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  • 51.
    Engdahl, Ola
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), International Law Centre. Swedish Ministry Foreign Affairs, Stockholm, Sweden..
    A rebuttal to Eric David2013In: International Review of the Red Cross, ISSN 1816-3831, E-ISSN 1607-5889, Vol. 95, no 891, p. 667-674Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this issue of the Review, we invited two experts in international humanitarian law (IHL) and multinational peace operations – Professor Eric David and Professor Ola Engdahl – to debate on the way in which the involvement of a multinational force may affect the classification of a situation. This question is particularly relevant to establishing whether the situation amounts to an armed conflict or not and, if so, whether the conflict is international or non-international in nature. This in turn will determine the rights and obligations of each party, especially in a context in which multinational forces are increasingly likely to participate in the hostilities.

  • 52.
    Simons, Greg
    Uppsala universitet.
    A Reflection on War and Peace for International Peace Day2014In: Global Education Magazine, ISSN 2255-033X, no 9, p. 6-8Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 53.
    Fagerström, Simon
    Swedish Defence University.
    A refugee crisis as a policy window: a case study on the Hungarian immigration policy change in 20152017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The escalating conflict in Syria that started in 2011 would cause millions of Syri- ans to flee the country. It is estimated that as much as 7,6 million Syrians were displaced internally and 3,7 million externally. This initially caused an enormous pressure on neighboring countries were refugees were displacing to (Ostrand 2011: 1-2). Though as the years passed the large majority of externally displaced refugees stayed in the neighboring states, though this would change in 2015 (UNHCR 2013: 1-3). In the spring of 2015 several ships either sank or were abandoned in the Mediterranean resulting in fatalities. Though as an increasing amount of refugees reached the southern member states of the EU it created an immense pressure on the immigration handling processes of the affected countries such as Italy and Greece (Livingstone, Cerelus 2016). A large amount of refugees would then start moving up throughout eastern Europe towards northern countries such as Germany and Swe- den. Though it won’t be long until Hungary decides to fence in its southern border to prevent refugees from passing through the country. As criticism flourished from the EU, member states of the EU, and other organizations, Hungary did not alter its policy, but instead came to further deteriorate the relations by defending its political position (Than, Krisztina 2017). This was done even though Hungary is heavily dependent on monetary support from the European Union as well as access to its Schengen zone (European Union 2017). Little research has been done on this matter where countries such as Hungary, Poland and Slovakia amongst others have decided to challenge the basic principles of free movement and the Dublin treaty after the refugee crisis. This senior thesis aim to look at how Hungary could have been able to do a immigration policy change that stands in contrast to that of the EU while they are in many ways dependent on the Schengen zone and financial support from the EU.

  • 54.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    A return to geopolitics? The future of the security community in the Baltic Sea Region2018In: Global Affairs, ISSN 2334-0460, E-ISSN 2334-0479, ISSN 2334-0479 (Online), p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One key question for the European security community is whether today’s confrontation between the EU member states and Russia is the end of its spread to the Baltic Sea region, including Russian districts, and the beginning of a return of geopolitical rivalry in the region. This article investigates the possibilities of avoiding such a negative downward spiral by drawing on security community theory and discussing two different methods of security community building – “top-down” and “bottom-up”. It points to the need for the EU institutions to return to the Monnet method to find a way out of the geopolitical “zero-sum” game increasingly played by the governments in the region. This implies not putting restrictions on participants from the north-west regions of Russia in strategically chosen areas of cooperation, and a more pronounced bottom-up, long-term and macro-regional approach built on joint problem-solving projects and people-topeople contacts that generate “win-win” games.

  • 55. Starrin, B.
    et al.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Centrum för folkhälsoforskning, Högskolan i Karlstad.
    Styrborn, S.
    A review and critique of psychological approaches to the burn-out phenomenon1990In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 83-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 70s the concept burn-out appeared in psychological literature on the helping professions. The concept has since then been ascribed several meanings, and critical voices have been raised against the lack of clarity and consensus in the definitions. The aim of this article was to critically examine the thinking on the concept of burn-out. The helping professionals--nurses, welfare officers, psychologists, medical doctors, etc.--have expanded rapidly since the 60s. It is stated that the issues on which burn-out researchers focus deserve the attention of social scientists in general. The major limitation in the literature on burn-out is that there is little analysis of the role of society and social conditions in producing the phenomenon. It is suggested that sociological analyses may have a contribution to make here.

  • 56.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Åkerlind, Christina
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).
    A review of materials for spectral design coatings in signature management applications2014In: Optics and Photonics for Counterterrorism, Crime Fighting, and Defence X; and Optical Materials and Biomaterials in Security and Defence Systems Technology XI (vol. 9253) / [ed] Douglas Burgess; Gari Owen; Harbinder Rana; Roberto Zamboni; François Kajzar; Attila A. Szep, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current focus in Swedish policy towards national security and high-end technical systems, together with a rapid development in multispectral sensor technology, adds to the utility of developing advanced materials for spectral design in signature management applications. A literature study was performed probing research databases for advancements. Qualitative text analysis was performed using a six-indicator instrument: spectrally selective reflectance; low gloss; low degree of polarization; low infrared emissivity; non-destructive properties in radar and in general controllability of optical properties. Trends are identified and the most interesting materials and coating designs are presented with relevant performance metrics. They are sorted into categories in the order of increasing complexity: pigments and paints, one-dimensional structures, multidimensional structures (including photonic crystals), and lastly biomimic and metamaterials. The military utility of the coatings is assessed qualitatively. The need for developing a framework for assessing the military utility of incrementally increasing the performance of spectrally selective coatings is identified.

  • 57.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    A Review of the Book Systems of Systems 2014In: Le Libellio, ISSN 1269-8644, E-ISSN 2268-1167, ISSN 2268-1167, Vol. 0, no 3, p. 55-57Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This review consists first of a brief description of the general features of Systems of Systems (SoS) through the book Systems of Systems by Luzeaux & Ruault (2010). The review then continues to address Chapter 4, written by Ruault (2010) on Human Factors within the context of SoS.

  • 58.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Gyllensporre, Dennis
    Swedish Defence University.
    A Scandinavian Approach to the Use of Military Force?2014In: Alike or Different? : Scandinavian approaches to Military Interventions / [ed] Håkan Edström & Dennis Gyllensporre, Stockholm: Santérus Academic Press Sweden, 2014, p. 196-211Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS).
    A security community in the making? Sweden and NATO post-Libya2011In: European Security, ISSN 0966-2839, E-ISSN 1746-1545, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 585-603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article asks what the evolution of NATO-Swedish relations signifies for the understanding of the evolution of security communities. Given the astonishing evolution of NATO and Sweden as a community of practise, it is logical to imagine the two as forming part of the same security community. It could then be argued that common practise can bring about new security communities rather hastily. Analysing NATO’s and Sweden’s recent discourses on security, the author identifies a significant gap between a principally realist and a predominantly idealist discourse that indicates that the two parties do not share key characteristics of a security community; identities, values and meanings. However, if Libya is the case of the future, the discursive differences may fade and Sweden could more easily pursue its journey towards inclusion in NATO, not as a member of an Alliance, but as a member of NATO as a security community.

  • 60.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    A Shared Epistemological View Within Military Intelligence Institutions2017In: The international journal of intelligenca and counter intelligence, ISSN 0885-0607, E-ISSN 1521-0561, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 102-116Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 61. Fouts, D. J.
    et al.
    Pace, P. E.
    Karow, C.
    Ekestorm, Stig R. T.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    A single-chip false target radar image generator for countering wideband imaging radars2002In: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, ISSN 0018-9200, E-ISSN 1558-173X, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 751-759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the theory, design, implementation, simulation, and testing of an ASIC capable of generating false target radar images for countering wideband synthetic aperture and inverse synthetic aperture imaging radars. The 5.5 x 6.1 mm IC has 81632 transistors, 132 I/O pins, and consumes 0.132 W at 70 MHz from a 3.3-V supply. An introduction to the application and operation of the ASIC in an electronic attack system is also presented. The false target image is fully programmable and the chip is capable of generating images of both small and large targets, even up to the size of an aircraft carrier. This is the first reported use of all-digital technology to generate false target radar images of large targets.

  • 62.
    Hult, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    A small-state perspective on technology and warfare2015In: Military thinking in the 21st century / [ed] Gudrun Persson, Carolina Vendil Pallin, Tommy Jeppsson, Stockholm: Krigsvetenskapsakademien , 2015, 1, p. 247-261Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    The Centre for Public Health Research, The County Council of Värmland, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Setterlind, S.
    A Stress Reduction Program Led by Health Care Personnel: Effects on health and well-being1991In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 90-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to evaluate a stress control program which can be led by nurses. The program consisted of 10 three hour sessions conducted weekly. The meetings were devoted to theoretical lectures, discussions about personal stress experiences, and relaxation training. Participants read written material and practiced relaxation between sessions. Subjects in an intervention group showed significant changes in the following variables: fewer perceived daily hassles; more positive self-esteem; improved problem-focused coping capacity; improved eating and exercise habits; fewer self-reported psychological symptoms; improved subjective health status and well-being; lowered level of diastolic blood pressure; reduced waist-hip ratio; and an increase in actions taken against stressors. The results were discussed as promising but it was noted that the program seemed to attract a select group; women with academic training.

  • 64.
    Farr, Keith
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för språk (KV Språk).
    A study into the motivation of Swedish military staff officers to learn English2016In: Konin Language Studies, ISSN 2353-1983, Vol. 4, no 4/2006, p. 391-413, article id KSJ 4 (4). 2016. 391-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among those teaching a group of Swedish military officers, little is known about motivation to learn English as part of a one-year military staff course. This research therefore aims to explore possible motivational characteristics while attempting to identify ways in which they may be theoretically linked to Dörnyei’s (2009) L2 motivational self system. A particular area of interest is the officers’ view of their motivation having taken part in a one-year English course and also an international military staff exercise which was conducted in English. The study used a two phase mixed-methods design, with an interview study and a follow-up questionnaire. Qualitative data were gathered by conducting seven individual interviews using a semi-structured interview schedule. Analysis of the qualitative data allowed themes to emerge. The questionnaire used in phase two was based on these themes and enabled the qualitative data to be triangulated. Twenty-eight Swedish military officers responded to the questionnaire. A variety of key variables were confirmed and it was possible to view them using the chosen theoretical framework. The Ideal L2 self and L2 learning experience were found to be particularly important motivators. It was also found that despite the officers’ high levels of motivation, their willingness to exert effort on learning is relatively low. It may therefore be concluded that teachers could address this through a focus on motivational teaching practice. Overall, this research provides insight into L2 motivation within a participant group which has not previously been studied.

  • 65.
    Johansson, Björn J.E.
    et al.
    Department of C4ISR, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Carlerby, Mats
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Command and Control Section.
    Alberts, David
    Institute for Defense Analyses, Alexandria, USA.
    A Suggestion for Endeavour Space Dimensions2018In: 23rd International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium: Multi-Domain C2, International Command and Control Institute , 2018, Vol. Track 9, article id 66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a set of dimensions for the “Endeavour Space” and provide a set of examples of endeavours that can be utilized for future studies that seek to determine the appropriate of different C2 approaches for different locations (regions) of this Endeavour Space.

  • 66.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Kariis, Hans
    FOI.
    Hult, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    A systems approach to stealth on the ground revisited2015In: Target and Background Signatures / [ed] Karin U. Stein & Ric H. M. A. Schleijpen, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2015, Vol. 9653Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This new security development is expected to increase interest fromNorthern European states in supporting the development of conceptually newstealthy ground platforms, incorporating a decade of advances in technology andexperiences from stealth platforms at sea and in the air. The scope of thiscase study is to draw experience from where we left off. At the end of the1990s there was growing interest in stealth for combat vehicles in Sweden. Anambitious technology demonstrator project was launched. One of the outcomes wasa proposed Systems Engineering process tailored for signature managementpresented to SPIE in 2002.(Olsson et.al, A systems approach…, Proc. SPIE 4718 )The process was used for the Swedish/BAE Systems Hägglunds AB development of amultirole armored platform (The Swedish acronym is SEP). Before development wascompleted there was a change of procurement policy in Sweden from domesticdevelopment towards Governmental Off-The-Shelf, preceded by a Swedish ArmedForces change of focus from national defense only, towards expeditionarymissions. Lessons learned, of value for future development, are presented. Theyare deduced from interviews of key-personnel, on the procurer and industrysides respectively, and from document reviews.

  • 67.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Lajksjö, Örjan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Tedfeldt, Eva-Lena
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    A Tear in the Social Fabric: Local Communities Dealing with Socially Generated Crises2010In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 39-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to develop knowledge about demands and experiences relating to management of socially generated crises in local communities. Interviews were conducted in four municipalities with experiences of such situations, e.g., widely publicized murders, suicides or cases of sexual abuse. A modified grounded theory analysis of the interviews identified six central themes. Two themes pertained to the actual event and its consequences; two concerned the management of the crisis; and two themes focused on reactions and needs among those involved. Basic tensions were identified between confidentiality and openness, between support and accountability and between empathy and distancing. Similarities and differences in relation to management of other kinds of crises are discussed.

  • 68.
    Ranstorp, Magnus
    et al.
    University of St Andrews.
    Xhudo, Gus
    A Threat to Europe?: Middle East Ties with the Balkans and Their Impact Upon Terrorist Activity throughout the Region1994In: Terrorism and Political Violence, ISSN 0954-6553, E-ISSN 1556-1836, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 196-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The internecine warfare in the former Yugoslavia has radicalised many Islamic movements in the region and facilitated close links between local Balkan groups and Middle East states as well as terrorist organisations. This article examines the spread of militant Islamic fundamentalism in the Balkans as well as in Kosovo, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Turkey, and Albania. The scope of linkages between Balkan Islamic movements and Iran pose serious concern for Western governments as a long‐term threat to any stability and democratisation in the Balkan region as it has intensified illegal activity throughout the area and heightened irredentist claims.

  • 69.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    A Totally Different Reality: Recruitment of Ethnic Cultural Minorities in the Swedish Armed Forces2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Egnell, Robert
    Georgetown University.
    A Western Insurgency in Afghanistan2013In: Joint Force Quarterly, ISSN 1070-0692, E-ISSN 1559-6702, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 8-14Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 71. Lundmark, Martin
    Absorbing New Military Capabilities: Defense technology Acquisition and the Asia-Pacific2016In: Emerging Critical Technologies and Security in the Asia-Pacific / [ed] Richard A. Bitzinger, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 37-52Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 72. Lundmark, Martin
    Accept the Gap2003In: Transforming NATO Forces: European Perspectives / [ed] C. Richard Nelson, Jason S. Purcell, Washington D.C.: The Atlantic Council , 2003, p. 113-131Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 73.
    Elving, Alexander
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Achieving Energy Security in the EU: National Self-Interest vs. Multilateral Cooperation2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy security has become an increasingly pressing issue in the EU since the turn of the century. In a context of increased import dependence and competition over natural gas, the approach to achieving energy security is explored here. With the aim of understanding the discrepancy between the EU approach and that of its member states, the strategies employed to achieve energy security are laid out. The neorealist notion of national self-interest and the neoliberal analogue of cooperation offer two competing perspectives on how to understand the problem. A case study design is used where the units of analysis are constituted by three distinct instances that illustrate the disconnect between the EU and member state level. These instances are the internal market for energy, diversification of supply, and bilateral supply agreements. Process tracing allows for studying the motivations of the actors involved. The results show that the national self-interest generally takes precedence over cooperation. This is in line with a neorealist reading of the issue and explains why it is difficult to achieve concerted action within the EU. The energy security case in this paper can be seen as an expression of the difficulties of finding a collective solution that fits widely different needs and preferences on a national level in the EU.

  • 74.
    Frank, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division, Sektionen för krigsspel.
    Achieving Game Goals at All Costs?: The Effect of Reward Structures on Tactics Employed in Educational Military Wargaming2014In: FRONTIERS IN GAMING SIMULATION, 2014, p. 13-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key motive in using gaming for educational purposes is to enhance user motivation and involvement to the subject matter. Within military education, games have always been utilized as a means to think clearly about military operations. However, some research results have shown that gaming, regardless of what the game is supposed to portray, is a meaningful activity in itself, and this can distract the learner away from the educational objective. Playing the game, then, becomes similar to competition, such as in sports where the objective is to only win the game. The player directs actions to achieving game goals even though some actions are inappropriate from a learning perspective. To shed light on the discrepancy between playing a game to win and playing a game to learn, we conducted an experiment on cadets playing an educational wargame. By varying the conditions of the game, playing with or without points, while still in line with the learning objective, we were interested to see what impact it had on the tactics employed by cadets. The results showed that adding reward structures, such as points, changed the outcome of the game, that is, groups playing with points played the game more aggressively and utilized the military units more extensively. These findings suggest that changes in the game design, although educationally relevant, may distract learners to be more oriented towards a lusory attitude, in which achieving the game goals becomes players' biggest concern.

  • 75.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Naehlinder, Staffan
    Achieving what cannot be done: Coping with the time constants in a dynamic decision task by doing something else2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 359-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how people handle the time constants in dynamic decision tasks, using a microworld called NEWFIRE which simulates forest fire fighting. The results showed that the participants did not adapt to the time constants, as shown by the fact that they did not discriminate between fires requiring different number of fire fighting units when varying the number of fire fighting units was a means of compensating for the time constants. If they were allowed to move units before the fire started their performance improved, suggesting that they could compensate for their problems with the time constants by restructuring the task in such a way that they did not need to consider them. It is suggested that such restructuring may well be how people handle dynamic tasks also in other circumstances, and that more effort should be put into studying what people actually do in dynamic tasks, rather than into only assessing whether or not they perform optimally.

  • 76.
    Thisner, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Military History Section.
    Ackordssystemet, dess avskaffande och revolutioner i det tysta2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 77.
    Thisner, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Military History Section.
    Ackordssystemet, dess avskaffande och revolutioner i det tysta2019In: Militärhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0283-8400, Vol. 2018, p. 52-66Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Lundmark, Martin
    FOI.
    Acquiring and Absorbing New Military Capabilities: Defence Technology Acquisition for Defence-Aspiring Asia Pacific Nations Through Technology Policy and Bilateral Partnering2013In: Policy Brief / [ed] Richard A. Bitzinger, Singapore: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies , 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Baade, Hans Petter
    Swedish Defence University.
    Acquiring Deterrence: Defence Procurements’ Role in Deterrence2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A major Norwegian defence procurement project takes decades from project initiation to the desired military capability is delivered and has reached full operational capability. The Norwegian Armed Forces’ primary mission is to maintain a credible deterrence and prevent armed conflicts arising, meaning that the capability acquired through military procurement projects must play into future general deterrence. Do Norway’s strategic military capability procurement projects contribute to a credible and capable deterrence?

    The purpose of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the deterrence potential of two chosen Norwegian military procurement projects of strategic importance. The capabilities studied are the acquisition of the US fifth generation fighter, F-35 Lightning II and the 212CD submarine to be designed and built by Germany. The two projects have a combined estimated investment cost of 113 billion NOK.

    Deterrence is a large area in social science and the discipline of War Studies. This study applies a deterrence theory lens, primarily based on the conclusion in Zagare’s and Kilgour’s perfect deterrence theory regarding the importance of capable and credible threats, operationalised through Dalsjö’s five dimensions of threshold defence.

    The analysis identifies a clear credibility issue with one of the projects and the paradox that cost saving decisions intended to ensure operational availability and increase credibility also make the capability more vulnerable and less credible due to lack of redundancy.

  • 80.
    Pettersson, Ulrica
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Acquisition of Experience-based Knowledge from the Swedish Armed Forces International Missions: A Comparison between Groups and Individuals2010In: Proc to 7th International Conference on Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management & Organisational Learning, 2010, p. 360-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is rapidly changing and industrial war has been replaced with "war amongst the people" (Smith 2007, p. 267). Today many armed forces are faced with new responsibilities and are operating in new environments, necessitating a higher ability to identify and implement improvements more rapidly than before (NATO SG, 2008). The Lessons Learned (LL) process helps to suggest solutions to identify shortcomings and facilitates in making positive experiences durable (French Air Forces, 2008). In organizational learning, there is a pronounced need to get hold of important experience, to reduce repetition of mistakes and facilitate for highquality experiences in purpose to improve. Those experiences represent an important input to the LL process, which in the end produces results that will be instilled back into the organisation. A serious weakness in several organizations seems to be that numerous experiences are poorly reported. Unfortunately there is little research conducted in the military field. On the contrary, there is a huge need in several organizations to get a LL-process implemented. This paper will focus on the initial parts in the LL-process, observation, report and some of the early analysis. The aim is to compare group performances with individual performances and ask if groups produce more mature experience-reports than individuals. The study was conducted within the Swedish Armed Forces and all participants were Swedish soldiers earlier deployed on international missions. The participants were asked to report experiences (problems, difficulties) from their assignment, using two different methods. Would method 1, with conditions that facilitate a united effort to generate thoughts and a critical discussion, improve the progress to produce additional or more mature experience reports, compared with individual performances? The results showed that groups produced somewhat higher scaled and more mature reports than individuals. No indication was found that any of the two methods used in the experiment produced an increased number of reports.

  • 81.
    Mårtensson, Per-Åke
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Institute for National Defence and Security Policy Studies (IHT).
    Hedström, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Institute for National Defence and Security Policy Studies (IHT).
    Sundelius, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Skiby, Jeffrey E.
    Elbers, Armin
    Knutsson, Rickard
    Actionable Knowledge and Strategic Decision Making for Bio- and Agroterrorism Threats: Building a Collaborative Early Warning Culture2013In: Biosecurity and bioterrorism, ISSN 1538-7135, E-ISSN 1557-850X, Vol. 11, no Supplement 1, p. 46-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current trends in biosecurity and cybersecurity include (1) the wide availability of technology and specialized knowledge that previously were available only to governments; (2) the global economic recession, which may increase the spread of radical non-state actors; and (3) recent US and EU commission reports that reflect concerns about non-state actors in asymmetric threats. The intersectoral and international nature of bioterrorism and agroterrorism threats requires collaboration across several sectors including intelligence, police, forensics, customs, and other law enforcement organizations who must work together with public and animal health organizations as well as environmental and social science organizations. This requires coordinated decision making among these organizations, based on actionable knowledge and information sharing. The risk of not sharing information among organizations compared to the benefit of sharing information can be considered in an "information sharing risk-benefit analysis" to prevent a terrorism incident from occurring and to build a rapid response capability. In the EU project AniBioThreat, early warning is the main topic in work package 3 (WP 3). A strategy has been generated based on an iterative approach to bring law enforcement agencies and human and animal health institutes together. Workshops and exercises have taken place during the first half of the project, and spin-off activities include new preparedness plans for institutes and the formation of a legal adviser network for decision making. In addition, a seminar on actionable knowledge was held in Stockholm, Sweden, in 2012, which identified the need to bring various agency cultures together to work on developing a resilient capability to identify early signs of bio- and agroterrorism threats. The seminar concluded that there are a number of challenges in building a collaborative culture, including developing an education program that supports collaboration and shared situational awareness.

  • 82.
    Grimmer, Bettina
    et al.
    Siegen University, Germany.
    Hobbins, Jennifer
    Karlstads universitet, Handelshögskolan.
    Active entrepreneurs and blue-collar workers: Cultural understandings mirrored in European youth unemployment policies2014In: International journal of sociology and social policy, ISSN 0144-333X, E-ISSN 1758-6720, Vol. 34, no 7/8, p. 559-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – With a particular focus on cultural understandings and the concepts behind welfare policies, the purpose of this paper is to analyse commonalities and dissimilarities in the patterns of social policy, and more precisely youth unemployment policies, in Sweden and Germany.

    Design/methodology/approach – A document analysis of Swedish and German youth unemployment policies was conducted with regard to how the two welfare regimes’ policies define the underlying problem, the instruments through which this problem is tackled, and the aim of youth activation policies.

    Findings – The findings show congruency concerning the definitions of the problem of youth unemployment, in which the unemployed are regarded as lacking in discipline, as well as in the policies through which the problem is tackled: through conditionality and pastoral power as policy tools. The solution of the problem on the other hand, found in the notion of the ideal worker to be produced, diverges between active entrepreneurs in one country, and blue-collar workers in the other. The authors conclude that the introduction of supranational policy concepts is not a matter of mere implementation, and that concepts like activation are reinterpreted according to differing cultural ideologies and accommodated into the context of particular welfare states.

    Originality/value – This paper provides an innovative framework for the understanding of the influence of cultural understandings on policy making, but also on challenges facing activation governance on the one hand and European Union policy initiatives and transnational policy diffusion on the other.

  • 83.
    Reinhold, Tore
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Ad hoc-nät - något för mobila enheter i NBF?2002Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett syfte med nätverksbaserat försvar är att erhålla snabbare reaktionstider i ledningssystem.Ad hoc-näten utgör en framtida möjlighet att erbjuda taktiskt rörliga enheteruppkoppling i nätverk även under förflyttning. Det kan på sikt inkludera de funktionersom har krav på liten fördröjning i uppkopplingarna. Exempel på en sådan funktion ärsensorintegration genom sensornät. Ett av problemen i ad hoc-nätverksutvecklingenligger i att de dataprotokoll som ska utnyttjas för att erbjuda en kompabilitet mot denfasta nätstrukturen, inte har den funktionsduglighet som krävs i ett ad hoc-nät. För att gesnabb överföring krävs en utvecklad variant av de nätverksprotokoll (TCP/IP) somhanterar uppkomna fel på förbindelsen. Detta är avgörande för ad hoc-nätverkensfunktionsduglighet. Det skulle resultera i minskade fördröjningar och därmed ökadkapacitet. Mycket talar för att snabbheten kommer att bli så stor att multisensordatafusionkan realiseras i ad hoc-nät.

  • 84. Helgesen, A-K
    et al.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Abrahamsen, V
    Adaptation of the Quality from the Patient's Perspective (QPP) instrument for persons with dementiaIn: International Journal of Patient-Centered MedicneArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Pettersson, Alexander
    Swedish Defence University.
    Additiv tillverkning för högre teknisk tillgänglighet i internationella insatsområden2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the military utility of additive manufacturing of spare parts during international deployment is explored. We also analyze the effect that additive manufacturing has on technical availability.

    International deployment can be tough for logistical reasons and this leads to a difficulty in supplying ground troops with spare parts. If the spare parts cannot be acquired in the deployment area these have to be shipped from central distribution centers or be ordered directly from the industries. Some spare parts are uncommon and not stored in distribution centers but only get manufactured on order. This type of production can lead to delivery times of up to 40-50 weeks. With additive manufacturing this process could be shortened to 4-10 weeks.

    Conclusions that can be drawn is that additive manufacturing has military utility and can give a higher technical availability, given that a few technical difficulties are resolved. At this point there is a shortcoming in the number of qualified materials for printing spare parts for regular vehicles and this makes it difficult for the industry to approve of spare parts constructed with additive manufacturing. The winning in technical availability is directly linked to how difficult the deployment area is to reach for logistical units. Additive manufacturing has a higher positive effect in areas that are hard to reach.

  • 86.
    Persson, Andrée
    Swedish Defence University.
    Additiv tillverkning inom ramen för Försvarslogistik2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines whether it is theoretically possible to replace the manufacture of spare parts with 3D printers. By explaining the type of spare parts that are possible to recreate with a 3D printer, a template is presented for what should be the decision tree for additive manufacturing. The essay examines three possible spare parts of varying load, thermal as mechanical, and complexity. The essay has examined how the spare parts specifications relate to the raw materials provided by the manufacturers of different 3D printers. The essay has come to the conclusion that there are categories of spare parts that are fully possible based on the theory of making with 3D printers. The template used in the analysis is designed in such a way that it can easily be used to investigate spare parts' ability to print with 3D printers. Additive manufacturing will not revolutionize the logistics organization and solve all its problems. But by investing in technology, logistics in the Armed Forces could be streamlined.

  • 87.
    Treverton, Gregory F.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Addressing ”Complexities” in Homeland Security2009Report (Other academic)
  • 88.
    Treverton, Gregory F.
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Thvedt, Andrew
    University of Southern California, USA.
    Chen, Alicia R.
    University of Southern California, USA.
    Lee, Kathy
    McCue, Madeline
    University of Southern California, USA.
    Addressing Hybrid Threats2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid threats have become the 21st security challenge for Western countries. They reflect significant change in the nature of international security. Change tends to increase feelings of insecurity and, historically, frictions in society, all the more so because hybrid threats are complex and ambiguous. Some people look to the past for answers, while others have forgotten the past. There are those who argue more vigorously for adapting to change, and there are those who try to defend the status quo. In some cases facts turn into views, opinions and perspectives – or worse, vice versa. This means that the picture of the security environment is not simply black or white. It is complex, multi-layeredand multidimensional. Thus, analysis of what has changed, how it is changed and what does it mean for democratic states is at the core of understanding the nature of the current security environment in Europe.

    This report gives us a rich understanding of what we mean when we talk about hybrid threats drawing upon two case studies: Russia’s interventions in Crimea and Ukraine and in the 2016 U.S. presidential election. It also addresses whatkind of threats we are facing and what tools are being used against the democratic states.

  • 89.
    Hobbins, Jennifer
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Handelshögskolan.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Karlstads universitet, Handelshögskolan.
    Bacia, Ewa
    University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Addressing unemployment in different welfare regimes. Civil society organizations and their strategies2014In: Civil Society, Unemployment and Precarity in Europe.: Between Service and policy / [ed] Baglioni, Simone; Giugni, Marco, Palgrave Macmillan , 2014, 1, p. 32-55Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 90.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Adopting a Recipe for Success: Modern Armed Forces and the Institutionalization of the Principles of War2012In: Comparative Strategy, ISSN 0149-5933, E-ISSN 1521-0448, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 263-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevailing explanation of the institutionalization of the principles of war is misleading. Although the introduction of the principles into Western doctrine coincided with total war and the need to train unprecedented numbers of soldiers and junior officers in tactics, the fact that the principles disappeared from doctrines immediately prior to and during the Second World War suggests that they were not institutionalized to meet an increased need to educate the military. Instead, we test two other explanations: one drawing on the principles’ military effectiveness and one drawing upon the principles’ explanatory power. We find that neither one of these hypotheses stand. Instead, we conclude by elaborating on how the institutionalization of the principles of war can be made understandable using non-rationalist frameworks, in particular the growth of a particular kind of identity of staff officers in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. According to this framework, the two world wars interrupted—rather than promoted—the institutionalization of the principles, since the wars with their large death tolls and mass recruitment increased the difficulties of creating a separate and unique identity for the burgeoning corps of staff officers.

  • 91. Wilde-Larsson, B.
    et al.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Rizell Carlsson, S.
    Advanced home care: Can patients' opinions on the quality of care be replaced by those of family members2004In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 226-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background.  Advanced medical care in the patient's home setting is becoming more common. Many of the patients who receive this kind of care have severe illnesses and are unable to respond to questions about the quality of care. The research question was: are the patients’ opinions congruent with those of family members?

    Aim.  To explore and compare the relationship between patients’ perception of the quality of care and close family members’ perception of this care as well as their perception of the patients’ perception.

    Methods.  Sixty-seven patients receiving advanced home care, 82 family members (54 matched patient + family member pairs) participated. Data were collected using a short version of the quality from the patient's perspective questionnaire modified to advanced home care.

    Results.  A high degree of perceptual congruence was found between patients and their family members. The similarity was also high between family members’ own opinion and their appraisal of how the patient perceived the care. A subgroup of family members who met the patient once a week or less often deviated from this pattern.

    Conclusion.  Patients’ views on the quality of care are congruent with the opinions of family members if they meet every day (live together) and share the same everyday and care-related experiences. The results can be understood in the light of empathic accuracy theory.

    Relevance to clinical practice.  The findings of this study have important implications for clinical nursing practice. Family members’ perception of the quality of care may be a valuable data source for nurses in the case of advanced home care if the patient and family member share the same everyday, care-related experiences, otherwise family members’ perception tend to be more critical than those of the patients themselves.

  • 92.
    Stern, Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Gregory, Saathoff
    University of Virginia.
    Brian, Kieserman
    DHS/FEMA.
    Advice in Crisis: Leaders,Lawyers and the Art of Disaster Management2012In: McGraw-Hill homeland security handbook: strategic guidance for a coordinated approach to effective security and emergency management / [ed] David G. Kamien, London: McGraw-Hill, 2012, 2, p. 711-737Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 93.
    Stern, Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Gregory, Saathoff
    University of Virginia.
    Mary Ellen, Martinet
    DHS/FEMA.
    Brad, Kieserman
    DHS/FEMA.
    Advice in Crisis: Towards Best Practices for Providing Legal Advice under Disaster Conditions2013In: Public Assistance Alternative Procedures Pilot Program Guide for Permanent Work Federal Emergency, Federal Emergency Management Agency Department of Homeland Security, FEMA , 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Hansson, Stefan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    AESA-teknik för framtida artillerilokaliseringsradar, en nödvändighet eller lyx?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We are living in a world where technology development is accelerating and seemingly exponentially and tirelessly will continue to increase. How this will affect the Armed Forces' choice of technology for future generations of sensor capability regarding weapon location systems and related to operational requirements, interoperability and economics is particularly interesting when the radar technology is in a generation shift. Proven technology, international and military requirements for a weapon locating radar system are set against new antenna technology and the Swedish research and development of the Active Electronically Scanned Arrays (AESA).

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether new technology is necessary for weapon locating systems or is "yesterday's" technology as good as, or maybe even better, in certain applications and situations than AESA? Is AESA technology a necessary step for weapon locating systems?

    The method of this paper is a comparative literature study, i.e. a qualitative textual analysis from a given theoretical framework. This essay is also investigating where I have linked theory with empirical data from interviews with Saab EDS, FMV and FOI.

    The results show that the new radar technology adds new abilities and can improve sensor performance, but to only use AESA technology for weapon locating purposes is both expensive and exclusive. The active antenna technology is also suitable for multi-functionality, which may play a crucial role in the future.

  • 95.
    Amann, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Foreign Languages Section. Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section. Herr.
    AFFORDABILITY ASPECTS IN CONCEPT GENERATION OF DEFENCE SYSTEMS2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 96.
    Amann, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section. Herr.
    Affordability management and its influence on concept development2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 97.
    Boldsen, Kristian
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Afghanistan 1978-1992: Avsaknaden av Galula2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The term counterinsurgency has received a lot of attention since 2001 and the U.S commitment in Afghanistan and Iraq. The U.S has conducted thorough developmental work since then and a new doctrine on counterinsurgency was presented in 2006. As early as 1964, the Frenchman David Galula issued a book on the subject, and there have existed theories on counterinsurgency ever since. The Soviet Union’s commitment in Afghanistan during the 1980s ended with the collapse of the Afghan communist regime. The will to win the conflict should have been present there, and in the same way that the U.S have capitalized on their experiences something ought to have been done to try to win the conflict during the 1980s. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the parties involved in the fight against the Afghan resistance acted in a way that resembles Galula’s theories on counterinsurgency. The conflict has been analyzed with Galulas theories on how to defeat an insurgency by both political and military means. The analysis has shown that the Soviet Union and the Afghan communist regime did not develop their way of handling the conflict in a way which is consistent with Galula’s theories. The primary political cause was that the regime put its trust in oppression in their attempts to discourage resistance sympathies. This approach resulted in an increase in support for the Afghan resistance rather than the support of the regime. Militarily, the lack of means to secure the regime’s political presence in new areas meant that the regime was unable to broaden its sphere of influence.

  • 98.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Afghanistan: Krig utan slut?2017In: Om Krig och Fred: En introduktion till freds- och konfliktstudier / [ed] Karin Aggestam och Kristine Höglund, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 2, p. 153-172Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 99. Lévai-Sandelin, Madeleine
    Afghanistandiskursen: den svenska politikens förskjutning från bistånd till säkerhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige har länge haft ett stort biståndsengagemang gentemot Afghanistan som innefattat ett stort ekonomiskt bidstånd och mindre civila insatser för civilbefolkningens del. Efter terrorattackerna i New York, USA, den 11 september kom det svenska engagemanget i allt större utsträckning att handla om säkerhet, både för den afghanska befolkningens räkning men också för Sverige som stat. Studien undersöker huruvida en diskursförskjutning skett i den svenska afghanistandiskursen i kontexten Kriget mot terrorismen.

  • 100.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    Ångström, Jan
    Uppsala universitet.
    Afghanistans trettioåriga krig2012In: Om krig och fred: En introduktion till freds- och konfliktstudier / [ed] Karin Aggestam & Kristine Höglund, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, p. 129-146Chapter in book (Refereed)
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