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  • 5051.
    Vamstad, Alice
    Swedish Defence University.
    Klimatflyktingar i den rödgröna politiken: En analys av varför de försvann2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5052. van Creveld, Martin
    Ledning i krig2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den första boken som specifikt behandlar ledningens natur spårar Martin van Creveld ledningens utveckling från antikens Grekland till Vietnam och tar upp de olika problem som påverkat beslutsfattande, samband, vapen och logistik genom historien. Boken visar hur ledningen har fungerat under avgörande slag - inkl. Napoleons seger vid Jena, Moltkes Königgrätz-fälttåg, det Arabisk-Israeliska kriget 1973 och USA:s inblandning i Vietnam - och diskuterar strävan efter visshet under utövandet av ledning: visshet om fiendens avsikter, stridens miljö och de egna styrkonas egenskaper. Boken kom ut första gången på engelska 1985.

  • 5053.
    Van Esch, Femke
    et al.
    Utrecht Sch Governance, European Integrat, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Swinkels, Marij
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). NSOB, The Hague, Netherlands.
    How Europe's Political Leaders Made Sense of the Euro Crisis: The Influence of Pressure and Personality2015In: West European Politics, ISSN 0140-2382, E-ISSN 1743-9655, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 1203-1225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Greek announcement of its excessive debts led to one of the most severe crises the EU has faced since its inception. The crisis soon evolved into a full leadership crisis as European political leaders struggled to come up with a common solution to the challenges they faced. Theories of leadership and crisis management identify several factors that may contribute to these differences. This article examines to what extent leaders' personal traits and external pressure influenced how six political leaders made sense of the situation. The study finds that a leader's belief that they can control events, their self-confidence, as well as economic pressure provide a partial explanation of how European leaders make sense of the crisis. The traits of cognitive complexity and openness to information do not exert an influence in the cases discussed here. These findings indicate that any comprehensive understanding of how leaders make sense of crises should take note of specific individual as well as contextual factors.

  • 5054.
    Vatsel, Soames
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Laestadius, Nils
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Martinsson, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Lindh, Jens
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Lärobok i militärteknik - exempelsamling: Problem och övningsbok med ledningar2018Book (Other academic)
  • 5055.
    Vatsel, Soames
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Laestadius, Nils
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Martinsson, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Lindh, Jens
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Lärobok i militärteknik - exempelsamling: problem- och övningsbok med ledningar,  Version 2.02019Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Course material with examples for basic course in military technology.

  • 5056.
    Vedung, Evert
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Hansén, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    Oljekrisen 1973 och Sveriges tvehövdade krispolitik2019In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 121, no 4, p. 647-679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do governments cope with lurking crises that call for behavioral change among a wider citizenry? The global warming threat is a topical case in point. In this article, we explore the Swedish government response to the 1973 oil crisis, from which we draw lessons. In terms of policy instruments, Swedish policymakers deployed a twopronged, strategy. The government simultaneously initiated a package of quick/ soft as well as slow/hard instruments in the hope that the first package with information campaigns would be successful enough to make the second package with formal rationings redundant. The substantive goal was that the Swedes must save in homes, offices, and premises so that the large exporting industry should get the oil it needed to continue with full employment. The strategy worked. All pertinent actors, households as well as foreign oil concerns, heeded government persuasion efforts (sermons, a negotiated agreement) and took measures voluntarily. Why? One explanatory factor is the creative organization of the national crisis authorities. To a large extent, the strategy was implemented by organs stacked with a mixture of public agencies, private oil distributors and all kinds of organized non-governmental energy-use stakeholders to promote outreach, transversal co-creation, and collaborative governance. The government succeeded in its meaning-making efforts and created a strong narrative (sermon), which clearly pointed out the serious anticipated effects of the crisis in Sweden, according to which it became obvious that households and commerce needed to save energy in order to secure oil supply for industry to protect jobs and impede mass unemployment.

  • 5057.
    Verdun, Amy
    et al.
    University of Victoria, Kanada.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard University, USA.
    Chira, Gabriela
    Research Executive Agency of the European Commission, Belgien.
    South East and Eastern European countries EU accession quandary?2011In: Comparative European Politics, ISSN 1472-4790, E-ISSN 1740-388X, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 367-371Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5058.
    Vesterlund, Jonas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Stora bomber, små mål: Strategiskt bombflyg i COIN-operationer2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The conflicts of today differ markedly from those which are depicted in history books. It is now rare that states wage war with each other. Instead, it is the small organizations with ambitions to change the world which today constitute the biggest threat to our society. The enemy is different but in many cases the military forces and strategy used in inter-state wars remain the same. The purpose of this paper is to examine to what extent strategic bombers can be used in COIN operations, or if they are a military instrument only applicable on intergovernmental conflicts. This I intend to achieve by first examining what is unique about an insurgency, then what abilities the strategic bomber aircraft possess and eventually connect it to a known theoretical model of the use of strategic bomber aircraft in conventional warfare. The result shows that it is very difficult to use strategic bombers in COIN operations in an effective way. A terrorist or insurgent organization is markedly different from the way states are built-up and functioning. The strategic targets are fewer, and very difficult to define and access. These small organizations are mobile and blend in with the environment they operate in. For Strategic bombers to be effective there must be a broad and updated information base and the number of civiliancasualties must be kept to a minimum.

  • 5059.
    Vesterlund, Thomas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    För en gränslös logistik och arena i tiden!2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att studera i vilken omfattning teorin för den gränslösaorganisationen kan appliceras och förbättra FMLOG: s förmåga att stödja Försvarsmaktensinternationella insatser samt att besvara på vilket sätt ”Den gränslösa organisationen”påverkar Försvarsmaktens Logistikorganisation genom att besvara följande frågor:1. I vilken grad påverkar Försvarsbeslut 2004 Förvarsmaktens logistik organisation?2. I vilken grad kan Försvarsmaktens logistik göras till gränslös organisation?För att besvara dessa frågor har gjorts en litteraturstudie och en enkätundersökning, somteoretisk koppling har använts Ron Ashkenas ”Den gränslösa organisationen”.Av uppsatsens resultat framgår att det finns möjlighet att applicera den gränslösaorganisationsteorin på Försvarsmaktens logistikorganisation. Att Försvarsbeslut 04 påverkarFMLOG är uppenbart vilket kan påvisas genom: ”där Försvarsmaktens förband avvecklasavvecklar också FMLOG sin verksamhet”.

  • 5060.
    Veszelei, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Andersson, Kent
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Ribbing, C G
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Järrendahl, K
    Linköpings Tekniska Högskola.
    Arwin, H
    Linköpings Tekniska Högskola.
    Optical constants and Drude analysis of sputtered zirconium nitride films1994In: Applied Optics, ISSN 0003-6935, E-ISSN 1539-4522, Vol. 33, no 10, p. 1993-2001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Opaque and semitransparent dc magnetron-sputtered ZrN films on glass and silicon have been optically characterized with spectral reflectance measurements and ellipsometry. High rate sputtered ZrN has good optical selectivity, i.e., higher than 90% infrared reflectance and a pronounced reflectance step in the visible to a reflectance minimum of less than 10% at 350 nm. The results are comparable with those obtained for single crystalline samples and those prepared by chemical vapor deposition. The complex optical constant (N = n v ik) for opaque films has been determined in the 0.23-25-µm wavelength range with Kramers-Kronig integration of bulk reflectance combined with oblique incidence reflectance for p-polarized light. A variable angle of incidence spectroscopic ellipsometer has been used for determination of the optical constants in the 0.28-1.0-µm wavelength region. The results of the two methods show excellent agreement. The results indicate that ZrN is free electronlike and the Drude model can be applied. The best opaque films had Drude plasma energies (ħω(p) between 6.6 and 7.5 eV and relaxation energies (ħ/τ) between 0.29 and 0.36 eV. Ellipsometer data for the semitransparent films show that the refractive index (n) in the visible increases with decreasing film thickness whereas the extinction coefficient (k) is essentially unchanged. The optical properties are improved by deposition upon a heated substrate.

  • 5061.
    Veszelei, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Andersson, Kent
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Optical characterization of sputtered semitransparent zirconium nitride films1993In: Optical materials (Amsterdam), ISSN 0925-3467, E-ISSN 1873-1252, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 257-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin semi-transparent ZrN films have been prepared using reactive dc magnetron sputtering. The films had thickness from 11 to 43 nm and were grown on heated and room temperature glass substrates. The optical constants, N=n+ik, of the thin films have been determined with an RT inversion method in the wavelength interval 0.40 to 2.0 μm. The thickness of the films was determined from the photometric measurements. The optical properties of the thin films on glass were compared to opaque and thin ZrN films grown on single crystalline Si. The Drude parameters were calculated from the measured optical constants in the relaxation region of the thin films. The relaxation time, τ, of the thin films was found to increase with film thickness, substrate temperature and substrate crystallinity. The relaxation time is the mean free time for the electrons between collisions and a long relaxation time corresponds to a film with high optical quality. The observed decrease of τ with decreasing film thickness can be explained by the higher statistical probability of the electrons in a thin film to collide with the two surfaces of the film. Another explanation to the decrease of τ with film thickness is scattering from grain boundaries and lattice impurities. The higher optical quality of films grown on heated substrates is probably due to an increased grain size. The measured optical constants were compared with calculated optical constants, using the Drude model, and the optical behaviour of thin ZrN films was found to be well described by the screened free-electron model.

  • 5062.
    Vikblad, Christian
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Utvecklande ledarskap: rätt metod vid internationell insats?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5063.
    Viken, Bård
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Hva er viktig kompetanse i Forsvaret?: en analyse med eksempler fra luftforsvaret2001Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The situation for the Norwegian Armed Forces has changed significantly after the end of the Cold War.  A new and smaller organization is evolving, and the consequence of this development is that the focus on competence within the military must increase. Changed threat, a new economic reality and the ongoing technical development in the world are all factors that will form the new organization. This thesis discusses these factors impact on future competence in the Norwegian Armed Forces.  Examples are taken from the technical branch within the Air Force. The most important competence is the competence necessary for conducting the core activity.  Core activity for the Norwegian Armed Forces is not officially defined, but in this thesis it is regarded as Operations.  The future organization must also contain more and better competence in specifying and buying materiel and services than the case is today. This also includes activities that are a part of the military organization today (outsourcing).  Core Competence Theory is a good tool for clarifying the relation between the different necessary needs for competence within the military organization. However the method is not suitable for finding the line between competences that must stay within – and competences that can be outsourced.

  • 5064.
    Vikman, Erik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Vådabekämpning i luftarenan: En analys av situation awareness och confidence i vådaincidenter2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite advancements in modern technology the rates of casualties caused by friendly fire have increased. Studies show that technology on its own cannot eliminate friendly fire casualties due to the involvement of human factors. This thesis aims to develop a model to increase understanding of fratricide. The model is based on the relationship between situation awareness and confidence, with the hypothesis that fratricidal events are characterised by poor situation awareness and high level of confidence.

    The theory development is achieved through three case studies of fratricide in air operations, using mainly official reports and video footage in a qualitative analysis. The result of the thesis does not show a relationship between situation awareness and confidence according to the hypothesis. Situation awareness is poor in all three cases studied. Confidence however is considered low in two out of three cases, opposing the hypothesis and demanding further studies of causal mechanisms explaining the problem of fratricide.

  • 5065.
    Vikström, Daniel
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Artilleribataljonens sensorkompani: behov teknisk kompetens2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5066.
    Vikström, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Den militära nyttan av kurskorrigerande tändrör2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden’s increased international commitment has altered the forms andenvironments of today's battlefield and military operations for units within theSwedish Armed Forces. First and foremost it means that all units have to be able tohandle all levels of conflict in most types of environments, including urban terrain.As a consequence of this, new needs and requirements arise concerning indirect fireand Artillery precision strike capabilities.

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate if and to what extent a course correctingfuse contributes to an increased tactical efficiency within the areas of effect, cost,logistics and reduced risk of collateral damage. The investigation is made through acomparative literature study with supplementary expert interviews.With the help of a course correcting fuse, which allows for close precision capability,a series of achievements can be acquired.

    Examples of such achievements are reduced dispersion and increased capability ofdimensioning of effects, reduced risk of collateral damage, lower total cost ofmunitions and reduced demand of logistics.

  • 5067.
    Vilbern, Björn
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Marin insatsstyrka - övningar med väpnad strid i fokus?2001Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syftar till att analysera marinens övningsverksamhet inom ramen för en marin insatsstyrka i enlighet med Försvarsmaktens målbild 2010. Den övergripande frågeställningen är om dagens marina nationella övningar helt eller delvis kan ersättas av internationella övningar. Tre förband som kan tänkas ingå i en marin insatsstyrka, ytstridsförband, minröjningsförband och amfibieförband, analyseras utifrån kraven på förmåga till väpnad strid, i enlighet med förbandens TOEM, dvs Taktisk, Organisatorisk och Ekonomisk Målsättning. Väpnad strid är ett omfattande begrepp och i uppsatsen diskuteras endast stridens tre klassiska grundelement; eld, rörelse och skydd. Uppsatsen består av tre huvuddelar, varav den första delen beskriver förbanden och miljön de skall verka i samt en redogörelse av de krav på förmågor som ställs i TOEM. I den andra delen beskrivs och analyseras ett urval av nationella och internationella övningar, i syfte att påvisa i vilken omfattning väpnad strid övas. Tredje delen utgörs av författarens slutsatser. Uppsatsen visar att tonvikten, i princip i samtliga övningar, inte ligger på väpnad strid utan på interoperabilitet och förmågan att kunna agera i ett internationellt sammanhang, t ex vid Peace Support Operations. Väpnad strid i sammansatta förband övas i huvudsak vid taktiska tillämpade- och momentövningar, vilket i stort sätt endast genomförs nationellt. Denna uppsats ger belägg för att våra nationella sammansatta övningar, vare sig delvis eller helt, kan ersättas av internationella övningar.

  • 5068.
    Villman, Max
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Ryskt luftmaktsanvändande i Georgien 2008 – ett fall av Warden?2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Russian-Georgian war of 2008 drastically changed Europe´s and Sweden´s political climate.Russiashowed that it is capable of successfully completing complex campaigns including ground, naval and air assets. However, not much has been said about the theoretical framework and doctrine of the Russian military of today. Even less has been researched about Russian use of air power and applied air theory. Are air power assets still considered primarily as support of ground offensives or has the theoretical framework changed?

    John A. Warden III´s theory presented in The Air Campaign and The Enemy as a System have had a big impact on western air power use. HasRussia also changed its approach on the use of air power to include the theory of Warden?

    This thesis researches Russian use of air power in the war with Georgia 2008. The empirics are then compared to Warden´s theory of air power use to answer the question if Russia´s air power use in the war with Georgia 2008 was done in cohesion with what Warden suggests.

  • 5069.
    Villner, Viktor
    Swedish Defence University.
    Fighting in the Streets: Testing Theory on Urban Warfighting2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper sets out to examine why it is that combat in urban environments is so deadly and casualty-heavy for conventional militaries, even when those militaries hold a technological and/or numerical advantage. The paper aims to test the theory of Alice Hills through a structured, focused comparison on three cases of urban warfighting. The paper examines the battle of Stalingrad 1942-1943, the battle of Mogadishu 1993 and the first battle of Grozny in 1994. Support for Hills theory is found in what she argues is a pre-modern type of combat that is slowgoing and relies upon ground forces as well as the equalization of technological advantages through improvised adaptation of older and/or less than ideal equipment. The paper highlights the need for intelligence in urban operations, especially human intelligence, as a potentional further development of Hills theory.

  • 5070.
    Viper, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University.
    Gerillakrigföring till sjöss: En teoriprövande tvåfallstudie om underlägsnas framgång2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When explaining the course of action of inferior actors in asymmetric conflicts, Guerrilla Warfare is normative. But when illustrated, the examples are only of battles and wars fought on land. Consequently, there seems to be an insufficient amount of studies that show whether Guerrilla Warfare truly is a theory for maritime forces.

    The purpose of this study is to test if Guerrilla Warfare can explain the procedure of inferior, but successful, maritime forces in asymmetric conflicts. To extract the principles of guerrilla tactics, the controversial thoughts of Tse-tung, Giap and Guevara has been examined. The cases of this study are the Israeli maritime forces in the Yom Kippur war, and the Sea Tigers in the civil war of Sri Lanka.

    The results show that Guerrilla Warfare, despite similarities, cannot fully explain the tactical procedures of the Israelis. However, Guerrilla Warfare can, despite one difference, explain the tactical procedures of the Sea Tigers. This essay therefore argues that Guerrilla Warfare can be of use for maritime forces in the search of victory despite inferiority. 

  • 5071.
    Virolainen, Heikki
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Den akademiska vägen mot uppdragstaktik och utvecklande ledarskap: En analys av kursplanerna vid OP 08-112011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish armed forces managing approach is mission type tactics and the education towards it has previously been directed quite freely by the Swedish armed forces. When the officer cadets education now strive against academic learning rather than practical learning the reflection of mission type learning now can be questioned. By the same reason another aspect in the education can be questioned, the leadership.

    The main purpose with this study is to investigate whether how the education at the officer academy strives towards the managing approach and leadership approach that applies within the Swedish armed forces, mission type tactics and transformational leadership. 

    • Based on the curriculums, can learning goals be found which derive from mission type tactics and transformational leadership?
    • In that case, in which extent are these reflected? 

    The scientific uniting of mission type tactics and transformational leadership has been made possible in a report written by Lena Stenlund and Gerry Larsson. The report constitutes the foundation of the analytical tools which is used in the review of the curriculums.

    The study is to be considered as a qualitative analysis of contents of the curriculums where a descriptive comparison has been made between each curriculum and the analytical tool. 

    When the question at issue is to be answered, opposition against the reflection of mission type tactics and transformational leadership can hardly be raised. This is because every single one of the key concepts and factors found in the analytical tool also is found in the result compilation.

  • 5072.
    Vlassenroot, Koen
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Sandrine, Perrot
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Informal political structures, resources and the Ugandan army in the Democratic Republic of Congo2009Report (Other academic)
  • 5073.
    Vobora, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Kan Flygvapnet luftförsvara Sverige?: en studie om Flygvapnets möjligheter att ingripa mot asymmetriska hot i fredstid2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay has its starting point in the dramatic events that took place in the USA on 11 September 2001. American society and the whole western world were caught by surprise by a terrorist attack whose devastated results and con-sequences no one could have foreseen. It was conducted in a way the North American Air Defence had not anticipated and therefore was not prepared to meet. The western armed forces are built up to meet conventional threats. Likewise the Swedish Air Defence is built up from a threat assessment based on the Cold War. With asymmetric warfare as a theoretical framework this essay describes the new threats that large-scale terrorism is an example of. It is based on the asymmetric categories that the American scientists Steven Metz and Douglas Johnson present. The essay examines, on basis of the scenario that took place in the USA, the Swedish Air Force`s possibility to intervene against asymmetric threats. The conclusion of the essay is that the Swedish Air Force raised its alert status and solved its main task: to maintain the territorial integ-rity on the basis of IKFN. IKFN is the foundation for the Swedish Rules of Engagement in peacetime and neutrality. The essay states that these ROEs are formed on the basis of a threat assessment of a symmetric opponent in a con-ventional war. The main conclusion is that the current Rules of Engagement are not sufficient to meet the new asymmetric threats where large-scale terror-ism is a method.

  • 5074.
    von Horn, Albert
    Swedish Defence University.
    USA Counterinsurgency VS. Galula2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The security situation in Afghanistan has deteriorated in recent years and the conflict has escalated. This clearly depends on many things but I have chosen to look at the American doctrine that deals with irregular conflict (counterinsurgency). How does it look compared to Galulas theory with regard to operations in an irregular conflict? To investigate this, I assumed Galulas theory to compare it with the American doctrine. By looking at the different stages that Galula divided his operations in, I then examined what the U.S. doctrine says about them. The results of the study is that the American doctrine is very similar to Galulas theory and both states much of the same things as important points, to be successful as a regular party in an irregular conflict.

  • 5075.
    von Horn, Wilhelm
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Tempo och manöverkrig: svenska doktriner och tillämpning2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Maneuver warfare has gradually developed as a result of new technology being used in old ways to wage war. Especially Germany and England have developed what we today call maneuver warfare. As a natural result in the development of how to wage war, new ideas of how success would be achieved also came forth. The idea of an indirect approach was revolutionary and gained a strong foothold in how we today perceive war making.  In maneuver warfare a new philosophy of leadership has also been given wide recognition, today mission tactics is spread throughout the world.

    The Swedish armed forces basic concept of operations is maneuver thinking. This has its roots in the German and English doctrines developed during the time between the first and second world wars. Its leadership philosophy is mission tactics and can bee seen and identified throughout the Swedish armed forces structure.

    This essay researches and discusses the meaning of the term tempo in maneuver warfare, both as physical movement and as a decisive cycle. I have come to these conclusions; initiative is key to success, initiative is won thru acting offensively with mission tactics as a base.

  • 5076.
    Vrbanjac, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Danielsson, Erna
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    När Sverige överrumplades: En studie av ledarskap och myndigheters samverkan efter tsunamikatastrofen 20042006Report (Other academic)
  • 5077.
    Vrbanjac, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Danielsson, Erna
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Steget före: Samverkan och ledarskap vid hantering av ett gisslandrama vid en rymning från en fångvårdsanstalt2006Report (Other academic)
  • 5078.
    Vrbanjac, Aida
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Hur stämmer unga officerares faktiska ledarutveckling med Försvarsmaktens ledarskapsmodell Utvecklande ledarskap2006Report (Other academic)
  • 5079.
    Vrenngård, Thomas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Amerikanska marinkårens taktik med pansarvärnsrobotför-band i Operation Desert Storm: Av relevans för svenska armén idag?2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande arbete tar sin utgångspunkt i en observation av hur United States Marine Corps (USMC) använde pansarvärnsrobotförband förvånansvärt aggressivt under Gulfkriget 1991. Med syftet att studera denna taktik och att därigenom skapa en ökad förståelse för pansarvärnsrobotförbandens taktiska möjligheter/begränsningar skapas en problemformulering som undersöker vilken relevans USMC:s taktik med pansarvärnsrobotförband i Operation DESERT STORM har för svenska armén idag? För att kunna besvara denna övergripande fråga bryts den ned till tre forskningsfrågor som beskriver vilken taktik som karaktäriserade USMC:s pansarvärnsrobotförband, därefter förklarar motiven för denna taktik och slutligen värderar vilka lärdomar som svenska armén kan dra från detta 2012.

    Resultatet visar att marinkårens taktik i huvudsak har låg relevans på grund av de unika förutsättningar avseende terräng, siktförhållanden och teknikasymmetri som förelåg i Persiska viken 1991. Terrängen var nästan helt platt vilket gav god effekt för pansarvärnsrobotarnas övertag i skjutavstånd gentemot irakiska stridsvagnar. Oljerök och dimma gjorde att deras termiska sikten kunde verka där inga irakiska motsvarigheter fanns. Konceptet Combined Anti Armor Team bedöms värt att beakta för armén inom ramen för kombinerade vapen och slutförande av Insatsorganisation 2014.

  • 5080.
    Vrenngård, Thomas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Svenska reglementens relevans för afghanistaninsatsen: En jämförelse avseende skydd av lokalbefolkningen2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande arbete undersöker metodmässig interoperabilitet genom att jämföra de kommande svenska reglementena Reglemente för Markoperationer och Markstridsreglemente 6 – Bataljon och deras överensstämmelse med den doktrin som nyttjas av International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) i Afghanistan. Undersökningen syftar till att lämna ett bidrag till den svenska reglementsutvecklingen.

    Arbetet visar att det finns en överensstämmelse avseende grundbudskapet att lokalbefolkningen behöver skyddas och att man måste förstå deras situation. Det föreligger en låg grad av överensstämmelse avseende metoder för att skydda befolkningen.

    Författaren lämnar tre rekommendationer:1. Omarbeta beskrivningen av stabiliserande metoder2. Inkludera begreppet ”Clear-Hold-Build”3. Inarbeta verktyg för att analysera den mänskliga terrängen

  • 5081.
    Vretblad, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Are Quantity-Distances Narrowing in?2010In: Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board Seminar (34th) held in Portland, Oregon on 13-15 July 2010, Portland: Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board , 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantity-Distance (QD) is an established method used among other things for safety related to ammunition storage. The beauty of the QD-method is obvious - the simplicity - a simple solution to a complicated problem.

    As often is the case, the simple solution may be too simple for some applications. This makes a need to question the QD-method - if, when and how to use it.

    QD methods are generally appreciated by authorities who have to apply it and they consider it easy to understand (Acceptable - Not acceptable and nothing in between). Technical people who are involved in the ammunition safety process are well aware of the deficiencies associated with it. These deficiencies have led to alternate ways to be used in safety regulations e.g. methods based upon risk analysis.

    Increased costs for land and military operational requirements make it necessary both to apply alternate methods to ensure adequate safety and to question the criteria behind the QD: s and how they are used for different situations.

    The paper describes the background to and the development of some current regulations for the storage of ammunition. Comparisons are made of different criteria used and how these criteria influence on QD: s and Field Distances for the Military Operational Theater.

    The paper gives special emphasis on work done within the NATO AC/326 Operational Safety Group and efforts made to reduce Field Distances in the interest of Operational Readiness.

  • 5082.
    Vretblad, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    More Material for Better Protection2010In: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Design and Analysis of Protective Structures 10th ~ 12th May, 2010, Singapore: DSTA , 2010, p. 2-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the protection of key installations, fortification measures may not be sufficient by themselves. A dedicated aggressor may be able to destroy any installation given the right expertise, the right equipment and adequate time. For this reason, the protection design should not be based upon constructions only but on the totality of active and passive measures integrated into a system comprising as well resources from the social society like police, rescue forces, and military. With an abundance of resources from the social society the requirements for fortification measures may by downplayed - with limited support from the social society around the installation, the fortification measures must be more comprehensive.

    Looking at the protection as a system with different passive and active components the efficient use of the combination of these puts requirements not only on the components by themselves but also on the integration and coordination of them.

    To this end, the management of the protection is integral putting emphasis on how the critical information for successful protection is generated, distributed, analysed and used. Studies in Sweden have identified key issues for the handling of information for the protection management for key installations based upon the site-specific situations.

    Findings for protective measures for key installations exposed to extraordinary situations are presented in the paper.  

  • 5083.
    Vretblad, Bengt E
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Combined Blast and Fragment Effects in the New Swedish Design Manual for Protective Construction, FKR2011In: ISIEMS 14, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5084.
    Vretblad, Bengt
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Johnsson, Fredrik
    SWEDEC.
    Tool for Clearance of Shaped Charge Ammunition Designed for Military Usefulness2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation and assessment of weapons and weapon systems should be based upon military usefulness. The military usefulness should, similarly, be a basis for the assessment of procedures and processes used for military activities. Even advanced systems may fail when meeting military usefulness criteria.

    The wide use of light anti-tank weapons, such as rocket propelled grenades and the scattering of sub-munitions in different conflict areas have made the clearance of shaped charge ammunition a frequent task. However, unlike other hazards, for shaped charges scientifically based procedures for the design and establishment of protective measures do not exist. Procedures applied in the field are more often than not based upon ad hoc solutions.

     

    To close the gap and find adequate methods for clearance of shaped charge ammunition, a tool has been developed at NDC to meet criteria from military usefulness and adopted to the prevalent operational conditions applicable to military missions, in particular:

     

        *   Complexity should be low bearing in mind the expertise available in the field.

        *   The time factor is essential both from strictly military aspects and from economic point of view.

        *   Information access. Data needed may be obscured or lacking.

        *   Simple construction that may be used with locally available material and equipment.

    In addition to meeting the criteria for military usefulness, such a tool should address the different effects from shaped charges e.g. blast and fragments and – in particular - effects from the jet generated.

     

    The principles for the tool are described in the paper. Of particular interest is the influence of the stand-off distance for the risk reducing methods.

     

    The risks from different effects at different distances and in different directions are analyzed and discussed. In particular, the slug from the jet is shown to be decisive for the hazardous area when protective measures are inadequate.

  • 5085.
    Vretblad, Bengt
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Kuylenstierna, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Protection of Key Installations2008In: Stockholm Contributions in Military-Technology 2007 / [ed] Martin Norsell, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2008, p. 255-261Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5086.
    Vretblad, Bengt
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Nilsson, Claes
    Best Practise and Regulations: Do We Need More Manuals or Less?2008In: DDESB Seminar Proceedings, Palm Springs, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5087.
    Värnqvist, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Reflexiv kontroll: evig metod som systematiserats?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The desire to influence ones opponent without using violence, has probably existed in all times. Reflexive control is a method used historically without the user knowing about the concept, but through research during the 1900s, theories from psychology, behavioral science and cybernetics entered into the military application of modern influence operations.

    Reflexive control builds upon the fact that a stimulated organism responds with a reflex. Which, in the context of the essay, means that a controller transfers prepared information to a partner or a counterpart to bring him to single-handedly take one of the controller intended decision. This is expressed either by methods used intuitively by an intelligent user or systematically by a controller with knowledge and resources, creating a situation which voluntarily brings or forces the other part to make decisions as the controller wants for its own use. The methods are based on knowledge of the other part's self-image. A self-image that can be individual, for example, a president, or a group, such as a state leadership. The reflex may contain of a decision or of an action that are not well considered but that benefits the controller. The controller then exploits the new situation created by its preparations that may have been on going for a long time.

    The essay describes some of the methods that has been used by the Soviet Union and later integrated into the Russian warfare.

    The essay askes the questions; Can Bismarck's actions in 1870 and Russia's actions in the Georgia conflict in 2008 be explained by the theory of reflexive control? Is there a difference? If it is - how is the difference expressed?

    Yes, both cases reflect reflexive control. The differences between them are explained by the evolution from intuitive actions into systematic use.

  • 5088.
    Waaler, Gudmund
    et al.
    Royal Norwegian Naval Academy, The Norwegian Defence Univeristy College, Norway.
    Berntsen, Tor Arne S.
    Norwegian Command and Staff College, Norwegian Defence University College, Norway.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Avstand og nærhet som militæretisk utfordring2018In: Necesse, ISSN 2464-353X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 95-103Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5089.
    Waaler, Gudmund
    et al.
    Sjøforsvaret, Norge.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Voldsbruk og livsfare: Norske og svenske soldaters krigserfaringer fra Afghanistan2019 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [no]

    Voldsbruk og livsfare dokumenterer norske og svenske soldaters krigserfaringer fra Afghanistan. Basert på grundige intervjuer med soldatene, tegnes et levende bilde av hvordan dramatiske krigserfaringer påvirker soldathverdagen og hvordan erfaringene fortolkes og bearbeides i etterkant – både individuelt og kollektivt.Intervjuene med soldatene tolkes gjennomgående i lys av internasjonal faglitteratur og pågående fagdebatter. Boken drøfter blant annet spørsmål knyttet til forberedelser før avreise, stressmestring, moralske dilemmaer, motivasjon, sorgreaksjoner, profesjonsidentitet og profesjonalisering av soldatrollen. Boken inneholder i tillegg en grundig drøfting av reaksjonsmønstre knyttet til å ta liv i kamp.Voldsbruk og livsfare vil særlig ha interesse for studenter og forskere innenfor de militære utdanningene, men er også skrevet for alle med interesse for Forsvaret og Norges rolle i internasjonale, militære konflikter.

  • 5090.
    Waaler, Gudmund
    et al.
    Sjøforsvaret, Norge.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Å ta liv: Erfaringer fra Afghanistan2017In: Michael, ISSN 1504-0658, Vol. 14, p. 54-59Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5091. Waaler, Gudmund
    et al.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Espevik, Roar
    Ars vitam tollendi: kunsten å slå i hjel2013In: Pacem : militært tidsskrift for etisk og teologisk refleksjon, ISSN 1500-2322, E-ISSN 1503-2116, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 5-26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5092.
    Wadenholt, Jakob
    Swedish Defence University.
    Wardens fem ringar, slagen om Fallujah ur ett luftmaktsperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Air power alone cannot hold ground and secure the population. How then can air power contribute to irregular conflicts? Robert Johnson states in his article Predicting Future War that air power have the potential to determine the outcome of irregular operations. Even though air superiority was achieved during the two battles of Fallujah in Iraq 2004 there is a difference in the outcome of the two operations, Vigilant Resolve and Phantom Fury.

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine if Warden´s theory The Enemy as a System and his Five-Ring Model can explain the variation in the outcome of the two battles using a comparative case study.

    Research findings indicate that the Five-Ring Model cannot explain why the second operation, Phan-tom Fury was a victory. The findings indicate that striking the most critical ring, i.e. Leaders, did not contribute to victory. Instead, results indicate that the most critical ring leading to victory in the second operation were Infrastructure.

    The main conclusion of the thesis is that the theory cannot explain the variation in the outcomes and that Warden´s Five-Ring Model cannot be applied to an irregular enemy and therefore needs to be questioned and further researched. The findings further strengthen earlier research stating that the most critical part of an enemy may not always be represented by Leaders.

  • 5093.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS).
    A security community in the making? Sweden and NATO post-Libya2011In: European Security, ISSN 0966-2839, E-ISSN 1746-1545, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 585-603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article asks what the evolution of NATO-Swedish relations signifies for the understanding of the evolution of security communities. Given the astonishing evolution of NATO and Sweden as a community of practise, it is logical to imagine the two as forming part of the same security community. It could then be argued that common practise can bring about new security communities rather hastily. Analysing NATO’s and Sweden’s recent discourses on security, the author identifies a significant gap between a principally realist and a predominantly idealist discourse that indicates that the two parties do not share key characteristics of a security community; identities, values and meanings. However, if Libya is the case of the future, the discursive differences may fade and Sweden could more easily pursue its journey towards inclusion in NATO, not as a member of an Alliance, but as a member of NATO as a security community.

  • 5094.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Beyond the RtoP: Responsibility as Doing, Being and Sharing2015In: International Politics Reviews, ISSN 2050-2982, E-ISSN 2046-9292, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 50-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review article exposes that the scholarly interest in the notion of ‘responsibility’ in the field of security studies goes far beyond the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ and the debate on emerging ‘responsible stakeholders’ in Asia. It is argued that the significant scholarly attention to ‘responsibility’ reflects political concerns with transnational threats and humanitarian issues, but it also mirrors a quest for status and power in a post-hegemonic security milieu as well as a need to distribute responsibilities among powers in an effective way. The article reviews approximately 160 peer-reviewed articles to expose strengths and weaknesses in the scholarly production of knowledge on responsibility in the field of security studies. The article suggests a new way to categorize works on responsibility in terms of ‘doing’, ‘being’ or ‘sharing’; focusing on one or several of these three aspects is an effective way to capture key contemporary problems in international security.

  • 5095.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Divided power Europe: normative divergences among the EU 'big three'2010In: Journal of European Public Policy, ISSN 1350-1763, E-ISSN 1466-4429, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 1089-1105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article challenges Ian Manners's 'Normative Power Europe' thesis by arguing that although the European Union (EU) promotes norms in the international arena, it is not different from other powers. Drawing on a large set of empirical data and making use of a new institutionalist framework, it discerns how major European powers - Russia, France, Germany, Britain and the EU - have worked to gain acceptance for their individual favoured normative yardstick in the realm of security. The article concludes that as a consequence of diverging logics of appropriateness in Europe, the EU should rather be regarded as a divided than as a strong normative power. As long as both the EU and its major member states hold strong individual normative ambitions, the Union risks becoming hampered from acting rapidly and concertedly in international crises.

  • 5096.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Europa - ta ditt ansvar!2016In: EU och de nya säkerhetshoten / [ed] Antonina Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Anna Michalski & Lars Oxelheim, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2016, p. 251-279Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5097.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Europe: take on your responsibilities2018In: The European Union: Facing the Challenge of Multiple Security Threats / [ed] Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Antonina; Michalski, Anne; Nilsson, Niklas; Oxelheim, Lars, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 212-234Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5098.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    NATO’s role in the Strategic Concept Debate: Watchdog, fire-fighter, neighbour or seminar leader?2011In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 482-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that traditional Westphalian powers are increasingly pressured to move beyond Westphalia, towards institutionalization of security co-operation and a broader definition of referent-objects of security. Focusing on the case of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), it notes that the Alliance is severely torn between traditional constructions of ‘the self’ and a need for change. Exploring how NATO handles this dilemma, the article examines how the Alliance articulated its constitutive story during the Strategic concept process of 2009-2010. Four roles crystallised from the reading of the narrative: the fire-fighter, the watchdog, the good neighbour and the seminar leader. It is argued that NATO will be able to meet the exigencies of the post-Westphalian world more or less effectively depending on how it develops in each of these roles. The article concludes that NATO largely remains Westphalian in its four roles, but the launching of the seminar leader role indicates that it may be preparing a farewell toWestphalia. NATO is a composite actor and tensions between academic, global reformist and traditionalist regional story-lines will prevail. Nevertheless, the globalised threat environment is likely to eventually force NATO to fully recognise the need for a more post-Westphalian approach to security.

  • 5099.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Security in a Greater Europe : The Possibility of a Pan-European Approach2008Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Can Russia, the European Union and the three major EU member states adopt a unified policy line in the global arena? Charlotte Wagnsson investigates the cohesiveness of ‘greater Europe’ through the detailed scrutiny of policy statements by the leadership elites in the UK, France, Germany, Russia and the EU in connection with three defining events in international security: the crisis in Kosovo of 1999; the terrorist attacks of 9/11 and the Iraq crisis of 2003. This extensive empirical enquiry results in a critical constructivist response to neorealist understandings of European security. 

    The book contrasts the EU’s new way of ‘doing security’ with the established, competitive bilateral interplay in the European security sphere and provides a clue to the kind of security politics that will prevail in Europe. A joint Moscow Brussels approach would improve the chances of both increasing their relative strength vis-à-vis the USA, but serious cleavages threaten to undermine such a ‘greater European’ common view on security. Wagnsson considers the extent to which the major European players pursue similar objectives, and assesses the possible implications for and the chances of greater Europe emerging as a cohesive global actor. This meticulously researched book will interest scholars and students with an interest in international security, the EU’s international role, European international relations and Russian security.  

  • 5100.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhet.
    Barzanje, Costan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för krishantering och internationell samverkan.
    A framework for analysing antagonistic narrative strategies: A Russian tale of Swedish decline2019In: Media, War & Conflict, ISSN 1750-6352, E-ISSN 1750-6360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New information technologies and media consumption patterns have enabled aggressive practices that are qualitatively different from old-style propaganda. Actors no longer rely on secrecy, but can openly make use of social media and media outlets in foreign languages to destabilize other states and societies from within. Strategic narratives have become a key means in this endeavour. To expose the discursive (harmful) capacity of strategic narratives, the article suggests detailed analysis based on a narrative ontology. The analytical framework is applied in an exploratory case study of the Russian state-sponsored broadcasting company Sputnik’s strategic narrative about Sweden from 2014 to 2018. In addition to unmasking Sputnik’s strategic narrative, the article fills a gap in previous research in particular by exposing three antagonistic narrative strategies labelled ‘suppression’, ‘destruction’ and ‘direction’. These strategies reflect general driving forces in the security sphere and can inspire and structure future research into antagonistic strategic narration.

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