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  • 4951.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Ekenberg, L
    Danielsson, M
    Threat and control in military decision making2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4952.
    Wall, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Internationell tjänst i förband: officerens ställningstagande2002Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Swedish Armed Forces are undergoing amajor reorganisation and downscaling of materiel and personnel. At the sametime, international commitments are increasing as well as the need for officersin the Swedish international units. The earlier Swedish units, for example, inBosnia and the present units in Kosovo have already shown difficulties whenrecruiting officers. That problem might become even bigger in the near future.The purpose of this essay is to discuss and reflect upon the officers’ motivationfor taking part in units aimed for international duties.In the essay, answers are given to the following questions:- What importance do motivation factors have on the officers’ decision oftaking part, or not taking part in the units for international duties?- What changes do the officers want to obtain in order to motivatethemselves to take part in the units for international duties?The theoretical framework in common motivation theories and especially thehuman needs and motivation theories is by Maslow, McClelland andHertzberg. Based on their theories, a tool for analysis consisting of sixmotivation factors has been created. The method is qualitative with a deductiveapproach including a quantitative, descriptive presentation of the result.The investigation includes 155 officers, second lieutenants to majors. Theprocurement of empiri has taken place by using mail questionnaires and writtensources.The empirical research provides some results and the main conclusions are,that the most important motivation factor for those who choose not to joininternational units is social needs. It is one of the reasons for approximately 80% in that group. The main motivation factors for those who decide to apply forinternational duty are the desire for growth in individual development andlearning and the need for meaningfulness in work. The most important factorsto change, in order to increase the level of motivation are economical benefits,a more flexible and changed rotation system and better support to the next ofkin.The conclusion shows that only one third of this year’s graduated majors arewilling to join the international units and that it is possible to change most ofthe motivation factors in order to increase the willingness of the officers.

  • 4953.
    Wall, Patricia
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Hur tas moraliskt ansvar: En fråga om förtroende2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Moraliskt ansvarstagande vid användning av luftstridskrafter vid offensiva luftoperationer mot markmål har undersökts genom en kvalitativ textanalys. Försvarsmaktens doktriner, värdegrund, reglementen samt handbok för planering och ledning har undersökts genom en kvalitativ text- och innehållsanalys, för att belysa hur ansvar ges, regleras och möjliggörs att tas. Resultatet har analyserats med stöd av teorier om vad som är moraliskt rätt inom krigföring, vilka etiska system och ansvarslinjer som finns inom en politiskt styrd organisation samt hur en byråkratisk organisa­tion påverkar verksamheten och förståelse för individens roll i resultatet. 

    Syftet var att belysa hur de etiska systemen påverkade officeren i Försvarsmakten, om regleringen av verksamheten tydliggjorde hur moraliskt ansvarstagande skulle tas och om organisationsformen bidrog eller begränsade möjligheten. 

    Resultatet visade att de etiska systemen stödjer officeren genom att inbördes rangordna deras betydelse, samtidigt som professionsetiken inte visar vad som är moraliskt rätt i krig. Det formella ansvaret fördelas tydligt, däremot klarläggs inte om det moraliska ansvaret fördelas lika. Försvarsmakten är till vissa delar medveten om organisationens begränsningar och försöker till del kompensera för dem. I andra delar förstärker både de etiska systemen och organisationsformen i sig, de redan kända problem som finns i en politiskt styrd och byråkratisk organisation.

  • 4954.
    Wallberg, Patrick
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Officeren och NBF: en organisationskulturell studie kring förändring2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4955.
    Walldén, Göran
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Lever vi som vi lär?: transportplaneringsprocessen ur ett teoretiskt och praktiskt perspektiv2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Operation Atalanta is an EU combined maritime operation outside Somalia’s coasts. The main objective of the operation is to protect World Food Program sea transports in the area from pirate attacks. The Swedish Armed Forces has contributed with a maritime task force containing two corvettes and a supply ship. The ships were transported by a strategic sealift to area of operations. The knowledge of transporting Swedish naval vessels this way is limited due to lack of experience. Sea transports of this kind need to be planned with a long-term view due to the competitive situation on the sea transport market and the limitation of resources. 

    This essay is therefore focused on the planning process of the described transport where an investigation of theory and practice is done. The theory comes from an internal handbook which describes The Swedish Armed Forces planning process for military transports. This planning process will be compared to the case study, operation Atalanta in order to sort out differences. These differences will show how well the planning process was followed in this particular case.  

    The author has limited the planning process to involve three different stages in the planning process, these are: Information gathering, Assessment and Procurement and hereafter called phases. The stages will in time be set from the political directive to a sea transport has been procured. Different aspects are to be considered during the planning process. These are cost efficiency, time and quality. These aspects will be examined in each phase in order to investigate how they have affected the planning process.    

    The case study shows that the planning process has not been followed according to what the handbook describes. The main reason is the lack of time. The time has been a crucial factor which has driven the transport planning to make deviations. However this deviation has been done with good knowledge about the planning process thru experience.

  • 4956.
    Walldén, Göran
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Logistisk kulmination - en eller två sidor av myntet?: En betraktelse utifrån ett annorlunda perspektiv2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Logistic Culmination – One or Two Sides of the Coin?

    An Observation From a Different Point of View

     

    Logistic culmination can be compared to a stretched rubber band. If combat units moves in direction away from the supplies the rubber band will gradually stretch. The rubber band will eventually burst and at that point the logistic culmination will be a fact. But if the rubber band was to be let go before bursting, it will instead be contracted. At the maximum contraction point the rubber band will for a split second be wider. Could this metaphor show that there exists an opposite way of reaching logistic culmination?

     

    This essay borrows an old culmination concept from astronomy and utilizes it within logistic culmination. Astronomic culmination has two underlying perspectives, the upper and lower culmination point, in contrast to logistic culmination which only has one perspective. These two points are connected by being each other’s opposites.

     

    By setting the current meaning of logistic culmination as the upper culmination point the author aims at finding out the lower culmination point and examines the connection between these two points.

     

    The examination is built on a statement that there exist two underlying perspectives within logistics, just as in astronomy with the upper and lower culmination point. If the examination of the concept will succeed a wider understanding of how logistic culmination occurs could be achieved. If the lower logistic culmination point can be verified it could mean that logistic culmination within military science can change, which also could affect military planning.

     

    The statement taken has with logic assumptions showed that there are two underlying perspectives in logistics just like astronomy. Logistic culmination as it is explained today has given only half of the meaning compared to how this concept ought to be viewed according to this essay. This essay gives the concept logistic culmination more precision compared to the former meaning.

  • 4957.
    Wallenburg, Paula
    Swedish Defence University.
    Militärstrategisk doktrin: En kompass som behöver deriveras?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En del av doktrinforskningen berör att doktriner som redskap för det militära har en rad disparata betydelser som är motsägelsefulla. Detta orsakar doktrindilemmat. Exempelvis är det svårt för doktrin att både kunna ge tydlig inriktning till landets försvarsmakt samtidigt som doktrinen ska vara anpassningsbar till en värld i förändring. Argument för doktrinens olika syften och nyttofunktion framförs ofta i relation till hur robust doktrinen kan och bör vara mot en föränderlig värld. Svensk militärstrategisk doktrins syften är ambitiös i omfång och omfattar exempelvis funktioner som inriktande, utbildande, signalerande och vägledande. I föreliggande arbete formuleras frågeställningar som besvarar huruvida och på vilket sätt det är möjligt att kommunicera samtliga syften deklarerade i MSD. Analysen sker genom diskursanalys där olika meningsbetydelserna i doktrintexten undersöks. Metoden är poststrukturalistisk dekonstruktion vilket innebär att motsatsförhållanden i texten påvisas och framförs vilket skapar andra diskurser än de som normalt framträder som självklara. Utifrån detta diskuteras huruvida diskurserna bidrager till att stärka argument för doktrinsyftenas funktion. Resultatet påvisar att dekonstruktionen frambringar motsägelsefull kommunikation av samtliga analyserade doktrinsyften vilket innebär att doktrindilemmat är aktuellt för MSD.

  • 4958.
    Wallenburg, Paula
    Swedish Defence University.
    Ubåtsjaktförmågans utveckling på sjöoperativ helikopter: En studie av bakomliggande drivkrafter2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to explain what where the driving forces behind the development of antisubmarine warfare skill on Swedish sea operational helicopters during the time 1980-92. The study is done by using two different perspective, based on Graham Allison scientific explanation models found in his book Essence of Decision. In the study the perspectives are named “rational actor” and “governmental politics”. The purpose is to investigate if respective model can explain the development of antisubmarine warfare skill on Swedish helicopters during the previously mentioned timeframe.

    The result of the study is that by using the rational actor perspective the development of anti submarine warfare can be explained in a large extent. The study proves that there were a well-defined threat and that consensus was that this threat would be met i.e. with anti submarine warfare resources. It cannot be demonstrated that the helicopter and the development of its anti submarine warfare capability was the single most suitable option. By using the model governmental politics, the development is not significantly explained because no internal differences of large extent have been demonstrated. The model contributes rather to illuminate the actors and factors that shaped their actions. If the models are used as complement to each other a wider perspective of what has happened is shown, but the explanation is not strengthened.

  • 4959.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Att lära sig stresshantering vid tillämpade övningar: Ett utbildningskoncept2014Report (Other academic)
  • 4960.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Beslut under osäkerhet2017In: Rustad för risk: Riskpsykologi för militärer och insatsorganisationer / [ed] Ann Enander och Marcus Börjesson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 163-178Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4961.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Human adaptation to danger2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of the thesis was to increase knowledge concerning how people adapt psychologically when faced with a real dan­ger incident, and what implications these reactions and adaptation mecha­nisms have upon immediate performance.

    The thesis is based on three empirical studies concerning people with per­sonal experience of dangerous incidents. Swedish peacekeeping person­nel who were involved in shooting incidents or other highly threatening events participated in two of these studies. Swedish citizens who were living in Kobe, Japan, during the earthquake of 1995 partici­pated in the third study. Retrospective self-reports included both qualitative and quantitative approaches. More specifically, the research questions focused on the subjec­tive descriptions of personal reactions and performance during dan­gerous situations, the frequency of various reac­tions, and the individual and situ­ational factors that influence reactions and functioning.

    On a general level, all groups seem to have performed well during the dangerous encounters they experienced. Severely dysfunctional reactions were rare, but general feelings of invulnerability were commonly reported. During these threatening situations, a partial loss of emotional balance and cognitive functioning was also common. Different individual and situ­a­tional factors appeared to interact with reactions and performance. Factors that were associated with lower performance included whether the danger incident implied a loss of control or if it demanded complex cogni­tive activity.

    A fourth and purely theoretical study addressed how assumptions from Darwian, Freudian, and cognitive psychology are supported by empirical disaster research in explaining why people occasionally fail to adapt when danger is present. It was suggested that the different theories could be integrated into a model, in which adapta­tion mechanisms on different psychological levels could be included; from processes that are con­sciously controlled to automatic processes.

  • 4962.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Människans illusoriska rationalitet: om kampen mellan känsla och förnuft i samhälle och politik2014Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Are humans rational? Do we generally choose the alternative with the best balance between costs and benefits when making decisions? Or are we to a large extent guided by our emotions and impulses? This book argues that it can be both ways. The latter may, however, be more frequently the case than we ourselves want to believe. Our emotions - and our way of coping with them - are important explanations for decisions that do not have the results that were anticipated, as well as to enemy images, violence and evil.

    It may be reasonable to use gut instinct in everyday decisions that affect only one self and has no dramatic consequences. But the focus in this book is primarily in different contexts in which decisions may have - or may be expected to have - large effects. The first part addresses the question if we are rational in relation to different types of threats - from risks in the community to life-threatening situations and war. The second part analyzes whether political decision makers and various political movements are rational – ranging from the average local politicians to more extreme and violent movements.The book also includesa theoretical part, with a discussion about how our lack of rationality can be explained and understood.

  • 4963.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Poor decision making related to personality, stress reactions, group dynamic, and situation awareness in military staffs2006In: Interaction on the Edge: Proceedings from the 5th GRASP conference / [ed] J. Näslund & S. Jern, 2006, p. 186-196Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4964.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Why do people sometimes fail when adapting to danger?: A theoretical discussion from a psychological perspective.2001In: International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, ISSN 0280-7270, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 145-180Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During life-threatening danger people may react in ways that decrease their chances of surviving or coping with the event. Several empirically demon­strated reactions have a potentially maladaptive effect on per­formance, due to limitations in our cognitive and emotional processing capacity or the activation of obsolete adaptation mechanisms. The possible psychological explanations for this are discussed in terms of assumptions derived from three major psychological paradigms: Darwian, Freudian, and cognitive psychology. These theoretical models all illustrate useful concepts and assumptions, which do not logically exclude one another, necessary to understand more thoroughly how psychological adaptation occurs in danger situations. However, no theory alone explains the empiri­cal find­ings and the various theories should be integrated into a model that includes different levels of psychological function, from consciously controlled processes to emotional and automatic process.

  • 4965.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Fors, Maria
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Upplevelser av Grundläggande Militär Utbildning (GMU): Intervjustudie med utbildningsbefäl och rekryter2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att med kvalitativ metodik fånga in de upplevelser av GMU som finns hos rekryter och utbildningsbefäl. Intervjuer utfördes därför med 25 rekryter och befäl under GMU 2 2011 på Amf 1 och I 19. Synen på Försvarsmakten präglades av att organisationen har en viktig uppgift samt att den erbjuder gemenskap och frihet i arbetet. Negativt är bland annat att FM upplevs som byråkratisk och att alla förändringsprocesser leder till osäkerhet. Inställningen till GMU var i stort positiv men vissa problem upplevdes kring själva omställningsprocessen. Rekryterna uppfattades generellt som motiverade men de ådrog sig många skador och att de fysiska kraven vid rekryteringen ansågs lågt ställda. Utbildningstiden är kort och GMU blir därför väldigt komprimerad. Då GMU-rekryterna är frivilliga och blivande kollegor menade flera att det krävs ett annat förhållningssätt och ett mjukare ledarskap. Detta kan dock kontrasteras mot att det beskrevs en förväntan om att det ska vara en viss grad av tuffhet i en militär utbildning. Vardagliga glädjeämnen var att få vistas i naturen, möjligheten att få åka på internationell tjänst, kamratanda och att ha möjlighet att förändra något i samhället. Irritationsmoment var oro för utbildningens krav och för examinationer.

  • 4966.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Den politiska nivåns syn på försvarets folkförankring: En intervjustudie med försvarspolitiker och deras tjänstemän2014Report (Other academic)
  • 4967.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    How (Not) to Implement an Unpopular Decision: A Case-Study of the Swedish Armed Forces2017In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the armed forces' ability to implement an unpopular decision while maintaining commitment and job satisfaction among its personnel, as well as examine what factors affect the perceived outcome of a decision process in a military context. In line with earlier research, it was hypothesized that a fair process, knowledge (about the circumstances and objectives of the decision) and trust (in the decision-makers) will promote decision acceptance. An additional hypothesis was that a higher hierarchal position will promote understanding of the decision. A specific decision process was chosen - that which led to the 2010 choice to make service on international military missions mandatory for all personnel in the Swedish Armed Forces. An ad hoc questionnaire was constructed with the intention to measure the perception of the decision's input values, the decision process, the organization and decision-makers, as well as of the outcome. The questionnaire response rate was 48% (N = 229 respondents). The respondents were (predominantly middle-aged, mid-career, male) Swedish military officers and civilian employees. Knowledge about the decision, its perceived timing, and trust in the decision makers - but not the respondents' hierarchical position - significantly contributed to the outcome : its degree of acceptance. The study shows much dissatisfaction with the decision and its implications, but also a lack of knowledge about the decision-making process involved.

  • 4968.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    To Maintain the Armed Forces' Anchoring in Society in the Post-conscription Era2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4969.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hede, Susanne
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Befolkningens syn på försvarets folkförankring: En enkätstudie på ett befolkningsurval2015Report (Other academic)
  • 4970.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Anchoring Sweden’s Post-conscript Military: Insights From Elites in the Political and Military Realm2018In: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The universal nature of conscription ties or anchors broad segments of society to the military. What happens to societal anchoring after the draft ends? Using in-depth interviews with two groups of elites, this article explores factors that promote and hinder the Swedish Military’s societal anchoring post-conscription. The first group consisted of 18 executives at the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) headquarters with strategic positions in relation to societal anchoring. The second group consisted of 15 representatives from the corresponding political level: members of the parliamentary Committee on Defense and their officials. The interviews were semistructured and analyzed according to a grounded theory-inspired approach. Main themes concerning obstacles were the public’s low interest and dated knowledge, an unclear political debate resulting in vague expectations concerning the SAF, as well as unclear responsibility for informing the public, and confidence gaps between the military and the political elite.

  • 4971.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Sohlberg, Jennifer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Militära professionen: Delområde: "Personalförsörjning - Rekrytering och urval" - Syntes2013Report (Other academic)
  • 4972.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Att fatta beslut i staber under stress: Vad skapar ett dåligt utfall2005Report (Other academic)
  • 4973.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    Karlstad universitet.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Examining the impact of personality and situational factors on decision making among military staffs2014In: Journal of Military Studies, ISSN 1799-3350, Vol. 5, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military staff performance may be inferior due to several reasons. The purpose of the present survey was to study the impact of stress reactions, personality factors, situation awareness, and maladaptive group dynamics on the quality of the decision-making in Swedish high-level military staffs. Participants were mainly captains and majors, but also lieutenant colonels and colonels took part (n = 256, 61 % response rate). A mainly self-made questionnaire was administered in two staff exercises. Maladaptive group dynamics, stress exposure, lack of situation awareness, and negative stress reactions were the strongest predictors of poor staff performance, while personality had less impact.

  • 4974.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Johansson, C.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Reactions and Performance of Swedish Peacekeepers in Life-Threatening Situations2002In: International Peacekeeping, ISSN 1353-3312, E-ISSN 1743-906X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 133-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study maps reactions activated in peacekeeping personnel by life-threatening situations and explores how these reactions affect psychological functioning. In-depth interviews were carried out with 30 informants from the Swedish peacekeeping force serving in Bosnia between 1993 and 1995. All participants had experienced shooting incidents or other highly threatening events. Two models were formed. A descriptive model structures the content of the interviews according to the phase and type of situation from which they were mainly reported, as well as whether they were mainly reported by officers or privates. A theoretical model forms the basis for a discussion about the individual and situational factors that affect the specific reactions and how their interaction with role expectations affects performance. The informants were generally satisfied with their performance. Two factors associated with lower performance were either that the life-threatening situation implied loss of control or it demanded complex cognitive activity.

  • 4975.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Delområde: "Personalförsörjning - Rekrytering och urval": Syntes2012Report (Other academic)
  • 4976.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Slutrapport från projektet stress (pel: 6343)1999Report (Other academic)
  • 4977.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Johansson, C.
    Military observers' reactions and performance when facing danger2004In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 211-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some groups have to face threats and dangers professionally with maintained cognitive functioning, which implies a need to know both the extent to which maladaptive reactions occur and the factors that may affect it. This study examines self-reported reactions and performance when facing risks and dangers on peacekeeping observer missions. The sample consisted of 154 military observers. A self-made questionnaire, including the General Health Questionnaire and the Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale, was used. We found that feelings of invulnerability were common in relation to mission risks. In a specific danger incident, most participants subjectively performed well, although partial loss of cognitive functioning was reported in half of the cases and severely dysfunctional reactions in about one tenth. Cluster analysis showed that self-reported cognitive limitations in danger incidents were related to 2 factors: complicating situational factors, such as high levels of threat, complex decision demands, and minor control possibilities; and individual vulnerability factors, such as general worry and anger, low SOC, anxiety, and psychosomatic symptoms.

  • 4978.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Mattsson, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Psychological Operations: What Makes them Work?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4979.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Att vara svensk officer på hög ledningsnivå vid påfrestande incidenter under internationella uppdrag: En redovisning av praktiska verktyg för att hantera stress2006Report (Other academic)
  • 4980.
    Wallenius, David
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Högskolestudenter och militära elever - skillnader och likheter: en kvalitativ undersökning innehållande lärares uppfattningar2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4981.
    Wallentin, Nils
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Militärstrategisk doktrin: Är den användbar för dagens försvar?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the Swedish security policy during the 21st century have made the armed forces extending their international peacekeeping efforts worldwide. These missions have only been in conflicts with so-called Irregular armed forces since year 2000. The changes have been rapid and there are areas within the Armed Forces who haven’t kept up with them. Regulations and doctrines is one of those areas. The work with revising these doctrines has just begun but there is currently no efforts being made to demonstrate the relevance of the doctrines for the work the Armed Forces is undertaking in international operations.

    The purpose of the paper is to start the process of amending this lack of knowledge and to examine to what extent the Armed Forces military strategic doctrine is applicable for conflicts with irregular armed forces and also to answer the question: Can the military strategic doctrine be considered a relevant guide in solving the tasks of the Armed Forces in conflicts with irregular armed forces?

    The paper describes the background and characteristics of conflicts with irregular armed forces. It also describes aspects of these conflicts which are considered essential for the efforts to succeed in establishing peace. Using this theory as a starting point, operational indicators are formed that can be textually analysed qualitatively to investigate the military strategic doctrine. The result shows that the Armed Forces Military Strategic doctrine cannot be considered a relevant guide when dealing with conflicts with irregular armed forces. The doctrine does not contain enough information deemed essential for success. The doctrine no longer fills its purpose, but needs to be revised.

  • 4982.
    Waller, Adam
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Integrated or Comprehensive sharing?: Drivers, enablers and barriers to civilian-military information sharing2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The UN and NATO have implemented separate approaches to civilian-military cooperation. Central in both approaches is a need for information sharing between civilian and military actors. Without shared information, cooperative planning becomes impossible. For military actors secret information makes sharing difficult and for civilian actors, principles hinder close cooperation. Scholars in the field of intelligence study have identified that states and organizations share information if the benefits of such, outweigh costs and risks.

    This thesis examines institutional differences between the UN mission MINUSMA in Mali and NATO mission ISAF in Afghanistan, in order to better understand how institutional factors, affect sharing of information. With an outset in Rational Choice Institutionalism and by use of Elinor Ostrom’s Institutional Development and Analysis Framework, an analytical instrument is designed. Through inductive review of interviews, first-hand accounts and reports; factors that drive, enable and hinder civilian-military sharing are indicated. The thesis indicates that the institutional framework of MINUSMA forms interdependency between civilian and military actors, while sharing in ISAF was enabled only when common goals were agreed upon. Military and civilian actors, in both MINUSMA and ISAF point to unclear mandates and vague goals as primary barriers to civilian-military sharing. 

  • 4983.
    Wallerfelt, Gustaf
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Finns det några (dugliga) "stridspiloter" i armén?2002Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From the year of 2003 Swedish troops are supposed to participate in peaceenforcementoperations within the frames of EU:s Military Task Force. The purposeof this essay is to ascertain whether the Swedish army officers are given thecompetence needed to lead their units in this kind of operations. The scientific methodused is inductive.The essay begins with a presentation of an “action theory”, a model of competenceand the empirical material (USMC) used to draw the conclusions. In the analysis themilitary educational system and the unit job experiences of today are compared withthe demands put on the army-officers, who leads a unit in the future Swedishinternational battalion. The conclusions drawn from the analysis describes how theeducational system ought to work to meet the demands. The conclusions are testedtowards the action theory and the empirical material and then structured from themodel of competence. After that a hypothesis, that describes the core-competence ofthe future army-officer, are put forward. To increase the external validity of thehypothesis it has been discussed with, among others, the Swedish SupremeCommander. The essay ends with a proposal of how to implement the conclusions inSwedish Armed Forces. The conclusions comprise a new military educational system,to give all army-officers war postings, reintroduce war unit exercises etc.

  • 4984.
    Wallgren, Ann-Carol
    Swedish National Defence College.
    UAV som en sensorplattform för den svenskledda Nordic Battle Group (NBG)2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4985.
    Wallin, Carl
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Re-conceptualizing the Pursuit of National Interests in World Politics: Augmenting the realist concept of national interests to include constructivist theories on identity2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the debate on international relations an increasing amount of scholars have acknowledged that the debate is unnecessarily entrenched in old paradigms and that the dividing lines are in many cases arbitrary. This theory-developing paper is an answer to the call for cross-fertilization specifically between realism and constructivism. Here the concept of national interests, and its role in the realist tradition of international relations, is re-examined. The argument is made that, classical- and neo-classical-, realist theories should take identity into account when explaining states pursuit of national interests. This is done not only by identifying and explaining the constructivist theories that is useful to realism but also by illuminating an, so far, unexplored potential within realism to directly include identity into its theories. In the final part of the paper the usefulness of the augmented concept of national interests is also illustrated by using the concept to explain Sweden's reluctance against a NATO-membership.

  • 4986.
    Wallin, Tobias
    Swedish Defence University.
    SVERIGES FÖRSVARS- OCH SÄKERHETSPOLITIK I FÖRÄNDRING, FRÅN LIBERALISM TILL REALISM?2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government states that the security policy situation in the region has changed in the last decade, mainly due to Russia's increasingly aggressive actions in Europe. In this study liberalism and realism are used to investigate how Sweden has chosen to safeguard its state security in this period. The study focuses on the Swedish defence bills from 2009 (2008/09:15) and 2015 (2014/15:109). To collect data, a qualitative text analysis was used with indicators derived from liberalism and realism. The result shows that the Swedish defence bill from 2009 is characterized by a liberal security policy where cooperation, integration and interdependence were considered to be factors that promote security. The defence bill from 2015 reflects an increase of the realistic security perspective where territorial integrity, sovereignty, independence and military defence have a higher value. The realistic view of security has thus gone from almost non-existent in the former bill to being equivalent to the liberal view of security in the latter. It is a remarkable shift that suggests that Sweden has changed its view of security in the last decade.

  • 4987.
    Wallin, Tomas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Försvarsmaktens framtida rekrytering: en rekrytering i förändring2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats kommer jag att undersöka försvarsmaktens rekryteringsprocess och om denna har utvecklats i takt med försvarsmaktens omstrukturering. Den metod som jag har valt att använda mig av i uppsatsen är komparation eftersom jag har för avsikt att jämföra hur Försvarsmaktens rekryteringsprocess har sett ut tidigare med hur den ser ut idag. Bakgrunden till denna uppsats är ett intresse för försvarsmaktens förändringar mot ett insatsförsvar och hur detta påverkar rekryteringsprocessen.

  • 4988.
    Wallinius, Martin
    et al.
    Combitech.
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Swedish Armed Forces.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Johansson Nawaz, Emelie
    University of Skövde.
    Enhanced Training by a Systemic Governance of Force Capabilities, Tasks, and Processes2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Army has transformed from 31 brigades in to two in 20 years. At the same time the Swedish area of interest has increased from 60 km from the Swedish borders to 6000 km from Brussels. The type of missions for the armed forces has changed from invasion defending operations to international interoperable operations. This overall change also has increased the necessity to become more interoperable with the partners in the Nordic, European Union, NATO and PfP countries. The NATO methods (OCC) and Core team Effectiveness (CTEF) together with the alignment of the Swedish MARTA provides the basis to assess, evaluate and accredit the Swedish forces. This paper presents a Systemic Governance of Capabilities, Tasks, and Processes applied to the requirement specification for the core battalion in Nordic Battle Group 2015. The method consists of analyzing and compiling the battalion's capabilities, tasks, activities and processes in their context and in relation to each other down to platoon level. The paper then continues to describe the development of a system providing support for assessment, evaluation and accreditation which entail that the commander and staff better can govern the education and training efforts for the force. Authors note: This work is conducted with funding and support from the Swedish Armed Forces and Swedish Strategic Foundation (grant SM12-0052). The information in this publication is the one of the authors and is not the official voice of the Swedish Armed Forces, Combitech, SAAB, Swedish National Defence College, George Mason University and University of Skövde.

  • 4989.
    Wallmark, Anton
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Oktoberkriget 1973: En studie i Gemensamma operationers inverkan på manöverkrigföring2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Case study focuses on the Yom Kippur war of 1973 in order to find potential friction between maneuver warfare and combined arms warfare when used in the same context. The war demonstrated how against all odds a small state could retake the initiative and change the outcome of war to its own advantage. Israel achieved success by trying to combine these two methods but also by realizing the friction of them. What circumstances determine how well these two warfare methods function when incorporated in a context?

    The purpose of the case study is to find factors which may give rise to friction when combining these two ways of conducting warfare. Is there evidence for a bond that only can be perfectly met when under the right circumstances

    The result of the case study indicates that friction between these two methods limits the ability to achieve maneuver warfare unless these frictions are dealt with. Combined arms warfare must increase the effectivness of the force above its individual components in order to complement the maneuver warfare. 

  • 4990.
    Wallén, Mårten
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Kriget i Sierre Leone (1991-2002) ur ett rationellt perspektiv2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay has been to search for the presence of conventionalfeatures in the violent behaviour of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF)through a case study of the war in Sierra Leone (1991-2002) and therebyexamine whether the nature of war can be described from a rational orirrational perspective.To interpret and achieve the aim of the essay I have used Carl von Clausewitztheories on the nature of war. In order to analyse the presence of conventionalfeatures in the violent behaviour of the RUF, three indicators are used;a distinction between combatants and non-combatants, conventional meansand methods and a political purpose. These indicators are derived fromClausewitz trinity of war (people, army and government).The essay concludes that there are indeed presences of conventional features inthe violent behaviour of the RUF.The essay further concludes that the behaviour of the RUF was notcharacterized by total chaos, a war by all against all, caused by ethnic, religiousand ideological reasons. The behaviour of the RUF can therefore not bedescribed as an irrational phenomenon.Instead, the essay argues that the nature of war as it turned out in Sierra Leonecan be described from a rational perspective, typical for conventional wars,based upon the theories by Carl von Clausewitz on the nature of war.Keywords: Sierra Leone, Revolutionary United Front (RUF), low-intensityconflict, new wars, Clausewitz, rational perspective.

  • 4991.
    Wallén, Pontus
    Swedish Defence University.
    Överraskning och chock, en väg till framgång? En fallstudie av det tyska anfallet mot fort Eben Emael 19402018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The question of how to use your forces to successfully defeat your enemy is as old as warfare itself. Today maneuver warfare is the leading theory in the west, but it can´t explain the human experience of combat and how it effects the outcome of battle. The purpose of this essay is to analyze the human perspective of combat to see if it can explain the outcome of battle on the tactical level, where a smaller force successfully defeats a larger one. 

    This essay will apply Jim Storr´s theory of tactical success to the successful assault on Fort Eben Emael by German forces in the spring of 1940 in the form of a case study, to test whether it can explain this problem. Surprise was a vital success factor for the Germans, facing larger, well-fortified Belgian defenders. Storr highlights the human perspective of combat, and that surprise and shock can lead to collapse of the organization and the will to fight at the tactical level.

    The results indicate that Storr´s theory can explain the outcome of a battle thru the human perspective where surprise and shock lead to organizational collapse.

  • 4992.
    Walnum, Eskild
    Swedish Defence University.
    'The future is not digital: it's human.': Hvorfor moderne teknologisk krigføring påvirker anvendelsen av oppdragstaktikk negativt2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mission command is the preferred command philosophy of many nations’ armies, in order to handle the battlefield chaos and uncertainty. At the same time, some research claims that modern technological warfare is the better tool for handling chaos and turning it into certainty. It has been proven that technology influences command and the execution of military operations. However, it has not been empirically researched how modern technological warfare influences the use of mission command.

    This study views mission command in a modern context, hypothesizing that modern technological warfare leads to a quest for certainty and centralization of command and control. If so, how does this affect mission command?

    The thesis is researched through a case study of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) in the Lebanese War 2006 and the US Army V Corps in the Iraq War 2003. The study has its theoretical origins from Preussen and Germany in the 1800s and early 1900s, and more modern theories dated late 1900s and early 2000s.

    The results show that modern technological warfare has some negative impact on mission command, given a lack of certain preconditions for mission command. However, if the preconditions for mission command are met, the probability is high for modern technological warfare to increase mission effectiveness.

  • 4993.
    Walterström, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University.
    Prytz, Louise
    Swedish Defence University.
    Att vara sig själv i rollen som militär ledare: En kvalitativ studie om specialistofficerares upplevelser av tillämpningen avautenticitet i militära kontexter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2003 the Swedish Armed Forces uses Developmental Leadership as their formal leadership model. The model is characterised by the leader acting as a role model and providing inspiration, motivation and personal consideration. The model stresses the importance authenticity plays in achieving the motivational aspects of leadership. The current literature on authenticity shows almost solely positive effects of the application of authenticity. However, there are organizational factors that seem to impede the non-commissioned officers’ ability to freely express their authentic self. Therefore, this study has aimed to deeper investigate the possible discrepancy between the application of authenticity in theory in relation to practice. To achieve this, we strive to answer the question as to how non-commissioned officers experience the practical application of authenticity in military contexts. A qualitative semistructured interview guide was chosen as the research method. The participants consisted of six non-commissioned officers in troop leading positions within the Swedish Armed Forces. Through a thematic analysis the data resulted in three main themes with a total of eleven subcategories. The study concludes that the results support the Developmental Leadership model´s claim that environmental factors affect the way leaders can exert Developmental Leadership. In addition, the study also contribute to a clearer picture of how these factors specifically affect leaders ability to act authentically.

  • 4994.
    Wangel, Carl-Axel
    Swedish Defence University. Militärhistoriska avdelningen (MHA) Försvarsmakten.
    Aktuellt och Historiskt: Meddelanden från militärhistoriska avdelningen vid kungl. militärhögskolan 19701970Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]
    • Evabritta Personne, Sven Folins anteckningar om det finska fälttåget 1788-1790, Anjala d. 25 aug, Kongsböle d. 11 okt, 1789, 1790,
    • Evabritta Personne, Inskrivning av värnpliktiga 1812-1969, En översikt, 1812-1885, 1886-1900, 1901-1941, 1942-1968, 1969––, 
    • Bengt Holtze, Sverige i sjömilitärt tyskt perspektiv 1910-1914, Claes Lindströms rapporter och memoarer, Kapitänleutnant Grummes brev, 
    • Thede Palm, Marskalk Mannerheim i högkvarteret, Anteckningar av Georg Enkell, 
    • Erich Dethleffsen, Die letzten tage des ”Dritten reich”, Die führungsgruppe im generalstab des heeres, Die lage mitte april1945, Der rangriff auf Berlin, OKW und OKH vereint, Bei der heeresgruppe Weichsel, Die enklave Mürwik, Die kapitulation, Sammandrag
  • 4995.
    Wangel, Carl-Axel
    Swedish Defence University. Militärhistoriska avdelningen (MHA) Försvarsmakten.
    Aktuellt och Historiskt: Meddelanden från militärhistoriska avdelningen vid militärhögskolan1978Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]
    • Leif Stjerna, Scheer-programmet, Krigsmakten industrin och planerna på en utbyggnad av ubåtsvapnet i Tyskland 1918, Konferensen mellan Scheer och Stinnes, Ett fredsslut, En flottframstöt, Ubåtar eller stridsvagnar, 
    • Urban Schwalbe, Uppbyggandet av det svenska ekonomiska försvaret 1914-1935, Ekonomiskt försvar under första världskriget, 1925 års försvarsbeslut, Rikskommissionen för ekonomiskt försvar, Principer för industrins krigsorganisation, 
    • Steen Noer Madsen, Murmansk-konvojerne 1941-1945, Leverancernes start i efteråret 1941, Forsyningsruterne til Sovjetunionen, Eskortsystemet, Konvojerne PQ 12-PQ 18, December 1942-Maj 1945, Vurdering af den Tyske indsats, Betydning  for Sovjetunionen, Leverancernes omfang
  • 4996.
    Wannehag, Jim
    Swedish Defence University.
    Nytt luftvärnssystem för Sverige: Patriot eller Aster SAMP/T?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the Swedish Armed Forces previous focus on international operations and strategic timeout in the beginning of the 21st century, the air defense today has surface-to-air missile systems that are several decades old. The systems are not designed to handle today’s high-tech opponent and the government has therefore decided that a replacement for MIM-23 HAWK must be in place by 2020. The choice stands between Patriot and Aster SAMP/T, the purpose of this paper is therefore to investigate and assess the military effectiveness of each surface-to-air missile system. The survey is based on a comparative analysis where the systems are compared to each other in a scenario which includes several events and requirements. Finally, the results are compiled and presented in a multi-goal-model to quantitatively measure the differences between the systems. The result shows that Aster SAMP/T has the greatest potential of being effective in a given context, but that Patriot also meets the requirements almost without any limitations. As the comparison is based on a particularly limited scenario with very specified conditions, it is important to take into account that the result is valid only against the scenario and requirements from which the systems are compared.

  • 4997. Waplan, Rosanne
    våldsutövning och de psykologiska mekanismerna2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has its starting point in the theory that the healthy human has a built-in resistance to killing. To get around this resistance requires psychological mechanisms that activate something that can be likened to a moral decoupling and enable the practice of violence. This study aims to contribute with an understanding of the effect of these psychological mechanisms and its significance to the Swedish armed forces by examining whether these are applied in the education system. The examination intends to answer whether the psychological mechanisms deindividualization and dehumanization are applied in the regulations and manuals linked to basic soldier education. The study shows that deindividualization and dehumanization can be identified in analyzed empiricism. However, these mechanisms are nothing that is lifted in a direct way in the empiricism, but something that has been identified by text analysis as latent messages.

     

  • 4998.
    Wase, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Energi, enhetlighet, effektivitet - enhetsdrivmedel2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The new direction for the Swedish Armed Forces includes the international fieldof action and thus highlights the need for changes and adjustments in order toachieve interoperability with the forces of co-operating partners. Simplifiedlogistics in the theatre is worth looking into in order to find ways to strengthenthe ability to operate with a high tempo, flexibility and sustainability within theframework of manoeuvre warfare. One aspect of this development would be toconsider the introduction of a Single-Fuel Concept. This POL component is anexample of interoperability for NATO and EU organisations.The objective of this paper is to bring forth critical factors and to describe thedemands for a possible implementation of a Single-Fuel Concept – and fueltypes within the Armed Forces. This work is also aimed at identifying areas ofspecial concern and subsequently to present facts to be utilized in thedevelopment of organisation and equipment. The method in this study isdescriptive. Literature studies and qualitative interviews constitute thefoundation of this paper.The most important conclusions given here are that the Single-Fuel Conceptwill allegedly make way for operative advantages with increased efficiencyduring combat and missions. A number of limitations are being pointed out andthe most significant areas of concern are primarily the equipmentinteroperability and decisive components regarding environmental issues.

  • 4999.
    Wass, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Warden, Pape och Sexdagarskriget2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study intends to contribute to the understanding of air power theory by studying the contrasting theories of John A. Warden and Robert A. Pape onto a single case. Warden advocates strategic bombing, while Pape condemns it. The theories are applied onto the Israeli air power in the Six-Day War, a war which played an important role for air power and where air power played an important role for the outcome. Both theories are among the most discussed and criticized ones, including by the other author respectively. By thoroughly examining them onto the same single case, their generalizability is evaluated in relation to each other.

    The empirical data consisted of six descriptive works of the war, from which each event of air sorties was analysed and matched with the theories. The air sorties of each theory were then evaluated by occurrence and effect to the wars outcome, i.e. the contribution to the Israeli victory. The results of the analysis imply that Warden’s theory have a better ability to explain the success of the Israeli Air Force than Pape’s theory, but no major conclusions of their generalizability can be drawn. None of the theories where found fully sufficient to explain the case, i.e. some parts of the theories did not occur in Six-Day War according to the study.

  • 5000.
    Wassdahl, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Kompetensutveckling: kompetensutvecklingen för nivå 2-3 officeren efter 45 års ålder2001Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of proficiency development of major/lt colonel officers (level 2-3) within the Swedish armed forces. The study includes officers above the age of 45. The background of this study is a study from January 2000 (written by Björn Osswald). Osswald discovered that proficiency development decreased at the age of 45. Since the profession as an officer today is a lifetime profession, this is a result that the Swedish Armed Forces not can afford. This study has its purpose to find the obstacles for proficiency development from an individual point of view. The following questions will be answered:- what are the limiting factors of proficiency development,- who, according to the individual officer, is responsible of the proficiency development,- is it the will/motivation of the individual or the limitations in the organization that slows or stops the proficiency development,- what types of proficiency development methods are most common and most important according to the individual?The purpose of the study is to find the limitations of proficiency development, experienced by the individual, and thereby try to improve methods for future individual development for officers above 45 years old. Today the officer’s profession is a lifetime profession. It should be in the organizations interest to find the best condition suitable, both for the organization but also for the individual. The approach of this study is primarily hermeneutic scientific view using inductive study method. The study is primarily based on an extensive document and literature research. The empirical data is based on 132 officers, level mentioned above. The response has been 65.9%. The study includes job-rotation, proficiency, proficiency development, methods for proficiency development, responsibility of individual proficiency development and limiting factors. The result shows that the individuals are generally satisfied. Job-rotation is mentioned as the most common and most important method for individual development. The average time in one job is approx not more than 3 years. There are some criticisms of the Armed Forces’ lack of interest in the individual’s proficiency development. It has also shown that lack of time, workload and economy has been the most common limitations for the individual development. An interesting result is that age is shown to be a limitation, with a breaking point at 50-54 years of age. Some of the officers have shown to have an old point of view of proficiency development, it is equalled with rank and methods reach it is to study. One of the most interesting result, is the number of officers who lack of own engagement in their own proficiency development. This result is very interesting. According to Swedish Armed Forces personnel handbook (H Pers 97), it is the individual’s own interest and engagement that is the most important thing when it comes to proficiency development.

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