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  • 4801.
    Torell Sjölander, Matilda
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Hotet från cyberrymden: regeringens formulering av informations- och cybersäkerhet - vad är problemet?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the Swedish Government Cyber Security Strategy laid out for the years 2016-2022 using Carol Bacchi’s discourse method and theory concept “What’s the problem represented to be” (WPR). The theoretical framework of the thesis also builds on critical theories on security- and threat perception following the concept of “exceptionalist securitising” and “diffusing insecurities”. The study suggests that the government has a national security focus that stresses “high politics” cyber threats rather than risks related to individuals and the Swedish society. Potential enemies are presented as located outside of the national boarders indicating a more traditional security perspective and enemy construction coming from other states. The study also disclosed that the strategy strives to stress the necessity of raising the awareness on cyber security as well as uniting the authorities working on cyber security while neglecting the democratic limits that political actions such as state-monitoring and data surveillance implicates.

     

  • 4802.
    Torgén, Moa
    Swedish Defence University.
    En kvalitativ studie om hur mäns sexuella våld mot kvinnor framställs i media ur ett feministiskt perspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4803.
    Tornerhjelm, Viktor
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Manöverkrigföring i Korea: en fallstudie om tillämpning av manöverteorins grunder vid landstigningen i Inchon under Koreakriget2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4804.
    Tornerhjelm, Wilhelm
    Swedish Defence University.
    Handlingsrummet: En studie i folkrättens och politikens påverkan på den taktiska handlingsfriheten2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are both national and international laws and regulations which is the basis for the use of armed forces. There are also political regulations from both the government and the parliament of how armed forces are used. Laws and political regulations is the foundation for the Swedish Armed Forces Rules of Engagement. There are therefore two dimensions that could reflect Rules of Engagement, one political and one legal.

    The purpose of this work is to visualize restrictions and possibilities the interaction between the political and legal dimensions could get on the tactical freedom of action. To answer the questions a case study has been done on the submarine 137 incident outside Karlskrona. As a theoretical framework the concept of tactical freedom of action have been used.

    The result from this essay is that the legal dimension is already given from the beginning, while the political dimension is more mobile, where ways of action depends on political goals and available funds. A political awareness in the tactical process of thinking is therefore necessary.

  • 4805.
    Tornving, Mats Henrik Albin
    Swedish Defence University.
    Strategi eller Policy: med vilken precision styrs det militära maktmedlet i Sverige?2018Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Military thinkers, from Clausewitz and Liddell Hart to Grey and Dolman, reason around the meaning of the term strategy and its natural place in a nation’s efforts to plan for the worst-case scenario – war. At the same time, the term policy is used when aligning a nation’s effort. The debate in Sweden has for a long time included both these terms when discussing with what detail the government should direct its armed forces. This indistinctness in usage is analysed and operationalised in order to answer the question; Are the Swedish armed forces governed by policy or by strategy? Theories on policy from social studies are summarized together with the strategy term derived from war studies in order to operationalise their meaning in the Swedish governing system where parliament, consisting of Regering and Riksdag, make decisions regulating its armed forces.The analysis shows that decisions showing both policy and strategy is present, but that the detail in strategic decisions in certain cases overrides the overarching policy rendering the armed forces without freedom of strategic action.This study contributes to both the field of public policy as well as military strategy where they come together in the military-political arena in Sweden. It clarifies the level of detail in which the military is governed and determines whether decisions can be considered a strategic plan or a governing political policy.

  • 4806.
    Torp Stensvehagen, Marianne
    et al.
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Arnesveen Bronken, Berit
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Lien, Lars
    Innlandet Hospital Trust, Norway.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    How women experience and cope with daily hassles after sexual abuse: a retrospective qualitative study2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of stress on health can depend on factors such as frequency, heightening of stress during a given period or the presence of one or a few repeated hassles of psychological importance. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of how adult women experience and cope with daily hassles after sexual abuse. Ten interviews were analysed using the grounded theory method. The theoretical model of ‘protecting armor in daily life’ emerged. The aftermath of sexual abuse related coping with daily stress can be understood as a three‐phase process: (1) avoiding and escaping—coping after experiencing sexual abuse; (2) accepting and disclosing—starting a process of recovery; and (3) reconciling and repossessing—living with the experience in the present. The model contributes to a deeper understanding of the everyday life of women who have experienced sexual abuse. Increased knowledge of coping behaviours that can be used to deal with daily hassles may also serve as a tool for health professionals, other helpers and family to help these women rebuild a good life.

  • 4807.
    Torsteinson, Terje
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Midtøsten: den israelsk-palestinske konflikten i et sikkerhetspolitisk perspektiv2002Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For more than a century the conflict between Arabs and Jews over the samepiece of land has been an ongoing issue in International Relations. Severalwars have been fought in the region since 1947 between the Israelis on one sideand several different Arab countries on the other. This paper, however, focuseson the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians living in the occupied areasof the West Bank and Gaza Strip.In 1993, Israel and the Palestinians agreed to mutual recognition and limitedself-rule for the Palestinians in Jericho and Gaza. They also agreed to concludea permanent treaty that would resolve the status of the West Bank and Gazawithin 5 years after the implementation of the Oslo-accord. Today, almost 9years after the signing of ”The Declaration of Principles” in Washington DC,there are more violence in the region than in decades and peace seems furtheraway than it did in September of 1993. Why is that?This article sets out to try to explain the security dilemma that exists betweenthe two identities using an analytical framework that allows us to determinewhether or not a certain matter is one of security, simply by the fact that it ismade so by one of the actors. Barry Buzans theory that security can refer to anumber of different referent objects such as individuals, groups and states,makes it possible to broaden the traditionalist wiew of just looking at thestate’s security as the only means of analysis.The analytical framework also makes it possible to identify existential threatsin other sectors than the political/military. The article attemts to point out thedifferent issues that requires securitizing actions by the actors within 5different sectors.

  • 4808.
    Trapp, Marcus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Slaget om Breitenfeld: En analys med hjälp av de grundläggande förmågorna, marktaktiska grundprinciperna och ledningsfilosofin uppdragstaktik2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Battle of Breitenfeld took place in 1631, during the 30-year war. It was the biggest battle the Swedish army has participated in. The essay analyses the battle from a Swedish-Saxon perspective, using the basic skills, ground tactical principles and management philosophy of decentralized command.

    The essay is based on a case study stemming from a qualitative text analysis, and is as such divided into three parts. The first part of the essay describes my theory, and explains what the different terms stand for. The second part narrates the battle and the participating armies. Finally, in the third part, I analyze the Battle of Breitenfeld with the theories.

    The main question the essay aims to answer is: How can the Battle of Breitenfeld be explained with the help of the basic skills, ground tactical principles and decentralized command?

    To answer that question two research questions were used:Which of the basic skills and ground tactical principles were crucial for the Swedish-Saxon side to achieve victory? Can traces of decentralized command in the Swedish army be found?

    The essay concludes that Gustavus Adolphus built the Swedish armed forces with a sharp increase in the number of self-thinking officers and non commissioned officers which indicates that decentralized command, to some extent, was used.The also derives at the conclusion that effective use of a combination between firepower, maneuver and concentration of mass were crucial to the Swedish-Saxon victory.

  • 4809.
    Tremblay, Sébastien
    et al.
    Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Granlund, Rego
    Santa Anna Research Institute, Sweden.
    Berggren, Peter
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Jobidon, Marie-Eve
    Defence R&D Canada – Toronto, Canada.
    Holmberg, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Turner, Paddy
    Cranfield University, Defence Academy, UK.
    A multiteam international simulation of joint operations in crisis response2012In: ISCRAM 2012 Conference Proceedings: Book of Papers / [ed] Leon Rothkrantz, Jozef Ristvej, and Zeno Franco, Vancouver, Canada: Simon Fraser University , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of distributed experiments will address teamwork and its social, organizational and cognitive dimensions within the context of multinational joint operations in crisis response and management.

  • 4810.
    Treverton, Greg
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Comparing Early Warning Across Domains: Workshop report2011Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 4811.
    Treverton, Greg
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security, CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Hybrid Threats: Challenges for Intelligence2019In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4812.
    Treverton, Greg
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security, CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    The Intelligence Challenges of Hybrid Threats: Focus on Cyber and Virtual Realm2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What challenges does “Hybrid Threats” pose for the world of intelligence analysis and tradecraft, and how should intelligence agencies adapt? This study is a part of CATS’ project on intelligence connected to Influence Operations, and is sponsored by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB). It addresses the new realm of hybrid threats and challenges, and the roles for the world of intelligence analysis and tradecraft.

    In this this study, Dr Gregory Treverton – former Chairman of the US National Intelligence Council and now Senior Fellow with CATS – analyzes social media and cyber attacks as well as signals and human intelligence in relation to real world events.

    The intelligence challenge starts with recognizing the range of hybrid threats and what is new about them – targets are now societies, not armies; several tools are being used both simultaneously and strategically for maximum effect; and it explores how the cyber dimension, along with the social media (SM) and other virtual arenas offer new, inexpensive avenues of attack. This important analytical contribution begins with the tools, then turns to the challenges of hybrid threats across the elements of intelligence – collection, analysis and relations between intelligence and policy.

    Then, it turns to the special challenges for intelligence agencies – but also the special opportunities – that exist across a range of cyber and virtual domains. In particular it focuses on the implications for the intelligence organizations performing the traditional ‘INT’ functions (HUMINT and SIGINT) and for counterintelligence. It concludes with perspectives on how the special challenges of hybrid threats might conduce to a much wider change in the traditional intelligence paradigm.

  • 4813.
    Treverton, Gregory
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security, CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Influence Operations and the Intelligence/Policy Challenges2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This conference report aim to assess influence operations, especially those conducted by Russia, in the context of changing relations between intelligence and policy and the emerging challenges for intelligence. Three key challenges were discussed in regard to influence operations. First, Identify – how to separate state sponsored disinformation from individual rumor mills. Second, Understand – how to understand influence operations, put it into a context for policy makers, and learn to understand the underlying factors and why it happens. Third, Counter – how to vaccinate civil servants and enhance the critical approach within media to create resilience against influence operations.

    The first part of this conference report lays out on how to identify and understand influence operations in the context of policy. The second part focus on who needs what to counter influence operations. The last part contains concluding themes.

    Dr. Gregory Treverton is the former chairman of the U.S. National Intelligence Council, as well as former Director of the RAND Corporation’s Center for Global Risk and Security. Dr. Treverton is also a Senior Fellow at the Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies (CATS) at the Swedish Defence University.

  • 4814.
    Treverton, Gregory F.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Addressing ”Complexities” in Homeland Security2009Report (Other academic)
  • 4815.
    Treverton, Gregory F.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security, CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Approaches to "Outreach" for Intelligence2009Report (Other academic)
  • 4816.
    Treverton, Gregory F.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Bridging the Divide between Scientific and Intelligence Analysis2009Report (Other academic)
  • 4817.
    Treverton, Gregory F.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security, CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies). RAND Corporation.
    New Frontiers in Intelligence: Notes from seminar in Stockholm May 27-28 20082008Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 4818.
    Treverton, Gregory F.
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Agrell, Wilhelm
    National intelligence systems: current research and future prospects2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 4819.
    Treverton, Gregory F.
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security, CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies). RAND Corporation.
    Miles, Renanah
    Columbia University; RAND Corporation.
    Social Media and Intelligence2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is part of CATS’ project on intelligence for terrorismand homeland security, sponsored by the Swedish CivilContingencies Agency (MSB). It addresses the use and potentialuse of social media in intelligence – looking across the range ofpossible uses both externally and as collaborative tools within andacross agencies. The first half of the paper lays out four categoriesof intelligence interactions using social media, and then discussesthem briefly, drawing primarily on U.S. experiences. The secondpart of the paper turns more specifically to the mix of new mediaand old at play in conflicts around the world, especially in theMiddle East and Russia/Crimea/Ukraine.

    Gregory Treverton is chairman of the U.S. National IntelligenceCouncil. However, this paper was written when he was a Directorof the RAND Corporation’s Center for Global Risk and Security,and a visiting fellow at CATS.

    Renanah Miles is a Ph.D. candidate in Political Science atColumbia University and a summer associate at the RANDCorporation. She concentrates in international relations with afocus on security studies and the Middle East. Previously she wasa program analyst in the Office of the Secretary of Defense.

  • 4820.
    Treverton, Gregory F.
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Thvedt, Andrew
    University of Southern California, USA.
    Chen, Alicia R.
    University of Southern California, USA.
    Lee, Kathy
    McCue, Madeline
    University of Southern California, USA.
    Addressing Hybrid Threats2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid threats have become the 21st security challenge for Western countries. They reflect significant change in the nature of international security. Change tends to increase feelings of insecurity and, historically, frictions in society, all the more so because hybrid threats are complex and ambiguous. Some people look to the past for answers, while others have forgotten the past. There are those who argue more vigorously for adapting to change, and there are those who try to defend the status quo. In some cases facts turn into views, opinions and perspectives – or worse, vice versa. This means that the picture of the security environment is not simply black or white. It is complex, multi-layeredand multidimensional. Thus, analysis of what has changed, how it is changed and what does it mean for democratic states is at the core of understanding the nature of the current security environment in Europe.

    This report gives us a rich understanding of what we mean when we talk about hybrid threats drawing upon two case studies: Russia’s interventions in Crimea and Ukraine and in the 2016 U.S. presidential election. It also addresses whatkind of threats we are facing and what tools are being used against the democratic states.

  • 4821.
    Trimintzios, Panagiotis
    et al.
    ENISA.
    Holfeldt, Roger
    Secana.
    Koraeus, Mats
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Uckan, Baris
    Secana.
    Gavrila, Razvan
    ENISA.
    Makrodimitris, Georgios
    ENISA.
    Report on Cyber Crisis Cooperation and Management: Comparative study on the cyber crisis management and the general crisis management2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study is to provide an analysis of cyber crisis management by identifying relations between this emerging field and the better established subject of general crisis management. This includes terminology and key concepts in these fields. This study further seeks to gain knowledge and understanding of the involved actors’ perspectives on the challenges for Cyber Crisis management within the European context.

    The purpose of the study is twofold: to compare concepts from the general crisis management systems with the corresponding systems related to cyber crisis management, and to conduct a conceptual analysis of the language and terminology within these two fields. The primary aim is to analyse the similarities and differences between general and cyber crisis management, employing examples from countries and organizations within the EU.

    Based on interviews with members of key national and EU institutions, and on an analysis of the differences between their practitioner perspectives and the theories of general crisis management, the study arrives at six key areas of recommendations for future activities in the cyber security realm.

  • 4822.
    Tronarp, Astrid
    Swedish Defence University.
    Från oskyldiga offer till nationella säkerhetshot – därför nekas IS-kvinnor att återvända till Väst: en kritisk diskursanalys av västerländsk medierapportering2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis seeks to explain why it is seen as possible and meaningful for Western countries to deny IS women to return home after the fall of the Caliphate. Earlier, IS women have been allowed to return. According to previous research, women in war are commonly constructed as innocent victims within the “beautiful soul” narrative. Violent women interrupt this narrative and have traditionally been seen as deviant. Female terrorism is often explained by sexual obsession or dysfunction. Both these narratives construct women in war as apolitical without agency. Accordingly, women have not been viewed as security threats since their motives are personal rather than political. If that is still the case, there should be no obstacles for IS women to come home. The thesis use Faircloughs critical discourse analysis to examine western media coverage in order to explain why Western countries deny IS women to return. The empirical analysis displays a discursive transformation, where IS women are described as dangerous, decision-making political agents which could compose national security threats. This shift has made new political practices possible.

  • 4823.
    Troy, Jodok
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Dag Hammarskjöld: An International Civil Servant Uniting Mystics and Realistic Diplomatic Engagement2010In: Diplomacy & Statecraft, ISSN 0959-2296, E-ISSN 1557-301X, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 434-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nation's secretary-general from 1953 to 1961, Dag Hammarskjöld, whose spiritual beliefs influenced his political activity, was searching for universality and solidarity as written in the charter of the UN. While in office, Hammarskjöld was able to unite personal belief and political rationale. This is the main reason he became a respected and true international civil servant. Hammarskjöld was neither a pure idealist nor a pure realist. This article examines the moral but not moralistic life and legacy of Hammarskjöld, who united mystics and realistic political engagement. In doing so it draws on the lessons learned from a “practical mystical” and international civil servant. This is chiefly done by using the English School approach of international relations theory while at same time pointing out the impact of positive mimesis. By devoting his private life to God, Hammarskjöld was able to devote his political life to the UN.

  • 4824.
    Trygg, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University.
    En fallstudie om arbetstillfredsställelse och personalomsättning inom armén2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is a problem that officers and non-commissioned officers leave the army in a wider range than expected. This study explores the impact of job-satisfaction at work among officers and non-commissioned officers and how job-satisfaction contribute to officers and non-commissioned officer’s intentions to stay in or leave the armed forces. Fredrich Herzberg’s two-factor theory is used to survey job satisfaction and William H. Mobley´s intermediate linkages turnover model is used to examine the relationship between job-satisfaction and employee turnover intentions.

    Data were gathered by interview of 17 officers and non-commissioned officers of the Swedish armed forces.

    Results show that there is a difference between officers and non-commissioned officers intentions to leave the armed forces. Security in employment is the factor that has most impact on officers’ intensions to leave the armed forces. For non-commissioned officers the two factors that have most impact is the possibility for development and payment in relation to responsibility. 

  • 4825.
    Trygged, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University.
    "Sverige är inte vakuumförpackat": En kvalitativ innehållsanalys av mediers hotbildskonstruktion av två extremistiska dåd i Sverige2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The threat from violent extremism has become prioritized in the Swedish political discourse. Right wing extremism is the most common form of extremism. However, Islamist extremism is seen as the most severe threat against the Swedish society. Previous research indicates that there is an institutionalized view that foreigners are seen as more dangerous than home-grown extremists. The overall aim of this study is to examine how identity can contribute to the understanding of violent extremism as a threat. This is done by using a qualitative text analysis guided by framing and securitization theory in order to analyse how Swedish press has framed two extremist crimes. The study concludes that media frames the two threats differently and that the right wing-extremist is perceived as an individual unlike the Islamist perpetrator who is portrayed as a representative for a greater threat.

  • 4826.
    Träff, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Den militära flygutbildningen - kunde Försvarsmakten påverka beslutet?2002Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces have a long tradition in co-operation with the politicaldecision-makers in the Swedish Government and in Parliament, concerning mattersthat affect the Armed Forces’ administration. One occasion, when the SwedishArmed Forces and the Swedish Government were co-operating, is about theGovernment bill; The New Defence, spring 2000. One of the issues that thegovernment could not create a political majority for was, where to place the AirForce Flying Training School. That inflicted upon the whole Air Force for more thana year, creating uncertainty in the organization and among personnel about thefuture. When at last the issue was meant to come to an end in spring 2001, thepoliticians in the Defence Board could not agree upon a solution. The threat of aprolonged situation without a decision piled up.From a point of view based on the doctrine of the public administration the questionin this paper is; if and in that case, how the Armed Forces tried to affect the politicaldecision-making process about the Air Force Flying Training School? And in thatcase, what was the result of the administration’s efforts?The theory used in the paper is based upon Rune Premfors’ model for studies ofpolicy process. The method used is a combination of a study of a text and a casestudy. The result shows that the Armed Forces tried to influence the decision-makersto take a decision that was acceptable for the Armed Forces. The result seems to benothing at first glance, but if you take a closer look at the result of the efforts, someadvantages do appear.

  • 4827.
    Träff, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University.
    Ett gemensamt verktyg för tillverkning av telekrigsbibliotek?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Försvarsmaktens telekrigsstödenhet (TKSE) har uppgiften att försörja Försvarsmaktens Varning- och motverkanssystem (VMS) med telekrigsbibliotek. Telekrigsbibliotek krävs för att VMS, skall fungera. Med ett gemensamt verktyg för flera VMS, kan den militära nyttan höjas. Genom att möjliggöra att flera system kan samverka vid produktionen, kan flera svaga hypoteser kan blir starkare. Dock kommer detta inte att vara enkelt på grund av den finansiering modell som Försvarsmakten arbetar med. Den som ansvarar för plattformutrustning och producerande enhet har inte alltid möjlighet att nå den optimala lösningen på grund av andra hänsynstaganden.

  • 4828.
    Tulldahl, H. Michael
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Steinvall, K. O.
    Analytical waveform generation from small objects in lidar bathymetry1999In: Applied Optics, ISSN 0003-6935, E-ISSN 1539-4522, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 1021-1039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a model to simulate receiver waveforms from an airborne sea-depth-sounding lidar to compare the influence that is due to different shapes of objects placed on the sea bottom. The objects are of size 1 m(3), and the bottom depths are 5-12 m. We use an existing analytical beam-propagation model and divide the bottom into squares. For each element on the bottom grid we create a transmitted and a reflected waveform. The waveforms are summed, yielding a total contribution from all bottom elements. We compare two object types, cylinder and cube, and find that the difference in the receiver waveform is small between these objects. Simulated waveforms are compared with experimental data from the Swedish Hawk Eye system and show good agreement.

  • 4829.
    Tunefjord, Joakim
    Swedish Defence University.
    Vilka skillnader finns i motivation mellan de armérekryter som tänker stanna i Försvarsmakten och de som inte tänker det?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s Armed Forces are based on volunteers, recruits who choose to conduct a basic military training course called GMU. After basic training the recruits may choose to continue in the Armed Forces or not. This can cause a problem as recruits have the option to quit after the training if it doesn’t appeal or due to a lack of motivation to stay. The purpose of this study is to examine what motivates recruits within their work place and to clarify what separates the army recruits who wish to continue and those who quit. What is the difference in motivation between army recruits who wish to stay in the Armed Forces and those who plan not to? A survey based study is applied to find out what differences there are in the motivation between army recruits who wish to stay in the Armed Forces and those who chose to quit. 119 army recruits from Livgardet chose to complete the survey. The result shows that there are no major differences between those who chose to stay in the Armed Forces and those who chose to quit. The differences that do occur are that the recruits who chose to stay are motivated by an appealing balance of work and free time as well as the possibility of missions abroad.

     

  • 4830.
    Tuvesson, Madeleine
    Swedish Defence University.
    Reklamensförmedling av militär profession: En kritisk granskning av Försvarsmaktens reklamsatsning 2012 – 20132013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces annually spend large funds annually on various advertising campaigns to promote the organization and to attract people to the careers offered by the Swedish Armed Forces. Obviously, this needs to be done if you want to recruit for a professional army. The purpose of this study is to examine the message of the Swedish Armed Forces advertising campaigns, what of those who advocate and whether there are factors that seem counter-appointment of the military profession and the Swedish Armed Forces.

    Consequently, a qualitative study is conducted to explore the campaign material, applying Norman Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis supplemented by a semiologic analysis of the images, as well as the theories of media influence and media rhetoric.

    The results of the study suggest that the Swedish Armed Forces campaigns are aimed at inviting its recipients to respond to the various situations portrayed, thus trying to penetrate the consumer's personal sphere.

    All campaigns can in various ways be linked to the Swedish Armed Forces core values ​​where the concept - transparency, performance and accountability - is central. Moreover, connections to the Armed Forces vision; units operate, are seen and respected in Sweden and abroad have been identified.

    As far as media is concerned the commercials are regarded to hold an appropriate tone considering the target audience and Swedish Armed Forces view on equal rights and gender equality.

  • 4831.
    Tverbakk, Rolf Arild Lie
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Russisk maritimt diplomati i tiden etter 2000. Hvor er det på vei?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [no]

    Den Russiske Føderasjonen har siden milleniumskiftet hatt en økonomisk oppgang, blant annet gjennom at de fikk et regimeskiftet på slutten av 1990-tallet til et mer fokusert lederskap. I forbindelse med dette har og Russland markert seg sterkere på den utenrikspolitiske arena, og spesiellt de siste årene har de og markert seg sterkere militært.

    Denne avhandlingen skal belyse om Russland siden milleniumskiftet har tatt i bruk en mer provoserende holdning sjømilitært. Med andre ord, hvordan har bruken av maritimt diplomati utviklet seg i Russland?

    Det blir sett på begrep utviklet av sjømilitære forskere. I utgangspunktet er det Le Mières definisjoner som blir brukt, men disse blir utviklet av forfatteren før de blir tatt i bruk.

    Kjente eksempler på russisk maritimt diplomati blir tatt frem og kategorisert, for så å sette de opp kronologisk.

    Resultatet viser at Russland har brukt maritimt diplomati aktivt, spesiellt siden 2005, og at mye av bruken har vært for å bygge opp under en strategi som går ut på å markere Russland som en militær og politisk stormakt. Resultatet viser og at det har skjedd en endring i Russlands bruk av maritimt diplomati. I undersøkelsen kommer denne endringen fram i 2012, og det kan regnes som sansynlig at det har sammenheng med en ny utenrikspolitisk linje i Russland i 2006 og reform i forsvaret i 2008. Resultatet viser og en indikasjon på at Russland kjører en ekstra konfronterende linje mot Norge sammenlignet med andre NATO-nasjoner.

  • 4832.
    Tyrberg, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hegemonic bodies in robotic warfare: A critical discursive analysis of drone warfare through a feminist perspective2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a critical discourse analysis of robotic warfare through a feminist perspective. The study aims to investigate how gender norms and militarization affects the drone operators within the United Stated Armed Forces. Also, whether the drone operator’s gender anxiety created in a hegemonic masculine and militarized society embodies the drones and shapes robotic warfare. The theoretical framework is based on three concepts within feminist war theory, namely hegemonic masculinity, militarism and militarization, and embodiment. The thesis analyses text and social practices in accordance with Norman Fairclough’s approach to Critical Discourse Analysis. The collected data consists of text such as speeches made by the former president Barack Obama, but also narratives, the image of the drone, as well as societal practices such as whether the drone operators decide to fire, what their reactions are and what actions are taken by different actors that could be understood as protecting a gender identity.  The thesis finds that robotic warfare can indeed be understood to be shaped by gender norms and militarism. The competition of hegemonic positions in society influence how the drone operators behave and who is targeted, this shapes the way war is practiced using drones.

  • 4833. Täljedal-Blomgren, I-L.
    et al.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, FOA 55, Beteendevetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lilieblad, B.
    Rapport över tjänsteresa till Norge 1978-06-14--15: Förbandspsykologi: Studiebesök för att inhämta utländska erfarenheter när det gäller verksamhet med psykologer vid förband1978Report (Other academic)
  • 4834. Täljedal-Blomgren, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, FOA 55, Beteendevetenskapliga institutionen.
    Psykologverksamhet vid I 13/Fo 53 1976/771977Report (Other academic)
  • 4835.
    Tälle, Jan-Åke
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Den militära professionen krigare: polis - instruktör - lärare: välj själv!2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4836.
    Törnblom Franzén, Karin
    Swedish Defence University.
    Förekommer könssegregering vid högre militär utbildning?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka om och i vilken utsträckning det finns skillnader i mäns och kvinnors förutsättningar för genomförande och fullföljande av högre nivåhöjande militär utbildning. Utbildningarnas strukturer studeras ur ett genusperspektiv och analysen genomförs utifrån Kanters teori om skeva grupper och dess påverkan på den kvinnliga minoriteten, s.k. tokens. Studien, som görs ur ett organisationsperspektiv, konstaterar en systematiserad särskiljning av de studerande baserat på kön och ett vidmakthållande av genussystemet. Motivet till särskiljning av de kvinnliga studerande är att studiegrupperna ska vara så allsidigt sammansatta som möjligt, anledningarna till särskiljning förklaras med beprövad erfarenhet, gruppeffektivitet och överspridning av kompetens. Könsproportionaliteten och dess effekter; synlighet, kontrast och assimilering, påverkar enligt Kanter specifikt minoriteten kvinnors studieresultat negativt. Konsekvenserna för minoriteten kvinnor diskuteras teoretiskt utifrån empirin ur ett organisationsperspektiv. De kan förklaras utifrån bl.a. marginalisering av kvinnors militära kompetens, specifika förväntningar på enskild studerande och ett begränsat handlingsutrymme för tokens till följd av generaliseringar av kvinnor.

  • 4837.
    Törnblom, Johan
    Swedish Defence University.
    Militär nytta i Adenviken: En undersökning av de system som används för piratbekämpning2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the counterpiracy in the Gulf of Aden. Pirates has made the international community deploy military forces to police the Gulf of Aden. However most of the systems usedare not designed for counterpiracy. Many are remnants from the cold war. Also downsizing of military forces in the West has resulted in the need to prioritize resources.

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze five systems fighting pirates in the Gulf of Aden using Andersson et al. (2015)´s theory of military utility. The five systems are: light utility helicopter, medium utility helicopter, reconnaissance aircraft, combat boat and drone on tasks of detect, disrupt and deter. With the analysis the thesis discuss how the Swedish Armed Forces can use available recourses more efficiently as possible to aid in producing a greater operative effect on the national and international arena.

    The conclusions show that all systems have the potential to contribute to counterpiracy. Reconnaissance aircraft and drones are suitable to detect pirates. Light utility helicopters are able to detect and disrupt and partially deter. The combat boats are suitable to disrupt and deter. The medium utility helicopters are suitable for all three tasks. The thesis concludes with discussing the importance of the subsystems carried and its effects on a system´s military utility.

  • 4838.
    Törnell, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University.
    HYBRIDKRIGFÖRING BORTOM VETENSKAPEN: en studie av samförståndet mellan den vetenskapliga uppfattningen avhybridkrigföring, och den hos säkerhetspolitiska aktörer2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid warfare has experienced a considerable scientific boost and is today seen by many research-ers as the primary threat to peace and security in the world. The scientific community agrees that hybrid warfare brings with it serious threats, hence the need for new and improved security policy efforts. Very little effort has been made to examine the view of the security policy actors though, with the risk being that future security policy and strategy will be misdirected.The purpose of this study is therefore to examine if a joint understanding between the scientific view on hybrid warfare and the security policy actors view on the 21st century threats exists by ana-lysing strategic and political decision-making documents. The research design is that of a qualita-tive case study using two cases, Switzerland and Sweden.The result shows that even though a joint understanding in many respects do exist, there are con-siderable discrepancies between the two approaches. Although these are few, it turns out that these not only have serious consequences for the correlation, but also for the war science discipline and for the security policy actors.

  • 4839.
    Törner, Carl
    Swedish Defence University.
    Swedish Finnish Naval Task Group: fallstudie i samarbetets innebörd2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, Sweden's and most of Europe's defense budgets have fallen. It has created a greater need between countries for the cost-effective maintenance of defense capabilities. The Swedish Finnish Naval Task Group (SFNTG) is a part of this trend. It will be operational in 2023 and aims to jointly use the marine forces of the countries in a cost-effective way. In this case study, the cooperation in SFNTG between Swedish and Finnish combat boats is investigated. Based on the increased need for defense cooperation, different concepts for describing and applying collaborations in the short and long term have been created. In this work the term Joint Force Generation was used to analyze the different systems of the Swedish and Finnish combat boats. The term Pooling & Sharing was used to analyze cooperation in the longer term.

    The purpose is to explore how the political and strategic plans will work on the tactical level of cooperation. Empiricism has been gathered through interviews by officers from both countries. Literature study of reports on the meaning of cooperation have been made. The work was limited to research & development, maintenance, management and material purchases. The interviews showed that the different communicationsystems in the combat boats required extra human resources and a common communicationsystem was desirable.

    Conclusions are that there are shortcomings of a functioning relationship for the combat boats to meet the requirements of the year 2023. The use of each other's bases as another goal must coordinate logistics, training and warehousing to create better impact. In the longer perspective a greater political understanding must be for the importance of the joint material purchases. The major gain is in cost savings through various forms of collective research development.

  • 4840.
    Törngren, Marcus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Statsförfall – Transnationellt terroristskydd eller temporärt gömställe?2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many theories describe failed states as potential threats to international security due to the breeding ground they constitute for transnational terrorism. Ken Menkhaus believes however that transnational terrorists are dependent on a state for their own protection in order to be able to operate.

    This essay seeks out the relevance in Ken Menkhaus’ theory which states that transnational terrorists rather exploit corrupted states than operate in countries where there is a state collapse. His theory will be applied on a case study on post-Libya after Gadhafi’s fall. The study, which is a mixed method study, will separate and compare the three regions of Libya; Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan where different types of states have emerged since Gadhafi’s fall. The number of transnational terrorist attacks reported in documents and their cause-and-effect relationship will be analyzed.

    The results of the study indicate that the Menkhaus-theory is relevant when it comes to counting the attacks since terrorists operate where there is state presence. But when looking at the cause-and-effect relationship the results show that terrorist don’t need the protection of the state to operate, they work overtly to take over.

  • 4841.
    Törnqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Hastily Formed Networks for Disaster Response: Technical Heterogeneity and Virtual Pockets of Local Order2009In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: Boundry Spanning Initiatives and New Perspectives / [ed] Jonas Landgren och Susanne Jul, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As natural and man-made disasters become increasingly common, ensuring effective disaster response, mitigation and recovery is growing into a high-priority task for governments and administrations globally. This paper describes the challenges of collaboration within multi-organisational hastily formed networks for post-disaster response, which are increasingly relying on emerging ICT infrastructures for communication and cooperation. We present an interdisciplinary analysis of the conditions for establishing an effective mutual conversation space for involved stakeholders, and how the development of socio-technological systems affects cognitive and behavioural aspects such as established communities of practice and virtual pockets of local order.

    Our observations thus far suggest that some of the key issues are overcoming organisational and cultural heterogeneity, and finding solutions for technical interoperability, to ensure effective, pervasive and sustainable information exchange within and between organisations participating in hastily formed networks.

  • 4842.
    Törnqvist Tibblin, Gustav
    Swedish Defence University.
    The Employment of Doctrine within the Academic Education of Swedish Officers2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Doctrines are by nature dogmatic and academic education is by nature skeptic. As the two perspectivesare opposites to each other it would be plausible to assume that the nature of their contradictionwould exist between doctrines and military academic education.

    Though no research has been madeon how or to what extent these contradictions exist.This thesis aims therefore to investigate the relation between Swedish doctrines and military academiceducation from dogmatic and skeptical perspectives. Consequently, explaining to what extentthey correspond to one another and how they can be compared.

    The result reveals that Swedish doctrines generally correspond to military academic education to alow degree, where deviations may range from very low to moderate. The analysis further displaysstrong multifaceted dissonance in their correspondence to one another, but also within Swedish doctrinesand military academic education separately.

  • 4843.
    Ubby, Gustaf
    Swedish Defence University.
    Media som vapen: En kvalitativ studie om hur media används i den moderna konflikten2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Information warfare is becoming a greater component in modern conflicts. This study aims to expand the understanding on how media can be used partly in the waging of war and explores how media’s role is changing. Media in the new generation of warfare has not been studied deeply, though it is believed to play a bigger role than before.

    In a qualitative case study of the Russian governmentally financed news agency RT (formerly known as Russia Today), this thesis examines how the Russian narrative was presented and the way in which media was used during the Georgian conflict in 2008 compared to the annexation of Crimea in 2014.

    This study concludes that the use of media in warfare has evolved in to play a more complex and central role in the waging of war than before. Media was integrated and used as a part of the warfare in the annexation of Crimea, by framing the political agenda in profitable ways for the Russian narrative and thereby, achieve the same results as by military power, but with less use of force. Media´s role was more sophisticated and played a central part of the information warfare in the annexation of Crimea in 2014, compared to the Georgian conflict in2008, where media made out to play a more supportive role.

  • 4844.
    Uckan Färnman, Baris
    et al.
    Secana.
    Koraeus, Mats
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Backman, Sarah
    Secana.
    Gavrila, Razvan (Editor)
    ENISA.
    Trimintzios, Panagiotis (Contributor)
    Stavropoulos, Vangelis (Commentator for written text)
    ENISA.
    Zacharis, Alexandros (Commentator for written text)
    ENISA.
    The 2015 Report on National and International Cyber Security Exercises: Survey, Analysis and Recommendations2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During this study ENISA gathered and analysed a large set of over 200 exercises. In addition to the exercise dataset, ENISA analysed specialised literature such as after-action reports and previous studies that have contributed to the analysis. This report includes a model for describing and reporting on such exercises. The study is a step forward towards better resource for planning and collaboration between nations and agencies interested in cybersecurity exercises. The findings show a continuous and accelerated increase in the total amount of exercises held after 2012, as well as an increase in the number of cooperative exercises involving private and public actors. This indicates that it is not just a matter of public agencies running more exercises, but also of more actors benefiting from these exercises.

  • 4845.
    Ucko, David
    et al.
    National Defense Univeristy.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört). Georgetown University.
    Counterinsurgency in Crisis: Britain and the Challenges of Modern Warfare2013Book (Refereed)
  • 4846.
    Uhr, Christian
    et al.
    Lund University Centre for Risk Assessment and Management (LUCRAM), Lund.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Landgren, Jonas
    Department of Applied Information Technology, Chalmers University of Technology & University of Gothenburg.
    Holmberg, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Koelega, Samuel
    Division of Risk Management and Societal Safety, Lund University Centre for Risk Assessment and Management (LUCRAM), Lund.
    Trnka, Jiri
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Once upon a time in Västmanland: the power of narratives or how the “truth” unfolds2016In: ISCRAM 2016 Conference Proceedings: 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] Andrea H. Tapia, Pedro Antunes, Victor A. Bañuls, Kathleen Moore & João Porto de Albuquerque, ISCRAM, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014 a small fire started in a forest in central Sweden. Within a few days it developed into the largest wildfire in Sweden in the last 50 years. As the scale of the fire increased, so did the need for direction and coordination of the resources engaged in the response operation. Both official investigators and the research community have studied the challenges and come up with recommendations for improvements of the Swedish crisis management system. All authors of this paper have been involved in such efforts. This paper is a result of us trying to formulate lessons learnt based on several written reports and official discussions. The development of the narratives constructed by individuals involved in the response, investigators and researchers is analyzed. We conclude that researchers need to pay attention to their own role in this development. Maybe there is a need for a game changer on the methodological side?

  • 4847.
    Uhrwing, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University.
    Rysk Operationskonst: Utveckling efter kriget mellan Ryssland och Georgien 20082012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The war between Georgia and Russia awakened the world pretty brutally when a small country like Georgia tried to restore order in South Ossetia. The war between the two countries took place over five days in August 2008. This paper discusses the Russian operational art and its development after the war. The starting point is to test the traditional and classic Russian theory of operational art. The aim is to describe and discuss the Russian operational experience and any developments and trends in the Russian Federation's armed forces. The purpose of describing the theory behind the operational art is to create an independent analysis model. The essay’s analysis is based entirely from qualitative research with the collection of qualitative data in the form of texts and documents with a holistic perspective. Initially, the theory chapter is created from an inductive approach to identify, define and describe the operational concept and principles, creating a theoretical model of explanation. The developed analytical model is based on the Russian theory of operational art and takes off from a deductive approach to the collected empirical data. The results of the performed analysis results are interpreted and the product of this presented in the operational conclusions. Russia had a strategic ability to win the war by means of strategic resources related to tempo, simplicity and shock effect on the Georgian troops. Russia carries out a variety of reforms and the outcome of the war demonstrates the importance of Russia having a strategic capacity to make use of one in the type of conflict that Georgia represents. This success shows that the strategic capabilities are initially a success factor, while the deficiencies in the operational and tactical levels cannot be accepted in the long run, but must be developed. Not least relating of the armed forces. These deficiencies were primarily in intelligence, command and in the sustainment capabilities. It turned out pretty clearly that the Russian armed forces used the classical Russian operational art during the war, but they make use of more modern features such as information operations.

  • 4848.
    Ul Hassan Chaudhary, Waquar
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet Inst för Tema.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Object-Based Analysis of Multispectral RS Data and GIS for Detection of Climate Change Impact on the Karakoram Range Northern Pakistan2015In: Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering A, ISSN 2162-5298, E-ISSN 2162-5301, Vol. A, no 4, p. 303-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changing climate has a great impact on northern area of Pakistan’s environment and is more prone to environmentalchanges impacts than rest of the country due to its high elevation. However, melting glaciers effect not only the local environmentbut also the whole country with frequent and heavy floods. Remote sensing (RS) from Satellites and Airplanes used in GeographicalInformation Systems (GIS) are technologies that can aid in understanding the on-going environmental processes. Furthermore, helpresearchers to observe, understand, forecast and suggest response to changes that occur. It can be natural disasters or man-madedisasters and human induced factors. Still analysis accuracy issues play a vital role for the formulation of any strategy. To achievebetter results, object based analysis methods have been tested. Various algorithms are developed by the analysts to calculate themagnitude of land cover changes. However, they must be evaluated for each environment that is under observation as mountainousareas. Here were object-based methods evaluated in comparison with pixel based. Landslides, soil moisture, soil permeability, snowcover and vegetation cover can be effectively monitored by those methods.

  • 4849.
    Ull, Adam
    Swedish Defence University.
    Är Karolinska Institutets varumärke mer värt än ett människoliv?: En fallstudie om Karolinska Institutets kriskommunikation i samband med Paolo Macchiarini-affären2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Karolinska Instituten är en statlig myndighet. Därmed är det extra viktigt att lagar och regler följs. Karolinska Institutets högsta ledning tillsätts av regeringen och den forskning som bedrivs på Karolinska Institutet är världsledande och har ett högt anseende. Förtroende är ett nyckelord och SVT:s dokumentärserie ”Experimentet” återgav en bild som gav eko i världen. Karolinska Institutets förtroende blev rubbat, etik och moral ifrågasattes och patienter dog. Händelsen benämndes Macchiarini-affären och en kris uppstod för Karolinska Institutet.  

    Utvecklingen i samhället har medfört att en kris är en naturlig del av en organisation och inte något ovanligt. En av de viktigaste processer när en kris sker är en organisations förmåga till en fungerande kriskommunikation. Det har bedrivits forskning på området men eftersom varje händelse är unik med många faktorer som påverkar efterfrågas ytterligare forskning. Forskningen är spridd över flera vetenskapliga områden vilket medför att det kan vara svårt att få ett helhetsgrepp över områdena krishantering och kriskommunikation.

    Denna studie grundar sig i en kvalitativ fallstudie av hur Karolinska Institutet kommunicerat i samband med Macchiarini-affären. Som underlag för den empiriska undersökningen används pressmeddelanden från Karolinska Institutet. Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur Karolinska Institutet har kommunicerat under krisen och se vilka försvarsstrategier utifrån image repair theory Karolinska Institutet använde tillsammans med de retoriska appellformerna. Studien har även ett teoretiskt syfte att sammankoppla de retoriska appellformerna med försvarsstrategier från image repair theory. Kriskommunikation, image repair theory och retorik med utgångspunkt av appellformerna utgör det teoretiska ramverket.

    Analysen och resultatet av denna studie ska bidra med en ökad förståelse för kriskommunikation inom statliga verksamheter och dess förvaltning. Med hjälp av studien kommer det gå att utläsa hur Karolinska Institutet kommunicerat samt se om organisationer kan gynnas av att utgå både från image repair theory samt de retoriska appellformerna i sin kriskommunikation.

  • 4850.
    Ullah, Simon
    Swedish National Defence College.
    DOKTRINUTVECKLING: PÅVERKAR FÖRSVARSALLIANSER?: EN JÄMFÖRELSE MELLAN SVERIGE OCH NORGE2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT:

    There are many theories of which the doctrine development process is described, both in a generalperspective and more specific for either large or small states. Where one of them shows that smallstates have a limited ability to develop their doctrines, and are required to implement experiencesthat larger states have obtained through international operations and war. This statement is thefoundation of the thesis and is used to analyse the doctrine development process for small statesregardless of membership to a military alliance. The thesis compares Swedish and Norwegianmilitary doctrines through a case study to determine how the doctrine development process isstructured and if it complies with the arguments from the theories about doctrine development.The result of the thesis shows that the process is similar between the countries, and therefore thedoctrines are developed in a similar way, regardless of a membership to a military alliance.

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