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  • 4901.
    Wadenholt, Jakob
    Swedish Defence University.
    Wardens fem ringar, slagen om Fallujah ur ett luftmaktsperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Air power alone cannot hold ground and secure the population. How then can air power contribute to irregular conflicts? Robert Johnson states in his article Predicting Future War that air power have the potential to determine the outcome of irregular operations. Even though air superiority was achieved during the two battles of Fallujah in Iraq 2004 there is a difference in the outcome of the two operations, Vigilant Resolve and Phantom Fury.

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine if Warden´s theory The Enemy as a System and his Five-Ring Model can explain the variation in the outcome of the two battles using a comparative case study.

    Research findings indicate that the Five-Ring Model cannot explain why the second operation, Phan-tom Fury was a victory. The findings indicate that striking the most critical ring, i.e. Leaders, did not contribute to victory. Instead, results indicate that the most critical ring leading to victory in the second operation were Infrastructure.

    The main conclusion of the thesis is that the theory cannot explain the variation in the outcomes and that Warden´s Five-Ring Model cannot be applied to an irregular enemy and therefore needs to be questioned and further researched. The findings further strengthen earlier research stating that the most critical part of an enemy may not always be represented by Leaders.

  • 4902.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS).
    A security community in the making? Sweden and NATO post-Libya2011In: European Security, ISSN 0966-2839, E-ISSN 1746-1545, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 585-603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article asks what the evolution of NATO-Swedish relations signifies for the understanding of the evolution of security communities. Given the astonishing evolution of NATO and Sweden as a community of practise, it is logical to imagine the two as forming part of the same security community. It could then be argued that common practise can bring about new security communities rather hastily. Analysing NATO’s and Sweden’s recent discourses on security, the author identifies a significant gap between a principally realist and a predominantly idealist discourse that indicates that the two parties do not share key characteristics of a security community; identities, values and meanings. However, if Libya is the case of the future, the discursive differences may fade and Sweden could more easily pursue its journey towards inclusion in NATO, not as a member of an Alliance, but as a member of NATO as a security community.

  • 4903.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Beyond the RtoP: Responsibility as Doing, Being and Sharing2015In: International Politics Reviews, ISSN 2050-2982, E-ISSN 2046-9292, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 50-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review article exposes that the scholarly interest in the notion of ‘responsibility’ in the field of security studies goes far beyond the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ and the debate on emerging ‘responsible stakeholders’ in Asia. It is argued that the significant scholarly attention to ‘responsibility’ reflects political concerns with transnational threats and humanitarian issues, but it also mirrors a quest for status and power in a post-hegemonic security milieu as well as a need to distribute responsibilities among powers in an effective way. The article reviews approximately 160 peer-reviewed articles to expose strengths and weaknesses in the scholarly production of knowledge on responsibility in the field of security studies. The article suggests a new way to categorize works on responsibility in terms of ‘doing’, ‘being’ or ‘sharing’; focusing on one or several of these three aspects is an effective way to capture key contemporary problems in international security.

  • 4904.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Divided power Europe: normative divergences among the EU 'big three'2010In: Journal of European Public Policy, ISSN 1350-1763, E-ISSN 1466-4429, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 1089-1105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article challenges Ian Manners's 'Normative Power Europe' thesis by arguing that although the European Union (EU) promotes norms in the international arena, it is not different from other powers. Drawing on a large set of empirical data and making use of a new institutionalist framework, it discerns how major European powers - Russia, France, Germany, Britain and the EU - have worked to gain acceptance for their individual favoured normative yardstick in the realm of security. The article concludes that as a consequence of diverging logics of appropriateness in Europe, the EU should rather be regarded as a divided than as a strong normative power. As long as both the EU and its major member states hold strong individual normative ambitions, the Union risks becoming hampered from acting rapidly and concertedly in international crises.

  • 4905.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Europa - ta ditt ansvar!2016In: EU och de nya säkerhetshoten / [ed] Antonina Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Anna Michalski & Lars Oxelheim, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2016, p. 251-279Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4906.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Europe: take on your responsibilities2018In: The European Union: Facing the Challenge of Multiple Security Threats / [ed] Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Antonina; Michalski, Anne; Nilsson, Niklas; Oxelheim, Lars, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 212-234Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4907.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    NATO’s role in the Strategic Concept Debate: Watchdog, fire-fighter, neighbour or seminar leader?2011In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 482-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that traditional Westphalian powers are increasingly pressured to move beyond Westphalia, towards institutionalization of security co-operation and a broader definition of referent-objects of security. Focusing on the case of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), it notes that the Alliance is severely torn between traditional constructions of ‘the self’ and a need for change. Exploring how NATO handles this dilemma, the article examines how the Alliance articulated its constitutive story during the Strategic concept process of 2009-2010. Four roles crystallised from the reading of the narrative: the fire-fighter, the watchdog, the good neighbour and the seminar leader. It is argued that NATO will be able to meet the exigencies of the post-Westphalian world more or less effectively depending on how it develops in each of these roles. The article concludes that NATO largely remains Westphalian in its four roles, but the launching of the seminar leader role indicates that it may be preparing a farewell toWestphalia. NATO is a composite actor and tensions between academic, global reformist and traditionalist regional story-lines will prevail. Nevertheless, the globalised threat environment is likely to eventually force NATO to fully recognise the need for a more post-Westphalian approach to security.

  • 4908.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Security in a Greater Europe : The Possibility of a Pan-European Approach2008Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Can Russia, the European Union and the three major EU member states adopt a unified policy line in the global arena? Charlotte Wagnsson investigates the cohesiveness of ‘greater Europe’ through the detailed scrutiny of policy statements by the leadership elites in the UK, France, Germany, Russia and the EU in connection with three defining events in international security: the crisis in Kosovo of 1999; the terrorist attacks of 9/11 and the Iraq crisis of 2003. This extensive empirical enquiry results in a critical constructivist response to neorealist understandings of European security. 

    The book contrasts the EU’s new way of ‘doing security’ with the established, competitive bilateral interplay in the European security sphere and provides a clue to the kind of security politics that will prevail in Europe. A joint Moscow Brussels approach would improve the chances of both increasing their relative strength vis-à-vis the USA, but serious cleavages threaten to undermine such a ‘greater European’ common view on security. Wagnsson considers the extent to which the major European players pursue similar objectives, and assesses the possible implications for and the chances of greater Europe emerging as a cohesive global actor. This meticulously researched book will interest scholars and students with an interest in international security, the EU’s international role, European international relations and Russian security.  

  • 4909.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Hallenberg, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Conclusion: farewell Westphalia?: the prospects of EU security governance2009In: European Security Governance: the European Union in a Westphalian World / [ed] Charlotte Wagnsson, James A. Sperling, Jan Hallenberg, Routledge, 2009, p. 127-140Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4910.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section, Sektionen för säkerhetspolitik och strategi.
    Hellman, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Normative Power Europe Caving In?: EU under Pressure of Russian Information Warfare2018In: Journal of Common Market Studies, ISSN 0021-9886, E-ISSN 1468-5965, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 1161-1177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars have characterized the EU as a normative power whose greatest asset is to be able to shape conceptions of what is ‘normal’ in international affairs. Scholars have argued that a normative power has to meet certain discursive standards; representing others in a non‐antagonistic, humble way. We question whether the EU can live up to this ideal when defending itself against Russian strategic communication. The empirical enquiry establishes that while the EU High Commissioner communicates in line with the stipulated standards, the newly established East Stratcom Taskforce and its publication ‘Disinformation Digest’ diverges from this ideal. The establishment of the Taskforce has led to the EU losing reflexivity and normative power. The article concludes that while Diez’ and Manners’ standards are utopian in the contemporary communicative climate, they remain useful as guiding rules that can help normative powers ‘watch their language’ and avoid doing unnecessary harm.

  • 4911.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Holmberg, Arita
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Conflict Management2014In: Handbook of Governance and Security / [ed] James Sperling, Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, p. 324-342Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4912.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Holmberg, Arita
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Hellman, Maria
    Stockholms Universitet, Institutionen för Journalistik, Medier och Kommunikation.
    The Centrality of Non-traditional Groups for Security in the Globalized Era: The Case of Children2010In: International Political Sociology, ISSN 1749-5679, E-ISSN 1749-5687, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The globalized security situation characterized by transnational threats and international interventionism in ‘‘new wars,’’ connect non traditional local actors and traditional global actors to one another in unprecedented ways. We argue that children in particular need to be highlighted because they are highly pertinent to the globalized security situation, yet they make up one of the few agents that have remained non-politicized in the eyes of the scholarly community. The article suggests a framework of analysis that can generate analyses on security of traditional as well as non-traditional agents. Placing non-traditional groups in the center of attention serves to mirror the complexities of the current security situation better.

  • 4913.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Sperling, JamesUniversity of Akron, Ohio, USA.Hallenberg, JanSwedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    European Security Governance: The European Union in a Westphalian World2009Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book focuses on problems of, and prospects for, strengthening the global system of security governance in a manner consistent with the aspirations and practices of the EU. The Eu approach to security governance has been successful in its immediate neighbourhood: it has successfully exported its preferred norms and principles to applicant countries, thereby 'pacifying' its immediate neighbourhood and making all of Europe more secure. This edited volume addresses both the practical and political aspects of security governance and the barriers to the globalization of the EU system of security governance, particularly in teh multipolar post-Cold War era. This book will be of great interest to students of security governance, EU politics, European Security and IR in general.

  • 4914.
    Wahlgren, Karolina
    Swedish Defence University.
    McRavens teori - nyckeln till framgång eller vägledande principer?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Along with the development of today’s warfare the use of special operations as an overall asset has increased. Due to this, the request for scientific built theory has also increased. One of the most cited theories of special operations is developed by William McRaven. His theory is used by many other researchers and the principles that he has developed can be traced all the way to the Swedish Doctrine. According to McRaven these principles, if used correct, will increase the probability of a positive outcome in an operation. But what if this highly regarded principles won´t work for the operations it´s supposed to be applicable on? This research aims to falsify McRavens theory by testing it on two successful special operations. The result has shown that McRavens theory is applicable on one of the operations but not on the other. McRavens theory has been considerably weakened by this result and one conclusion is that the theory might not be as relevant for today´s operations as it was for the operations that were examined for his study.

  • 4915.
    Wahlskog, Jakob
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Önskvärda Kompetenser i en förändrad Försvarsmakt2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the latest years the Swedish armed forces have gone from an armed force with conscripts to voluntary men and women. When the basic training is voluntarily may the question be if the new men and women have the same approach to Desirable competences and pedagogy that is used by their officers during their training. Desirable competences are a part of the model transformational leadership and are divided into task related competence, management competence, social competence and capacitate to cope with stress.

    To deal with this problem I have used questionnaires from conscripts and a new questionnaire made on voluntary recruits.

    I have compared the results in a case study method and it shows a positive progress from the recruits view how the officers use examples from the transformational leadership. The study shows that recruits want officers to make demands, motivate and inspire them. The recruits want to know the goal with the education and they want the officers to make demands on them.

  • 4916.
    Wahlström, Oskar
    Swedish Defence University.
    Luftmakt i humanitära interventioner: en prövning av Wardens teori2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Air power has shown its usefulness throughout many wars and has been an effective tool for military interventions during the last decades. How airpower should be applied has been a highly debated topic for as long as it has been around. However, its use in humanitarian interventions is comparatively unresearched. One theorist that have received a lot of attention is John Warden and his five-ring-model.

    The purpose of this thesis is to test Wardens theory in humanitarian interventions, in order to contribute with research on the use of airpower in humanitarian interventions. This thesis is a comparative case study examining two similar and successful humanitarian interventions, Operation Deliberate Force and Operation Odyssey Dawn/Unified Protector.

    Results show that Wardens theory can not explain the success of the use of airpower in the operations. There are however some interesting similarities between the two operations that could be the key to success in humanitarian interventions. Further research is required to investigate this conclusion.

  • 4917.
    Wahlström, Oskar
    Swedish Defence University.
    Luftmakt i humanitära interventioner: en prövning av Wardens teori2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Air power has shown its usefulness throughout many wars and has been an effective tool for military interventions during the last decades. How airpower should be applied has been a highly debated topic for as long as it has been around. However, its use in humanitarian interventions is comparatively unresearched. One theorist that have received a lot of attention is John Warden and his five-ring-model.

    The purpose of this thesis is to test Wardens theory in humanitarian interventions, in order to contribute with research on the use of airpower in humanitarian interventions. This thesis is a comparative case study examining two similar and successful humanitarian interventions, Operation Deliberate Force and Operation Odyssey Dawn/Unified Protector.

    Results show that Wardens theory can not explain the success of the use of airpower in the operations. There are however some interesting similarities between the two operations that could be the key to success in humanitarian interventions. Further research is required to investigate this conclusion.

  • 4918.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    A Microworld for Investigating the Effects of Visualizing Expanding Search Areas in Naturalistic Naval Warfare Tasks2012In: Proceedings of 2012 Cognitive Methods in Situation Awareness and Decision Support (CogSiMA), New Orleans, LA, 2012, p. 146-149Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presents an microworld for investigating the effects of visualizing expanding search areas to support the building of a naval force's common operational picture. The microworld simulates naval warfare operations, and in it, two participants can play against each other in an operations area where both own units and neutrals may be present. The participants control combat vessels used to locate and attack the enemy, and high value objects that should be protected. The map of the operations area is configurable and the units' weapons and sensors can be defined by the experimenter. The microworld displays an individual operational picture to each player complied from the sensor information provided by that player's units. To investigate visualization, expanding search areas can be added to enhance the operational picture, and algorithms based on these areas can be used to let the computer help the participant identify enemies from neutrals. The integration of expanding search areas into the operational picture is illustrated. The unit classification algorithms based on expanding search areas are explained, and examples of how they work are presented. Experimental setups are presented together with initial evaluations of the microworld.

  • 4919.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    A Microworld Study of Task Force Commanders Executing a Maritime Escort Mission2010In: Proceedings of the 15th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an exploratory microworld study with the aim to identify individual dierences between participants, and relate those dierence to how well the participant solves the task. Six ocers, rank from lieutenant commander to flotilla admiral, were studied when they commanded a maritime escort mission. The experiment was conducted using a microworld where the participant had to control all own units while the computer controlled enemy and neutral units. Data collection consisted of think-aloud protocols, screen captures of the microworld’s tactical screen, questionnaires, and battle outcomes. Performance was determined using a measure of mission success and a general model of the participants’ decision making process was constructed. This model was used to identify individual dierences and relate those to task performance. The results suggest that there is no correlation between how often the participants perform a certain decision making activity, and how well they perform in the microworld. On the other hand, the results suggest a strong correlation between how well the participants perform in the microworld and how many dierent decision making activities they visit during one coherent reasoning chain. The result seems to suggest that it is more important to consider many aspects of a problem at the same time, and that no decision making activity is more important that another.

  • 4920.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Constraint Visualization Decreases Search Time for Novices and Navy Officers in a Naval Search Task2011In: Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making, Orlando, FL, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigated a visualization aid to support naval search tasks. 20 officers and 20 students completed 12 trials in an experiment that contrasted with and without the visualization aid and controlled for learning effects. The aid improved performance in both groups, and there were no effects of learning or task difficulty.

  • 4921.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    För att förstå vad som ska göras måste man se möjlighetsrummet2016In: Operativ ledning: Slutrapport 2013-2015 / [ed] Isabell Andersson, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4922.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Sea control through the eyes of the person who does it: A theoretical field analysis2013In: Naval War College Review, ISSN 0028-1484, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 81-104Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4923.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Supporting Dynamic Decision Making in Naval Search and Evasion Tasks2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 4924.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Threat and Control in Naval Tactical Decision Making2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 4925.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Using a Low-Fidelity Wargame for Training Fleet-level Command and Control in the Classroom2012In: Proceedings of the 17th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, Washington, DC, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the military increasingly rely on simulators to support training and education. One reason for this is simulators are seen as a cost-effective to achieve realistic training. Modern simulators can replicate almost any aspect of the real world, a development in part driven by the implicit assumption that the better the simulator, the better the training. But does higher fidelity necessarily lead to better learning? Recent research point in an alternative direction - it is not the quality of the simulator that determines the quality of training, but rather how well the simulator is integrated in a larger training setting. This paper presents an attempt along these lines - the simple surface warfare model (SSM). SSM is a low-fidelity naval wargame that has been used for several years to train fleet-level decision making skills at courses on both junior and senior officers levels. The paper begins by discussing the use of simulators in training and education. The SSM is introduced, and its integration in fleetlevel decision-making courses is presented. Evaluations of the use of the wargame are presented. The paper finishes off with a discussion of how low-fidelity simulators can be used to support training and education.

  • 4926.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Using uncertainties as basis for evaluating plans2007In: Proceedings of the 11th international conference, KES 2007 and XVII Italian workshop on neural networks conference on Knowledge-based intelligent information and engineering systems: Part I / [ed] Bruno Apolloni, Robert J. Howlett, Lakhmi Jain, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag Berlin , 2007, p. 254-261Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4927.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Visualizing a time-space constraint increases performance in a dynamic search task2010In: Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, ISSN 1555-3434, E-ISSN 2169-5032, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 275-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a display manipulation designed to support search tasks in which the location of the target is unknown and changes over time. The problem is analogous to that of a naval search task when there is an initial sighting and then the naval force must guide its search vehicles to reestablish contact with the fleeing target. The display manipulation visualizes a dynamic constraint on the area where a fleeing target can be found and adjusts its shape to the environment and to the search efforts. Forty participants without prior knowledge of search tactics completed 12 trials in an experiment that compared performance with and without the visualization aid and controlled for learning effects. The results suggest that this visualization improves performance in the dynamic search task. They further suggest that the visualization was easy to learn but that the learning effect did not transfer to a condition without visualization. The results have practical utility for both military and civil search tasks, and they are consistent with other research that emphasizes that control interfaces should make constraints in the task environment perceptually available.

  • 4928.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Visualizing the Field of Safe Travel Increases Performance in a Naval Movement Task2011In: Proceedings of IEEE International Multi-Disciplinary Conference on Cognitive Methods in Situation Awareness and Decision Support (CogSIMA), Miami, FL, 2011, p. 252-256Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates a display manipulation designed to support movement tasks where the location of a threat is uncertain and dynamic. The problem is analogous to that of a naval transportation task, where a ship has to move from one port to another under threat from several enemies of which only the initial positions are known. The display manipulation visualizes a time-dependent constraint on the area where an enemy can be, given its initial position and maximum speed, and adjusts the shape to the environment. The region outside this area represents a field of safe travel where the transport ship can move safely. Forty participants without prior knowledge of the task completed sixteen trials in an experiment that contrasted with and without visualization, and controlled for learning effects. The results suggest that the visualization significantly improved performance in the movement task and that it had a large effect. The visualization also significantly reduced variance in performance, which suggests that it generated a more consistent behavior among participants. It was also easy for the participants to make effective use of the visualization, and once exposed to the visualization, the learning transferred to a condition without the visualization. This study have practical utility for designers of combat information systems as the results indirectly suggest that people have difficulties in inferring the locations of targets of which they only have fragmentary information. Including similar visualizations in the design may consequently increase overall system performance.

  • 4929.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    What is Difficult in Naval Sensemaking?2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4930.
    Waldenström, Christofer
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Ekenberg, L
    Danielsson, M
    Threat and control in military decision making2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4931.
    Wall, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Internationell tjänst i förband: officerens ställningstagande2002Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Swedish Armed Forces are undergoing amajor reorganisation and downscaling of materiel and personnel. At the sametime, international commitments are increasing as well as the need for officersin the Swedish international units. The earlier Swedish units, for example, inBosnia and the present units in Kosovo have already shown difficulties whenrecruiting officers. That problem might become even bigger in the near future.The purpose of this essay is to discuss and reflect upon the officers’ motivationfor taking part in units aimed for international duties.In the essay, answers are given to the following questions:- What importance do motivation factors have on the officers’ decision oftaking part, or not taking part in the units for international duties?- What changes do the officers want to obtain in order to motivatethemselves to take part in the units for international duties?The theoretical framework in common motivation theories and especially thehuman needs and motivation theories is by Maslow, McClelland andHertzberg. Based on their theories, a tool for analysis consisting of sixmotivation factors has been created. The method is qualitative with a deductiveapproach including a quantitative, descriptive presentation of the result.The investigation includes 155 officers, second lieutenants to majors. Theprocurement of empiri has taken place by using mail questionnaires and writtensources.The empirical research provides some results and the main conclusions are,that the most important motivation factor for those who choose not to joininternational units is social needs. It is one of the reasons for approximately 80% in that group. The main motivation factors for those who decide to apply forinternational duty are the desire for growth in individual development andlearning and the need for meaningfulness in work. The most important factorsto change, in order to increase the level of motivation are economical benefits,a more flexible and changed rotation system and better support to the next ofkin.The conclusion shows that only one third of this year’s graduated majors arewilling to join the international units and that it is possible to change most ofthe motivation factors in order to increase the willingness of the officers.

  • 4932.
    Wall, Patricia
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Hur tas moraliskt ansvar: En fråga om förtroende2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Moraliskt ansvarstagande vid användning av luftstridskrafter vid offensiva luftoperationer mot markmål har undersökts genom en kvalitativ textanalys. Försvarsmaktens doktriner, värdegrund, reglementen samt handbok för planering och ledning har undersökts genom en kvalitativ text- och innehållsanalys, för att belysa hur ansvar ges, regleras och möjliggörs att tas. Resultatet har analyserats med stöd av teorier om vad som är moraliskt rätt inom krigföring, vilka etiska system och ansvarslinjer som finns inom en politiskt styrd organisation samt hur en byråkratisk organisa­tion påverkar verksamheten och förståelse för individens roll i resultatet. 

    Syftet var att belysa hur de etiska systemen påverkade officeren i Försvarsmakten, om regleringen av verksamheten tydliggjorde hur moraliskt ansvarstagande skulle tas och om organisationsformen bidrog eller begränsade möjligheten. 

    Resultatet visade att de etiska systemen stödjer officeren genom att inbördes rangordna deras betydelse, samtidigt som professionsetiken inte visar vad som är moraliskt rätt i krig. Det formella ansvaret fördelas tydligt, däremot klarläggs inte om det moraliska ansvaret fördelas lika. Försvarsmakten är till vissa delar medveten om organisationens begränsningar och försöker till del kompensera för dem. I andra delar förstärker både de etiska systemen och organisationsformen i sig, de redan kända problem som finns i en politiskt styrd och byråkratisk organisation.

  • 4933.
    Wallberg, Patrick
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Officeren och NBF: en organisationskulturell studie kring förändring2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4934.
    Walldén, Göran
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Lever vi som vi lär?: transportplaneringsprocessen ur ett teoretiskt och praktiskt perspektiv2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Operation Atalanta is an EU combined maritime operation outside Somalia’s coasts. The main objective of the operation is to protect World Food Program sea transports in the area from pirate attacks. The Swedish Armed Forces has contributed with a maritime task force containing two corvettes and a supply ship. The ships were transported by a strategic sealift to area of operations. The knowledge of transporting Swedish naval vessels this way is limited due to lack of experience. Sea transports of this kind need to be planned with a long-term view due to the competitive situation on the sea transport market and the limitation of resources. 

    This essay is therefore focused on the planning process of the described transport where an investigation of theory and practice is done. The theory comes from an internal handbook which describes The Swedish Armed Forces planning process for military transports. This planning process will be compared to the case study, operation Atalanta in order to sort out differences. These differences will show how well the planning process was followed in this particular case.  

    The author has limited the planning process to involve three different stages in the planning process, these are: Information gathering, Assessment and Procurement and hereafter called phases. The stages will in time be set from the political directive to a sea transport has been procured. Different aspects are to be considered during the planning process. These are cost efficiency, time and quality. These aspects will be examined in each phase in order to investigate how they have affected the planning process.    

    The case study shows that the planning process has not been followed according to what the handbook describes. The main reason is the lack of time. The time has been a crucial factor which has driven the transport planning to make deviations. However this deviation has been done with good knowledge about the planning process thru experience.

  • 4935.
    Walldén, Göran
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Logistisk kulmination - en eller två sidor av myntet?: En betraktelse utifrån ett annorlunda perspektiv2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Logistic Culmination – One or Two Sides of the Coin?

    An Observation From a Different Point of View

     

    Logistic culmination can be compared to a stretched rubber band. If combat units moves in direction away from the supplies the rubber band will gradually stretch. The rubber band will eventually burst and at that point the logistic culmination will be a fact. But if the rubber band was to be let go before bursting, it will instead be contracted. At the maximum contraction point the rubber band will for a split second be wider. Could this metaphor show that there exists an opposite way of reaching logistic culmination?

     

    This essay borrows an old culmination concept from astronomy and utilizes it within logistic culmination. Astronomic culmination has two underlying perspectives, the upper and lower culmination point, in contrast to logistic culmination which only has one perspective. These two points are connected by being each other’s opposites.

     

    By setting the current meaning of logistic culmination as the upper culmination point the author aims at finding out the lower culmination point and examines the connection between these two points.

     

    The examination is built on a statement that there exist two underlying perspectives within logistics, just as in astronomy with the upper and lower culmination point. If the examination of the concept will succeed a wider understanding of how logistic culmination occurs could be achieved. If the lower logistic culmination point can be verified it could mean that logistic culmination within military science can change, which also could affect military planning.

     

    The statement taken has with logic assumptions showed that there are two underlying perspectives in logistics just like astronomy. Logistic culmination as it is explained today has given only half of the meaning compared to how this concept ought to be viewed according to this essay. This essay gives the concept logistic culmination more precision compared to the former meaning.

  • 4936.
    Wallenburg, Paula
    Swedish Defence University.
    Militärstrategisk doktrin: En kompass som behöver deriveras?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En del av doktrinforskningen berör att doktriner som redskap för det militära har en rad disparata betydelser som är motsägelsefulla. Detta orsakar doktrindilemmat. Exempelvis är det svårt för doktrin att både kunna ge tydlig inriktning till landets försvarsmakt samtidigt som doktrinen ska vara anpassningsbar till en värld i förändring. Argument för doktrinens olika syften och nyttofunktion framförs ofta i relation till hur robust doktrinen kan och bör vara mot en föränderlig värld. Svensk militärstrategisk doktrins syften är ambitiös i omfång och omfattar exempelvis funktioner som inriktande, utbildande, signalerande och vägledande. I föreliggande arbete formuleras frågeställningar som besvarar huruvida och på vilket sätt det är möjligt att kommunicera samtliga syften deklarerade i MSD. Analysen sker genom diskursanalys där olika meningsbetydelserna i doktrintexten undersöks. Metoden är poststrukturalistisk dekonstruktion vilket innebär att motsatsförhållanden i texten påvisas och framförs vilket skapar andra diskurser än de som normalt framträder som självklara. Utifrån detta diskuteras huruvida diskurserna bidrager till att stärka argument för doktrinsyftenas funktion. Resultatet påvisar att dekonstruktionen frambringar motsägelsefull kommunikation av samtliga analyserade doktrinsyften vilket innebär att doktrindilemmat är aktuellt för MSD.

  • 4937.
    Wallenburg, Paula
    Swedish Defence University.
    Ubåtsjaktförmågans utveckling på sjöoperativ helikopter: En studie av bakomliggande drivkrafter2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to explain what where the driving forces behind the development of antisubmarine warfare skill on Swedish sea operational helicopters during the time 1980-92. The study is done by using two different perspective, based on Graham Allison scientific explanation models found in his book Essence of Decision. In the study the perspectives are named “rational actor” and “governmental politics”. The purpose is to investigate if respective model can explain the development of antisubmarine warfare skill on Swedish helicopters during the previously mentioned timeframe.

    The result of the study is that by using the rational actor perspective the development of anti submarine warfare can be explained in a large extent. The study proves that there were a well-defined threat and that consensus was that this threat would be met i.e. with anti submarine warfare resources. It cannot be demonstrated that the helicopter and the development of its anti submarine warfare capability was the single most suitable option. By using the model governmental politics, the development is not significantly explained because no internal differences of large extent have been demonstrated. The model contributes rather to illuminate the actors and factors that shaped their actions. If the models are used as complement to each other a wider perspective of what has happened is shown, but the explanation is not strengthened.

  • 4938.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Att lära sig stresshantering vid tillämpade övningar: Ett utbildningskoncept2014Report (Other academic)
  • 4939.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Beslut under osäkerhet2017In: Rustad för risk: Riskpsykologi för militärer och insatsorganisationer / [ed] Ann Enander och Marcus Börjesson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 163-178Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4940.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Human adaptation to danger2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of the thesis was to increase knowledge concerning how people adapt psychologically when faced with a real dan­ger incident, and what implications these reactions and adaptation mecha­nisms have upon immediate performance.

    The thesis is based on three empirical studies concerning people with per­sonal experience of dangerous incidents. Swedish peacekeeping person­nel who were involved in shooting incidents or other highly threatening events participated in two of these studies. Swedish citizens who were living in Kobe, Japan, during the earthquake of 1995 partici­pated in the third study. Retrospective self-reports included both qualitative and quantitative approaches. More specifically, the research questions focused on the subjec­tive descriptions of personal reactions and performance during dan­gerous situations, the frequency of various reac­tions, and the individual and situ­ational factors that influence reactions and functioning.

    On a general level, all groups seem to have performed well during the dangerous encounters they experienced. Severely dysfunctional reactions were rare, but general feelings of invulnerability were commonly reported. During these threatening situations, a partial loss of emotional balance and cognitive functioning was also common. Different individual and situ­a­tional factors appeared to interact with reactions and performance. Factors that were associated with lower performance included whether the danger incident implied a loss of control or if it demanded complex cogni­tive activity.

    A fourth and purely theoretical study addressed how assumptions from Darwian, Freudian, and cognitive psychology are supported by empirical disaster research in explaining why people occasionally fail to adapt when danger is present. It was suggested that the different theories could be integrated into a model, in which adapta­tion mechanisms on different psychological levels could be included; from processes that are con­sciously controlled to automatic processes.

  • 4941.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Människans illusoriska rationalitet: om kampen mellan känsla och förnuft i samhälle och politik2014Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Are humans rational? Do we generally choose the alternative with the best balance between costs and benefits when making decisions? Or are we to a large extent guided by our emotions and impulses? This book argues that it can be both ways. The latter may, however, be more frequently the case than we ourselves want to believe. Our emotions - and our way of coping with them - are important explanations for decisions that do not have the results that were anticipated, as well as to enemy images, violence and evil.

    It may be reasonable to use gut instinct in everyday decisions that affect only one self and has no dramatic consequences. But the focus in this book is primarily in different contexts in which decisions may have - or may be expected to have - large effects. The first part addresses the question if we are rational in relation to different types of threats - from risks in the community to life-threatening situations and war. The second part analyzes whether political decision makers and various political movements are rational – ranging from the average local politicians to more extreme and violent movements.The book also includesa theoretical part, with a discussion about how our lack of rationality can be explained and understood.

  • 4942.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Poor decision making related to personality, stress reactions, group dynamic, and situation awareness in military staffs2006In: Interaction on the Edge: Proceedings from the 5th GRASP conference / [ed] J. Näslund & S. Jern, 2006, p. 186-196Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4943.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Why do people sometimes fail when adapting to danger?: A theoretical discussion from a psychological perspective.2001In: International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, ISSN 0280-7270, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 145-180Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During life-threatening danger people may react in ways that decrease their chances of surviving or coping with the event. Several empirically demon­strated reactions have a potentially maladaptive effect on per­formance, due to limitations in our cognitive and emotional processing capacity or the activation of obsolete adaptation mechanisms. The possible psychological explanations for this are discussed in terms of assumptions derived from three major psychological paradigms: Darwian, Freudian, and cognitive psychology. These theoretical models all illustrate useful concepts and assumptions, which do not logically exclude one another, necessary to understand more thoroughly how psychological adaptation occurs in danger situations. However, no theory alone explains the empiri­cal find­ings and the various theories should be integrated into a model that includes different levels of psychological function, from consciously controlled processes to emotional and automatic process.

  • 4944.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Fors, Maria
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Upplevelser av Grundläggande Militär Utbildning (GMU): Intervjustudie med utbildningsbefäl och rekryter2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att med kvalitativ metodik fånga in de upplevelser av GMU som finns hos rekryter och utbildningsbefäl. Intervjuer utfördes därför med 25 rekryter och befäl under GMU 2 2011 på Amf 1 och I 19. Synen på Försvarsmakten präglades av att organisationen har en viktig uppgift samt att den erbjuder gemenskap och frihet i arbetet. Negativt är bland annat att FM upplevs som byråkratisk och att alla förändringsprocesser leder till osäkerhet. Inställningen till GMU var i stort positiv men vissa problem upplevdes kring själva omställningsprocessen. Rekryterna uppfattades generellt som motiverade men de ådrog sig många skador och att de fysiska kraven vid rekryteringen ansågs lågt ställda. Utbildningstiden är kort och GMU blir därför väldigt komprimerad. Då GMU-rekryterna är frivilliga och blivande kollegor menade flera att det krävs ett annat förhållningssätt och ett mjukare ledarskap. Detta kan dock kontrasteras mot att det beskrevs en förväntan om att det ska vara en viss grad av tuffhet i en militär utbildning. Vardagliga glädjeämnen var att få vistas i naturen, möjligheten att få åka på internationell tjänst, kamratanda och att ha möjlighet att förändra något i samhället. Irritationsmoment var oro för utbildningens krav och för examinationer.

  • 4945.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Den politiska nivåns syn på försvarets folkförankring: En intervjustudie med försvarspolitiker och deras tjänstemän2014Report (Other academic)
  • 4946.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    How (Not) to Implement an Unpopular Decision: A Case-Study of the Swedish Armed Forces2017In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the armed forces' ability to implement an unpopular decision while maintaining commitment and job satisfaction among its personnel, as well as examine what factors affect the perceived outcome of a decision process in a military context. In line with earlier research, it was hypothesized that a fair process, knowledge (about the circumstances and objectives of the decision) and trust (in the decision-makers) will promote decision acceptance. An additional hypothesis was that a higher hierarchal position will promote understanding of the decision. A specific decision process was chosen - that which led to the 2010 choice to make service on international military missions mandatory for all personnel in the Swedish Armed Forces. An ad hoc questionnaire was constructed with the intention to measure the perception of the decision's input values, the decision process, the organization and decision-makers, as well as of the outcome. The questionnaire response rate was 48% (N = 229 respondents). The respondents were (predominantly middle-aged, mid-career, male) Swedish military officers and civilian employees. Knowledge about the decision, its perceived timing, and trust in the decision makers - but not the respondents' hierarchical position - significantly contributed to the outcome : its degree of acceptance. The study shows much dissatisfaction with the decision and its implications, but also a lack of knowledge about the decision-making process involved.

  • 4947.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    To Maintain the Armed Forces' Anchoring in Society in the Post-conscription Era2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4948.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hede, Susanne
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Befolkningens syn på försvarets folkförankring: En enkätstudie på ett befolkningsurval2015Report (Other academic)
  • 4949.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Anchoring Sweden’s Post-conscript Military: Insights From Elites in the Political and Military Realm2018In: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The universal nature of conscription ties or anchors broad segments of society to the military. What happens to societal anchoring after the draft ends? Using in-depth interviews with two groups of elites, this article explores factors that promote and hinder the Swedish Military’s societal anchoring post-conscription. The first group consisted of 18 executives at the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) headquarters with strategic positions in relation to societal anchoring. The second group consisted of 15 representatives from the corresponding political level: members of the parliamentary Committee on Defense and their officials. The interviews were semistructured and analyzed according to a grounded theory-inspired approach. Main themes concerning obstacles were the public’s low interest and dated knowledge, an unclear political debate resulting in vague expectations concerning the SAF, as well as unclear responsibility for informing the public, and confidence gaps between the military and the political elite.

  • 4950.
    Wallenius, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Sohlberg, Jennifer
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Militära professionen: Delområde: "Personalförsörjning - Rekrytering och urval" - Syntes2013Report (Other academic)
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