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  • 51.
    Nilsson, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark). Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Role Conceptions, Crises, and Georgia's Foreign Policy2018In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, ISSN 0010-8367, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the scope conditions of national role conceptions as reference points for foreign policy decision making during crises. It aims to contribute to a refined perspective of the agency of new states undergoing socialization processes in relations with significant others. Drawing on a primary material consisting of interviews with Georgian and US officials, the article analyzes the significance of Georgia’s role conceptions in the country’s relations with the USA in relation to two major crises: the 2007 riots in Tbilisi and the 2008 war with Russia. The article posits that crises provide situational circumstances where the requirements of appropriate behavior associated with role expectations may enter into conflict with the demands of the immediate situation. In order to resolve ensuing role conflicts, actors face the need to both rationalize role expectations, and to compensate for departures from them. In turn, these strategies relate to the possibility for change and stability in role conceptions, and by extension their enactment in foreign policy. The analysis of the Georgian government’s management of the two crises demonstrates actions that implied both rationalization and compensation, aiming to retain the credibility of its existing role conceptions in the eyes of its US counterparts.

  • 52.
    Nilsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark). Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Michalski, Anna
    Department of Government, Uppsala University.
    Resistant to Change? The EU as a Normative Power and Its Troubled Relations with Russia and China2018In: Foreign Policy Analysis, ISSN 1743-8586, E-ISSN 1743-8594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we investigate the European Union's (EU) role as a normative foreign policy actor and its troubled relations to Russia and China. We contend that the lack of preparedness of the EU to foresee the increasingly tense relations with these countries can be explained through a role theoretical perspective. We show that the attachment of the EU to its role as a normative international actor reduced its awareness of Russia's and China's growing refusal to accept the EU's ambition to diffuse liberal norms and principles. The EU's inability to read the changing role expectations of China and Russia hampered the shaping of an appropriate foreign policy leading up the diplomatic crises with these two countries in the late 2000s and early 2010s, respectively. Theoretically, the findings contribute with a novel understanding of role conceptions in terms of reducing an actor's preparedness to acknowledge changes to its international role position caused by challenges raised by antagonistic partners.

  • 53.
    Thunholm, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Högström, Ulf
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Tactical Thinking as Problem Solving: a paradigm for development of tactical thinking ability?2012In:  , 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The classic definition of tactics proposed by Clausewitz (1976, p. 128) was that “tactics teaches the use of armed forces in the engagement”. Clausewitz in a similar way of thinking defined strategy as “the use of engagements for the object of the war”. Clausewitz´s definition of tactics is still basically in use in several doctrines around the world although often a bit more developed. So, for example, in the Swedish Doctrine for Ground Operations (2005, p 36) tactics is defined as “the ability to use military forces in conducting battle or in support of battle”. The definitions of tactics are often implicitly (e.g. Clausewitz, 1832/1976) or explicitly (Swedish Armed Forces, 2005) focused on the ability of someone to use military units in order to win an engagement. This someone is a military officer. Studying military tactics is one of the main subjects for officers in military academies, yet, what constitutes tactical thinking ability and how it can be studied and trained has not been under much scientific attention. 

    One way to view tactical thinking ability is to frame it as problem solving activity. This has been done partly by the US Army (2005, 2010). The advantage with this is that problem solving research offers several different avenues to how tactical thinking ability can be studied. First, it offers a general classification of types of problems that could be applied to the typical military tactical problem. We propose that a proper understanding of the general military tactical problem facing a military officer is key to understanding how tactical thinking ability can be developed. We also propose that tactical problems generally are dynamic problems, and “formally correct” solutions to dynamic problems cannot be identified in advance.  Another advantage using a problem solving research perspective is that it also offers a set of different theoretical frameworks for studying officers solving tactical problems.

    In this paper we present a new approach, at the Swedish National Defence College, to study and develop tactical thinking ability in military officers. We start by classifying a generic tactical problem facing a tactical commander. Secondly, we survey different possible problem solving theories or paradigms that could be applied in order to study, and later also develop, the ability of officers to think tactics. Finally we discuss how a research program for studying and developing tactical thinking ability with a problem solving research approach could be designed. 

  • 54.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark). Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Chinese Foreign Policy in a Global Perspective: A Responsible Reformer “Striving For Achievement”2015In: Journal of China and International Relations, ISSN 1005-8885, E-ISSN 2245-8921, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 151-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last four decades, China has moved from being an isolated country separated from the international community to having become one of the world’s major powers. It is vital to understand what is guiding Chinese foreign policy, why this is so, and not least what kind of power China is and will be in the future. This article analyses the vital elements and thinking that guides Chinese foreign policy, its priorities and decision making process. It is found that China's foreign policy is embedded in domestic issues. The foremost foreign policy objective is domestic political stability, which in turn is a necessity for the survival of one-party rule. Both are dependent on a combination of two key factors: continuing domestic economic growth and nationalism. The foreign policy is also closely linked to the Chinese self-perception, both its self-superiority/self-inferiority dualism and its multitude of confusing (overlapping) identities about what China is and should be. A key turning year is 2008 when the "global" financial crisis severely affected the United States and Europe at a time of Chinese economic success, which gave China confidence to pursue a more active and aggressive/assertive stance on the international stage. It is concluded that China under Xi Jinping will not be a status que power accepting the world as it is, but nor are we to expect China to become a revisionist power aiming to remodel the global order. China is what can best be described as a responsible reformer "striving for achievements".

  • 55.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark). Swedish Institute of International Affairs (UI).
    The East Asian Peace: Conflict Prevention and Informal Peacebuilding2012Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The East Asian peace is a mystery of the modern age. To many theorists and analysts alike, the post-Cold War calm has been seen as a temporary anomaly, potential military conflicts dominating predictions for the future. Despite this, two decades have passed in which a relative peace has been sustained and it is time to question existing forecasts. Comparing the Taiwan Strait, the South China Sea and the Korean Nuclear conflict, the author explores the informal processes that can help explain the persistence of peace, leading to hope for a future era of stability.

  • 56.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark). Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    The South China Sea: Still No War on the Horizon2015In: Asian Survey, ISSN 0004-4687, E-ISSN 1533-838X, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 596-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a conflict transformation framework, this article demonstrates that positive transformations have taken place in the South China Sea between 1991 and 2007. Even though these transformations have been weakened in recent years, particularly regarding the actor aspect, it is concluded that a major armed conflict is still highly unlikely.

  • 57.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark). Swedish Institute of International Affairs (UI).
    Why is there a relative peace in the South China Sea?2014In: Entering Uncharterd Waters?: ASEAN and The South China Sea Dispute / [ed] Pavin Chachavalpongpun, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies , 2014, p. 36-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark). Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Carlsson, Märta
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Oxenstierna, Susanne
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    China and Russia - A Study on Cooperation, Competition and Distrust2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    China and Russia share a geopolitical world view and a preference for a multipolar world. How their relationship evolves and how they understand their respective positions in the international system are vital for the development of global affairs. The purpose of this report is to analyse the relationship between China and Russia from a political as well as an economic perspective. In this context it compares how the two countries perceive themselves and their role in the world. The report provides an overview of the national foreign policy elements and the economic ties between the two countries. China and Russia cooperate and compete in many areas and their interests and ambitions are exemplified by their policies in Central Asia and Asia-Pacific. Throughout the report the role of the United States as a competitor and a partner to both countries is discussed.

     

    The partnership with China offers Russia an opportunity to conduct a multivector foreign policy and thereby to counterbalance the hegemony of the West. For China it supports the efforts to offset the US influence in the Asia-Pacific. Economic interdependence between the countries is limited, but arms trade and technology transfer are vital elements and energy cooperation is developing. China’s gradual economic reforms have created an economic superpower that will soon be overtaking the United States as the largest economy in the world, while Russia’s economy is stagnating. A weakness in the relationship is the fact that relations with the United States are the most important for both China’s and Russia’s foreign policy. The United States is China’s only real strategic partner, which adds to the weakness of the partnership with Russia. The Russian aggression against Ukraine in 2014 is found to be a defining moment for the Sino-Russian relationship.

  • 59.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark). Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Dittmer, LowellUniversity of California, Berkeley.
    Special Issue on "China’s Maritime Embroilments"2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The full table of content is as follows:

    • China’s Maritime Embroilments LOWELL DITTMER AND MIKAEL WEISSMANN
    • The South China Sea: Law Trumps PowerSTEIN TØNNESSON
    • Behind Rising East Asian Maritime Tensions with China: Struggle without BreakingCHONG-PIN LIN
    • Chinese Discourse on the ‘‘Nine-Dashed Line’’: Rights, Interests, and NationalismZHENG WANG
    • Japan’s Approach to Maritime Security in the South China SeaPAUL MIDFORD
    • How Economic, Strategic, and Domestic Factors Shape Patterns of Conflict and Cooperation in the East China Sea DisputePAUL O’SHEA
    • The US Rebalance and Southeast Asia: A Work in ProgressSHELDON W. SIMON’
    • The South China Sea: Still No War on the Horizon MIKAEL WEISSMANN
    • The South China Sea: Achievements and Challenges to Dispute ManagementRAMSES AMER
  • 60.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark). Utrikespolitiska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hagström, Linus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section. Utrikespolitiska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sanctions Reconsidered: the Path Forward with North Korea2016In: The Washington quarterly, ISSN 0163-660X, E-ISSN 1530-9177, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 61-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been regular predictions of North Korea’s imminent collapse. Yet, by adapting to changing circumstances, and finding new supply lines and revenue streams, the state has managed to bypass an increasingly strict sanctions regime aimed at rolling back its nuclear program. This article details the economic flows that continue to keep North Korea alive, against all odds, but argued that these areas are difficult to target as even “smart sanctions” are highly likely to have a range of adverse effects on the wider population. That said, this article recommends continued monitoring of the arms trade, and measures to squeeze the court economy and to target remittances from exported laborers. Yet such efforts have to be combined with a smarter diplomacy built on engagement.

12 51 - 60 of 60
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