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  • 51.
    Sörenson, Karl
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Deterring the Dauntless: Appraising the effects of naval deterrence against the Somali piracy2018In: WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs (JoMA), ISSN 1651-436X, E-ISSN 1654-1642, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 31-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article considers whether the Somali pirates were deterred by the naval task forces between the years 2009 and 2013. By disaggregating data and using previously unpublished records regarding the naval operations, two areas of operations are identified as potential periods of deterrence. The article uses a model of asymmetric deterrence to study the outcomes and equilibria of the navy-pirate interaction. It is found that the naval operations eventually did deter the Somali pirates in the Gulf of Aden, but that this objective was not met in the Somali Basin. It is concluded that the operational focus on the Gulf of Aden coupled with the fact that the area is relatively smaller than the Somali Basin enabled the naval credibility, thus effectively denying the pirates access to the sea. Conversely, limited attention by the naval units and the long Somali southern coast with its open waters impeded naval control in the Somali Basin. In connection to these findings some conclusions regarding naval deterrence are discussed.

  • 52.
    Sörenson, Karl
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section. Department of Philosophy and History, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    In Search of Lost Deterrence: Two essays on deterrence and the models employed to study the phenomenon2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To deter is central for strategic thinking. Some of the more astute observations regarding the dynamics of deterrence were made during the Cold War by game theorists. This set the stage for how deterrence has come to be studied. A strong methodological element like the research on deterrence’s reliance on game theory requires examination in order to understand what sort of knowledge it actually yields. What sort of knowledge does one acquire when deterrence is viewed through game theoretic models? How do they inform us about the phenomenon of deterrence? To understand the nature of a phenomenon through models requires idealization, which in turn presupposes assumptions. This licentiate thesis investigates the type of knowledge we attain when approaching deterrence from a game theoretic perspective. The two articles presented address two separate but related issues. The first article reviews a debate regarding which deterrence model best capture the phenomena of deterrence, i.e. how models can be compared to one and other. The article presents a framework for comparing models and then appraises how these different deterrence models inform us about deterrence. The second article uses one of the more central deterrence models in order to evaluate how and to what extent the naval operation Atalanta managed to deter the Somali piracy.

  • 53.
    Thunholm, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Doktrinutvecklares syn på doktriners roll och syfte: en empirisk undersökning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What is the purpose, strengths and weaknesses of military joint doctrine? In this empirical study we investigate the views of 17 Joint Doctrine developers in UK and US. Based on Harald Höiback’s review of more than 100 years of doctrinal debate, we developed a questionnaire with three sub-scales, doctrinal skepticism, doctrinal foundationalism and doctrinal coherentism. The result indicates that the doctrine developers most of all view doctrine as a tool for effective coordination of military forces. A clearly written doctrine is seen as a good tool for training of officers and units, and it will help to reduce the effect of uncertainty and friction in military operations. 

  • 54.
    Thunholm, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Planering av operationer2018In: Militära arbetsmetoder: en lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm, Jerker Widén, Niklas Wikström, Malmö: Universus Academic Press , 2018, p. 85-126Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet är det första av tre kapitel (kapitel 4-6) som beskriver några av de aktiviteter, eller militära arbetsmetoder, som ingår i den militära ledningsprocessen. Inledningsvis beskrivs den militära ledningsprocessen i mer övergripande mening, i syfte att fungera som en inramning till dessa tre kapitel. Efter beskrivningen av ledningsprocessen definieras begreppet planering i historiskt perspektiv. Sedan beskrivs hur planering kommer in i militär verksamhet, tillsammans med en kortfattad beskrivning av några centrala militära planeringsbegrepp. Därefter beskrivs två traditionella militära planeringsmetoder, där deras uppbyggnad förklaras och deras styrkor/svagheter diskuteras i skenet av modern forskning om militär planering. Sedan diskuteras hur olika faktorer kan påverka planeringsprocessens genomförande. Avslutningsvis beskrivs några mer sentida modeller för militär operationsplanering på förbandsnivå, skillnader och likheter dem emellan förklaras och deras styrkor jämfört med traditionell planeringsmetodik diskuteras.

    Fokus i kapitlet ligger på militär planering av operationer på förbandsnivå. Tanken är att läsaren skall förstå hur planering kan stödjas med planeringsmetodik och vad som kännetecknar olika sådana metoder. Beskrivningen och diskussionen av planeringsmetodik på förbandsnivå, som följer nedan, kan kritiseras för att vara fokuserad mot markstridskrafter med det beror i huvudsak på att det historiskt sett är företrädare för markstridskrafterna som primärt drivit utvecklingen av planeringsmetoder på förbandsnivå. De övriga stridskraftslagen har i hög utsträckning valt att följa utvecklingen inom markstridskrafterna eftersom denna metodik upplevts som funktionell och ändamålsenlig. Forskare har också, med få undantag, studerat planering inom markstridskrafterna.

  • 55.
    Thunholm, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Palmgren, Anders
    Swedish Defence University, Directorate for Officer's Academic Education.
    Doktrinutvecklares syn på doktriners roll och syfte: en empirisk undersökning2018In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 2, p. 15-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What is the purpose, strengths and weaknesses of military joint doctrine? In this empirical study we investigate the views of 17 Joint Doctrine developers in UK and US. Based on Harald Höiback’s review of more than 100 years of doctrinal debate, we developed a questionnaire with three sub-scales, doctrinal skepticism, doctrinal foundationalism and doctrinal coherentism. The result indicates that the doctrine developers most of all view doctrine as a tool for effective coordination of military forces. A clearly written doctrine is seen as a good tool for training of officers and units, and it will help to reduce the effect of uncertainty and friction in military operations.

  • 56.
    Thunholm, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Militär Doktrin2018In: Militära arbetsmetoder: en lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm, Jerker Widén, Niklas Wikström, Malmö: Universus Academic Press , 2018, p. 15-48Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I kapitlet diskuteras doktrinens roll som verktyg och arbetsmetod inom den militära sfären. Diskussionerna bygger primärt på forskning om doktrin, men även på den beprövade erfarenhet som ackumulerats över tid inom försvarsmakter världen över, främst i några av de västländer som haft regelbunden erfarenhet av deltagande i väpnade konflikter. Vidare redogörs övergripande för hur den formella doktrinutvecklingsprocessen ser ut i några av dessa länder, främst i syfte att belysa hur en väl utvecklad och genomtänkt process för doktrinutveckling och doktrinimplementering kan utformas.

    Kapitlet består av två delar, där den första diskuterar begreppet doktrin, vad det är och varför en doktrin anses viktig att ha för en militär organisation. Den andra delen handlar om hur doktriner utvecklas och implementeras och vilka erfarenheter man kan dra från sådana utvecklings- och implementeringsprocesser. I detta kapitel, om inget annat sägs, används begreppet "doktrin" som ett övergripande samlingsbegrepp för den typ av formaliserade styrdokument som i Sverige uppdelas i bland annat doktriner, reglementen, anvisningar, taktiska procedurer, handböcker, bestämmelser och instruktioner, och som militära myndigheter ger ut i såväl sekretessbelagda som öppna och publicerade texter. 

  • 57.
    Thunholm, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Militära doktriner2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den som studerar krig och krigföring eller försöker lära sig hur militära organisationer och förband bedriver sin verksamhet kommer snart i kontakt med begreppet doktrin. I texten, som är avsett att bli ett kapitel i en lärobok i krigsvetenskap, diskuteras doktrinens roll som verktyg och arbetsmetod inom den militära sfären. Diskussionerna bygger primärt på forskning om doktrin, men även på den beprövade erfarenhet som ackumulerats över tid i försvarsmakter världen över, främst i några av de västländer som haft regelbunden erfarenhet av deltagande i väpnade konflikter. Vidare redogörs övergripande för hur den formella doktrinutvecklingsprocessen ser ut i några av dessa länder, främst i syfte att belysa hur en väl utvecklad och genomtänkt process för doktrinutveckling och doktrinimplementering kan utformas.  Kapitlet består av två delar, där den första diskuterar begreppet doktrin, vad det är och varför en doktrin anses viktig att ha för en militär organisation. Den andra delen handlar om hur doktriner utvecklas och implementeras och vilka erfarenheter man kan dra från sådana utvecklings- och implementeringsprocesser. I detta kapitel, om inget annat sägs, används begreppet ”doktrin” som ett övergripande samlingsbegrepp för den typ av formaliserade styrdokument som i Sverige uppdelas i bl.a. doktriner, reglementen, anvisningar, taktiska procedurer, handböcker, bestämmelser och instruktioner, och som militära myndigheter ger ut i såväl sekretessbelagda som öppna och publicerade texter. Läroboken i sin helhet förväntas publiceras som en antologi på vetenskapligt förlag (Studentlitteratur, Lund) under 2017.

  • 58.
    Thunholm, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Wikström, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Introduktion: Militära arbetsmetoder2018In: Militära arbetsmetoder: Lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm, Jerker Widén, Niklas Wikström, Malmö: Universus Academic Press , 2018, p. 7-13Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken behandlar militära arbetsmetoder och syftet är att introducera och förklara de metoder som används för att förbereda, utföra och värdera militära operationer.

  • 59.
    Thunholm, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Widén, JerkerSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.Wikström, NiklasSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Militära Arbetsmetoder: en lärobok i krigsvetenskap2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken behandlar militära arbetsmetoder och syftet är att introducera och förklara de metoder som används för att förbereda, utföra och värdera militära operationer. Boken är även avsedd att fylla en lucka i befintlig militär metodlitteratur genom att ge en historisk förankring och forskningsanknytning till de militära arbetsmetoderna. Genom att beskriva den historiska utvecklingen av en arbetsmetod och koppla den till befintlig forskning ger boken en unik bakgrundsbeskrivning och problematiserande analys av de vanligaste militära arbetsmetoderna.

    Boken innehåller några övergripande teman. Det första är kopplat till officerens roll som chef och stabsmedlem. Inom detta tema beskrivs de metoder som används i den militära ledningsprocessen, det vill säga planering, genomförandeledning, uppföljning och utvärdering. Det andra är kopplat till officerens roll som utbildare och inom detta tema beskrivs de militära utbildnings- och arbetsmetoder som används för analys av strid i rummet eller terrängen, till exempel krigsspel, fältövningar och terränganalys. Ett tredje tema i boken är kopplingen mellan arbetsmetod och aktuell forskning.

  • 60.
    Thunholm, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Wikström, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Genomförandeledning av operationer2018In: Militära arbetsmetoder: En lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm, Jerker Widén, Niklas Wikström, Malmö: Universus Academic Press , 2018, p. 127-162Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det här kapitlet ligger fokus på militär genomförandeledning av operationer på förbandsnivå. Inledningsvis kommer vi att definiera och diskutera begreppet genomförandeledning och rekapitulera begreppets anknytning till övriga centrala begrepp i den militära ledningsprocessen som presenterades i föregående kapitel om planering. Därefter redovisas synen på militär genomförandeledning i moderna reglementen och doktriner, nationellt så väl som internationellt. I detta sammanhang belyser vi även hur order och ordergivning är en central del i genomförandeledning och hur principer, omfattning och utformande av militära order utvecklats historiskt. Sedan diskuteras hur operationsmiljön påverkar genomförandeledning av operationer och vi redovisar en vetenskaplig teori om dynamiskt beslutsfattande som utgångspunkt för att förstå genomförandeledning. Slutligen redovisas forskningsresultat från studier av genomförandeledning på förbandsnivå och ett antal rekommendationer ges baserade på dessa forskningsresultat. Tyngdpunkten i kapitlet ligger på att förklara hur operationsmiljön ställer krav på utformning av genomförandeledning. Kapitlet behandlar däremot inte hur chefer bör utöva sitt ledarskap utan är mer fokuserat på ledningsprocessen utformning. Chefers personliga ledarskap är naturligtvis av central betydelse för genomförande av verksamhet och berörs i ledarskapslitteraturen.

  • 61.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Hybrid warfare and hybrid threats today and tomorrow: towards an analytical framework2019In: Journal on Baltic Security, ISSN 2382-9222, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 17-26, article id https://doi.org/10.2478/jobs-2019-0002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article first traces the origin of hybrid warfare and the label game surrounding the concept, asking whether it is merely old wine in a new bottle, and if so, whether it is still a useful concept. It is found that while being old wine in new bottles, it is still a good wine well worth drinking. While there is not much new in the concept itself, it is a useful tool to think about past wars, today’s wars and the wars of the future. Thereafter, this paper analyses how hybrid warfare and hybrid threats are to be understood in the context of peace, conflict and war. It is shown how hybrid warfare and threats fit into our traditional understanding of conflict dynamics.

  • 62.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Understanding Power (Shift) in East Asia: the Sino-US Narrative Battle about Leadership in the South China Sea2019In: Asian Perspectives, ISSN 0066-8435, E-ISSN 1535-8283, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 223-248, article id https://doi.org/10.1353/apr.2019.0009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I study the competing US and Chinese narratives about the South China Sea. Arguing that the practice of calculating power shifts in terms of the changing distribution of material capabilities is inadequate, I complement existing literature by taking ideational and normative dimensions of power into account. I ask what the alternative Chinese narrative of power and leadership in the South China Sea looks like and how it is perceived by others in comparison with the dominant US narrative. While a "hard" power transition is ongoing, China's preferred narrative has yet to become widely accepted and the US narrative will remain dominant for now. Nevertheless, China has been making progress in shifting the narrative of what the future could look like with China's vision for a post-US regional and global order now seen as a possible alternative.

  • 63.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Ahlström, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Endast genom anfall kan ett avgörande nås: Varför dominerar offensiven militärt taktiskt tänkande?2017In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 2, p. 6-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses why the offensive dominates tactical thinking among Swedish officers. Having found that the large majority of Swedish officers think that the offensive dominates tactical thinking in the armed forces (6:1, 16:1 in the case of the army) ten possible reasons are identified and analysed. It found that the key factors for the dominance are military culture and education which together produce and reproduce the offensive bias. These are the factors with the most direct and deepest impact on the officer identity and understanding, form the foundation for tactical thinking, and work as a prism for other important factors.

  • 64.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Ahlström, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Mirror, mirror on the wall, who is the most offensive of them all?: Explaining the offensive bias in military tactical thinking2019In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores why the offensive predominates military tactical thinking. With survey results showing an offensive bias among 60 per cent of senior Swedish officers and as many as 80 per cent in the case of the army, it is clear that this is not just a problem of the past but is equally relevant today. The article asks why there is a tendency to perceive and understand offensive tactics as the preferred choice and the way to conduct battle that should be encouraged and preferred. Drawing on existing research and the findings of a pilot study, ten propositions for why the offensive bias exists are tested using a mixed-method approach. Based on the findings, the article develops a model to understand why the offensive dominates military tactical thinking. It is found that the two key constitutive factors behind the offensive bias are military culture and education. These factors most directly and profoundly influence an officer’s identity, perceptions, and thinking. Military culture and education, in turn, work as a prism for four other factors: military history, the theory and principles of war, doctrine and TTPs, and psychological factors.

  • 65.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Ahlström, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Offensivens roll i taktiskt tänkande: Slaget vid Caporetto 19172018In: Tankar om defensiven / [ed] Tommy Jeppsson, Stockholm: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademien och Försvarshögskolan , 2018, p. 14-24Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta kapitel studerar vi offensivens roll i det taktiska tänkandet vid tolfte slaget om Isonzo, mer känt som slaget vid Caporetto, i oktober 1917. Underlag har utgjorts av litteraturen kring slaget samt av erfarenheter från en fältövning på plats i Slovenien. Författarna, tillsammans med lärarna på sektionen för markoperationer och chefen för militärhistoriska avdelningen vid Försvarshögskolan, analyserade på plats slaget och följde i fotspåren på dåvarande löjtnanten Erwin Rommel för att förstå de taktiska förutsättningarna, vägvalen, besluten och dess effekter.

    I detta kapitel utgår vi från resultaten av vår egen forskning kring militärt taktiskt tänkande bland svenska officerare, från existerande forskning kring taktiskt tänkande samt från svensk doktrin och reglementen med betoning på Arméreglemente taktik (ART).

    När man studerar slaget vid Caporetto finner man att det är uppenbart att offensiven och offensivt tänkande har varit förhärskande. Detta gäller såväl Caporetto som de föregående elva slagen om Isonzo liksom den efterföljande jakten efter de italienska trupperna mot Tagliamento. Men varför var offensiven förhärskande? De militära målen och operationsmiljön ger förstås en grundförklaring – då italienarna ville nå Trieste behövde de gå på offensiven, och när Österrike-Ungerns försvar närmade sig kollaps och det operativa rummet saknades var motoffensiv att föredra (i alla fall om tyskt stöd kunde uppbådas). Samtidigt står det klart att offensiven var dominerande i det militära taktiska tänkandet hos såväl italienare som tyskar – de två huvudaktörerna i det studerade fallet.

  • 66.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Björnehed, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Praktisk examination och examination av praktik: Möjligheter och begränsningar2019In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 2, p. 91-103Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to lead armed combat is central to an officer. It is clear that the military professionis about more than possessing theoretical knowledge. Thus, in order to achieve an educationalprogram that includes the skills and abilities of the military profession there is a need to lookbeyond traditional written examination and apply practical examination in various forms.In this article we argue that while all practice can and should be examined through practicalexamination, not everything that is practically examined has to be practice. More specifically,this article will focus on the possibilities and limitations with practical examination. Focuswill be on the education of officers within the context of war studies. The article approachesthe issue on the basis of the legal framework for higher education in Sweden, research onteaching and learning in higher education and practice at the Swedish Defence University. Theoverall purpose is to understand practical examination with regard to what is allowed, howit is done with judicial security, and how it can be done in practice. The article also discusseswhat should be practically examined and how this should be done.

  • 67.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Daniel, Rydberg
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Att leda markoperationer2019In: Att leda markoperationer: En essäsamling / [ed] Mikael Weissmann & Daniel Rydberg, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2019, 1, p. 7-14Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion till essäsamlingen "Att leda markoperationer".

  • 68.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Li, Mingjiang
    S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Introduction to the Special Issue: power, Narratives, and the Role of Third Parties: Understanding Power (Shift) in East Asia2019In: Asian Perspective, ISSN 0258-9184, E-ISSN 2288-2871, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 215-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "POWER" REMAINS A CENTRAL, IF NOT INDISPENSABLE, CONCEPT IN THE SOCIAL sciences and humanities. In no discipline is this clearer than international relations (IR), where the distribution of power is believed to explain many outcomes in international politics, particularly the propensity for war and peace (Mearsheimer 2010; Friedberg 2011). The importance of the concept notwithstanding, academic and policy debates about international power have long occurred within overly restrictive conceptual boundaries, focusing on the distribution of power defined as tangible assets to explain international politics at the expense of other ways in which power is exercised. Even though this materialist theory of power has failed to help us understand some of the most conspicuous international developments of recent decades, it continues to permeate the literature about international politics.

    There are few places in the world where power is as crucial to shaping international dynamics as in East Asia. The critical question of whether a power shift is ongoing in the region, from Japan and the United States to China, is a central preoccupation of contemporary IR. Given the actors that are involved, the region is arguably the epicenter of a possible global power shift from the West to the East, and from the North to the South. In the East Asian region, a power shift has been seen as impending for more than two decades (Betts 1993; Friedberg 1993; Roy 1994). Today, the concept of a regional power shift is widely accepted both among scholars and observers outside of academia (Shambaugh 2005; Mearsheimer 2010; Layne 2018). A consensus has emerged that there has been a redistribution of capabilities among the major players in the region, although there are different opinions about the extent and outcome of such power shift (Li and Kemburi 2014; see also the Asian Perspective special issue "The East Asia Power Shift: A Critical Appraisal," vol. 38, no. 3, 2014; of particular interest is the introduction by Linus Hagström and Bjorn Jerden).

    This special issue goes beyond materialistic power theory to examine the role and impact of narratives themselves in the (apparent) power shift in East Asia. It investigates the extent to which the narratives produced and spread by key actors succeed in producing effects on third [End Page 215] parties, exploring if and how they succeed in shaping their preferences, interests, and identities regarding contested issues in East Asia. Its focus is on the narratives about China, Japan, and the United States. The underlying idea is that it is the narrative(s) that ultimately define(s) the dynamics of the East Asian security setting and IR more broadly, creating a framework for what actions are possible, when, and for whom. In short, it is ultimately the victorious/dominant narratives that themselves define what is seen as legitimate and illegitimate, what is normal and abnormal, and ultimately what is within the realm of possibility and what is not.

    Special emphasis is put on third parties, as it is they who are the audiences and ultimately the judges of what narrative to accept or is most attractive. For example, the fact that narratives about a more "assertive" and "threatening" China have received increased attention and acceptance is limiting China while at the same time opening new space for Japan and US foreign policy, as they are perceived as important to manage China's purported rise.

    This special issue starts with an article by Mikael Weissmann titled "Understanding Power (Shift) in East Asia: The Sino-US Narrative Battle about Leadership in the South China Sea." Weissmann analyzes competing US and Chinese narratives about the South China Sea. He argues that the practice of calculating power shifts in terms of changing distribution of material capabilities is inadequate. The article aims to complement existing literature by taking ideational and normative dimensions of power into account. The article asks what the Chinese narrative of power and leadership in the South China Sea looks like and how it is perceived by others in comparison with the dominant US narrative. Weissmann concludes that while a "hard" power transition is ongoing, China's preferred narrative has yet to become widely accepted and...

  • 69.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section. The Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Rappe, Elin
    The Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Sweden’s approach to China’s Belt and Road Initiative: Still a glass half-empty2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013 China’s President Xi Jinping launched the “One Belt, One Road” (OBOR) initiative, later renamed the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), which involves China undertaking to make infrastructure investments worth billions of US dollars in the countries along the old Silk Road connecting China with Europe. While commonly seen as an infrastructure initiative aimed at strengthening the Chinese economy, it is also a political project with far-reaching strategic aims.

    This UI Brief outlines how China has approached the BRI with Sweden, how Sweden has responded and the perceptions of major Swedish stakeholders. It finds that Swedish officials are often highly cautious, maintaining a wait-and see policy. While also cautious, members of the business community are cautiously optimistic and have been more actively following BRI-related developments, seeking out avenues for potential business. The actual impact of BRI in Sweden, however, is so far very limited.

    The Brief concludes that Sweden’s approach to BRI has been too reactive and too passive. It argues that both the government and the business community need to engage more actively with the BRI in order to maximize its possible benefits. To this end, a national strategy is needed that includes the government and the business sector. Better coordination is also needed between government agencies and to link existing intra-governmental cooperation with the business community. Their importance cannot be overemphasized as the BRI is a political project, not an idealistic free-market endeavour.

  • 70.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Rydberg, DanielSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Att leda markoperationer: En essäsamling2019Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Sjømilitær kompetanse og lederutvikling i 200 år: Sjøkrigsskolen 1817-20172018In: Norsk Militært Tidsskrift, ISSN 0029-2028, Vol. 188, no 2, p. 66-67Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Small navies: strategy and policy for small navies in war and peace2017In: Journal for maritime research, ISSN 2153-3369, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 81-82Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Wikström, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Palmgren, Anders
    Swedish Defence University, Directorate for Officer's Academic Education.
    Auftragstaktik och uppdragstaktik2018In: Militära arbetsmetoder: En lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm, Jerker Widén, Niklas Wikström, Malmö: Universus Academic Press , 2018, p. 49-84Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta kapitel inleds med en analys som kortfattat beskriver framväxten av Auftragstaktik i tysk militär kultur och historia med fokus på den centrala perioden 1869-1945 för att tydliggöra viktiga komponenter i ett vidare perspektiv. Därefter analyseras och synliggör kapitlet centrala element som tidigare generationer av svenska officerare plockade upp respektive tappade bort i konstruktionen av svensk uppdragstaktik. Medan den inledande beskrivningen och analysen av den tyska utvecklingen är tematisk, är analysen av den svenska tolkningen av uppdragstaktik kronologiskt ordnad i tre perioder genom sitt beroende av utvecklingen i Tyskland och Frankrike.

  • 74.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Ethics, the military imaginary, and practices of war2019In: Critical Studies on Security, ISSN 2162-4887, E-ISSN 2162-4909Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maja Zehfuss' book War and the politics of ethics makes the claim that Western practices of war are constituted by debates and ideas of ethics, illustrated in particular through the Western wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Herein, this claim is assessed by drawing on Tarak Barkawi and Shane Brightons argument that in contemporary research, war tends to be conceived through secondary phenomena. The paper argues that research focusing on how war is shaped by secondary phenomena often falls back on a reductive understanding, in which war is represented as violent destruction. Moreover, that by seeing war as a multifaceted form shaped by military imaginaries centring on military theory, tactics, and operational art, we may gain a more comprehensive understanding of its ontology and practices.

  • 75.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Exercising war: How tactical and operational modelling shape and reify military practice2020In: Security Dialogue, ISSN 0967-0106, E-ISSN 1460-3640, no 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes how contemporary military training and exercises shape and reify specific modalities of war. Historically, military training has shifted from being individual- and experience-oriented, towards becoming modelled into exercise environments and practices. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with military officers, exercise controllers, and war-game designers, the article distinguishes between tactical training, characterized by military functions embodied through weapon platforms in a demarcated battlespace, and operational training, characterized by administrative and organizational processes embodied through self-referential staff routines. As military exercises integrate the tactical and operational dimensions into a model for warfare, they serve as blueprints for today’s battles at the same time as they perpetuate a martial viewpoint of the world. As a result, preparations for potential future conflicts constitute a fertile ground for apprehending the becoming of war.

  • 76.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Requiem for the battlefield2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Review of Antoine Bousquet’s book The Eye of War: Military Perception from the Telescope to the Drone and a complementary view of the battlefield in relation to the trajectory traced by the author.

  • 77.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Suicide, the only politically worthy act2016In: Narrative Global Politics: Theory, history and the personal in international relations / [ed] Elizabeth Dauphinee, Naeem Inayatullah, London: Routledge, 2016, first, p. 191-199Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Violent Fragments2015In: Journal of Narrative Politics, ISSN 2368-2507, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 150-152Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    War, transparency and control: the military architecture of operational warfare2016In: Cambridge Review of International Affairs, ISSN 0955-7571, E-ISSN 1474-449X, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 1132-1149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contemporary research, transparency is commonly understood to indicate and guarantee openness, in ways that make it synonymous with positive characteristics of governing. However, the allegedly benevolent link between transparency and governing has also been questioned, giving rise to arguments that transparency enables violent social control. Drawing upon this latter view, the article stages an encounter between critical debates on transparency and critical accounts of war to examine the way that they come together in the operationalization of warfare. Engaging particularly with Jean Baudrillard’s writing on transparency, the article inquires into the way control is socially manufactured and administered through military doctrines. It concludes that the operationalization of warfare is not, as many tend to argue, first and foremost about a response to practical problems when conducting wars. Rather, it consists of the potential to unveil global space and global time as an attempt to maintain and control future political becoming

  • 80.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Warfare as design: Transgressive creativity and reductive operational planning2018In: Security Dialogue, ISSN 0967-0106, E-ISSN 1460-3640, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 493-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that the politics of contemporary Western warfare finds an important reference point in discourses on military design. In the 2010s, military design has become a trending topic in military discourses on command and planning methodology. Since Clausewitz, warfare has been considered a phenomenon characterized by a tension between creativity and linear planning, and the ideal commander as someone with the vision to overcome this. By mapping and analyzing tactical, operational, and strategic narratives and practices, the article illustrates how they emphasize a warfare based both on experimentation and artistry and on traditional operational planning. In so doing, military design relies on reductive military concepts to push the tension identified by Clausewitz towards its extreme end-point, idealizing creativity as an objective of warfare. The article ends by asking to what extent military design risks spilling over into other dimensions of social and political life. It concludes that in pushing creativity as part of war, military design builds on and justifies transgressive political practices with the risk of becoming a vital aspect of future governing.

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