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  • 51.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Poland and the Czech Republic: New Members Torn between the EU and NATO2006In: Changing Transatlantic Security Relations: do the U.S., the EU, and Russia form a new strategic triangle? / [ed] Hallenberg, Jan; Karlsson, Håkan, London: Routledge, 2006, 1, p. 145-167Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    The 1982 Swedish Hårsfjärden Submarine Incident: A Decision-Making Analysis1998In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 367-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of the complex problems faced by the authorities when coping with the first major submarine chase in Sweden during the 1980s. The incident was to establish a disturbing pattern for Swedish territorial defence that lasted for the rest of the decade. Having experienced a major `success' in the submarine defence area a year earlier in the so-called `whisky-on-the-rocks' crisis, the Swedish military and political leadership was caught in a credibility trap that closed forcefully as over 400 journalists reported the unsuccessful search-and-surface mission in the small bay of Hårsfjärden. This operative incident turned political crisis was the beginning (and perhaps the trigger) of what would become the number one security issue during the decade. It highlights the consequential interaction between organizations and different government levels in a high-profile security crisis. The framing of the problem confronting the decisionmakers was dominated by the incident handled a year previously.

    The study takes a cognitive-institutional approach to the decision-making process. The nexus between individual actors, groups and organizations is the focus of analysis, which is conducted taking a sequential view of the decision-making process, the larger picture of the problem being split into decision occasions. This captures best the environment where vital choices were made and shows how the process of analogical reasoning becomes important for the under-standing of the crisis management effort and its consequential results.

  • 53.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    The Rise and Fall of the Submarine Threat: Threat Politics and Submarine Intrusions in Sweden 1980-20022003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Ukrainian Security Identity and Relation to NATO2011In: The Politics of Security Sector Reform: Challenges and Opportunities for the European Union’s Global Role / [ed] Ekengren, Magnus; Simons, Greg, Farnham: Ashgate, 2011, 1, p. 75-86Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Utrikes- och säkerhetspolitik: från neuralitetspolitik till solidaritetsdoktrin2016In: Svensk politik och EU: hur svensk politik har förändrats av medlemskapet i EU / [ed] Daniel Silander & Mats Öhlén, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2016, p. 217-236Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Value Conflicts in Foreign Policy Crises: How the U.S. and the U.K. wrestled with the Ethical Dilemma of Going to War in Iraq2011In: Ethics and Crisis Management / [ed] Svedin, Lina, Charlotte, N.C.: Information Age Publishing, 2011, 1, p. 37-56Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Chmielewski, PiotrSimons, GregSwedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    The politics of crisis management in transitional Poland from 1990-19992008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Daléus, Pär
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Swedish Coalition Governments and the Quest for Re-election2014In: Political Capital and the Dynamics of Leadership: Exploring the Leadership Capital Index, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will use the Leadership Capital Index to develop and compare case studies of twoSwedish coalition leaders, Carl Bildt (1991-1994) and Fredrik Reinfeldt (2006 - present). Mr.Bildt and Mr. Reinfeldt represent the Moderates, a Centre-right party, which has been thesecond largest party, behind the long-dominant Social Democrats, since the 1970s. The twoleaders faced similar political problems, but with very different outcomes. Their respectivecoalition included three additional parties, challenging their relational skills, and both wrestledwith the dilemma of having the parliamentary equation disturbed by the emergence a rightwing populist party. Adding to the similarities is that they were confronted with economiccrises during their incumbencies. While Mr. Bildt, however, only lasted one term in office, Mr.Reinfeldt has managed to secure two consecutive terms for his coalition (although losing hismajority in 2010), a unique achievement in a country that has been dominated by Social Democraticgovernments. The paper aims to strengthen the operationalization of the LCI by addingtwo comparative cases and consideration for systemic factors to the analysis, such as type ofgovernment and parliamentary balance of power. The case studies will further clarify the relativeimportance of the leaders’ coalition maintenance efforts.

  • 59.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Guzzini, Stefano
    Uppsala universitet, statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Rethinking Foreign Policy2012 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). CNDS.
    Sundelius, Bengt
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Winnerstig, Mike
    FOI, Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut.
    Rådgivarrollen: när statsvetaren bidrar till policyskapande2016In: Att forska: Praktiker och roller / [ed] Linus Hagström, Niklas Bremberg, Arita Holmberg, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2016, p. 248-270Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    't Hart, Paul
    Utrecht University, the Netherlands.
    Leadership Succession in Politics and Business: Converging Logics?2017In: Routledge Companion to Leadership / [ed] John Storey, Jean Hartley, Jean-Louis Denis, Paul 't Hart, David Ulrich, London: Routledge, 2017, 1, p. 157-172Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    't Hart, Paul
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    The Art of Handing Over: (Mis)Managing Party Leadership Successions2008In: Government and Opposition, ISSN 0017-257X, E-ISSN 1477-7053, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 385-404Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    't Hart, Paul
    Australian National University.
    The Politics of Party Leader Survival and Succession: Australia in Comparative Perspective2007In: Australian Journal of Political Science, ISSN 1036-1146, E-ISSN 1363-030X, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 47-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The processes of replacement of party leaders are well-published events in media outlets across the world's democracies, but are scarcely analysed by political scientists. In this article we examine the extent to which incumbent party leaders are able to control their own fate in the face of various types of challenges that herald a possible end to their rule. It discusses three related research questions derived from this main objective: (1) what makes incumbents quit? (2) How do incumbents respond to various types of triggers heralding a possible end to their rule? (3) To what extent does incumbent behaviour prior to and following succession affect the fortunes of their successors and their party? We draw on a four-country–eight-party data set of leadership successions between 1945 and 2005, and on findings of in-depth studies of Australian cases to show that not only do Australian leaders get challenged and replaced more frequently than do other leaders, but they are also forced to combat more internal rivalry than their counterparts elsewhere.

  • 64.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    't Hart, Paul
    Australian National University; Utrecht University.
    When Power Changes Hands: The PoliticalPsychology of Leadership Succession in Democracies2006In: Political Psychology, ISSN 0162-895X, E-ISSN 1467-9221, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 707-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leadership succession in democratic governments and political parties is an ubiquitous but relatively understudied phenomen, where the political becomes intensely personal and vice versa. This article outlines the puzzles that leadership succession poses to political analysts, reviews the literature, and offers a conceptual framework deconstructing the process in terms of a flow from succession contexts and triggers via the role choices of key participants (incumbents and aspiring successors) through to the eventual succession outcomes. It concludes by presenting a series of testable hypotheses to describe and explain leadership successions.

  • 65. Callerstig, Anne-Charlott
    et al.
    Harrison, Kathrine
    Lindholm, Kristina
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Gender and Rescue Services: A Research Overview2008Report (Other academic)
  • 66. Castenfors, K.
    et al.
    Svedin, Lina
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Crisis communication: learning from the 1998 LPG near miss in Stockholm2001In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 88, no 2-3, p. 235-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors examine current trends in urban risks and resilience in relation to hazardous material transports in general, and crisis communication and the Stockholm liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) near miss in 1998 in particular The article discusses how current dynamics affecting urban areas, such as the decay in terms of increased condensation and limited expansion alternatives combined with industry site contamination and transports of hazardous materials on old worn-out physical infrastructure, work together to produce high-risk factors and increase urban vulnerability in large parts of the world today. Crisis communication takes a particularly pronounced role in the article as challenges in communication and confidence maintenance under conditions of information uncertainty and limited information control are explored. The LPG near miss case illustrates a Swedish case of urban risk and the tight coupling to hazardous material transports. The case also serves as a current example of Swedish resilience and lack of preparedness in urban crises, with particular observations and lessons learned in regards to crisis communication.

  • 67.
    Castenfors, Kerstin
    et al.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Anthrax Letters in Sweden?: Analysis of how FOI’s Division of NBC-Protection managed the ”Anthrax Letters” during the fall of 2001 – from a Crisis Management Perspective2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When the so-called anthrax letters began to appear in the U.S.A. in early October 2001, FOI(the Swedish National Defense Research Agency), prepared to put its personnel and its expertknowledge at society's disposal, in case Sweden should be subjected to similar incidents.When the first parcel1 with suspect contents appeared in Sweden in the middle of October,FOI-NBC-Protection (the Division of Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Protection, in thenorthern city of Umeå), abbrev. FOI-NBC, undertook the task of analyzing its contents. Atthe request of the Swedish National Police Board (RPS), FOI also agreed to test the contentsof any further such parcels that might turn up. FOI is traditionally a research and advisoryorganization, not a day-to-day operative organization. Thus, NBC-Protection had to make anumber of quick decisions concerning management and re-organization, in order to meet thedemands of the situation.Since the term "crisis" is central to this report, a short explanation of what the authors meanby this term is justified. A crisis is a situation and a process in which decision makersperceive2 all of the following:

    • a threat to fundamental values• severe time pressure• uncertainly

    Such situations can have their origins both in internal organizational factors and in externalfactors (Sundelius, Stern & Bynander, 1997).This report presents an analysis of interviews and testimonies given by staff of FOI-NBC, inconnection with the so-called anthrax crisis. The situation/process which arose at that timewas experienced not only as fundamentally threatening to society, but also to FOI-NBC'scredibility as an organization. It also involved intense time pressure and a great deal of dayto-day uncertainly.However, crises not only involve threats, but also present new opportunities. Morespecifically, if FOI NBC-Protection could successfully master the situation, this could onlylead to an increase in its credibility as a (expert) knowledge organization.In the aftermath of the “anthrax crisis”, FOI-NBC was – naturally – interested in finding out ifits staff had been given adequate means to do a proper job, if delegated responsibilities wereaccepted, how assigned tasks were carried out and if the decision making process wasemployed in a competent manner. In short, how well did the organization actually functionwhen, during that short, intense period in the fall of 2001, it was forced to transform itselffrom an "advisory" organization to an "operative" one?Thus, in the spring of 2002, FOI's Division of Defense Analysis in Stockholm was given thetask of studying how FOI-NBC in Umeå handled the events of 2001.

  • 68.
    Castenfors, Kerstin
    et al.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Mjältbrandsbrev i Sverige?: Analys av FOI Avdelningen för NBC-skydds hantering av de så kallade mjältbrandsbreven under hösten 2001 utifrån ett krishanteringsperspektiv2003Book (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Daléus, Pär
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Democracy's Blameless Leaders: From Dresden to Abu Ghraib, How Leaders Evade Accountability for Abuse, Atrocity and Killing2015In: Political Psychology, ISSN 0162-895X, E-ISSN 1467-9221, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 133-137Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Daléus, Pär
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Flodvågskatastrofen: massmedias och myndigheters framställningar av hanteringen2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 71.
    Daléus, Pär
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Follow the Leader?: How Voters Respond to Politicians' Policies and Performance2015In: Political Psychology, ISSN 0162-895X, E-ISSN 1467-9221, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 133-137Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Daléus, Pär
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Politisk ledarskapsstil: Om interaktionen mellan personlighet och institutioner i utövandet av det svenska statsministerämbetet2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Daléus, Pär
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Politiskt ledarskap2015In: Perspektiv på krishantering / [ed] Deverell, Edward; Hansén, Dan; Olsson, Eva-Karin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, 1, p. 21-44Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Daléus, Pär
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Transformative Political Leadership: Making a Difference in the Developing World2015In: Political Psychology, ISSN 0162-895X, E-ISSN 1467-9221, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 133-137Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Daléus, Pär
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Understanding Prime Ministerial Performance: Comparative Perspectives2015In: Political Psychology, ISSN 0162-895X, E-ISSN 1467-9221, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 133-137Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Daléus, Pär
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Swedish Coalition Governments and the Quest for Re-election2017In: The Politics of Leadership Index: A New Perspective on Political Leadership / [ed] Bennister, Mark, ’t Hart, Paul, Worthy, Ben, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Daléus, Pär
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Hansén, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Inherent Ethical Challenges in Bureaucratic Crisis Management: The Swedish Experience with the 2004 Tsunami Disaster2011In: Ethics and Crisis Management / [ed] Svedin, Lina, Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Daléus, Pär
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Sundelius, Bengt
    Från territorialförsvar i krig till samhällssäkerhet i fred: Analyser av förändrade säkerhetspolitiska synsätt och verkligheter i de nordiska länderna efter den 11 september och Madridattentatet2004Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 79. Dekker, Sander
    et al.
    Hansén, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Learning under Pressure: The Effects of Politicization on Organizational Learning in Public Bureaucracies2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 80.
    Dekker, Sander
    et al.
    Leiden University.
    Hansén, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Learning under Pressure: The Effects of Politicization on Organizational Learning in Public Bureaucracies2004In: Journal of public administration research and theory, ISSN 1053-1858, E-ISSN 1477-9803, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 211-230Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 81.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    An Analytical Memoir of the WHO Operation in China2011In: SARS from East to West / [ed] Eva-Karin Olsson and Lan Xue, New York City: Lexington Books , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 82.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Att lära av kriserfarenheter2015In: Perspektiv på krishantering / [ed] Deverell, Edward, Hansén, Dan & Olsson, Eva-Karin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 195-217Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Crises as learning agents: Developing and exploring a conceptual framework of crisis induced learning and testing its practical applicability2008In: Proceedings of the first Young Researchers' Seminar, Malmö, 2008, p. 23-34Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to contribute to the debate on organizational learning from crisis by shedding light on the phenomena of crises as learning agents. It suggests a conceptual framework based on conceptual categories and answers to four fundamental questions: what lessons are learned (single- or double-loop)?; what is the focus of the lessons (prevention or response)?; when are lessons learned (intra- or intercrisis)?; is learning carried out or blocked from implementation (distilled or implemented)? The practical applicability of the framework is explored in a case study of two consecutive crises that provoked lessons from two organizations with public task orientations. In the final sections of the study four propositions on crisis-induced learning are posed for future research.

  • 84.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Crises as Learning Triggers: exploring a Conceptual Framework of Crisis-Induced Learning2009In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 179-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contributes to the debate on organizational learning from crisis by shedding light on the phenomenon of crises as learning triggers. To unveil theoretical patterns of how organizational crisis-induced learning may appear and develop, I suggest a conceptual framework based on concept categories and answers to four fundamental questions: what lessons are learned (single- or double-loop)?; what is the focus of the lessons (prevention or response)?; when are lessons learned (intra- or intercrisis)?; is learning blocked from implementation or carried out (distilled or implemented)? The framework's applicability is explored in a study of how a Swedish utility and the city of Stockholm responded to two large-scale blackouts in Stockholm. The final sections suggest four propositions for further research.

  • 85.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Crisis induced learning: Swedish public sector organizations’ learning after crises2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning from major failures and crisis experiences is essential for creating robust, safe, and reliable organizations and societies as well as for preventing a repeat of the crisis. Hence, it is of great importance to increase knowledge about why some individuals and organizations learn from crisis experiences and others do not. Studying how organizations learn from crisis episodes raises a number of issues pertaining to the difficulties of applying the concept of organizational learning empirically. This article discusses the problems of defining, disaggregating, and categorizing the organizational learning concept along with the effects of timing on organizational learning and why we should expect that crises are stimulants to learning in the first place. The concluding section presents an empirical application of the organizational learning concept that acknowledges the learning cycle as a fourfold process involving knowledge gathering, acting on knowledge, knowledge dissemination, and maintaining/reconsidering knowledge.

  • 86.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Crisis-induced learning in public sector organizations2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How do public organizations manage crises? How do public organizations learnfrom crises? These seemingly basic questions still pose virtual puzzles for crisismanagement researchers. Yet, the interest of the academic and practitionerrealms in crisis management has grown in recent years. In this doctoral dissertationEdward Deverell sheds light on the problems regarding the lack ofknowledge on how public organizations manage and learn from crises, with anumber of critical knowledge gaps in contemporary crisis management as thestarting point. 

    In the last few decades the interest in crisis management as a scholarly fieldhas grown. This developing field is composed of an increasing number of looselyconnected social science scholars concerned with issues of extraordinary events,their repercussions and the way in which they are managed by authorities,organizations, policy makers and other key actors. However, there are severallacunae to be dealt with in the emerging field of crisis management research.This dissertation sets the spotlight on four of these limitations of the crisis managementliterature to date. 

    First, influential scholars within the field call for increased structuration andfeasible models to help us understand and explain various important factorsinfluencing the crisis management process. In this dissertation I try to bridgethis gap by developing theory on crisis response and learning. Crisis responsesignifies organized activities undertaken by a stakeholder when a community ofpeople – an organization, a town, or a nation – perceives an urgent threat to corevalues which must be dealt with under conditions of uncertainty. Crisis-inducedlearning refers to purposeful efforts, triggered by a crisis event and carried out bymembers of an organization working within a community of inquiry, that leadto new understanding and behavior on the basis of that understanding. 

    Second, organizations play a key role in crisis management. Surprisinglyenough, however, crisis management research have only occasionally built theoryon how organizations respond to crisis. So far, the literature tells us moreabout crises as events than on how these events are actually managed. One reasonis the focus within crisis management research on highly unusual, big catastrophicevents and industrial accidents. Therefore, this dissertation explorescrisis episodes that affect specific organizations rather than entire communitiesor national governments. In addition, the dissertation brings together debateson crisis management and crisis-induced learning from a public managementand organizational perspective. 

    Third, crisis management researchers have to date dealt mostly with acutecrisis response and issues of preparedness, while the issues of crisis aftermathsand crisis-induced learning are still relatively unknown. However, althoughthis study recognizes the importance of crisis planning and sense-making, thisshould not lead to a relative neglect of the issue of learning from crisis. Crisisinducedlearning is important as crises are rare events with huge repercussions.Thus crises are opportunities to draw lessons in order to improve future managementand crisis response, and to mitigate the risk of future crises. 

    Fourth, the relatively few studies that have dealt with crisis-induced learninghave focused on learning after the crisis (intercrisis learning), while theoryon learning during crisis (intracrisis learning) is not as developed. My interestin both inter- and intracrisis learning obligates me to study crisis response andcrisis learning in conjunction. This means studying how organizations respondto crises and how they learn during and from these episodes. By focusing onprocesses of crisis response and learning under pressure – rather than pre-crisisplanning, threat perception, risk management and preparedness – the dissertationlooks into how organizations and their members manage the challenge ofcrises and how they take on, make use of and implement lessons learned fromone crisis to the next. 

    The lacunae outlined above are theoretical points of departure for this dissertation’sinterest in the extent to which public organizations learn from crises.Accordingly, the overall objective of the dissertation is to increase understandingof crisis response and crisis learning in public organizations. In doing so, Iconduct an abductive study of how public organizations respond to crises andhow they learn during and after these events. The term ‘abductive’ refers toa research strategy which is characterized by continuous movement back andforth between theory and empirical data. 

    The first step of the research process was grounded in the empirical world.The empirical contribution is a careful process tracing and case reconstructionof six cases involving Swedish public sector organizations. In the methodologychapter (Chapter 3) I describe the basis of the empirically bounded case study approach and case reconstruction and process tracing method. Six case studiesof organizational crisis management and learning were selected for furtheranalysis. The case studies were based on a variety of sources including posthoc accident investigations, articles, organizational documents and 129 extensivesemi-structured interviews with key crisis managers. The process tracingand reconstruction efforts led to case narratives, which were then dissected byidentifying dilemmas and critical decision-making occasions that were studiedin more detail. The following cases are explored in the dissertation: TheSwedish energy utility Birka Energi’s management of two cable fires that causedlarge-scale blackouts in Stockholm in March 2001 and May 2002; The cityof Stockholm’s management of the 2001 blackout and the repeated incidentin 2002; The Swedish Defence Research Agency’s (FOI) management of hoaxanthrax letters in 2001; and three Swedish media organizations’ (the Swedishpublic service radio Sveriges Radio, the Swedish private TV station with publicservice tasks TV4, and the Swedish public service TV station Sveriges Television)management of news work and broadcasting challenges on 11 September 2001(and to some extent following the murder of the Swedish Foreign MinisterAnna Lindh in September 2003). 

    As the case selection reveals, all organizations under study are not puregovernment organizations. Rather three organizations (Birka Energi, SverigesRadio and Sveriges Television) are publically owned corporations, while one(TV4) is a privately owned media organization. Accordingly, this dissertationclaims that ownership is not the only measure of ‘publicness’. Media organizations,for instance, are of great importance for democratic societies. The term‘public organization’ is thus in this dissertation not used in the sense of equatingto government, but rather in reference to the degree of which political authorityand influence impacts on the organization. 

    The theory generating approach that this dissertation takes on impliesthat the case studies are ‘heuristic’ case studies. The dissertation aims to promotenew hypotheses for further research rather than to produce generalizedknowledge. To this end the case studies are further analyzed by specific theoreticalapproaches suggested by prior research. This second step of the researchprocess is dealt with in some detail in the literature review. The literature reviewin Chapter 2 aims to bring an injection of organizational studies into the fieldof crisis management research. The review presents relevant studies from thefields of crisis management studies, organization studies (with special attentiongiven to organizational learning theory) and public administration and management.The review puts forth a twofold argument: There is a need of increasedknowledge not only about crises and how they develop, but also about how theyare actually managed by public organizations. However, prior crisis managementresearch with bearing on public management organizations are mostly based on either political executive foreign policy decision making or on veryspecific high reliability organizations operating in the pre-crisis phase. Hence,organization studies and public management studies should play a greater partin crisis management research. 

    The review also provides an overview frame for the study by highlightingrelevant research. The chapter discusses the problems of defining, categorizingand operationalizing key concepts such as crisis, crisis management and organizationallearning. 

    In the third step of the research process, the case studies are further analyzedusing theoretical approaches aimed at proposing propositions on how publicsector organizations may respond to crises, and how they may learn from theircrisis experiences. These analyses have been carried out with an aim to producestand-alone articles aimed for publication in international scholarly journals.Thus this dissertation differs somewhat from the typical public administrationdissertation as it is comprised of an analysis of several articles, as opposed to amonograph. The journal articles are published or accepted for publication inthe Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, the Journal of HomelandSecurity and Emergency Management, Public Management Review, and RiskManagement. The articles are reprinted in four empirical chapters (Chapters4-7), which make up the core of the dissertation. Introductory and concludingchapters aimed at bringing the discussion together have then been added.I present the first empirical analysis in Chapter 4. It looks into how organizationalculture affects strategy and adaptability in crisis management. The keyresearch question is: What mechanisms affect organizations’ ability to restructurein order to cope with acute crisis management challenges? In the study I propose atypology of temporal organizational responses to crises in public perception. Thetypology is based on organizations’ abilities to change strategy and adapt theirmanagerial and operational levels to deal with crises. The empirical data used toconstruct the typology covers three organizational crisis responses: 1) The utilityBirka Energi’s response to a cable fire that caused a thirty-seven hour blackoutin Stockholm in 2001; 2) The TV station TV4’s response in terms of how toreorganize and broadcast during the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks; 3)FOI, the Swedish National Defence Research Agency’s response to the anthraxletter scare of 2001 and 2002. The different organizational outcomes featuredby the typology reveal distinct aspects of organizational crisis management.According to the typology, the Fully Adapting Organization (TV4) managesto adapt both its strategy and its managerial and operational levels to deal withthe crisis. The Semi-Adapting Organization (FOI) changes its strategy but lacksthe capacity to change managerial and operational levels according to the newstrategy. The Non-Adapting Organization (Birka Energi) does not grasp theimportance of strategy change in the first place. Based on three inductive case studies, the study concludes that organizational culture plays an important rolein this process where the Semi-Adapting Organization and the Non-AdaptingOrganization were dominated by strong expert cultures which proved to be lessinclined to change. In contrast, the Fully Adapting organization had deliberatelyfostered an organizational culture in which flexibility – understood as thecapacity to readily adapt to changing demands – was a cornerstone. 

    The second empirical analysis is presented in Chapter 5. It deals with theissue of flexibility and rigidity in crisis response and crisis learning at two Swedishpublic organizations. The point of departure for the study is that the relationshipbetween crises, organizational crisis management response and learning hasto date been understudied. In an effort to broaden theoretical knowledge on therelation between crisis and learning, the study analyzes the crisis responses oftwo public organizations during a sequence of two failures. The empirical datais grounded in thorough process tracing and case reconstruction analyses ofhow the utility Birka Energi and the city of Stockholm managed two comprehensiveblackouts in March 2001 and in May 2002. The key research questionis: How does organizational rigidity and flexibility affect public organizations’ crisisresponse and crisis learning? A framework of rigidity versus flexibility in responseis utilized in the analysis. The findings are then discussed in relation to theirimplications for the nexus between crisis and learning. The study concludes byraising four propositions for further research. 

    The third empirical analysis is presented in Chapter 6. This study aims tocontribute to the debate on organizational learning from crisis by sheddinglight on the phenomenon of crises as learning triggers. In the study I pose thefollowing key research question: How can we analyze organizational learningduring and after crisis and what criteria should be part of the analysis? In an effortto unveil patterns of how organizational crisis-induced learning may appearand develop, I suggest a conceptual framework based on conceptual categoriesand answers to four fundamental questions: what lessons are learned (single- ordouble-loop)?; what is the focus of the lessons (prevention or response)?; whenare lessons learned (intra- or intercrisis)?; is learning carried out or blocked fromimplementation (distilled or implemented)? In the analysis section I explorethe practical applicability of the framework by using the same empirical casestudies as in Chapter 5. The final section suggests four propositions for furtherresearch. 

    The last empirical study is presented in Chapter 7. There I construct aframework of management, learning and implementation in response to crisis.My point of departure is a proposition from previous crisis managementresearch which posits that previous experience can shape crisis response as away of repeating former routines or as a precondition for improvisation. Thekey research question is: How do organizational management structures affect crisis response, learning and implementation? In the study I argue that flexibilityis closely connected to the way organizations learn – in behavioral or cognitivemodes. Moreover, these learning modes are connected to the role of managerialgroups, where I differentiate between centralized and decentralized top managerialgroups. In addition, two case studies of how two bureaucratic media organizations(Sveriges Radio and SVT) managed and learned from extraordinarynews events – most notably 9/11 and the assassination of the Swedish ForeignMinister Anna Lindh – are conducted. The findings show how the decentralizedmanagerial group learned in a behavioral fashion, by creating new formalpolicies and structures, while organizational members in the centralized managerialgroup relied on individual cognitive structures as a way of ‘storing’ lessonslearned. The study ends by discussing the findings from a crisis managementperspective, where I propose that the two modes of learning profoundly affectthe crucial issue of flexibility in organizational crisis response.The concluding Chapter 8 discusses and contrasts the findings and propositionsgenerated from the four separate empirical analyses. Here the role oforganizational structure and culture are highlighted by revisiting specific organizationalfactors that seem to impact on organizational crisis management andlearning processes, such as previous experience, flexibility and rigidity in crisisresponse and learning, and centralization and decentralization. These factorswere also outlined in the literature review. Further empirical evidence of howthe factors affect crisis response and crisis learning in organizations was foundin the four empirical analyses. 

    In addition, findings from the empirical studies also related to different types of learning processes such as intra- and intercrisis learning and singleand double-loop learning. Consequently these concepts are also deliberated upon in the concluding sections of the dissertation. As a final attempt to bring the propositions and arguments together, a framework of the crisis management and learning process is proposed. In regard to this venture, it is important to acknowledge the limitations of the framework, and of the dissertation as a whole. As it is only based on data from six cases of Swedish public organizational responses to crisis, the framework is merely a visual schematic of a number of propositions to be further tested and validated by further research. However, the framework also has a few virtues. It is an attempt to approach the ambiguous nature of crises and crisis management processes. The framework may also assist in providing more sensible and practical conceptualizations, and thus bring us closer to definitions that remain close to everyday operations of practitioners involved in crisis management. This dissertation thus makes an effort to bridge the gap between crisis management scholars and practitioners. This is also an overall goal guiding research activities at the National Center for Crisis Management Studies (CRISMART) at the Swedish National Defence College, where the research behind this dissertation has been conducted.

  • 87.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Decision-Making and Crisis-Induced Learning at Swedish Public Sector Organizations Under Pressure2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to analyse the crisis management and learning responses of two public organizations during two sequences of failures in order to develop theory on the relationship between crisis and learning. It is found that organizations initially respond rigidly to crisis signals and that crisis-induced creativity and learning tends to be initiated in the acute crisis management phase. The findings are also discussed in relation to their implications for the nexus between crisis and organizational learning and it is found that politicization in the crisis aftermath may generate organizational learning.

  • 88.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Elavbrottet i Kista den 29-31 maj 2002: organisatorisk och interorganisatorisk inlärning i kris2004Book (Other academic)
  • 89.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Flexibility and Rigidity in Crisis Management and Learning at Swedish Public Organizations2010In: Public Management Review, ISSN 1471-9037, E-ISSN 1471-9045, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 679-700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To date the relationship between crises,organizational crisis management, and learninghas been understudied. In an effort tobroaden theoretical understandings of therelation between crisis and learning, thisarticle analyses the crisis management andlearning processes of two public organizationsduring a sequence of two failures. Aframework of rigidity versus flexibility inresponse is utilized in the analysis. Thefindings are discussed in relation to theirimplications for the nexus between crisis andlearning. The study concludes by raising fourhypotheses for further research.

  • 90.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Investigating the Roots of Crisis Management Studies and Outlining Future Trajectories for the Field2012In: Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, ISSN 2194-6361, E-ISSN 1547-7355, Vol. 9, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a review of some literatures that have been instrumental in forming attimes disparate scholarly thoughts on managerial and operational decision-making and behaviorduring extraordinary events into the nascent academic field known as crisis management studies.The article outlines some of the most influential literature streams, presents their main findings,reveals four significant knowledge gaps in the present literature, and calls for future crisismanagement research to direct attention to the organization as the principal level of analysis.

  • 91.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Is Best Practice Always the Best?: Learning to Become Better Crisis Managers2012In: Journal of Critical Incident Analysis, ISSN 1949-1182, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 26-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues for a reassessment of the idea of learning from critical incidents and crises in organizations. Crisis management research looks upon crisis-induced learning as highly desirable albeit immensely challenging. This paper argues that, although learning from crisis is important for crisis management performance, the idea of crisis-induced learning holds an intrinsic contradiction, which becomes one of the main challenges to building crisis management capacities and competencies from lessons learned from previous crisis experiences. As crises are dynamic and evolving processes permeated by uncertainty and elements of surprise, learning from prior crisis experiences will not suffice for an effective future crisis response. Empirical episodes from inductive case studies are used to show that learning from crisis can lead to rigid structures and behavior hampering crisis management and organizational resilience. The study concludes by discussing conditions that need to accompany crisis-induced learning processes in organizations in order to avoid rigidity in future crisis response.

  • 92.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Is best practice always the best? Learning to become better crisis managers2012In: Åre Risk Event: Att kommunicera det (o)tänkbara: Hur formar vi framtidens kriskommunikation.: Book of abstracts, 2012, p. 8-8Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues for a reassessment of the idea of learning from critical incidents and crises in organizations. Crisis management research looks upon crisis-induced learning as highly desirable albeit immensely challenging. This paper argues that, although learning from crisis is important for crisis management performance and resilience, the idea of crisis-induced learning holds an intrinsic contradiction, which becomes one of the main challenges to building crisis management capacities and competencies from lessons based in previous crisis experiences. As crises are dynamic and evolving processes permeated by uncertainty and elements of surprise, learning from prior crisis experiences will not suffice for an effective crisis response. Empirical episodes from deep case studies are used to show how learning from crisis can lead to rigid structures and behavior hampering crisis management and organizational resilience. The study concludes by discussing conditions that need to accompany crisis-induced learning processes in organizations in order to avoid rigidity in future crisis response. 

  • 93.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Krishantering och lärande: Faktorer som påverkar myndigheters förmåga att lära2012In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, Vol. 216, no 1, p. 117-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay discusses new research on how public sector organizations learn from their crisis experiences. The essay aims to distill practical lessons from theoretical studies on crisis-induced learning that should offer public officials advice on how to increase the learning capacities of public sector organizations in the wake of crises. The essay concludes that for organizational crisis-induced learning to take place, it is favorable to document incidents and crises thoroughly and to refine the documentation into investigations and evaluations. Moreover, in order for organizations to reform in line with suggestions put forth in investigations and evaluations, organizational self-reflection and flexibility is required.

  • 94.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Organizational learning from crisis2013In: Handbook of Research on Crisis Leadership in Organizations / [ed] Andrew J. Dubrin, Cheltenham, UK & Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, p. 290-310Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter explores the concepts of crisis, leadership and learning. It takes a critical glance at research, opinion and advice from the interdisciplinary field of crisis management studies. Analysts using literature from the nascent field of crisis management studies as a point of departure, tend to look at a crisis as a series of interconnected challenges presented to leaders of firms, agencies or organizational units. Under conditions of uncertainty, complexity, time pressure, and threats to core values, leaders are expected to make sense of unfolding events, make and implement strategic decisions, clarify complex issues of accountability and mandates, and convey meaning to these processes in internal and external communication. When management of the crisis is approaching termination, leaders find themselves playing an important role in the return to normalcy. Apart from managing the present crisis, leaders are also expected to prevent crisis repetition. Amidst hazardous, uncertain and stressful conditions then, leaders need to notice and reflect upon lessons enabling them to prevent future crises, and at a later stage make sure that these lessons are implemented throughout their organizations. Learning from crisis experience thus becomes a core task and demanding challenge for any leader. So far the important issue of crisis-induced learning has only attracted limited attention from scholars. There are only a few studies on the topic and even fewer relate to the strategic management and leadership perspective. This chapter takes stock of this budding knowledge on the crossroads of crisis management, organizational learning and leadership. Moreover, it suggests some implications for practice and points out potential trajectories for future research. 

  • 95.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Statsvetenskap med inriktning krishantering: Hur kan vi utbilda i det vid FHS?2012In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, ISSN ISSN 0023-5369, no 4, p. 109-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den statsvetenskapliga forskningen och utbildningen vid Försvarshögskolan (FHS) utmärker sig från statsvetenskap vid andra lärosäten genom sin särskilda inriktning på säkerhetspolitik och krishantering. Kurser med denna inriktning har genomförts vid FHS sedan 2000 och kommer att utgöra huvuddelen av innehållet i det civila utbildningsprogram som ska inledas hösten 2013. Medan säkerhetspolitik traditionellt sett har varit ett ämnesområde inom statsvetenskapen som har fått relativt stor uppmärksamhet även vid andra universitet och högskolor, är krishantering en yngre och mer otydligt definierad underdisciplin. Denna otydlighet ger upphov till syftet med föreliggande artikel. Först diskuteras den till synes enkla frågan vad statsvetenskap med inriktning krishantering egentligen är. Sedan förs utifrån pedagogisk litteratur en diskussion som utmynnar i ett antal konkreta förslag på hur vi kan gå tillväga för att utbilda studenter inom kunskapsfältet.

  • 96.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Systems for Post-Crisis Learning: A Systemic Gap in Civil Security Governance?2015In: European Civil Security Governance: Diversity and Cooperation in Crisis and Disaster Management / [ed] Raphael Bossong & Hendrik Hegeman, Houndsmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 160-187Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the capacity of governments to learn from harmful events, such as for instance pandemics, hurricanes, terrorist attacks or large scale accidents, is of importance for civil security and organizational safety (Stern, 1997; Deverell, 2010). A frequently used strategy by governments and public organizations in this regard is to launch a crisis investigation after an event. This chapter deals with such forms of investigations and especially the importance of organizing structures for post hoc crisis investigations. The chapter argues that a lack of structured arrangements regarding post hoc crisis investigations will have negative effects on organizational and governmental lesson drawing from crises, and thus on long term EU civil security. We depart from the premise that taking structured and deliberate steps after crisis events to restore legitimacy and to make sure that historic mistakes are not repeated is an important part of civil security governance (cf. Sulitzeanu-Kenan and Holzman-Gazit, 2013). At the same time, civil security governance can also be seen as a problem for learning. Civil security governance involves a wide variety of actors and confronts ambiguous policy problems and fuzzy boundaries. As such it tends to work against systemization and standardized organisational processes required for effective post hoc crisis investigations.

  • 97.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    The 2001 Kista blackout: Corporate crisis and urban contingency2003Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examines the management of the blackout in Stockholm’s northwestern suburbs, most importantly in Sweden’s center for high-tech industry in Kista, on March 11, 2001. The blackout, which was a result of a cable fire, was one of Sweden’s most comprehensive power disturbances ever and its effects were dramatic for the residents, the accountable power company, and the city leadership.The crisis management displayed by the operational units, public administrations, municipal companies and private corporations is examined, and the communication between these actors is considered throughout the report. Seven decision occasions are selected and scrutinized. The case is then analyzed and compared to similar cases studied by CRiSMART researchers, most notably: the blackouts in Auckland, New Zealand (1998) and Buenos Aires, Argentina (1999), and the power outages which followed the wake of the ice storm in eastern Canada (1998). Some examples of best practices in crisis management are also presented based on the case findings.

  • 98.
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    What makes some organizations better than others at handling crises?: Exploring state of the art public crisis management2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport görs en populärvetenskaplig sammanfattning av det arbete som har genomförts inom det MSB-finansierade post doc-projektet "What makes some organizations better than others at handling crises? Exploring state of the art public crisis management". Projektet leddes av Fil dr Edward Deverell vid Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap vid Försvarshögskolan 2011-2013. Utgångspunkten för projektets arbete var avhandlingen "Crisis-induced learning in public sector organizations" (Deverell, 2010). Avhandlingen ramade in krishanteringsstudier som kunskapsfält och betonade vikten av att i vidare studier undersöka organisationers roll i krishantering. Vidare framhölls vikten av att mer ingående studera organisationers lärprocesser i samband med kriser eftersom mer kunskap om lärande i relation till kriser behövs för att vi ska kunna skapa mer robusta organisationer och samhällen samt för att undvika att drabbas av liknande kriser framöver. I linje med det tidigare avhandlingsprojektet ämnade post doc projektet att fördjupa studiet av krishanteringsstudier med fokus på organisationers lärprocesser i relation till kriser. Detta genom att studera krishanteringslitteratur och fallstudier av verkliga kriserfarenheter. Föreliggande rapport ger en kortfattad beskrivning av de delstudier som sammanställdes under de två år som projektet löpte.

  • 99.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Dan, HansénSwedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).Olsson, Eva-KarinSwedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Perspektiv på krishantering2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Du tycker att samhällsfrågor är spännande och har ett särskilt intresse för kriser och oförutsedda händelser. Vad gör egentligen de som har ansvar och förväntningar på sig att ställa saker till rätta i en krissituation? Hur fungerar mediernas granskning och hur agerar andra parter som har till uppgift att utkräva ansvar? När väl den akuta fasen är över, vad lär sig de inblandade aktörerna, och hur fungerar förändringsarbetet och införandet av nya policyer? Perspektiv på krishantering är till för dig som vill fördjupa dig i dessa frågor.

    De perspektiv som presenteras är olika sätt att närma sig och studera krishantering som fenomen. Boken är indelad i tre övergripande perspektiv: hantera, granska och förändra. Genomgående i boken presenteras fallbeskrivningar av verkliga händelser och faktiskt handlande. Men fokus ligger inte på händelserna som sådana, utan på förståelsen av dem – de teoretiska perspektiven. Även om boken är rik på perspektiv gör den inte anspråk på att vara heltäckande. Snarare inbjuder den dig som är intresserad och engagerad att själv studera krishantering och bidra till kunskapsfältet.

  • 100.
    Deverell, Edward
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Hansén, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Learning from Crises and Major Accidents: From Post-Crisis Fantasy Documents to Actual Learning in the Heat of Crisis2009In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 143-145Article in journal (Refereed)
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