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  • 4801.
    Svensson, Stefan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    RISK OCH RISKHANTERING PÅ OLIKA LEDNINGSNIVÅER I FÖRSVARSMAKTEN – EN JÄMFÖRELSE2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Risk ligger i tiden och har blivit ett naturligt språk för det militära etablissemanget, med det följer även frågor om språkliga definitioner, divergerande bedömningar och tillämpningar av olika metoder för att hantera risk.Uppsatsen undersöker hur risk och riskhantering representeras på olika militära ledningsnivåer och på vilket sätt riskhantering omhändertas i planeringsmodeller dessa nivåer.

    Resultatet visar att risk och riskhantering på olika ledningsnivåer i Försvarsmakten kan förstås som komplex och varierad i sin medvetenhet i tillämpning av begrepp, processer och metoder.

    Skillnaderna mellan ledningsnivåerna är att risk inte definieras fullt ut och att risk definieras olika på olika nivåer och används med varierande innebörd. Riskhantering definieras på strategisk nivå, men inte på någon av de övriga ledningsnivåerna. Riskhanteringsprocessen beskrivs bara på den taktiska ledningsnivån.

    Det finns en uttalad medvetenhet om att risker måste tas och att risker måste hanteras i olika metoder, men det ges endast begränsad vägledning i planeringsverktygen SPL och PUT, när riskhantering ska omsättas i praktiken.

  • 4802.
    Svensson, Ulf
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Manövertänkande, en relevant metod i fredsbevarande insatser?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ambitionen med denna uppsats är att försöka identifiera huruvidamanövertänkandet är tillämpbart i modern krishantering. Frågans aktualitet harökat i takt med Sveriges ökade internationella ambition. Frågan aktualiserasytterligare med det faktum att den svenska Militär Strategiska Doktrinen från 2002anger;”För att nå största möjliga effekt, givet våra resurser och värderingar, skallmanövertänkandet utgöra grunden för försvarsmaktens agerande i alla militäraoperationer, men också tillämpas flexibelt av varje individ i varje situation”För att försöka utreda i vilken omfattning ovanstående inriktning är relevant hartvå stycken fallstudier genomförts. Ur dessa två fallstudier har jag försökt attidentifiera de faktiska förutsättningarna för att agera enligt manöverteorin. Dessaförutsättningar har i huvudsak varit politiska, geografiska och rent militära. Jaghar sedan genom att analysera genomförd verksamhet i respektive mission söktmanöverteoretiska inslag. Detta har kompletterats av intervjuer med officeraresom deltagit i missionerna. I den avslutande diskussionen kan jag konstatera attmanöverteorin är tillämpbar i modern krishantering och de största anledningarnatill denna slutsats är att de mandat som reglerar och legitimerar FN insatsenmedger detta. Tillsamman med relevanta insats regler och förbandens inneboenderörlighet kan chefer med hjälp av manöverteorin som grund agera ochåstadkomma snabba resultat och därmed avgörande förändringar. Min uppfattningär att de svenska doktrinerna är tillämpbara även ur ett internationellt perspektiv.

  • 4803.
    Svensén, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Thielen, Alexander
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Wolgers, Gerhard
    Försvarsmakten, Sverige.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Validering av Officersprogrammets urvalsprocess: Steg 2: En kvalitativ studie om utveckling av förmågor och egenskaper hos officerare2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna undersökning ingår som ett andra steg i en planerad sekvens av studier som syftar till att validera officersprogrammets urvalsprocess. I det första steget identifierades ett antal egenskaper och förmågor som kan antas vara betydelsefulla för officerare för att utföra ett bra arbete, oavsett inom vilken arena officeren verkar. En sammanfattande modell togs fram där egenskaperna och förmågorna indelades i tre kategorier; individuella basegenskaper, interpersonella förmågor och uppgiftsrelaterade förmågor.

    I det andra steget undersöks dessa egenskaper och förmågors karaktär; är de stabila eller utvecklas de under utbildning eller yrkesutövande? Resultatet visar att de individuella basegenskaperna utvecklas förutsatt en stabil grund liksom de interpersonella förmågorna medan de uppgiftsrelaterade förmågorna huvudsakligen utvecklades över tid, antingen under utbildningen eller som yrkesverksam officer.

  • 4804.
    Svensén, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Bjelanovic, Vera
    Swedish Defence Recruitment Agency, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Lantz, Johan
    Human Resources Center, Swedish Armed Forces, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Rose-Marie
    Swedish Defence Recruitment Agency, Sweden.
    Törner, Britta
    Swedish Defence Recruitment Agency, Sweden.
    Wolgers, Gerhard
    HR Center, Swedish Armed Forces, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Anne
    Swedish Armed Forces, Sweden.
    Attrition during basic military training in the Swedish Armed Forces2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4805.
    Svensén, Sofia
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Rekryteringsunderlaget 2018: Återinförd värnplikt kompletterad med frivillighet2019Report (Other academic)
  • 4806.
    Svindland, John Arvid
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Konvensjonell krigføring i det 21. århundre – fortsatt relevant?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional warfare is not obsolete. Lessons from the five-day war in Georgia in August 2008, shows that this possibility is still valid and very much alive. However, last decade’s transformation of western military and counterinsurgency efforts around the globe has severely restricted most nations’ capability to wage conventional warfare.

    Several lessons can be identified from the Georgian Army’s struggle against a shocking and overwhelming Russian aggression. From a Norwegian Land forces perspective, the most important should be the importance of combined arms and robust brigade size units, the impact of adequate air defence capabilities, indirect fire and anti-armour systems against a mechanized opponent supported by sufficient airpower.

    Due to a changing world order, realism is charging ground and can be used to explain and foresee future challenges. We can not precisely predict the future; however the future will certainly hold elements of the past.

    As NATO is trying to find its place in a changing globalized world, simultaneously as it is waging a protracted hybrid war in Afghanistan, great power rivalry is again rising amongst the nations like it did in the beginning of the 20th century.

    In order to support national interest and maintain national sovereignty, military capability still depends on robust and well balanced conventional military forces. Land warfare plays an important role in any kind of self defence and deterrence. Strengthening of Norway’s land forces would certainly be needed in order to achieve this aim.

  • 4807.
    Svärd, Ola
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Konformitet i militär kontext: uniform klädsels påverkan på soldaten2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Officers and soldiers are in their daily duty an object of both physical and psychological pressure. There are many factors that influence both the decision and group processes. To be able to understand and identify risks in these processes there has to be knowledge in this area. One phenomenon which influences groups and individuals is conformity.

    One factor that divides the soldiers and officers from other categories of work is the uniform clothing which many think is intimately connected with that type of work.

    That is why this study intends to examine how the uniform clothing influences the individuals’ ability to think for themselves and also act in that thought. On the basis of this, a core question and three part questions crystallized. The three questions are a help to answer the core problem. The core question: How does the uniform clothing influence the individual soldiers’ ability to resist conformity?

    Part questions:

    -        Does clothing have an importance in social contexts?

    -        Why do some individuals follow the group and others not?

    -        Is the soldier influenced by uniform clothing?

    To measure how the uniform clothing influences soldiers, and thereby answer the questions, the writer used the conformity experiment by Solomon Asch slightly modified for his purposes. Based on the result from the experiment, as well as with support from literature, conclusions where drawn about how or if the soldiers’ individuality where influenced by the uniform clothing.

    The conclusion was that the uniform clothing increases the soldiers’ conformity in a group. The individual soldier found it easier to adapt to the conformity when he/she wear uniform clothing during the exercise of his or her duties.

  • 4808.
    Swaan Wrede, Laura
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Uppdragstaktik: att leva som vi lär2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mission type-orders have for many decades been the main command philosophy in theSwedish Defence Forces. A philosophy that our military doctrine from 2002 states thatwe should apply, and also many of the Swedish officers declares that they do to.My experience from the Swedish Defence Forces shows that we do not always havemission type- orders in focus, and my hypothesis is that we do not always practisewhat we preach.This must have a reason and the purpose and aim of this essay is to examine if theSwedish way of interpreting mission type - orders has to be reformulated and withinwhat subjects should we educate to understand and to be able to perform mission type-orders, considering all the changes in technological development, new tasks,restructuring, new doctrines that the Defence Forces has gone through.To try to reach my purpose of this essay following questions have been examined andanswered.– What kind of education does the Swedish officer have considering missiontype -orders?– How does the Swedish officer interpret mission type- orders?– How does the Swedish officer apply mission type- orders?The result shows that there is unanimous agreement on the need for changes in bothclarifying the meaning of mission type - orders and changing the way in which wetrain the application of them, so that the Swedish officer can use and apply missiontype- orders in an optimal way.

  • 4809.
    Swande Eliasson, David
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Mekaniserad spaning i dag och i framtiden2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanized battalion foremost instrument of gathering information to its intellegence cell is the reconnaissance platoon. The reconnaissance platoon on the mechanized battalion has evolved over the years from being a unit using crosscountry vehicles to its modern shape with Combat vehicle 90. But have the unit been used the right way since then? And how should tomorrows commanders use the recon platoon for maximum output?

    This work will be based on the manuals that are valid today and interviews with staff officers and officers that belong to the recon platoons. The results will be compared with US Army Armored Cavalry.

  • 4810.
    Swiecicki, Simon
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Med svensk örloggsflagga i öknen: en uppsats om varför vi åkte till Tchad2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4811.
    Sydow, Anders von
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Analys och jämförelse av SEAD-förmågorna hos JAS 39 Gripen samt en svensk UCAV år 20152002Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att jämföra/analysera förmågorna till Suppression of Enemy Air Defences (SEAD) hosJAS 39 och en svensk UCAV år 2015. Årtalet 2015 är valt för att flera bedömare anser att det är först vid dennatidpunkt som en Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) har en utvecklingsnivå som tillåter att de sätts in i SEADuppdrag.I uppsatsen redovisas vilka krav som ställs på en plattforms sensorer och bekämpningsförmåga för attgenomföra ett SEAD-uppdrag mot två utvalda typer av mål. Därefter sker en jämförelse mellan de båda farkosternasförmåga att detektera respektive bekämpa de båda målen. Resultatet visar att JAS 39 som bemannad plattform har enfördel i de fall då operationer är hårt styrda av Rules of Engagement (ROE), särskilt gäller detta vid fredsbevarandeoperationer. Uppsatsen visar även att flygplanradarns förmåga att upptäcka och identifiera markmål är beroende avinförandet av en SAR-mod. Vidare konstateras att en UCAV genom att vara obemannad och signaturanpassad kan tastörre risker vid vapenleverans än JAS 39 Gripen, samt att en liten och signaturanpassad UCAV har stora svårigheteratt bära konventionella signalsökande robotar. En av slutsatserna visar på svårigheterna att med kameror i en UCAVåstadkomma en visuell omvärldsuppfattning liknande den för en pilot. För båda plattformarna gäller att SEADkapacitetenmot en radarstation till stor del är beroende av möjligheten att skjuta signalsökande robotar. Både för JAS39 och en UCAV är ett emitterlokaliseringssystem en viktig komponent för att kunna lokalisera en radarstation. För attklara detta från en plattform krävs Doppler Difference Of Arrival (DDOA).

  • 4812.
    Sylle, Joakim
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Fysiska antagningskrav för helikopterbesättning2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4813. Szvircsev Tresch, Tibor
    et al.
    Leuprecht, ChristianSwedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Europe without Soldiers?: recruitment and Retention across the Armed Forces of Europe2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 4814.
    Sävensjö, Marcus
    Swedish Defence University.
    Militär nytta med ett nytt radiolänksystem i MKN2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Radio relay links is used to connect the system nodes within the land component commands communication network structure. The radio relay link-system used today, Radio relay link 371, was developed in the mid-80s to support the former communication network structure, Telecommunication System 9000. The development of technology since has made the old radio relay link outdated and the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration has developed a new radio relay link system, RL 373, to the Swedish Armed Forces.

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the new radio relay link better contributed to the military utility, by comparing the two radio relay link systems towards the demands that are set for the communication network structure.

    The study indicates that the implementation of the new radio relay link better contributes to the military utility by adding increased flexibility, both tactical and technical and it also supports higher transmission speeds. The new system is also able to establish two connections in different directions from one piece of equipment and the adaptive modulation capability built in the system also contributes to the desired flexibility.

  • 4815.
    Sävland, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Militärstrategiska doktriner, en verktygslåda för fredliga och krigande småstater?: En fallstudie av IDF Official Strategy 20152018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Israel has fought over 20 wars or conflicts since 1948. Israeli doctrines have always been classified, until recently. For the very first time ever the IDF released a public version of the IDF Official Strategy in 2015. The problems of small state doctrines are two-folded. First, all states are confronted with several military theoretical problems on how to efficiently distribute military resources. Second, doctrinal tool development theories have tended to examine only friendly small state doctrines. The IDF 2015 defines Israel’s threat as heterogenous and therefore, according to Høiback’s doctrinal tool development theory, the IDF doctrine should serve as a tool of education.

    The aim of this study is to test Høibacks theoretical applicability on small state doctrines by analyzing The IDF 2015. The result is indicating that Høiback’s theory is not applicable on small state doctrine regarding heterogenous threats, however the theory can be used to examine the purpose on what tool the IDF doctrine serves.

    The conclusion is that Høiback’s theoretical applicability on IDF 2015’s purpose doesn’t comply with defined Israeli strategic threats, but Høiback is still relevant for examining and determine what tool the IDF doctrine serves.  

  • 4816.
    Sääsk, Robin
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Kulturstrategisk inflytelse på COIN litteratur: Nagl, Kitson och Galula ur ett kulturstrategiskt perspektiv2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In studying the art of Counterinsurgency Warfare we are usually inclined to the reading of several books regarding this matter. Because of this some writers have the power to influence the minds of the reader. This can be of great benefit since it enables information sharing and for the reader a chance to learn from the triumphs, but also mistakes of others. However each writer is the creation of the time and context under which he existed. Because of the wheel of time certain things change, and because of the context a myriad of factors came into play affecting the outcome and product of the doings and thoughts of that specific occurrence. Because of this, books need to be read and viewed from a certain perspective to be used to the full. Out of the large number of factors I have chosen one in particular which is to be revealed in the pages you are about to read; The strategic culture. This work deals with the task of examining the COIN-based books of John A Nagl, Frank Kitson and David Galula in order to see the influence of the strategic culture from the countries from which they were spawned. The result will be an evaluation of the similarities of the writers to that of the strategic culture of their country of origin and a set of guidelines to regard in the advent of reading the three writers.

  • 4817.
    Söderberg, Mats
    Swedish Defence University.
    Why did the Swedish Army not seize Brno?: An analysis out of the fundamental military abilities, according to the Swedish doctrine of land operations2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At 1645 the Swedish Army sieged the city of Brno. The Swedes suffered heavy losses but never managed to seize Brno.  The research question of the thesis is: “According to the Swedish doctrine of land operations, what fundamental military abilities were responsible for the outcome of the siege of Brno?”The research question will be answered conducting a case study of the Swedish siege of Brno derived from a qualitative study of literature. The result of the research conducted in the thesis concludes that the lack of the fundamental military ability command and control in the Swedish Army was the main reason why the Swedes were not able to size Brno and also to a lesser degree the lack of intelligence and information.

  • 4818.
    Söderberg, Mattias
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Massmedial kommunikation som medel för att åstadkomma tröskeleffekt2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Försvarsmaktens underrättelseoperation Örnen i Stockholms skärgård hösten 2014 utgjorde på många sätt ett trendbrott för det svenska militära medlet. För första gången på över ett decennium offentliggjordes bevisad kränkande undervattensverksamhet på svenskt territorium. Massmedia riktade återigen blickarna till Försvarsmaktens förmåga att hävda territoriell integritet varpå försvaret via media under pågående operation tvingades kommunicera en avskräckande militär vilja och förmåga. Den inverkan media har på den militära avskräckningskommunikationen och därmed möjligheterna till påverkan, utgör det centrala problemet i den här uppsatsen.

    Syftet med magisteruppsatsen är att fördjupa kunskapen om vad medias rapportering innebär för militär avskräckningskommunikation. Uppsatsen tar sin teoretiska utgångspunkt i säkerhetspolitik och strategi, kommunikationsvetenskap samt teorier kring relationen mellan militären och media i 2000-talets operationsmiljö.

    Genom enkelfallsstudie och diskursanalys har mediediskursen av operation Örnen i Svenska Dagbladet och Aftonbladet synliggjorts. Med hjälp av analysen har därefter sex kommunikativa områden identifierats där militären i kommunikationen för att åstadkomma tröskeleffekt kan dra lärdom av mediediskursen.  Resultatet påvisar att enighet i den militära och politiska retoriken, ökad öppenhet om det militära medlet, förhålla sig till verklighet och fakta, tidskritisk kommunikation, proaktiv mediehantering samt medvetenhet om fjärde generationens military-media relations på olika sätt bidrar till att åstadkomma tröskeleffekt.

  • 4819.
    Söderblom, Tobias
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Militär nytta med slussen på A262016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the military utility of the lock out chamber [FPL] in the bow of the new Swedish submarine A26 which will be delivered 2022-2024. The lock is seen by some as an outcome of that the Swedish submarine force has been used for surveillance missions and special operations instead of the more traditional warfare missions. This may imply that the submarine will not be optimized for its intended main task: to protect Sweden from military assault.

    The study analyzes potential weaknesses and limitations in the system and gives suggestions to minimize possible impact. Alternative configurations without FPL are analyzed as reference. The strengths and merits of the installation and possible new uses are studied in order to increase the military utility. If the FPL can be used e.g. to harbor various weapon systems the lock will contribute to the flexibility and military utility of the submarine. Some suggestions for new usage are given. This analysis is comprehensive but quite shallow with the intention to suggest time-critical actions and guide further studies.

  • 4820.
    Söderbäck, Elsa
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Svensk solidaritet - Avsteg eller snedsteg från neutralitetspolitiken?: En studie om det nordiska försvarssamarbetet i förhållande till Sveriges säkerhetspolitiska linje2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige som land säger sig idag ha förändrat sin politik ifrån en neutralitetspolitik till en solidaritetspolitik. I studier tidigare gjorda för den tid Sverige hade en uttalad neutralitetspolitisk linje inom säkerhetspolitiken sågs en bakomliggande solidaritet ligga i det dolda. Det denna studie syftar till är genom en analys av den politiska diskursen ta reda på huruvida Sverige kan sägas ha lämnat sin neutralitetspolitik och fullt ut gått över till en solidaritetspolitik.

    För att ta reda på detta genomförs en fallstudie med ett fall av svensk säkerhetspolitik. Fallet består av det nordiska samarbetet sett från svensk politisk synpunkt. För att kunna anlysera solidaritet kontra neutralitet används teorierna neoliberalism och neorealism som ett medel för att tolka Sveriges politiska drivkraft i samarbetet. Neoliberalism i studien står för solidariteten och neorealism står för den gamla politiska linjen av neutralitetspolitik och nationellt intresse för landet i det främsta rummet. De texter som analyseras i studien är regeringens skriveleser om det nordiska samarbetet från år 2008 - 2014 samt artiklar där svenska politiker uttalar sig om det nordiska samarbetet idag, 2014. Tidsepoken som analyseras är vald utefter att det nordiska försvarssamarbetet, Nordefco, som skrev under och antogs år 2009 samt den nordiska solidaritetsförklaringen år 2011.  

    Efter genomförd analys och diskussion visar studien att Sverige som land till stor del anammat en solidaritetspolitik och en vilja att utveckla denna vidare. Dock ses genomgående mellan åren en kvarlevande tradition av den gamla politiska linjen om en neutralitetspolitik och en vilja att sätta det egna landets intressen först. Den största förändring ses i de flesta av analyspunkterna ske mellan år 2008 och år 2010 d.v.s. efter Nordefco:s införande i Norden. Sveriges ses ha en solidarisk utveckling i sin säkerhetspolitiska linje även om det ännu finns en bit att gå för att nå ända fram till att säga att landet fullt ut anammat en solidaritetspolitik.

  • 4821.
    Söderbäck, Elvira
    Swedish Defence University.
    Al-Qaeda och Gulfkartellen: en studie om våldsamma icke-statliga aktörers begränsningar gällande global påverkan2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Violent Non-state Actors (VNSA) such as Criminal and Terrorist organisations or Warlords have become a more prominent actor of our time. The main goal of this study is to find limitations to violent non-state actors potential for global influence by conducting a case study of two different VNSA: Al-Qaeda and The Gulf Cartel. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the rather sparse field of studies about violent non-state actors by using the analytic framework by Ersel Aydinli called ARI. The empirical material is analysed by using a qualitative method, to examine how if these actors are by any means limited in their potential for global influence. The result of the analysis shows that the two units being examined are being restricted by inner variables more so than being affected from the outside. 

  • 4822.
    Söderhjelm, Teresa Martha
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Sandahl, Christer
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Björklund, Christina
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Palm, Kristina
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    The importance of confidence in leadership role: a qualitative study of the process following two Swedish leadership programmes2018In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 114-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand the influence of leadership programmes on leaders and co-workers, as well as which mechanisms are involved in the process.

    Design/methodology/approach – An analysis was done into 431 free-text answers to questionnaires given to 120 participants in two different leadership programmes and their co-workers six months after their participation, using a grounded theory inspired approach.

    Findings – The result is a model, linking internal psychological and external behavioural aspects, with the central outcome that leaders gained more confidence in their leadership role through theoretical models learned, and reflection.

    Research limitations/implications – The course participants as well as the co-workers seemed to experience a positive leadership development indicating a value of participating in the courses.

    Practical implications – Confidence in leadership role seems important for having positive outcomes of leadership. Although this needs further research, it is something organisations should consider when working with leadership questions.

    Social implications – The co-workers perceived their leaders to be calmer, more open for discussions, and willing both to give and receive feedback post training. There appears to be an increase in trust both in the leader and reciprocally from the leader in the co-workers.

    Originality/value – Until now there has not been any systematic research into the effects on participants and co-workers following the programmes, despite the fact that over 100,000 have participated in the courses.

  • 4823.
    Söderholm, Jonas
    Swedish Defence University.
    FALKLANDSKRIGET: DET MODERNA SJÖKRIGET2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4824.
    Söderlund, Axel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Peronalbristens påverkan på säkerhetskulturen i flygunderhållsorganisationer2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Safety culture is a critical factor within aircraft maintenance organizations for delivering air-worthy aircrafts for the Swedish Armed Forces. There is a problem with insufficient manpower within the aircraft maintenance organizations, and therefore this paper aims to examine the implications this might have on safety culture. An aircraft maintenance function within the Armed Forces Helicopter wing was studied. The Swedish Armed Forces regulations inflict the responsibility for safety culture upon commanding officers. And this together with the research on the subject safety culture that says that it is leadership that inflicts on safety culture the most, dictates this paper to examine the subject from a leadership point of view. Four officers from the aircraft maintenance function was interviewed about leadership factor that inflicts with safety culture and the insufficient manpower problems. This paper concludes that commanding officers have problem finding time for planning for the workforce and making frequent tours in the hangars. Due to awareness of the problems with insufficient manpower commanding officers pay extra attention to the workforce’s wellbeing. Due to lack of manpower within the workforce, together with two other factors, the reporting culture has declined. 

  • 4825.
    Söderlund, Malin
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Governmental Crisis Response – To be On Top of the Frame: The Case of Norway 22/7 2011 - Crisis communication and news management2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the mechanisms of “successful” communication in matters of political leaders’ability to gain public trust and credibility during large scale crises. Even though political actors andother stakeholders tend to be very proactive to promote their views, news media also play an activeand important role in framing public policy issues and crises.1 Thus, this thesis involves both politicalactors and media in the context of framing and crisis communication. Their interrelation and itsimportance for explaining successful crisis communication is demonstrated by producing a case studyof the Norwegian government’s communication efforts during and after the terrorist attack in Osloand the island of Utöya 22/7 2011. This paper argues and demonstrates that the active use ofpositive frames, that are cultural congruent and resonate with the media shaping, is a necessity tocreate a favorable context for winning praise and support in times of crisis. In line with previousresearch, framing strategies in crisis communication is demonstrated to be central to the crisisresponse and determines whether a responsible stakeholder is able to create momentum, maintainand even gain increased public support or not.

  • 4826.
    Söderman Carlsson, Urban
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Svensk Marin Diplomati i en modern kontext2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur bedriver småstaten Sverige marin diplomati i en modern säkerhetspolitisk kontext? De flesta teorier vilka behandlar marin diplomati är framtagna för marina stormakter. Syftet har därmed varit att pröva en ny teori i syfte att analysera marin diplomati ur ett småstatsperspektiv. Undersökningen tar sin utgångspunkt i de fyra baskomponenterna: geopolitisk kontext, mål, medel och metoder. Varje baskomponent operationaliseras i syfte att erhålla analysverktyg i form av indikatorer.

    Analyserna ger svar på hur marin diplomati genomförts mellan 2000-2012 samt vilka förändringar som kan konstateras mot tidigare forskningsresultat på området. Resultatet visar att en del metoder och verksamheter är fortsatt genomförbara samtidigt som en del av dem ej längre är giltiga. Anledningen till detta är flera. Av de skäl vilka kan anses vara mest centrala kan Sovjetunionens fall, det svenska EU inträdet samt den minskade tillgången till marina plattformar konstateras. Avslutningsvis kan det även konstateras att baskomponenterna fungerat väl som utgångspunkt för analysen. Det är dock av stor betydelse att indikatorerna är av sådan kvalitet att de verkligen filtrerar informationen och identifierar fakta av värde undersökningens huvudfrågor.

  • 4827.
    Söderman Carlsson, Urban
    Swedish Defence University.
    Telekrigsbibliotek en nationell angelägenhet?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish Armed Forces are according to their development planning process taking actions to establish a new joint unit (SWEWOSE), with electronic warfare capability. SWEWOSÉ S main task will be designated to produce electronic warfare libraries for electronic warfare systems within the armed forces. The unit shall have capability to support with libraries in any state of conflict situation even if the supported unit with library needs conducting operations abroad.

    This essay examines the requirements that justify the establishment of a new unit in times when the armed forces conducting reorganizations and cutbacks in both economy and personnel.

    The possibilities to buy complete system solutions from an external supplier are examined. But also what kind of library support model that is to prefer according to the demands that the Swedish Armed Forces desired, in terms of capability in platform protection and battle space awareness.

    The results show that the demands that the Swedish Armed Forces has decided, best will be ful-filled and justified by a national electronic warfare unit, with library production as a main task.

  • 4828.
    Södermyr, Anders
    Swedish Defence University.
    Att segra är allt, men vägen dit kantas av misslyckanden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Försvarsmakten återfinns ett motsatsförhållande mellan organisationens vilja och yrkesofficerens uppfattning. I officiella publikationer förmedlas en acceptans för misslyckande medan det finns en benägenhet hos yrkesofficeren att undvika misslyckanden till varje pris. Erfarenheter kan gå förlorade då organisationen har en vilja att lära både genom bra och mindre bra genomförande.

    Studien avser att undersöka hur organisationskultur kan påverka en yrkesofficers syn på misslyckanden. En stark organisationskultur som hämmar en yrkesofficers benägenhet att ta initiativ eller att ta risker av rädsla för att misslyckas, kan negativt inverka på flexibilitet eller kreativitet inom organisationen.

    Resultatet påvisar att antaganden såsom viljan att lyckas och social acceptans påverkar synen på misslyckanden. Det finns en kultur som efter hand blir accepterad som det rätta sättet att lära eller lösa ett problem vilket inte alltid överensstämmer med den officiella viljan. Denna kultur överförs inom organisationen och blir svår att förändra. Yrkesofficeren ställs inför ett val, försöka förändra eller acceptera situationen.

  • 4829.
    Söderqvist, Henrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Robotsystem 15:s påverkan på den svenska ytstridstaktiken2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1950’s and 1960’sSweden’s surface warships had an ability to match enemy forces at sea. The disarmament of the Swedish Defense in the 1960’s implied a retardation of technique development and major warships like cruisers, frigates and destroyers were planned to be changed to a lighter fleet consisting of small, fast units. The result of this change was that the Navy tactics were adjusted to a retired behavior. Swedish officers witnessed the rearmament of the Soviet Union that developed new weapons and vessels with high class long-range anti-ship missiles in theBaltic Searegion. The consequence of this threat was that the naval officers wanted to develop a long-range weapon to equal enemy forces at sea.

    The result was a Swedish innovation of an anti-ship missile system (RBS 15) which was introduced in the Swedish Navy in the beginning of the 1980’s. RBS 15’s high quality and ability also implied a development of several peripheral technical equipments that were necessary for perfection in naval missile combat.

    The aim of the current study is to clarify whether or not the introduction of RBS 15 into the Swedish Navy was affecting tactics. The case RBS 15 is tested by hypotheses outgoing from theories how technologies affect tactics. It is demonstrated that the technologies affect tactics from the hypotheses that are confirmed in the study. Conclusions from the study are that the RBS 15 affected tactics since it: Facilitated to take offensive action, initiated development of new technical resources and was the crucial factor implementing that the naval organization decided to develop the tactics for the new Swedish surface warships. This new capability implicated a marked difference in the Swedish tactical behavior at sea. Naval warships were applying a more offensive tactic and had the ability to fight the enemy’s control of the sea.

  • 4830.
    Söderqvist, Jenny
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Battling a three-headed beast?: A study of the Islamic State and the Global Coalition response, in light of CT, COIN and jihadi proto-state theory2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how the Islamic State (IS) in Syria and Iraq can be understood in light of theoretical ideal types of terrorism, insurgency and jihadi proto-states and whether counter terrorism (CT), counter insurgency (COIN) and jihadi proto-state theory can help identify different strands of the sixty-six nation Global Coalition effort against IS and possible risks and opportunities to the campaign. The study draws on primary sources in the shape of public documents and statements issued by governments, the UN and IS. The findings reveal that, while IS remains firmly committed to its jihadi ideology, it could today usefully be understood as an insurgent group so successful that that it has created its own proto-state. IS still, however, seeks to promote its political interests and compensate for its conventional military weakness by making frequent use of terrorist tactics.While coalition leaders portray IS as a terrorist group, the Coalition’s “counter terrorism campaign” has clear elements of both CT, COIN and tools undermining the proto-state strand of IS activity. Furthermore, CT, COIN and proto-state theories can help flag risks and opportunities to the Coalition, by providing additional conceptual lenses for understanding IS and potential counter-measures and by highlighting possible offsetting effects between CT and COIN.

  • 4831.
    Söderström, Jesper
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Manövertänkande - lämpligt vid alla insatser?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens fokus ligger på att utreda om manövertänkande är implementerat i den svenska markstridsfunktionpå bataljonsnivån och vid lägre nivåer, samt manövertänkandets tillämpbarhet dåsvenska förband samarbetar med förband från andra nationer.Undersökningen har skett genom enkät och intervjuer med officerare som har hög grad av erfarenhetav att leda förband efter år 2000. Som stöd för undersökningen har teoretisk definition ochanalysverktyg utarbetats ur William S. Linds Maneuver Warfare Handbook.Undersökningen visar att svenska officerare har god teoretisk kunskap om manövertänkande samtförmåga att tillämpa manövertänkandets olika delar. Dock pekar resultatet på att svenska officeraregenerellt har begränsad erfarenhet av att tillämpa manövertänkande i varierande och komplexasituationer. Dessutom medges de inte att tjänstgöra tillräckligt länge på specifika befattningar föratt möjliggöra att nödvändig erfarenhet byggs upp. Ytterligare en följd av att svenska officerareroterar snabbt på befattningar är att tillit mellan ledningsnivåer inte byggs upp, vilket är centraltför att manövertänkande skall kunna tillämpas fullt ut vid svårare situationer med hög hotnivå.Markstridsfunktionens sätt att öva förbanden präglas av begränsat handlingsutrymme för truppförandechefer. Vidare medges inte förbanden att nå tillräcklig hög utbildningsståndpunkt, för attuppnå förmåga att hantera svårare situationer under varierande förutsättningar.Svenska förband i internationella insatser tillämpar manövertänkande i den mån de har förmågaoch utrymme för det, men tendensen är att utrymmet för manövertänkande minskas avsevärt vidsamarbete över nationsgränser. Faktorer som begränsar är bl.a. kulturella skillnader, skillnader imilitära traditioner och språkliga begränsningar. Dock erhåller förband som uppvisar duglighetökat förtroende från högre nivån, vilket ofta resulterar i utökat handlingsutrymme.

  • 4832.
    Söhrman, Hanna
    Swedish Defence University.
    Framgång genom defensiva positioner och slag2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper strives to examine if and how an actor can achieve success. With the help of Jomini´s theory about positions and defensive battle. This study wanted to enlighten the problem that science have had focus substantially on that only through offensive approach an actor can achieve victory. No science is explaining its possible to win through an defensive approach. This study can strives to enlighten that an army can achieve success despite an defensive approach. This research analysis two cases from the Korean War, the battle of Kum River and the first battle of Naktong Bulge in 1950 and the analysis is on how the American 24 infantry division acted during these battles.  The result shows that Jomini´s theory can explain the outcome in these battles. But there is more factors that needs to be taken into account to understand the whole spectrum of the outcome in defensive battles. 

  • 4833.
    Sönnvall, Alexander
    Swedish Defence University.
    Svenskt luftvärns nuvarande och framtida förmågor2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4834.
    Sördal, Michael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Påverkas officerarnas beslutsfattning om de utsätts för stress?2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is about stress and leadership and how they affect each other. The background to this essay is to show how stress affects leadership and the officers’ ways to make decisions. The purpose of the essay is to investigate how stress affects an officer in a decision making position within the armed forces. With this essay the author want to create bigger understanding on how stress affects the officer when they are about to make a decision. In order to do this the author has three questions that he would like to answer. What is stress? What is leadership? How does the officers decision making affect him when he is under stress? The problem formulation is that in today’s society stress is affecting us more than it used to do. What effect has this had on the officers and their decision making? The methods the author used in this essay were qualitative and descriptive method. One of the conclusion that the author made was that it is vary individual how much every officer affects of stress. But it will in some way affect there decision making. One other conclusion was if a group has a good relationship within the group, this will make it easier to act if they would get in a stressful situation.

  • 4835.
    Söreke, Joel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Galula och Kilcullen i Afghanistan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Counterinsurgency is still believed to be of relevance in modern time and affect military organizations. Kilcullen and Galula, two theorists who have been of high relevance for the development of strategies for population-centric counterinsurgency used in the modern era. In 2010, Operation Moshtarak was conducted with Field Manual 3-24, which is based on these theorists. Despite this, there is a discrepancy if the operation was conducted with a population-centric counterinsurgency and if Kilcullen and Galula theories can be applied in a modern era. The purpose of this study is to examine why operation Moshtarak, which was supposed to implement the aspects of population centric counterinsurgency resulted in failure. The study uses a qualitative case study and even though the theories didn’t reach the expected elucidatory level, the results of the study indicate that the initial steps of the operation demonstrate that population-centric counterinsurgency were used, but after the initial successes in the expulsion of insurgents, problems arised for the coalition. The study also indicates that more research is necessary to understand the outcome of the case and the relevance of these theories.

  • 4836.
    Sörensen, Mårten
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Konventionellt agerande i en irreguljär miljö: En studie om sjöstrategi i Adenviken2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I de pirathärjade vattnen utanför Somalia har en nedgående trend i antalet kapningar identifierats under de senaste åren. Dock är samstämmigheten mellan källor stor att de styrkor som har verkat i området bara löser piratproblemet så länge styrkorna finns där, och således inte tar sig an grunden till problemet.

    Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka huruvida de konventionella strategierna Fleet in being och Örlogsblockad var av relevans för den svenska insatsen ME03 när de löste sina uppgifter. För att undersöka relevansen kommer det att genomföras en teoriprövande fallstudie på ME03 där spårbarheten i de valda teorierna undersöks.

    Några av slutsatserna som kan göras av studierna är att teoribildningen inte har någon principiell skillnad mellan respektive tänkare. Det finns även många likheter mellan teoribildningarna och det svenska uppträdandet, i synnerhet vad gäller fleet in being.

  • 4837.
    Sörenson, Karl
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Benerson Little: Pirate Hunting - The Fight against Pirates, Privateers, and Sea Raiders from Antiquity to the Present (2010): Recension av Karl Sörenson2012In: Forum navale, ISSN 0280-6215, Vol. 68, p. 226-228Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 4838.
    Sörenson, Karl
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Beyond Francafrique: the foundation, reorientation and reorganisation of France’s Africa politics2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report analyses the French-African relationship from a security and defence political point of view. The report focuses on whether French President Sarkozy’s proposed ‘rupture’ (break) with past French African politics is credi-ble given France’s past politics in Africa. To understand this historical relation-ship the report identifies four historical phases in the French-African relation-ship; the French Empire, the French Union, the short lived French Community and today’s network structure which encompasses French and African political leaders, civil-servants, officers, and businessmen.The Imperial period established French rule in the North, West and Central Africa and laid the ground for French-African trade relations as well as intro-ducing French institutions and culture in Africa. The French-African relationship was in part strengthened by the African support to France during the Second World War, which left France with a historical debt to Africa. The Union primarily tried to bridge the post-war call for greater autonomy from the African states while safeguarding French supremacy. The French Community, dissolved after only two years, was the last attempt by France to formally keep the colonial connection. After the end of the Community, President de Gaulle was quick to establish a close relationship with most of the Francophone political leaders. The network instigated by the Gaulle was strengthened through education and common socialisation between the elites of metropolitan France and those of the Francophone African states. Subsequent French presidents upheld the network structure that came to dominate the French-African relationship and France continued its presence in Africa. The network structure was upheld by political liaisons and trade, but also by France acting as a guarantor for African stability by bilateral defence agreements and through military interventions. The inter-ventions became increasingly difficult to motivate and eventually necessitated serious reforms in French-Africa politics. Sarkozy’s attempt to rearrange the current French Africa policy is situated within this historical context. So far Sarkozy seems to envisage a more loosely coupled network between France and African leaders, but which encompasses non-tradi-tional French African partners like Libya and South Africa. This more multi-lateral approach is also reflected in France’s attempt to move away from the bilateral dealings of the past to work closer together with the EU, AU and the UN in Africa. However, the new multilateral transition might be complicated by the earlier, often complex French-African relationship.

  • 4839.
    Sörenson, Karl
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Comparable Deterrence: Target, Criteria and Purpose2017In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 198-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last decade has seen several advances in the study of deterrence. These advances have sparked some strong disagreements regarding interpretation of the models and what their contributions signify. This paper appraises the discussions from a model theoretic perspective. It is argued that when comparing rivalling models three aspects; (i) target, (ii) criteria and (iii) type of purpose should be taken into account in order to make a proper appraisal. Informed by these aspects it is evident that the three deterrence models analysed address different aspects, in different ways and to different ends. From this perspective, the so-called Perfect Deterrence model must be recognised as a clear advancement in the research field. Model comparison will always be context relative and a plurality of models should be viewed favourably.

  • 4840.
    Sörenson, Karl
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Deterring the Dauntless?2012Report (Other academic)
  • 4841.
    Sörenson, Karl
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Deterring the Dauntless: Appraising the effects of naval deterrence against the Somali piracy2018In: WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs (JoMA), ISSN 1651-436X, E-ISSN 1654-1642, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 31-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article considers whether the Somali pirates were deterred by the naval task forces between the years 2009 and 2013. By disaggregating data and using previously unpublished records regarding the naval operations, two areas of operations are identified as potential periods of deterrence. The article uses a model of asymmetric deterrence to study the outcomes and equilibria of the navy-pirate interaction. It is found that the naval operations eventually did deter the Somali pirates in the Gulf of Aden, but that this objective was not met in the Somali Basin. It is concluded that the operational focus on the Gulf of Aden coupled with the fact that the area is relatively smaller than the Somali Basin enabled the naval credibility, thus effectively denying the pirates access to the sea. Conversely, limited attention by the naval units and the long Somali southern coast with its open waters impeded naval control in the Somali Basin. In connection to these findings some conclusions regarding naval deterrence are discussed.

  • 4842.
    Sörenson, Karl
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section. Department of Philosophy and History, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    In Search of Lost Deterrence: Two essays on deterrence and the models employed to study the phenomenon2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To deter is central for strategic thinking. Some of the more astute observations regarding the dynamics of deterrence were made during the Cold War by game theorists. This set the stage for how deterrence has come to be studied. A strong methodological element like the research on deterrence’s reliance on game theory requires examination in order to understand what sort of knowledge it actually yields. What sort of knowledge does one acquire when deterrence is viewed through game theoretic models? How do they inform us about the phenomenon of deterrence? To understand the nature of a phenomenon through models requires idealization, which in turn presupposes assumptions. This licentiate thesis investigates the type of knowledge we attain when approaching deterrence from a game theoretic perspective. The two articles presented address two separate but related issues. The first article reviews a debate regarding which deterrence model best capture the phenomena of deterrence, i.e. how models can be compared to one and other. The article presents a framework for comparing models and then appraises how these different deterrence models inform us about deterrence. The second article uses one of the more central deterrence models in order to evaluate how and to what extent the naval operation Atalanta managed to deter the Somali piracy.

  • 4843.
    Sörenson, Karl
    FOI, Försvarsanalys.
    La Suède et l'Afrique: entre nostalgie et institutionnalisme2009In: Nordiques, ISSN 1761-7677, ISSN 1761-7677, no 20, p. 101-108Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4844.
    Sörenson, Karl
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    On Asymmetry in Goals2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In an asymmetric game the payoffs, or goals, are different for the participants of the game. Allocation of resources, willingness to take risks, potential sub-goals etc, are all connected to the payoff of the game. This issue becomes pertinent when the players pursue goals which are incomparable with each other. In the asymmetric conflict of today this is indeed sometimes the case; in Afghanistan, Iraq and Somalia the ends sought by the major stakeholders appear at times as incommensurable. This paper discusses the strategic implications of the differences in goals between actors when in an asymmetric conflict. To increase the understanding of what such a conflict could mean the concept of goal-asymmetric conflicts is introduced. The implication of this is then connected to the level of rationality between different actors in a goal asymmetric, and the possibility of what a more fundamental difference in goals means. A definition of a conflict-relation is also presented. In connection to this different sorts of values held by the actors in a conflict is elaborated upon.

  • 4845.
    Sörenson, Karl
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Review – Somali Piracy and Terrorism2013In: e-international relationsArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • 4846.
    Sörenson, Karl
    FOI, Försvarsanalys.
    State Failure on the High Seas: Reviewing the Somali Piracy2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report makes one cardinal claim: Somali piracy will not successfully be fought by only employing naval means. The reason for this is two-fold. First, the inherent structure of any systematic piracy, to which the Somali piracy belongs, makes it difficult to stop the practice by merely focusing on impeding pirate vessels. Piracy has always been in need of at least one safe port, from where it can seek refuge, refit, and, most importantly, unload and trade the loot. Second, the state of Somalia, with its disintegration in the south, uncertainty in Puntland and relative stability in Somaliland, makes it difficult, but not impossible, to successfully target the roots, or incentives, of piracy. The political situation in Somalia is dire, and it is difficult to decipher the connections between the different regions and the complex clan system.

  • 4847.
    Sörenson, Karl
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    The Emergence of an Economic Equilibrium in the Gulf of Aden?2009In: / [ed] Harvard University Kennedy School of Government, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4848.
    Sörenson, Karl
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Wrong Hands on Deck?: Combatting Piracy and Building Maritime Security in Eastern Africa2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report investigates the threats to maritime security in Eastern Africa, theresponses to deal with these threats and the prospects for building maritimesecurity in the region. The report discusses three aspects of maritime security:economic security, state security, and human security. While the Somali piracy,which dominates the security agenda, is mainly an economic security problem, ithas both state and human security implications. Other illegal activities, such assmuggling of weapons and drugs, illegal fishing, waste dumping and smugglingof humans are also analysed according to these categorises. The report arguesthat paying more attention to all these activities; their underlying incentives andarea of impact, would benefit the international community’s current work tobuild maritime security in Eastern Africa.

  • 4849.
    Sörenson, Karl
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Damidez, Nima
    Försvarsmakten.
    Fragments of an Army: Three Aspects of the Libya Collapse2013In: The NATO Intervention in Libya: Lessons Learned from the Campaign / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt, Marcus Mohlin, Charlotte Wagnsson, Oxon: Routledge, 2013, p. 151-169Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4850.
    Sörenson, Karl
    et al.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Damidez, Nima
    FOI, Försvarsanalys.
    To Have and Have Not: A Study on the North African Regional Capability2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The North African region has a poor history of cooperation, be it economic, political or military. The establishment of the North African Regional Capability (NARC) as the region’s contribution to the African Standby Forces (ASF) signifies a milestone in the history of military cooperation in the Maghreb. However, in order to make the NARC effective it will take more than to build a formal organisation. The NARC will need to strengthen its efforts in order to ascertain a tangible operational level. NARC could prove to be an organisation which closes the gap between its members and the North African states as a whole. The North African countries already have common goals in their respective security policies; terrorism, smuggling, trafficking and armed conflicts in bordering states. An effective development of the NARC would also mean a significant capacity boost for the ASF as the North African region is the militarily strongest on the African continent. The Moroccan-West-Saharan issue continues however to constrain the region’s potential to political cooperation. An increased cooperation between the Maghreb and organisations such as the EU and the NATO pertaining to defence and security related issues might prove valuable for developing North Africa’s ability to effectively cooperate.

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