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  • 51.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Arbetstillfredsställelse hos anställda soldater: Uppfattningar efter ett års tjänstgöring2012Report (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Job satisfaction among the new Swedish all-volunteer soldiers: Challenges for leaders of the armed forces2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed forces has been transformed to an all-volunteer force where the first soldiers began their employment in May 2011. The number of applicants has been satisfying but experiences from other countries indicate that it has been easier to recruit soldiers than to retain them. The aim of this study was to investigate factors affecting the job satisfaction of soldiers. Twenty-one informants who had been employed as soldiers for about a year participated in the study. They came from all three fighting services (army, air force, navy). The data was analyzed according to a grounded theory approach.

          The results show that the soldiers’ job satisfaction is related to their inner motivation to join the armed forces. The inner motivation can be divided into: (a) primarily searching for a job and a steady income, (b) a great interest in the armed forces and military tasks, and (c) an aim for a certain education/position. Factors that appear to affect the job satisfaction are, for example: co-workers, salary and experienced meaningfulness. Another result from the study is that strategic decisions at the Head Quarter level that involve unexpected readjustments at the local level tend to have a negative effect on of the soldiers’ motivation and job satisfaction because  the leaders at the local units are poorly prepared to handle the changes. This will be more thoroughly discussed during the presentation.

  • 53.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Klockare, Ellinor
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Re-enlistment in the Swedish Armed Forces – individual motives and driving forces2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As many other armed forces, the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) is having a difficult time recruiting a sufficient number of soldiers. The turn-over rate is high as well as the cost for recruiting and training soldiers, should they leave the SAF immediately (after basic training) or after a shorter period of employment. This has brought attention to the issue of re-enlistment and the need to understand what factors impact soldiers’ willingness to re-enlist to the SAF. The aim of the study is to investigate the motives and driving forces that make soldiers inclined to re-enlist within the SAF. Interviews are conducted with about 20 re-enlisted soldiers from three different units. A grounded-theory approach will be used to analyse the data. At the time of the conference the data analysis will be completed and the results will be presented.

  • 54.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Influence of IED attacks on leadership: Dealing with the invisible enemy2012In: Res Militaris, ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 2, no 3, Summer/ÉtéArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of leadership in military operations characterized by the presence of critical incidents (IED attacks). Twenty-one Swedish soldiers and officers (ranking from soldier to colonel) who had experienced IED attacks in Afghanistan during the period 2005-2008 were interviewed, and their responses were analyzed according to grounded theory methodology. A model was developed according to which the essence of military leadership immediately following an IED attack could be summarized as recapturing control over self, the group and the task. The model also illuminates the importance of selected pre-existing conditions and the leader's appraisal/ sensemaking processes. Nine leadership acts of balance were identified, including balanced grief (self), balanced focus on emotional and functional recovery (group), and balanced handling of safety versus necessary risk-taking (task).

  • 55.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Passive destructive leadership in a military context2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Passive leadership in a military context. Its relationship with work attitudes and emotional exhaustion2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This paper reports the results of three quantitative studies on destructive leadership in a military context. The aim is to identify (a) which behaviors are considered passive leadership in this type of context, (b) outcomes of passive leadership, and (c) hierarchical differences regarding outcomes of passive leadership.

    Design/Methodology

    Questionnaire data was collected from (a) three Swedish military groups (n = 428), (b) military personnel in Estonia, Sweden, Switzerland and the Netherlands (= 625), and (c) Swedish military personnel serving in Afghanistan (n = 289).

    Results

    The results show that passive leadership in a military context is defined as behaviors related to being “passive, cowardly” and “uncertain, unclear, messy”. Passive leadership behaviors had a stronger impact (than active destructive leadership behaviors) on outcomes such as emotional exhaustion and propensity to leave the organization. The results also reveal that passive leadership behaviors are more common on higher hierarchical levels compared to lower.

    Limitations

    Limitations related to common method variance, response set tendencies and lack of response rate are discussed.

    Research/practical implications

    The results emphasize the importance of focusing on passive leadership behaviors in the research field of destructive leadership. From a practical perspective, implications for military organizations are discussed.

    Originality/Value

    Since most of the studies on passive leadership are conducted in civilian settings, the results from this paper contribute with context-specific knowledge about passive leadership in a military setting.

  • 57.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Character- and relationship-based trust in superior and subordinate military leaders2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum. Karlstads universitet.
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum. Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum. Department of Leadership Development, Royal Norwegian Naval Academy, Bergen, Norway.
    Eid, Jarle
    Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Kjellevold Olsen, Olav
    Department of Leadership Development, Royal Norwegian Naval Academy, Bergen, Norway.
    Trust in a military context: What contributes to trust in superior and subordinate leaders2013In: Journal of Trust Research, ISSN 2151-5581, E-ISSN 2151-559X, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 125-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to explore which components military personnel in peacekeeping operations perceive as contributing to trust in their superior and subordinate leaders during international or national operations or exercises. Data were collected among 591 military officers and cadets from Norway and Sweden using a questionnaire with open-ended questions. Two superior categories emerged: Individual-Related Characteristics and Communication- and Relationship-Related Characteristics. The former is made up of the higher-level categories Personal attributes and Experience and competence. The latter is derived from the higher-level categories Consideration and inspiration and Effective communication. In turn, all higher-level categories are underpinned by a number of subcategories (13 altogether). When comparing trust in superior leaders with trust in subordinate leaders, the results show that trust in superiors is characterised to a greater extent by Communication- and Relationship-related characteristics and also by Experience and professional knowledge. Trust in subordinate leaders is characterised to a greater extent by Personal attributes and Management competence.

  • 59.
    Fors, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Civil-militär samverkan på departementsnivå: påverkan frånfältnivån i Afghanistan2007Report (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Fors, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Den osynliga fienden: IED-attentats påverkan på ledarskap, tillit och motivation2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att erhålla fördjupad förståelse av hur allvarliga incidenter som inträffat under tjänstgöring i Afghanistan (huvudsakligen Improvised Explosive Device-attentat) påverkar ledarskap, tillit och motivation. Totalt intervjuades 21 personer, 16 officerare och fem civila. Alla informanter har tjänstgjort i Afghanistan och kan delas in i följande kategorier: (a) indirekta ledare (förbandschefer), (b) direkta ledare (grupp/teamledare för grupper som varit involverade i incidenter), (c) individer involverade i incidenten, (d) individer tillhörande involverad grupp men ej direkt involverade i incidenten, samt (e) individer som inte tillhörde involverad grupp men aktuellt förband. Incidenterna som studerades var framförallt IED-attentat där svenskar omkommit, skadats eller klarat sig utan skador.Resultatet visar på en kedjereaktion: individ- och omgivningsförhållanden påverkar individernas generella uppfattningar av insatsen som i sin tur påverkar uppfattningar, reaktioner och ageranden under och direkt efter incidenter. De omedelbara reaktionerna påverkar i sin tur resultatet av såväl de specifika incidenterna som insatsen generellt. Genomgående visar resultatet på svårigheter att hantera "den osynliga fienden". IED-attentat uppfattas vara svåra, om inte omöjliga, att upptäcka och påverka, vilket leder till en frustration hos både underställda och ledare. Andra aspekter som behandlas i rapporten är bland annat hur incidenter uppfattas, tillit, motivation, sorghantering och beslutsfattande. Slutligen ges praktiska råd till ledare som ska tjänstgöra i Afghanistan.

  • 61.
    Fors, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Destructive leadership: An international comparison2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vast majority of leadership studies have focused on positive aspects such as how leadership can contribute to organisational effectiveness, individual work satisfaction, etc. In an attempt to capture real leadership processes, and thus to avoid a long time one-sided focus upon the positive aspects of leadership, an evaluation form of destructive leadership behaviours, Destrudo-L, was developed. This instrument comprises five factors measuring destructive leader behaviours: (1) Arrogant, unfair (2) Threats, punishments, over-demands (3) Ego-oriented, false (4) Passive, cowardly, and (5) Uncertain, unclear, messy.

  • 62.
    Friman, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Kylin, Camilla
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Irreguljära hot - krav på militärt ledarskap: En litteraturöversikt2007Report (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Granberg, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Militär kompetens i polisiära uppgifter: En empirisk belysning och diskussion av en insats i Kosovo2013Report (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Gustafsson, Gunnar
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Beredskapsstress?2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stress is a growing disease in the Swedish population and one group that might be particularlyexposed for operational stress is soldiers who are in a short reaction unit.We have inherited an ability from our ancestors that when in danger react whit a stress reaction asa preparation for fight or flee it can also be whit a reaction that makes us paralysed. If this reactionrepeatedly occurs in the body without the possibility for release of the increased energy the organsin the body might get worn. Stress hormones gathers in the body and builds up, and for a longerperiod of time it might lead to something called operational stress. If this continue, it might lead toa exhaustion syndrome.

    The purpose of this paper is to map out how soldiers in a quick reaction unit feels about his generalhealth and the stress they are daily exposed to.The study was performed with a questionnaire on a platoon whit 18 soldiers in the Nordic Battlegroup.The conclusions from this study are:

    - Soldiers in a quick reaction unit show some tendency to be exposed for stress. In many cases itshows in their frustration on colleagues, leadership and equipment.

    - Soldiers estimate their general health to be very good.

    - As the soldiers in the study estimated their general health as very good, there isn’t anything thatinsinuating that the stress that soldiers in a quick reaction units are exposed to would affect theirhealth.

  • 65.
    Gustavsson, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Levin Orre, Anna-Lena
    Thuresson, Annika
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Faktorer som påverkar viljan att stanna i Försvarsmakten, stressrelaterad ohälsa, trivsel på jobbet samt säkerhetsbeteende: Uppföljning av unga officerare2009Report (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Rocha de Oliveira, Leonardo
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul.
    Lindergårdh, Lars
    Combitech.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Combitech.
    Learning Priorities and the Role of Computer-Based Training and Simulation on Military Supply Chain Logistics2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military training involves activities that range from combat operations to strategic decisions on how to locate and transport personal and supplies, such as food, ammunition, fuel and medical equipment. Despite of the fact that most military training is difficult to acquire from real situations, the skills required for learning from combat training technology are different from those required for training on military logistics. This research work aims to analyse learning priorities and the role of Computer-Based Training and Simulation (CBTS) on Military Supply Chain Logistics. Military logistics is a complex task that requires expertise for decisions on such factors as: (i) the mission to accomplish; (ii) the place to locate troops and all military facilities at the Area of Operations (AOO); the (iii) combat readiness level that will be expected to equip all the military operations; and the (iv) use of transportation resources and paths to follow in the AOO. In this work, each one of these factors is represented by a number of variables that must be considered as whole to outline the best decisions on supply chain logistics for each military operation. To identify training priorities for considering the implications of all variables that respond for these four factors, this work carried out a qualitative research with in depth interviews with military personal with expertise on making decisions about military logistics. Results from this research shows the skills that are most important to follow for developing expertise on military supply chain logistics and the technology that should best be applied to enhance the training experience. Conclusions from this work shows that training on military logistics involve decisions that are mostly unique, though the current computer-based technology has an important role for training and simulating field situations, thus enhancing the required expertise for making decisions on real military supply chain operations.

  • 67.
    Hede, Susanne
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum. Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier, Karlstads universitet.
    Crisis management: psychological challenges for leaders2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to gain knowledge about how leaders holding the role as crisis manager at the Swedish municipal level perceive and experience crisis management in different phases.

    The thesis comprises four papers (Papers I-IV) based on empirical data. The sample consisted of relevant municipal leaders. Paper I, Paper II and Paper IV were based on qualitative methods of data collection and analysis, and Paper III on quantitative data. Paper I presents a theoretical model that highlights the complex evaluations underlying managers’ decisions and actions in real-life crisis situations. Paper II  contributes further knowledge on how to improve evaluation and thus how  learning from crisis experience can be developed. In particular, the importance of evaluation and the value of group reflection in evaluation are demonstrated. Additionally,  Paper II identifies motivational aspects during an event. In Paper III perceived preparedness is analysed in terms of three aspects: perceived municipal preparedness, perceived individual preparedness and motivation. These aspects are explained by different psychological theories and concepts and may serve to understand the  driving forces for motivation to work with and to develop crisis  preparedness.  Paper IV focuses on motivation for preparedness efforts and contributes a model demonstrating the close links between different motivational factors and how these  influence one another, as well as emphasizing the central role of experience and the strong role of personal factors in both supporting and diminishing motivation.

    In sum, this thesis demonstrates how psychological theories and concepts are  important for understanding the municipal leaders’ perceptions of their role as crisis managers. In addition, the knowledge gained in this thesis can be useful for  promoting crisis preparedness.

  • 68.
    Hede, Susanne
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum. Karlstad universitet, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Perceptions of crisis preparedness and motivation: a study among municipal leaders2017In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 95, p. 83-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for communities to be prepared for a wide variety of critical events places considerable responsibility on local municipal leaders. However, few studies have examined how these leaders themselves view crisis, preparedness issues. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that contribute to three aspects of preparedness among municipal leaders: perceived municipal preparedness, perceived individual preparedness and motivation for preparedness work. Six hypotheses were formulated. The research questions were investigated using data from a questionnaire sent out to all Swedish municipalities (N = 290) and four categories of municipal leaders respectively (N = 1101). The response rate was 67%. Data were analyzed by linear regression and logistic regression. Different factors predicted the three outcome variables, which indicates different mental concepts. The hypotheses were partly supported and the results are discussed using self-efficacy theory. The findings have implications for understanding perceived preparedness and motivation, and can be used to e.g. develop crisis management exercises.

  • 69.
    Hede, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Carlsson, Helena
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    En komparativ studie av allmänhetens och myndigheters syn på informationen i samband med influensapandemin A (H1N1) 2009-20102012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Hede, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Climate change and citizen behavior adaptation2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Hede, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Lugna efter stormen?: Reflektioner i kommuner med multipla kriserfarenheter2008Report (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Hede, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Lajksjö, Örjan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Storm i tsunamins skugga: Kommunala aktörers erfarenheter vid hantering av Gudrun2007Report (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Hedlund, Erik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Team Learning and Leadership in Multinational Military Staff Exercises2017In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 459-477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperation in multinational military operations is one of the main tasks for the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF), which means that Swedish officers need to be able to meet international military staff standards. For this reason, the SAF and the Swedish Defence University organize an annual international staff exercise which aims to train officers in and increase their knowledge of North Atlantic Treaty Organization staff methods and procedures. The essence of successful staff work is good leadership and effective team work. In this article, we present findings from three staff exercises that have significant impact on leadership and possibilities for good team learning that relate to a team learning model. These findings have great potential to be of value in planning and improving leadership education and training in both military and civilian contexts.

  • 74.
    Hedlund, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Team learning and leadership in a military staff exercis2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Hedlund, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Team Learning in a Multinational Military Staff Exercise2015In: Small Group Research, ISSN 1046-4964, E-ISSN 1552-8278, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 179-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International operations have become one of the main tasks for the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF). The SAF and Swedish National Defence College organize annual international staff exercises with the purpose of training officers to carry out effective staff work. This study analyzed a staff exercise using Edmondson's team learning model in a military setting. The model was developed by including group cohesion. As defensive routines are a threat to team learning behavior, the possible presence of these was examined. The results indicate that team leader coaching is crucial to support all the variables in the model. The added variable of group cohesion contributed with insights on how the commander used task solving to create group cohesion. Some examples of defensive routines were also revealed but there seemed to be challenges in identifying such routines in this type of exercise setting.

  • 76.
    Hedlund, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Szvircsev Tresch, TiborMilitärakademie (MILAK), Switzerland.
    Motivation to be a soldier: A comparison of eight nations2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 77.
    Hedlund, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Szvircsev Tresch, Tibor
    ETH Zürich, Schweiz.
    Satisfaction in basic military training: an international comparison2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is a report of cross-national research that that explores the expectation, motivation and satisfaction of the new recruits from Belgium, France, Japan, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan and Turkey's armed forces toward the basic military training. It both aims to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the basic training in order to contribute to the improvement of training quality, and increase a common understanding of questions related to the basic military training such leadership quality, self-images, motivation to further career in the armed forces and so forth.

  • 78.
    Hedlund, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Team Training, Team Learning, Leadership and Psychology Safety: A Study of Team Training and Team Learning Behavior during a Swedish Military Staff Exercise2013In: Sociology Mind, ISSN 2160-083X, E-ISSN 2160-0848, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 89-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The critical dependence of armed forces on teams carrying out tasks in a continuously changing, uncertain and often dangerous environment, raises questions about how to better understand factors that enable or hamper effective team learning. So far there is no developed field of research into team learning in the Swedish Armed Forces. This is the first of several studies within the Swedish Armed Forces to explore and gain a better understanding of team learning. In this first study of team learning we followed a military staff exercise. The theoretical base in this study is Amy Edmondson’s theoretical model for studying and analyzing team learning. The model consists of context support, team leader coaching, team psychology safety and team learning behavior. The results of this study supports the theoretical model of team learning and describe factors that are important for creating good conditions for team learning behavior.

  • 79.
    Hedlund, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Team training, team learning, leadership and psychology safety: A study of team training and team learning behavior during a Swedish military staff exercise2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 80.
    Helgesson, Johan
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hantering av personal efter insats: Skillnader och likheter mellan Sveriges och USA´s hantering av hemkomna soldater2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att göra en jämförandestudie mellan Sverige och USA för hantering av personal som kommit hem efter insats. Detta för att kunna hitta skillnader och likheter för att få fram hur Sverige kan utveckla stöd och resurser till veteraner efter genomförd insats i mer riskfyllda insatser där PTSD kan drabba mer personal.

    Metoden som används är en fallstudie i Afghanistan där Sverige nu är under pågående insats som också kombineras med en komparativ metod för att kunna få fram skillnader och likheter mellan Sverige och USA. Det som jämförs är två liknande dokument från både Sverige och USA. Utifrån detta kunna titta på USA som har stora problem bland psykisk ohälsa hos personal och koppla mot vad Sverige kan ta efter.

    Resultatet av denna studie visar att vissa likheter och skillnader finns mellan dokumenten. En skillnad är att USA har ett mer utvecklade stöd till veteraner. Författaren drar slutsatsen om Sverige kommer delta i mer riskfyllda insatser bör en utveckling av veteranarbetet göras. Denna utveckling skulle kunna gå mer åt en riktning mot USA:s dokument som är mer detaljerad och ger mer stöd för anhöriga.

  • 81.
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    De första officerarna i Försvarsmakten med en akademisk yrkesexamen2010Report (Other academic)
  • 82.
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Military Leaders' Adaptability in Unexpected Situations2017In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 245-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates adaptability among lower-level military leaders in unexpected threatening situations. Two studies were performed. In the first, a grounded theory approach was used, and 16 Swedish officers and soldiers with experience from international peacekeeping operations were interviewed. A model was developed based on the results. In Study 2, the model concepts from Study 1 were operationalized into a questionnaire and data was obtained from 102 respondents from the Swedish Armed Forces who had recently served in Afghanistan. Based on Study 1, the model suggests that the key aspects of adaptive leadership in such circumstances are 2 balancing acts. One is how subordinates handle structure/following rules versus their own initiatives/freedom of action. The other concerns the balance between individual decision making versus group input. Both are affected by availability of time, resulting in a favorable/unfavorable outcome. The hypotheses from Study 1 were partly confirmed in Study 2.

  • 83.
    Jensen, Eva
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Good sensemaking is more important than information quality for the quality of plans2006In: Proceedings of the 11th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 84.
    Jensen, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    How to Operationalize C2 Agility2012In: 17th ICCRTS (2012): Proceeedings, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alberts has offered a definition of agility and its constituent components. This paper describes where in the C2 system, or the force, the different agility requirements will have to be met, and how to measure if they are. The purpose of a C2 system is to achieve focus and convergence of some entities (the force) somewhere (the context) to accomplish something (the task or mission), together (maybe with other organizations), within a certain amount of time. These factors determine the demands on a C2 system. Rasmussen’s abstraction hierarchy is used as the analytical framework, with the functions performed by C2 as defined by Brehmer. The paper discusses how to define the demands, i.e. the requisite agility, and how to assess if these demands can be met (potential agility), or have been met (manifest agility). The information requirements of a C2 system are determined by what is required of the commanded force for it to be agile in the present circumstances. The model traces the paths from the demands on the system to the parts of the system that are supposed to meet them, and makes possible the assessment of the manifest, and potential, agility of a C2 system.

  • 85.
    Jensen, Eva
    Örebro universitet.
    Is explicit information important for performance in dynamic systems?2002In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Jensen, Eva
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Learning and transfer from a simple dynamic system2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 119-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of learning gained from being assisted in completing the task of bringing a predator-prey system into equilibrium by controlling the predator population was investigated. Learning was explored both by post-task questioning and by testing for transfer to another predator-prey task. Participants were 28 undergraduate psychology students, all female. They were randomly and evenly split into an experiment group that was subjected to a learning session with the first task before being tested in the second task, and a control group that only performed the second task. What was most needed in the first task was help in sticking to analytically derived conclusions by resisting "common sense" responses. There was a significant transfer effect on performance to the second task, stemming from learning shown by half the participants in the experiment group. The other half showed hardly any learning. Learning in about half the subjects has proven a stable finding.

  • 87.
    Jensen, Eva
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Mission design: fitting the solution to the problem2010In: Proceding of the 15th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Jensen, Eva
    Örebro universitet.
    (Mis)understanding and learning from feedback relations in a simple dynamic system2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 89.
    Jensen, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Sensemaking in the fog of war:  an experimental study of how command teams arrive at a basis for action2005In: Proceedings of the 10th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 90.
    Jensen, Eva
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Understanding and control of a simple dynamic system2003In: System Dynamics Review, ISSN 0883-7066, E-ISSN 1099-1727, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 119-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined laypeople's understanding of a simple dynamic system, expressed in reasoning and strategies used by the subjects, and how it affected performance. Participants were 15 undergraduate psychology students. 4 male and 11 female; median age was 24 years, ranging from 21 to 31 years. The subjects' task was to establish equilibrium in a simple predator-and-prey system. A task analysis was performed to identify the problem structure, the vital aspects of the task, and the ideal strategies to perform the task. The subjects' actual performance was compared to these strategies. The results revealed that, even though the task was structurally simple, it was still difficult. Much of these difficulties seemed to stem from a low ability to apply indirect reasoning and thinking in terms of discrete time steps instead of in terms of continuous time.

  • 91.
    Jensen, Tony
    University of Defence in Brno.
    Does operating a UCAV make it casual for pilots to execute a remote lethal strike?2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAV) is relativity new with the first known lethal strike taking place in 2001. Few systems are operational but many are in development. The use of UCAVs is debated and many claim that UCAVs make it casual for the pilots to kill, and the pilots are not able to differentiate the ethics of what they do from those of a video game. When researched it is found that some factors regarding the use of UCAVs may make a pilot less reluctant to execute a remote lethal strike, yet it does not make it casual. The pilots know that what they do has real world implications and what they see on their screens are real people. Contrary to some people’s beliefs, UCAV pilots may have a greater connection with their victim as well as a greater reluctance towards killing compared to bomber pilots.

  • 92.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Rekryteringsunderlaget 2013: Det tredje året med ett frivilligbaserat försvar2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to describe and analyze the recruitment base (applicants) for the Swedish all-volunteer force. Year 2013 was the third year with volunteer basic military training. Applicants of the basic military training were studied quantitatively and qualitatively throughout the selection process, from the recruitment test to selection for basic military training.

    The number of positions to fill was higher in 2013 compared to previous years with volunteer recruitment, and also so was the number of applicants; 21 869 applications implied 4.7 applications per position. The 2013 basic military training attracted many first time applicants (92 %). The overall number and percentage of female applicants increased. Compared to 2011 the number of female applicants doubled. However, the percentage of women declined throughout the stepwise selection procedure, and at the selection for basic military training the percentage was lower compared to 2012. Like 2011 and 2012, the all-volunteer force in Sweden mainly attracted young men that were born in Sweden.

    The quality of the 2013 applicants was good. However, the results in psychological and physiological capabilities of the tested and the selected individuals were not as good as in 2011 and 2012. Despite this qualitative setback, the report indicates a positive self-selection process of voluntary candidates regarding psychological capabilities.

  • 93.
    Jonsson, Emma
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Rekryteringsunderlaget 2012: Det andra året med frivilligbaserat försvar2012Report (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Jonsson, Emma
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Är det viktigt för 17-åringar att göra värnplikt?: Svar från föregångaren till den IT-baserade mönstringsenkäeten2007Report (Other academic)
  • 95.
    Jonsson, Emma
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Lantz, Johan
    Human Resources Center, Swedish Armed Forces, Sweden.
    Bjelanovic, Vera
    Swedish Defence Recruitment Agency, Sweden.
    Törner, Britta
    Swedish Defence Recruitment Agency, Sweden.
    Metodförsök med systematisk urvalsuppföljning: Delrapport: Erfarenheter och resultat från 20152016Report (Other academic)
  • 96.
    Jonsson, Emma
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Lindgren, Rose-Marie
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Rekryteringsunderlaget 2011: Det första året med ett frivilligbaserat försvar2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Försvarsmakter som övergått från plikt till frivillighet har funnit att detta inneburit förändringar i rekryteringsunderlagets kvalitet. Syftet med föreliggande rapport var att följa det svenska rekryteringsunderlagets utveckling, kvantitativt och kvalitativt, i övergången från ett på värnplikt baserat försvar till ett försvar som bygger på frivillighet.

     

  • 97.
    Jonsson, Emma
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Försvarsmaktens folk- och samhällsförankring: trender, drivkrafter och bakgrundsförhållanden som kan påverka det svenska försvarets folk- och samhällsförankring i ett långsiktigt strategiskt perspektiv2010Report (Other academic)
  • 98.
    Jonsson, Emma
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Samhället och Försvarsmakten: Försvarsmaktens samhällsförankring i ett långsiktigt strategiskt perspektiv2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att, utifrån ett aktörsperspektiv, kartlägga långsiktiga och tidlösa faktorer av potentiell betydelse för samhällets relation till Försvarsmakten (FM). Politiker, företrädare för myndigheter och näringsliv på nationell och lokal nivå deltog i studien. FM samhällsfunktion undersöktes utifrån teman som berörde bland annat kunskapen om FM och förtroendet för FM. Rapport avslutas med en diskussion om långsiktig värdeförskjutning och tidlösa faktorer för en gynnsam samhällsförankring, följt av förslag på åtgärder som FM kan göra för att samhället ska få ökad kunskap, förståelse, förtroende, trovärdighet och legitimitet i samhället nu och på lång sikt.

  • 99.
    Jonsson, Emma
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Bortfall i rekryteringsprocessen: Orsaker till att inte antagningspröva2014Report (Other academic)
  • 100.
    Jonsson, Emma
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Effective Recruitment of Military Women: Developing New Methods2017In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, no 4, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is one of the most gender equal countries in the world, but this is not reflected in the representation of women in the Swedish Armed Forces. Women have increased in both numbers and proportion since the transformation to an all-volunteer force in 2010, but the gender distribution is still skewed and women tend to drop out of the selection process for basic military training to a greater extent than men. The 2014 White Paper emphasizes that the Swedish Armed Forces should actively work to increase the proportion of women at all levels in order to achieve a more even gender distribution. This article describes a project that aims to increase the proportion of women who start basic military training in the Swedish Armed Forces. The project aims to identify successful methods and activities that motivate women and optimize their chances of passing the admission test, and basic military training. Women who passed the first step in the selection process for basic military training were contacted by the project. Women who were contacted and participated in activities were positive, stayed longer in the selection process, and looked forward to beginning basic military training.

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