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  • 4751.
    Thisner, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Historiska institutionen.
    Indelta inkomster: En studie av det militära löneindelningsverket 1721-18332014Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine the newer Military Allotment Establishment and thereby to elucidatein detail one of the linchpins of the redistribution system of the Swedish state. The question beingresearched is how this resource-system functioned in practice in Sweden during the 1721–1833 period.

    The Allotment Establishment was one of the cornerstones of the Swedish state: substantial parts ofboth the military forces and the civil administration were paid and maintained by it. It was thus a largeand important societal institution. Its “heyday” overlapped with a time of relatively extensive economictransformation. However we currently have major gaps in our understanding of how the system worked inpractice. This study of the Allotment Establishment thus provides key insights into how an important partof the early modern Swedish state functioned. The study has been conducted through a comparison betweenfour allotted infantry regiments, located in four regions with different economic conditions.

    The Military Allotment Establishment performed in a heterogeneous way. In some areas, the salariesit provided were high, whereas in other they were less beneficial. This was due to the fact that thecomposition of the allocated taxes varied. Taxes paid in cash were sensitive to inflation, taxes paid ingrain were the most favourable ones. Other reasons had to do with differing agricultural developments,where the revenue from allotted farms in some areas developed more positively than others over time.These differences increased over time. It has also been shown that the allotment farms were run indifferent ways in different parts of the realm. In Uppland, a grain producing region home to manymanors, these farms were generally leased out, whereas in Västerbotten, a more peripheral region dominatedby husbandry, they were often run by their allotment holders. One central finding is that thesystem as such was heavily market integrated. This result implies that the rationality behind the systemmight not, as previously has been assumed; necessarily have to do with the structure of the output ofthe Swedish economy, but rather with limitations in the fiscal organisation.

  • 4752.
    Thisner, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Military History Section.
    Leverantörer och profitörer. Olika geografiska områdens och sociala gruppers handel med fästningsbygget Sveaborg under den första byggnadsperioden 1748–17562017In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, no 1, p. 122-124Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 4753.
    Thisner, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Manning the armed forces: the Swedish solution2008In: Conscription in the Napoleonic Era: A Revolution in Military Affairs? / [ed] Donald Stoker, Frederic C. Schneid and Harold D. Blanton, New York: Routledge , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4754.
    Thisner, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Padenie sistemy pereraspredelenija: Analiz oficerskoj kar’ery v Shvecii, Danii i Norvegii 1720-1800-x godov2010In: Izvestija Smolenskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta, Vol. 1, no 9, p. 159-171Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4755.
    Thisner, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Military History Section.
    Propaganda som genre, organisationsform och påverkansmedel: Recension av Jimmy Vulovic, Propaganda: Historia, teori och analys2019In: Militärhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0283-8400, Vol. 2018, p. 132-136Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 4756.
    Thisner, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Soldattorp i Uppland: Soldatfamiljernas hus och levnadsvillkor2013In: Militärhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0283-8400, p. 230-231Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 4757.
    Thisner, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Värdet och vådan av historiska fallstudier: En betraktelse över begreppet krigföringsförmåga ur ett historiskt perspektiv2009In: Tankar om fälttåg / [ed] Peter Ahlström & Ulf Högström, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2009, p. 187-206Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4758.
    Thisner, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Military History Section.
    Återtagandet av markstridskrafterna 2020-2030: Arméns personalförsörjning, utbildningskapacitet samt förmågehöjning av de nationella skyddsstyrkorna2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten behandlar tre aspekter av ett militärt återtagande inom ramen för markstridskrafterna, närmare bestämt personalförsörjningen, utveckling av de nationella skyddsstyrkorna samt förslag med bäring på en ökning av utbildningskapaciteten.

    Avseende personalförsörjningen diskuteras de åtgärder som bör vidtas för att med plikten som redskap möjliggöra skapandet av förband med professionell profil.

    Beträffande förband med särskild inriktning mot gråzonsproblematik och mötandet av hybrida hot, behandlas nödvändigheten av att behärska vilseledning och skenmålskonstruktion samt bekämpandet av drönare. Därutöver diskuteras prioriteringarna av de underhålls- och understödsförband som måste tillföras organisationen samt hur hemvärnets personalförsörjning kan säkras intill 2030.

    Slutligen berörs möjligheten att med prefabricerade kaserner, inordnade i karusellsystem och genom samverkan med Finland skapa en större fysisk infrastruktur för utbildningsändamål.

  • 4759.
    Thisner, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Edgren, Henrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Edquist, Samuel
    Södertörns högskola.
    Sveriges historia2011In: Utbildningshistoria: en introduktion / [ed] Esbjörn Larsson och Johannes Westberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2011, p. 27-42Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4760.
    Thisner, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Military History Section.
    Garpenhag, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Military History Section.
    Försvarsmaktens utlandsveteraner: Historiska aspekter på dagens svenska veteranpolitik, ca. 1956-20102016Report (Other academic)
  • 4761.
    Thomsson, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Legitimitet i förändring: En analys av säkerhetsrådets förändrade syn på legitimitet i fredsbevarande operationer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The UN doctrine for Peacekeeping operations is based on three fundamental principles for obtaining legitimacy for military operations. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the change in the UN Security Council's view of legitimacy and the use of force in the context of the UN Peacekeeping Operation in Mali between 2013 -2016, and how this has been demonstrated in the robust mandate authorized by the UN Security Council. Using Fairclough´s Critical Discourse Analysis Model, together with the resolutions and debates from the Security Council that constitutes the MINUSMA mandate and is the basis for this analysis.

    The analytical results identify two significant changes in the Security Council's view regarding legitimacy and methods, including the use of force applied in the field to defend the integrity of the mandate. Firstly, the view of legitimacy changes from extending support to host-nation authorities, to instead supporting the implementation of the peace agreements. Secondly, the Security Council's view on the use of legitimate force switches from defensive operations to preventive measures. This study fills a research gap on robust mandates, and how the UN's highest decision-making body is evolving its view on legitimacy in peacekeeping operations.

  • 4762.
    Thomé, Patrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    The contentious nature of war: an analysis of military theorists2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate and assess, with Clausewitz’s theory as thebackground, how different military theorists interpret and relate to the nature of war.This essay illustrates the state of research into Clausewitz’s philosophical influences.Clausewitz’s theory of the nature of war is subjected to a qualitative text analysis that is followedby a critique of other military theorists interpretations of his theory. Subsequently a descriptive,comparative qualitative text analysis is performed where the factors identified by Clausewitz asbeing part of the nature of war (“rational thought”, “passion” and “chance”) are used as a meansto interpret and assess how other military theorists relate to Clausewitz theory. This essay ismainly founded on analysis of the works of Jomini, Delbrück, Fuller, Liddell Hart, Handel,Roxborough, van Creveld and Keegan. The analysis concludes with a categorization andassessment of the other theorists’ critiques of Clausewitz’s theory. The result shows that theircritiques are founded on parts of Clausewitz’s theory, which have been taken out of context orinterpreted differently than they are in this essay.My analysis of how other military theorists relate to the factors that constitute the nature of waraccording to Clausewitz, shows that all of them interpret his three factors as essential parts of thenature of war. None of them contributes anything new to Clausewitz’s theory of the nature ofwar. Nor do they suggest any alternative explanation of the nature of war that does not fit withinthe framework of Clausewitz’s theory. All in all, the results of this essay consolidateClausewitz’s theory of the nature of war.

  • 4763.
    Thor, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Vinst eller förlust, en studie av Libanonkriget 20062012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How can the outcome of a war be measured, in what way is it possible to impartially determine who won or lost. In many cases the result is obvious, as there is no doubt that Great Britain won the Falklands war, the outcome on the battlefield was equivalent of the perception of who won the war. But in many modern wars the situation can be different, the outcome may be disputed, or it is even hard to understand if the war has finished at all. This essay is using score-keeping theory, which is a way to analyze the outcome of a war, who won? The case analyzed in this essay is the Lebanon war in 2006 which was fought between Israel and Hezbollah and is interesting because the result is both much-disputed and it was fought between a government and an organization that was deployed within and acting from another state. The purpose of this essay is therefore to analyze the 2006 Lebanon war by applying the score-keeping theory. The scientific question to be answered is: Which participant can be stated to have won the 2006 Lebanon war on the basis of score-keeping theory. The design of the study is a theory-consuming survey of the 2006 Lebanon war, where the given variables from the theory are operationalized to be set against a selection from the empirics. The survey´s result shows that according to the score-keeping theory Hezbollah is considered to have won in the 2006 Lebanon war. Furthermore, the survey shows a number of challenges in applying the score-keeping theory in the 2006 Lebanon war, given the asymmetry that prevailed between the participants.

     

  • 4764.
    Thorn, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Gammalt men fortfarande relevant?: En teoriprövande fallstudie i syfte att ifrågasätta rådande paradigm rörande irreguljära konflikter2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uttryck för funderingar har påfunnits om befolkningens stöd innehar den signifikans i irreguljära konflikter som förmedlas av prominenta teoretiker i dagsläget, och därmed avspeglas i aktuella doktriner. Somliga menar att teoretikernas irreguljära krig inte överensstämmer med dagens då dessa författades primärt för att kontra revolutionära uppror. Dessa motsättningar mynnar ut i det vetenskapliga problemet som avses avhandlas, nämligen: innehar faktorn ”stöd från befolkningen” för hög signifikans, i relation till att försätta motståndarens stridande enheter ur stridbart skick, i aktuella styrdokument för irreguljära konflikter?

    Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka om incitament finns för fortsatt, mer djuplodande undersökning i problematiken. Detta görs genom en teoriprövande fallstudie där Sir Charles Edward Callwells teorier i Small Wars: Thier Principles & Practice, vilka uttalat förespråkar att motståndarens enheter ska slås, appliceras på Vietnamkriget där den uttalade strategin inledningsvis innebar vinnandet av befolkningens stöd.

    Slutsatsen av studiens resultat anses vara att fortsatt forskning är önskvärd för att kunna befästa eller förkasta kritiken mot rådande paradigm. Bidraget till forskningsläget är därmed förespråkandet av en mer nyanserad bild av hur upprorsbekämpning och irreguljära konflikter kan tacklas.

  • 4765.
    Thornberg, Jack
    Swedish Defence University.
    Distant Suffering: A multimodal analysis of the politics of pity in news agencies’ mediation of the chemical weapons attack on Khan Sheikhoun2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores of how American and British television mediated the crisis that started with the 4 April 2017 alleged chemical attack in Syria and culminated with the subsequent attack on Syria by the United States 7 April 2017. It builds upon a rich literature and focuses on the politics of pity in the mediated representation of distant suffering as set out by Luc Boltanski. The thesis utilizes a methodological approach which merges Lilie Chouliaraki’s ‘analytics of mediation’ with Roxanne Lynn Doty’s view of discourse analysis. The results find that CNNW mediated the distant suffering based on ostensibly a priori knowledge, whereas BBC News was more inclined to guide the spectators along a line of investigative reasoning.

  • 4766.
    Thornblad, Lisa
    Swedish Defence University.
    Ledarskap under stress: En teoriprövande fallstudie på BA012013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inriktningen för det svenska försvaret är att uppnå ett flexibelt och rörligt insatsförsvar. Akut stress under krigsliknande situationer är något dagens officer kan komma att ställas inför, vilket ställer höga krav på officeren och de militära ledarskapsförmågorna.

    Med tanke på den nya inriktningen inom Försvarsmakten är det högst aktuellt att undersöka om det officeren lär sig under utbildning stämmer överens med verkligheten och om teorier kan anses som relevanta även under insats. Är teorier som lärs ut vid Försvarsmaktens ledarskapsutbildning tillämpbara i praktiken?

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka om teorier kring ledarskap under stress, som lärs ut inom Försvarsmakten, överensstämmer med officerens ledarskap vid internationella insatser.

    Genom en deduktiv logik genomförs en teoriprövande fallstudie på BA01, utifrån en kvalitativ metod och textanalys. Det utvalda fallet analyseras utifrån en svensk modell för ledarskap under akut stress.

    Slutsatserna för denna undersökning är:

    -          Vald teori fungerar i praktiken och är ytterst relevant för militärt ledarskap i internationella insatser.

    -          En stabil grund i det vardagliga ledarskapet, kopplat till ledaren och organisationen, gynnar beslutsfattande under akut stress.

    -          Det är viktigt att förstå vilka bakomliggande faktorer som kan påverka ledarskapet under akut stress och ämnet måste därför undersökas från flera perspektiv och ses som en del av ett större sammanhang.

    -          Ledarskap påverkas av förhållandet mellan chefen och dennes underställda, men även hur väl samarbetet fungerar inom organisationen såväl med likställda som högre chefer. Ledarskap bör därför analyseras utifrån olika nivåer.

    -          Ett situationsanpassat ledarskap, en förmåga att analysera vilket förhållningssätt är mest lämpligt vid tillfället, bör finnas hos varje ledare.

  • 4767.
    Thorvaldsen, Knut Henry
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Russland - fortsatt en trussel for Norge etter den kalde krigen?: en studie av Forsvarsdepartementets og Utenriksdepartementets responser på endrede sikkerhetspolitiske omgivelser2001Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The end of the Cold War increased the political stability in Europe and reduced the risk of a future war between NATO and its former enemy; the Warsaw Pact. Instead NATO in its strategic concept of 1991 introduced a broad concept of security encompassing political, economic, social and environmental aspects along with the military dimension. NATO no longer faced the former threat of a massive attack from the East. This new thinking challenged the Norwegian approach to security that had been characterised by national consensus during the Cold War.The aim of this paper is to examine to what extent Norwegian authorities have changed their view upon and relations towards Russia during the 1990s. Has the Norwegian approach been changed or is it still characterised by the Cold War. The paper has been concentrated on examining the responses of the Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.  The theory used is focusing on change and stability in foreign policy. The theory discusses a variety of factors that may have an impact on whether a specific foreign policy is likely to endure or to change. It stresses the importance of the impact of stabilisers, tending to inhibit change in foreign policy even when there is a pressure for change.The method used is a descriptive analysis with a comparative view. I have examined official parliamentary bills from the Ministries and official speeches. This to find out if their responses is characterised by change or continuation of Cold War policies. As a major part I described the development of a wider security concept, the development in NATO as for the military forces in the Northwestern part of Russia.Conclusions show to an extensive point that there are differences in the Ministries responses. This includes both the degree and the extent of the response. The Ministry of Defence is more dominated by the traditional thinking - Russia could still be a potential threat to Norwegian security. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs response is corresponding more to major NATO members' responses. The Russian threat is not the military one, but an environmental. The solution to future challenges is in their point of view co-operation.

  • 4768.
    Thunholm, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Decision-making style: habit, style or both?2004In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 931-944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relations between individual decision-making styles as measured by the General Decision-making Style (GDMS) test, developed by Scott and Bruce (1995), and some mental abilities theoretically related to decision-making. Participants were 206 Swedish military officers from all services. The multiple regression analysis showed that the Rational, Dependent and Avoidant, but not the Intuitive and Spontaneous decision-making styles could be partly predicted from scores on the Self-esteem Scales (Forsman & Johnson, 1996) and from scores on the Action Control Scales (Kuhl, 1994). The result indicates that decision-making style is not only reflective of habits and thinking practices as proposed in earlier research. Decision-making style also involves basic self-evaluation and the general ability to initiate and maintain intentions (i.e. self-regulation). This calls for a wider definition of the term decision-making style, a holistic definition that takes the whole individual into consideration.

  • 4769.
    Thunholm, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Decision-Making Styles and Physiological Correlates of Negative Stress: Is There a Relation?2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 213-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are 5 independent, although not mutually exclusive, styles used by military officers when making decisions: rational, intuitive, dependent, avoidant, and spontaneous (Scott & Bruce, 1995). The rational and intuitive styles are part of the cognitive style concept, whereas the conceptual foundation of the remaining 3 styles is less clear. The dependent and the avoidant styles were expected to be accompanied by increased levels of negative stress, while this was not expected of the remaining 3 styles. This hypothesis was put to test. Twenty-three male Swedish Army majors were asked to make decisions in 2 different military situations. Their decision styles were measured by the General Decision Making Style inventory (GDMS; Scott & Bruce, 1995). Saliva cortisol release indicated negative stress and was measured on 4 occasions: twice before, after the first decision, and after the second decision. The avoidant style was related to negative stress, as predicted. There was, however, no difference between the base-line measurements and the after-decision measurements, suggesting that officers with an avoidant decision style may, in general, have higher levels of cortisol secretion (i.e., being more of the worrying kind).

  • 4770.
    Thunholm, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Managing Complex Military Planning - Processes and Techniques Used by Experienced and Less Experienced Commanders2011In: Informed by Knowledge: Expert Performance in Complex Situations / [ed] K. Mosier, U Fisher, New York: Psychology Press, 2011, p. 123-135Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4771.
    Thunholm, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Military Leaders and Followers: Do They Have Different Decision Styles?2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 317-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are five different, although not mutually exclusive, styles exhibited by military officers when making decisions: rational, intuitive, dependent, avoidant, and spontaneous (Scott & Bruce, 1995). The purpose was to investigate if elected leaders of military planning teams had a different configuration of decision-making styles than their team members. Participants were 98 army captains organized in 16 brigade-level planning teams. The results indicate that team leaders tended to be more spontaneous and less rational, dependent and avoidant in their style configuration than their team members. One possible explanation is that the style configuration exhibited by many of the elected leaders comes through to others as forcefulness and decisiveness and that such a profile is in line with a general leadership culture. The results also provide support for the General Decision-Making Style inventory as a measurement of decision styles, because they suggest that the self-reports coincide with displayed, observable behavior.

  • 4772.
    Thunholm, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Planering av operationer2018In: Militära arbetsmetoder: en lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm, Jerker Widén, Niklas Wikström, Malmö: Universus Academic Press , 2018, p. 85-126Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet är det första av tre kapitel (kapitel 4-6) som beskriver några av de aktiviteter, eller militära arbetsmetoder, som ingår i den militära ledningsprocessen. Inledningsvis beskrivs den militära ledningsprocessen i mer övergripande mening, i syfte att fungera som en inramning till dessa tre kapitel. Efter beskrivningen av ledningsprocessen definieras begreppet planering i historiskt perspektiv. Sedan beskrivs hur planering kommer in i militär verksamhet, tillsammans med en kortfattad beskrivning av några centrala militära planeringsbegrepp. Därefter beskrivs två traditionella militära planeringsmetoder, där deras uppbyggnad förklaras och deras styrkor/svagheter diskuteras i skenet av modern forskning om militär planering. Sedan diskuteras hur olika faktorer kan påverka planeringsprocessens genomförande. Avslutningsvis beskrivs några mer sentida modeller för militär operationsplanering på förbandsnivå, skillnader och likheter dem emellan förklaras och deras styrkor jämfört med traditionell planeringsmetodik diskuteras.

    Fokus i kapitlet ligger på militär planering av operationer på förbandsnivå. Tanken är att läsaren skall förstå hur planering kan stödjas med planeringsmetodik och vad som kännetecknar olika sådana metoder. Beskrivningen och diskussionen av planeringsmetodik på förbandsnivå, som följer nedan, kan kritiseras för att vara fokuserad mot markstridskrafter med det beror i huvudsak på att det historiskt sett är företrädare för markstridskrafterna som primärt drivit utvecklingen av planeringsmetoder på förbandsnivå. De övriga stridskraftslagen har i hög utsträckning valt att följa utvecklingen inom markstridskrafterna eftersom denna metodik upplevts som funktionell och ändamålsenlig. Forskare har också, med få undantag, studerat planering inom markstridskrafterna.

  • 4773.
    Thunholm, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Providing Battlespace Information to Reduce Uncertainty: Will More Information Lead to Better Plans?2008In: Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, ISSN 1555-3434, E-ISSN 2169-5032, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 295-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One basic assumption behind network-centric warfare (NCW) is that increased supply of information will reduce battlespace uncertainty and increase decision quality. The purpose of this study was to test this assumption. Swedish army captains formed 16 brigade-level planning teams and performed in a realistic planning task. Eight teams planned with access to NCW-similar (abundant) information on the enemy situation, and 8 teams planned using the information supply of today. Results showed a significant reduction in perceived uncertainty for the NCW-condition teams but no substantial differences in plan quality, plan confidence, plan variability, or planning time between the two conditions. These results indicate that even though more information may result in less perceived uncertainty among future military decision makers, an increased information supply needs to be coupled with changes in doctrine and training to provide a maximum benefit to the military planner.

  • 4774.
    Thunholm, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Social desirability in personality testing of military officers2001In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 223-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tendency among Swedish military officers to answer in a socially desirable way when taking some personality tests was investigated. Participants were 216 Army, Navy, and Air Force captains. The test used for measuring social desirability was the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (M-C SDS; Crowne & Marlowe, 1960) and a subset of those test items. Data revealed a strong tendency among the officers to answer in a socially desirable manner compared to earlier data from testing with the M-C SDS and compared to data from a sample of Swedish students of economics. M-C SDS correlated significantly with all 3 of the personality tests used. The comparably strong tendency to answer in a socially desirable way could be due to in part a need for many individuals to "look good" and in part due to difficulties of applying a 5-step Likert scale to the items of the M-C SDS.

  • 4775.
    Thunholm, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Effektiviserad integration mellan mark- och flygstridskrafter :  en intervjustudie2011Report (Other academic)
  • 4776.
    Thunholm, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Berggren, Peter
    FOI (Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut).
    Wikberg, Per
    FOI (Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut).
    Evaluating the effectiveness of an armoured brigade staff2014In: Assessing command and control effectiveness: dealing with a changing world / [ed] Peter Berggren, Staffan Nählinder, & Erland Svensson., London: Ashgate, 2014, p. 141-160Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this chapter is to present a study of the effectiveness of an Armoured Brigade Headquarters (HQ) in some specific respects. Important issues were (1) how is the HQ Staff dimensioned in relation to its tasks, (2) how does the three staff processes work (Planning, Execution and Coordination / Decision) and (3) how well does the HQ’s Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) and Battle Rhythm  function in the light of the HQ’s organization and work processes? The study was designed as a survey study and was based on the following four instruments: (1) Military Command Team Effectiveness Instrument (CTEF 2.0; Essence, Vogelaar, Baranski, Berggren, Van Buskirk, Goodwin & Myller, 2008); (2) Measurement of workload according to the Borg scale (Borg, 1998); (3) Subjective assessments of quality of the Brigade HQ’s orders and reports, and (4) verification that the Brigade HQ followed it’s Standard Operating Procedure. Fifty-four staff members of an Armoured Brigade HQ volunteered as participants. In the study, the HQ was challenged with a peace support / peace keeping operation exercise.

    The overall result regarding the CTEF and quality measurements on orders and reports indicate that the HQ worked well during the entire exercise and that the SOP and Battle Rhythm worked rather well. However, through the CTEF, four problem areas were identified. These areas regarded (1) the level of uncertainty in the mission, (2) the high complexity of the task, (3) the perceived instability of the objectives that were supposed to be attained in the mission environment, and (4) a high level of workload in some staff sections. Three of these areas are not under the control of the Brigade HQ (high level of uncertainty, high task complexity and unstable objectives of the operation). However, the fourth area, workload, could be influenced. Some staff sections seem to be undermanned in the current organization and that problem needs to be handled, by increasing some staff sections or by moving some duties to other sections. 

  • 4777.
    Thunholm, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Cheah, Mervyn
    Chua, Ching Lian
    Chua, Nency
    Ng, Ee Chong
    Tan, Kin Yong
    Exploring alternative Edge versus Hierarchy C2 Organizations using the ELICIT platform with Configurable Chat System2009In: The International C2 Journal, ISSN 1938-6044, Vol. 3, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4778.
    Thunholm, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Högström, Ulf
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Tactical Thinking as Problem Solving: a paradigm for development of tactical thinking ability?2012In:  , 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The classic definition of tactics proposed by Clausewitz (1976, p. 128) was that “tactics teaches the use of armed forces in the engagement”. Clausewitz in a similar way of thinking defined strategy as “the use of engagements for the object of the war”. Clausewitz´s definition of tactics is still basically in use in several doctrines around the world although often a bit more developed. So, for example, in the Swedish Doctrine for Ground Operations (2005, p 36) tactics is defined as “the ability to use military forces in conducting battle or in support of battle”. The definitions of tactics are often implicitly (e.g. Clausewitz, 1832/1976) or explicitly (Swedish Armed Forces, 2005) focused on the ability of someone to use military units in order to win an engagement. This someone is a military officer. Studying military tactics is one of the main subjects for officers in military academies, yet, what constitutes tactical thinking ability and how it can be studied and trained has not been under much scientific attention. 

    One way to view tactical thinking ability is to frame it as problem solving activity. This has been done partly by the US Army (2005, 2010). The advantage with this is that problem solving research offers several different avenues to how tactical thinking ability can be studied. First, it offers a general classification of types of problems that could be applied to the typical military tactical problem. We propose that a proper understanding of the general military tactical problem facing a military officer is key to understanding how tactical thinking ability can be developed. We also propose that tactical problems generally are dynamic problems, and “formally correct” solutions to dynamic problems cannot be identified in advance.  Another advantage using a problem solving research perspective is that it also offers a set of different theoretical frameworks for studying officers solving tactical problems.

    In this paper we present a new approach, at the Swedish National Defence College, to study and develop tactical thinking ability in military officers. We start by classifying a generic tactical problem facing a tactical commander. Secondly, we survey different possible problem solving theories or paradigms that could be applied in order to study, and later also develop, the ability of officers to think tactics. Finally we discuss how a research program for studying and developing tactical thinking ability with a problem solving research approach could be designed. 

  • 4779.
    Thunholm, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Palmgren, Anders
    Swedish Defence University, Directorate for Officer's Academic Education.
    Doktrinutvecklares syn på doktriners roll och syfte: en empirisk undersökning2018In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 2, p. 15-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What is the purpose, strengths and weaknesses of military joint doctrine? In this empirical study we investigate the views of 17 Joint Doctrine developers in UK and US. Based on Harald Höiback’s review of more than 100 years of doctrinal debate, we developed a questionnaire with three sub-scales, doctrinal skepticism, doctrinal foundationalism and doctrinal coherentism. The result indicates that the doctrine developers most of all view doctrine as a tool for effective coordination of military forces. A clearly written doctrine is seen as a good tool for training of officers and units, and it will help to reduce the effect of uncertainty and friction in military operations.

  • 4780.
    Thunholm, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Tan, David
    Singapore Center for Military Experimentation.
    C2 Agility: Evaluating a new Brigade Standard Operating Procedure for Information Management and Coordination (paper 014)2011In: Proceedings to 2011 International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium. / [ed] Command and Control Research Program (CCRP), 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4781.
    Thunholm, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Militär Doktrin2018In: Militära arbetsmetoder: en lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm, Jerker Widén, Niklas Wikström, Malmö: Universus Academic Press , 2018, p. 15-48Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I kapitlet diskuteras doktrinens roll som verktyg och arbetsmetod inom den militära sfären. Diskussionerna bygger primärt på forskning om doktrin, men även på den beprövade erfarenhet som ackumulerats över tid inom försvarsmakter världen över, främst i några av de västländer som haft regelbunden erfarenhet av deltagande i väpnade konflikter. Vidare redogörs övergripande för hur den formella doktrinutvecklingsprocessen ser ut i några av dessa länder, främst i syfte att belysa hur en väl utvecklad och genomtänkt process för doktrinutveckling och doktrinimplementering kan utformas.

    Kapitlet består av två delar, där den första diskuterar begreppet doktrin, vad det är och varför en doktrin anses viktig att ha för en militär organisation. Den andra delen handlar om hur doktriner utvecklas och implementeras och vilka erfarenheter man kan dra från sådana utvecklings- och implementeringsprocesser. I detta kapitel, om inget annat sägs, används begreppet "doktrin" som ett övergripande samlingsbegrepp för den typ av formaliserade styrdokument som i Sverige uppdelas i bland annat doktriner, reglementen, anvisningar, taktiska procedurer, handböcker, bestämmelser och instruktioner, och som militära myndigheter ger ut i såväl sekretessbelagda som öppna och publicerade texter. 

  • 4782.
    Thunholm, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Wikström, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Introduktion: Militära arbetsmetoder2018In: Militära arbetsmetoder: Lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm, Jerker Widén, Niklas Wikström, Malmö: Universus Academic Press , 2018, p. 7-13Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken behandlar militära arbetsmetoder och syftet är att introducera och förklara de metoder som används för att förbereda, utföra och värdera militära operationer.

  • 4783.
    Thunholm, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Widén, JerkerSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.Wikström, NiklasSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Militära Arbetsmetoder: en lärobok i krigsvetenskap2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken behandlar militära arbetsmetoder och syftet är att introducera och förklara de metoder som används för att förbereda, utföra och värdera militära operationer. Boken är även avsedd att fylla en lucka i befintlig militär metodlitteratur genom att ge en historisk förankring och forskningsanknytning till de militära arbetsmetoderna. Genom att beskriva den historiska utvecklingen av en arbetsmetod och koppla den till befintlig forskning ger boken en unik bakgrundsbeskrivning och problematiserande analys av de vanligaste militära arbetsmetoderna.

    Boken innehåller några övergripande teman. Det första är kopplat till officerens roll som chef och stabsmedlem. Inom detta tema beskrivs de metoder som används i den militära ledningsprocessen, det vill säga planering, genomförandeledning, uppföljning och utvärdering. Det andra är kopplat till officerens roll som utbildare och inom detta tema beskrivs de militära utbildnings- och arbetsmetoder som används för analys av strid i rummet eller terrängen, till exempel krigsspel, fältövningar och terränganalys. Ett tredje tema i boken är kopplingen mellan arbetsmetod och aktuell forskning.

  • 4784.
    Thunholm, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Wikström, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division.
    Genomförandeledning av operationer2018In: Militära arbetsmetoder: En lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm, Jerker Widén, Niklas Wikström, Malmö: Universus Academic Press , 2018, p. 127-162Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det här kapitlet ligger fokus på militär genomförandeledning av operationer på förbandsnivå. Inledningsvis kommer vi att definiera och diskutera begreppet genomförandeledning och rekapitulera begreppets anknytning till övriga centrala begrepp i den militära ledningsprocessen som presenterades i föregående kapitel om planering. Därefter redovisas synen på militär genomförandeledning i moderna reglementen och doktriner, nationellt så väl som internationellt. I detta sammanhang belyser vi även hur order och ordergivning är en central del i genomförandeledning och hur principer, omfattning och utformande av militära order utvecklats historiskt. Sedan diskuteras hur operationsmiljön påverkar genomförandeledning av operationer och vi redovisar en vetenskaplig teori om dynamiskt beslutsfattande som utgångspunkt för att förstå genomförandeledning. Slutligen redovisas forskningsresultat från studier av genomförandeledning på förbandsnivå och ett antal rekommendationer ges baserade på dessa forskningsresultat. Tyngdpunkten i kapitlet ligger på att förklara hur operationsmiljön ställer krav på utformning av genomförandeledning. Kapitlet behandlar däremot inte hur chefer bör utöva sitt ledarskap utan är mer fokuserat på ledningsprocessen utformning. Chefers personliga ledarskap är naturligtvis av central betydelse för genomförande av verksamhet och berörs i ledarskapslitteraturen.

  • 4785.
    Thurell, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Slå motståndaren med indirekta bekämpningssystem2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4786. Thörnberg, Markus
    Fältlinjer: hur kan dagens svenska insatsförsvar utnyttja fältlinjer i manöverkrigföring utifrån de sex grundläggande förmågorna?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till denna uppsats är att Försvarsmakten och även samhället i övrigt har förändrats mycket på de senaste 20åren. Både Försvarsmakten och samhället har blivit mer beroende av tekniska lösningar. Detta teknikberoende har gjort Försvarsmaktens förband mer utsatta för telekrigsförmågan. Samtidigt som Försvarsmaktens enheter har blivit mer teknikberoende så har de börjat att exponera sig mer genom att minska på användandet av fältlinjer. Genom att använda fältlinjer skyddar man sina egna signaler ifrån motståndarens telekrigsförmåga. Denna uppsats skall studera om det fortfarande finns en plats för fältlinjer i Försvarsmakten och i så fall hur vi skall använda fältlinjerna.

    Metoden som används i denna uppsats är deskription. För att få fram fakta till uppsatsen har författaren använt intervjuer och litteratur som utgivits från Försvarsmakten.

    Resultatet av uppsatsen kan sammanfattas med att fältlinjer är användabara inom organisationen och bör användas mer av Försvarsmaktens förband.

  • 4787.
    Tiberg, Bengt
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Manövertänkande - ett lämpligt vägval för ett nytt operativt markstridskoncept?2002Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces are facing a huge challenge when an operationalconcept of maneuver thinking will be introduced. This concept creates a new wayof thinking that we have not been confronted with before. What is it, then? Whatmakes this so special, and makes this concept different compared to the situationearlier? Maybe at first glance the differences are not so large. Current tacticalconcept (AR II 1995) aims to move in a direction that at least partly contains partsof the maneuver warfare concept. During my studies I have found that one majorthing with this new system compared to before is the mental planning process.That is to say, how to approach a certain identified problem and task.The main thing is here to understand the overall situations, and then to be able toconcentrate on special and specific tasks that only correspond to the operationallevel. Therefore to understand this strategy it is necessary to have changes in themental way of thinking in the Swedish Armed Forces, which must start from thetop level.I have also been more convinced that maneuver warfare mainly takes place at theoperational level, and that maneuver thinking can also be practiced at the tacticallevel, but only to a certain degree. Considerations of methods do not bring this fastdecision process which constitutes maneuver warfare, where quicker decisions andexecution than the enemy leads to gaining the initiative and controlling a givensituation.

  • 4788.
    Tillberg, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Svartheden, JoakimEngstedt, Danuta Janina
    Mission Abroad: Military experience from international operations2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 4789.
    Tillby, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Flygsäkerhet och Risktagning i Flygvapnet.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenska Flygvapnet har under de senaste årtiondena lagt ned mycket resurser på att motverka den bistra haveristatistik som präglade 50 och 60 talen. Denna satsning har varit lyckosam och ökat flygsäkerheten. Detta har lett till inställningen att inget får hända och att flygsäkerheten prioriteras minst lika högt som verksamhetens mål.

    Flygvapnets huvuduppgift är att genomföra väpnad strid. Denna uppgifts natur medför att ett visst mått av risktagning är nödvändigt. Frågan är om ett alltför starkt flygsäkerhetsklimat med fokus på att regler är till för att följas, kan leda till att man inte är beredd att ta de risker som kan vara nödvändiga för att vara effektiv i strid. Är det bevingade ordspråket ”Train as you will fight” tillämpbart på Sveriges Flygvapen?

    Denna uppsats syftar till att undersöka och diskutera balansen mellan risktagning och flygsäkerhet i Flygvapnets stridsflygverksamhet.  Detta sker genom att följande frågeställningar undersöks:

    • Vilken formell syn finns på flygsäkerhet och risktagning i Flygvapnet?
    • Vilka uppfattningar finns om risktagning och flygsäkerhet inom Flygvapnet?
    • Hur förhåller sig uppfattningarna om risktagning i relation till de formella kraven på risktagning?

    Genom metodtriangulering av följande tre metoder: textanalys av styrande verk, intervjuer med centrala beslutsfattare och enkätundersökning om stridspiloters och flygstridsledares uppfattningar nås ett resultat som visar på att Flygvapnet har ett klimat som präglas av inställningen att man inte bryter mot flygsäkerhetsregler och att dessa uppfattas ha högre prioritet än verksamhetsmål.  Då resultatet möter teoribildningen ger det slutsatsen att klimatet kan medföra effektivitetsproblem i situationer som reglerna inte är skapade för och då ett ökat risktagande är nödvändigt.

  • 4790.
    Tillgren, Daniel
    Swedish National Defence College.
    MANÖVERKRIGFÖRING I URBAN STRID – ÄR TEORIN ANVÄNDBAR?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development in the world is clear, more and more people move into cities. With this de-velopment comes a military challenge, urban conflicts will also increase. Theorists in urban warfare explain that the environment inhibits maneuver and the usual manoeuvrist ap-proach surround the city to obstruct enemy supply line. Is that not a paradox using maneu-ver warfare in urban terrain, when clearly the terrain prevents maneuvering?The purpose of this study is to investigate how useful maneuver warfare is in urbanized ter-rain. Furthermore the study will examine how the doctrines Swedish armed forces use in ur-ban terrain to determine how maneuver warfare is used. Lastly, the similarities and differ-ences between theory of maneuver warfare and the Swedish doctrine where examined.The study shows that the theory maneuver warfare is useable in urban warfare. The most useful principle of maneuver warfare is mission-type orders. Due to the complex environ-ment commanders will face challenges such as poor communications and interrupted line of sights its therefore critical that the objective of the operation is clear.

  • 4791.
    Tillström, Tomas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Reflektioner kring ledarskap: En fallstudie från Afghanistan med utgångspunkt i Utvecklande ledarskap2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    "Commanders of the company have behaved as guardians to their personnel and have not delegated the responsibilities to the enlisted soldiers, whose training and experience cannot be compared to the young men in basic training. From the first day we all worked hard and gave it all, but the officers acted as if we were still in boot camp. Our independence and initiative was taken from us."

    These words from soldiers are quotes from the thesis

    Military Leadership, which examines leadership under international deployments, and points to a deficit in leadership. The new personnel recruitment system aims toward enlisted personnel, and the experience they bring from service abroad. A successful leadership during international service should therefore be the goal for how the leadership ought to be in the new military system.

    This thesis seeks answers to how a commander is, who is appreciated by the enlisted soldiers, and if developing leadership is interesting as a model. Also, if mission-tactic is a plausible method to lead enlisted soldiers.

    The conclusion is that soldiers appreciate leadership with honesty, engagement and insight.

    The study gives no conclusive answer to what extent the different parts in developing leadership should be applied, but the results suggests that a commander with a leadership who largely fits the description to developing leadership, in combination with mission-tactic is a appreciated leadership style with enlisted soldiers.This model apparently covers the need for leadership among enlisted soldiers with varied experiences and ages.

  • 4792.
    Timmersjö, Olof
    Swedish National Defence College.
    En studie av slaget vid Verdun och de taktiska grundprinciperna: Är Doktrin för markoperationer applicerbar på utnötningskrig?2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is about the tactical basic principles as they are mentioned in the Swedish Doctrine for land based operations (2005) and the German side during the battle of Verdun 1916. The purpose of this essay is to clarify whether the used doctrine is appropriate to use on future attrition battles.        

    This is done by a case study of the German side during the battle ofVerdun. In this case study indicators of the basic principles are then identified and analysed with the starting point at the two questions that the essay is based around. 

    The essay starts with an introduction where above is attended, in the second part the basic principles, the background to the battle and the battle itself is described. Finally the tactical basic principles are analysed and discussed based on the questions that the essay is based on.

    In the analysis and the discussion the conclusion is drawn that the tactical basic principles were present on the German side during the battle of Verdun and that they are of a general character and may be applied on both attrition warfare of 1916 and modern battles of attrition.

  • 4793.
    Tiselius, Carl
    Swedish National Defence College.
    EU:s aktörskapacitet: en analys av Europeiska unionen som aktör inom utrikes- och säkerhetspolitikens område2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Amsterdam Treaty which entered into force 1999 had as one of theobjectives, in light of the European Union’s weak actions in the Balkans, toreform and develop the Common Foreign and Security Policy that was createdsix years earlier through the Maastricht Treaty.The aim of this essay was to analyse the changes in EU’s actor capabilitywithin the second pillar as the Amsterdam Treaty came into force, as well asshowing how these changes influenced the work performed by the EU in oneparticular case. In order to achieve this, a model by Gunnar Sjöstedt was used.The model was developed to evaluate the EU based on its structuralprerequisites. The empirical material used, came, to a large extent, from theEU’s official documents and treaties, but other relevant literature within thefield has been used as well.The analysis identified the fundamental issue within this field, namely, aconflict of interest between the joint action and the member countries´influence on the policies. The essay underlined two changes which havestrengthened the EU´s prerequisites to act at the international level. These arethe appointment of a High Representative for the Common Foreign andSecurity Policy, as well as the creation of increased possibilities for flexibilityin the decision making process. The work of EU was analysed from its actionsin Macedonia which showed a strengthened engagement from its side, wherethe High Representative and its resources have played an important part. TheEU’s strengthened ability to act in Macedonia must be seen as a success for thejoint development. It remains to be seen, however, whether this can be repeatedin a bigger, more complex case.

  • 4794.
    Toft, Henrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Den offentliga bilden av Hårsfjärden2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the submarine violations that occurred in and around Hårsfjärden in October 1982. The purpose of this paper has been to study the change in the public image. The author has analyzed Hårsfjärden on four dimensions of comparison. Motives for the violations, nationality, The nature of the violations and technical indications and observations. The Submarine Defence Commission could identify the Soviet Union as the offensive power in 1983. They said however that the reasons behind violations were preparatory stages of a military operational planning. The author has with this paper demonstrated how the public image has changed from 1983 to 2001. The author's focus and the core of this essay have been to study the three SOU with treated submarine violations. Bottom traces found in Hårsfjärden has emerged as the clearest evidence that foreign submarines had been in the area. The offensive submarine appeared in a provocative way, which meant that they allowed themselves not to be rejected. Instead they pushed deeper into the Swedish inshore waters. By the island Mälsten, the Swedish Navy October 12, 1982 made a tape recording that was said to be a Soviet submarine of the Whiskey-class. The same type that ran aground in Gåsefjärden a year earlier. The tape recording came to be the Swedish side main evidence that a Soviet submarine was in Swedish waters in the submarine talks in Moscow from 1992 to 1994. But Russia refused to recognize. They argued strongly that it wasn’t a Soviet submarine that the Swedish Navy had recorded.

  • 4795.
    Tolf, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Utsätts Sverige för informationsoperationer från terrornätet Al Qaida?2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4796.
    Toll, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Krigsvetenskapliga vinster med att integrera markstridsförband i kommunikationsnät flygbas2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4797.
    Toll, Oscar
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Fördröjningsstrid ≠ Manöverkrigföring?: En begreppsanalys av fördröjningsstrid och manöverkrigföring2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Försvarsmaktens övergripande inriktning är att svenska militära förband ska sträva efter att tillämpa manöverkrigföring. Enligt svensk doktrin ska förbanden inom ramen för offensiva och defensiva operationer använda sig av fyra stridssätt: anfall, försvar, fördröjningsstrid och avvärjningsstrid. Svenska förband skall alltså sträva efter att tillämpa manöverkrigföring när de bedriver fördröjningsstrid. Fördröjningsstrid återfinns dock inte som ett separat stridssätt i litteraturen om manöverkrigföring. Det väcker frågan huruvida försvarsmakten tillämpar manöverkrigföring på ett unikt sätt eller om fördröjningsstrid redan existerar inom manöverkrigföringen under ett annat namn. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka om manöverkrigföring ersatt behovet av stridssättet fördröjningsstrid.

    Undersökningen genomförs med hjälp av en begreppsanalys av fördröjningsstrid som utgår från de svenska normativa regelverken. Med hjälp av kvalitativ textanalys tas fem indikatorer på fördröjningsstrid fram. Indikatorerna används sedan för att söka efter förekomsten av fördröjningsstrid i litteraturen om manöverkrigföring.

    Resultatet av undersökningen visar att fördröjningsstriden så som den beskrivs i de normativa regelverken återfinns i litteraturen om manöverkrigföring men inom ramen för anfall och försvar. 

  • 4798. Tonnessen, A.
    et al.
    Mårdberg, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Weisaeth, L.
    Silent disaster: A European perspective on threat perception from Chernobyl far field fallout2002In: Journal of Traumatic Stress, ISSN 0894-9867, E-ISSN 1573-6598, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 453-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surveys investigated the perceived threat of radioactive fallout and public coping following a "silent disaster" (Chernobyl) across Europe. Survey data from national representative samples in 12 European countries are compiled, 6 months and 2 years after the accident, across 12 countries. Exposure to information about the accident, and perception of the consequences of Chernobyl as a health threat, were significantly related to the level of fallout in each country. Another significant relationship was found between the level of fallout in these 12 countries and the proportion of respondents who reported having taken countermeasures. Information challenges for the authorities are highlighted.

  • 4799.
    Tonström, Robin
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Chefsutbildning för värnpliktiga - i behov av förändring?: en undersökning baserad på värnpliktigas- och truppofficerares syn2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4800.
    Torell Sjölander, Matilda
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Hotet från cyberrymden: regeringens formulering av informations- och cybersäkerhet - vad är problemet?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the Swedish Government Cyber Security Strategy laid out for the years 2016-2022 using Carol Bacchi’s discourse method and theory concept “What’s the problem represented to be” (WPR). The theoretical framework of the thesis also builds on critical theories on security- and threat perception following the concept of “exceptionalist securitising” and “diffusing insecurities”. The study suggests that the government has a national security focus that stresses “high politics” cyber threats rather than risks related to individuals and the Swedish society. Potential enemies are presented as located outside of the national boarders indicating a more traditional security perspective and enemy construction coming from other states. The study also disclosed that the strategy strives to stress the necessity of raising the awareness on cyber security as well as uniting the authorities working on cyber security while neglecting the democratic limits that political actions such as state-monitoring and data surveillance implicates.

     

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