i Falklandskriget2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation has investigated how a light infantry force has used combined arms during an amphibious operation, specific factors related to the operations character affecting the possibility to develop combined arms have also been highlighted. The case chosen for the study was Parachute Regiments actions during the three battles of Darwin – Goose Green, Mount Longdon and Wireless Ridge during the Falklands War. As a analytical tool Robert Leonhard’s theory about the three principles of combined arms was used together with indicators borrowed from the theory about the warfighting functions purposes of fires.

    Two of the battles were found to be only partially characterized by Leonhard’s first two principles, complementary systems and dilemmas. The third principle about favorable terrain was neglected. The third battle was throughout characterized by the first two principles and to a larger extent than the former by the third principle.

    The dissertation concludes that light infantry can use combined arms during amphibious operations. The battles studied were, however, often characterized by unfavorable disposition of the force which affected the possibilities to use combined arms. Leonhard´s third principle was usually neglected. The most important amphibious aspects affecting the possibilities to combined arms were found to be naval gunfire support, light field artillery and the scarcity of light all-terrain vehicles.

  • 89.
    Bogg, Jonas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Amerikanska armén under operation Desert Storm och tillämpningen av manöverkrigföring2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 90.
    Boisvert, Marc-André
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sociological Perspectives on African Peace Support Operations2010Report (Other academic)
  • 91.
    Boldsen, Kristian
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Afghanistan 1978-1992: Avsaknaden av Galula2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The term counterinsurgency has received a lot of attention since 2001 and the U.S commitment in Afghanistan and Iraq. The U.S has conducted thorough developmental work since then and a new doctrine on counterinsurgency was presented in 2006. As early as 1964, the Frenchman David Galula issued a book on the subject, and there have existed theories on counterinsurgency ever since. The Soviet Union’s commitment in Afghanistan during the 1980s ended with the collapse of the Afghan communist regime. The will to win the conflict should have been present there, and in the same way that the U.S have capitalized on their experiences something ought to have been done to try to win the conflict during the 1980s. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the parties involved in the fight against the Afghan resistance acted in a way that resembles Galula’s theories on counterinsurgency. The conflict has been analyzed with Galulas theories on how to defeat an insurgency by both political and military means. The analysis has shown that the Soviet Union and the Afghan communist regime did not develop their way of handling the conflict in a way which is consistent with Galula’s theories. The primary political cause was that the regime put its trust in oppression in their attempts to discourage resistance sympathies. This approach resulted in an increase in support for the Afghan resistance rather than the support of the regime. Militarily, the lack of means to secure the regime’s political presence in new areas meant that the regime was unable to broaden its sphere of influence.

  • 92.
    Bom-fritz, David
    Swedish Defence University.
    Clausewitz, Jomini och Starcraft II2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Clausewitz and Jomini are two big figures in the military science community. Their principles of the concentration of force are still prevalent today in the further development of principles. With this in mind there have been some studies where computer games have been used to improve military training.

    The study aims to study how the principles of war can lead to victory in the real-time strategy game Starcraft II. The purpose of this study to contribute to the body of scientific knowledge with using computer games to increase the understanding of the principles of war.

    The method used in this study is a quantitative content analysis to gather data for analysis in the SPSS-program.

    The results of the study were that all the use of principles that were chosen, with the exception of surprise, correlated with victory. It also showed that spatial ability leads to higher win probability, this find lowers the reliability of the study since it cannot prove to what extent this leads to victory.

    However, this result is not applicable in the physical world, it can only contribute to a theoretical understanding of the principles of war.

  • 93.
    Bovét, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Att tänka annorlunda: Samtidens dynamiska lärandemiljöer utgår från ett förändrat sätt att tänka och förstå ledarskap2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Theories on knowledge development, adaptation and innovation have connections to transforma-tional leadership and recent military research on contemporary warfare. The thesis explores the learning environment, and describes the behavioural changes that supports and fosters dynamic thinking and adaptive problem-solving in a military organization. In a survey, two groups of lead-ers conceptions of the Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) prerequisites where compiled and com-pared. The survey consisted of quantitative and qualitative methods. The results indicated leader-ship challenges within SwAF.

  • 94.
    Boyle, Johan
    Swedish Defence University.
    Vilseledning: Med bluffen som vapen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most efficient countermeasures towards deception is awareness and knowledge that in fact deception is being performed. Hence, if the general level of knowledge within the main population of Sweden would be higher, it would probably hamper the effects of a deception operation if the population anticipated it. In order to counter deception, awareness that one could be encountered to deception and analyze the incoming information accordingly is a major protection. Furthermore in combination with mental awareness the counterdeception actions need to be managed from a central Swedish national level and well-coordinated between authorities within the governmental structures. This is in order to fully cover the wide spectra of channels of information that probably will be used within deception operations toward Sweden.

    The primary objective within a deception plan is to manipulate a human mind, not the technical sensors or systems.  Therefor the reasonable best way of counteract deception should lie within preparing the human mind. But paradoxological, the more aware one´s mind is regarding deception, the more one´s mind will discover deception.

  • 95.
    Brandt, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Defensiv operationsdesign: SPLs möjligheter och begränsningar2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En central stabsprodukt i Svensk planerings- och ledningsmetod (SPL) är operationsdesign. Den traditionella operationsdesignen har kritiserats för sin linjäritet, stelbenthet och positiva progression och därmed ansetts mindre lämplig för operationer med defensiv inriktning eller stor osäkerhet. SPL, med målsättningen att vara en allomfattande planeringsmetod, har därför i 2017 års version bland annat tillförts ytterligare tre typer av operationsdesign.

    Denna uppsats undersöker hur SPLs typer av operationsdesign omhändertar tre defensiva operationsplaner från 1979. Undersökningen sker genom att en kvalitativ textanalys leder fram till efterhandskonstruktioner av planernas operationsdesigner. Denna följs av en kvalitativ innehållsanalys för att se hur dessa operationsdesigner omhändertar försvararens möjlighet att avgöra, undvika ett avgörande samt dennes behov av flexibilitet.

    Resultatet visar att alla designtyper fungerar väl när ett avgörande söks men sämre när ett avgörande försöker undvikas. Behovet av flexibilitet omhändertas bäst i den dynamiska designtypen och någorlunda väl i den traditionella. Båda har dock svårigheter i övergången till det militära slutläget om ambitionen i målsättningarna sänks. De två designtyperna tematisk och mixad, som främst är ämnade för mycket osäkra situationer, omhändertar däremot dåligt de planer som undersökts då mycket av den operativa inriktningen går förlorad.

    Sammantaget visar undersökningen att genom tillförsel av de nya designtyperna är SPL en bit på vägen mot en allomfattande planeringsmetod, men svårigheten att applicera stabsverktyget operationsdesign på defensiva operationer är ännu inte helt löst.

  • 96.
    Brehag, Mattias
    Swedish National Defence College.
    TAKTIK: Inblick i den oväntade kraften hos taktisk kultur2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are those who argue that tactical decisions more often then not are based on a subconscious force - despite factors like the opponent’s forces, own strengths and physical geography; to name a few factors which generally form the base for a tactical decision. This subconscious force may be of a cultural kind and therefore it is perceived natural. Something that is perceived as natural is not subject to deliberate reflection and therefore this hidden element is allowed to control its members. This aspect is the focus of this thesis.

    This thesis intends to highlight this feature, this tactical culture that seems to grasp and control decision makers at all levels. The dilemma is its nature, and the issue is to be aware of its impact. The thesis attempts, from a hermeneutic perspective on understanding, to form and implement a theory of tactical culture in order to understand tactical culture. To frame tactical culture, the thesis takes its starting point from the wide field of research concerning strategic culture. The aim is to illustrate tactical culture and demonstrate its impact on decision makers.

    The result clearly shows the need to create awareness and understanding of tactical culture. The thesis highlights possible sources of tactical culture and how these can be understood. The thesis also demonstrates the need to relate to tactics as a mental process, separated from practical techniques.

  • 97.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Vad kan man åstadkomma med ledning när man möter en överlägsen fiende?2016In: Operativ ledning: Slutrapport 2013-2015 / [ed] Isabell Andersson, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 98.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Kuylenstierna, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Toward an understanding of the commander´s "coup d´oeil"2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Britz, Malena
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Sveriges återtåg till närområdet2015In: Internasjonal Politikk, ISSN 0020-577X, E-ISSN 1891-1757, Vol. 73, no 3, p. 423-431Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 100.
    Broholm, Axel
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Syrienkonflikten i svensk dagspress2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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