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  • 4751.
    Sturesson, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section. Ångström Space Technology Centre, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden; Division of Microsystems Technology, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Klintberg, Lena
    Division of Microsystems, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Thornell, Greger
    Ångström Space Technology Centre, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden; Division of Microsystems Technology, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pirani Microgauge Fabricated of High-Temperature Co-fired Ceramics with Integrated Platinum Wires2019In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 285, p. 8-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the integration and pressure sensor operation of platinum bond wires in High- Temperature Co-fired alumina (HTCC). Devices were fabricated with a 50 μm diameter wire suspended across a 500 μm wide cavity in green-body state HTCC, electrically connected to screen printed alumina conductors. The substrate shrinkage during sintering to a cavity width of 400 μm causes the wire element to elevate from the cavity ́s bottom surface. Resulting devices were compared with reference devices, containing screen-printed sensor elements, as Pirani gauges operated at 100 °C in constant-resistance mode, and in dynamic mode with a feeding current of 1 A in a pressure range from 10-4 Torr to atmospheric pressure. Also, devices with wire lengths between 500 and 3500 μm were operated and studied in constant-resistance and dynamic mode. Lastly, a device is demonstrated in operation at a mean temperature of 830 °C. The results include wire elements with a consistent elevation from their substrate surfaces, with irregularities along the wires. The wire devices exhibit a faster pressure response in dynamic mode than the reference devices do but operate similarly in constant-resistance mode. Increasing the wire element length shows an increasing dynamic pressure range but a decreasing maximum sensitivity. The sensitivity is retained in high temperature mode, but the dynamic range is extended from about 10 Torr to about 700 Torr.

  • 4752.
    Sturesson, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Seton, Ragnar
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Klintberg, Lena
    Uppsala University.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University.
    Persson, Anders
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Effect of Resistive and Plasma Heating on the Specific Impulse of a Ceramic Cold Gas Thruster2019In: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 235-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research and development of small satellites has continued to expand over the last decades. However, propulsion systems with adequate performance have persisted to be a great challenge. In this paper, the effects of three different heaters on the specific impulse and overall thrust efficiency of a cold gas microthruster are presented. They consisted of a conventional, printed resistive thick-film element, a freely suspended wire, and a stripline split-ring resonator microplasma source and were integrated in a single device made from high-temperature co-fired ceramics (HTCC). The devices were evaluated in two setups, where the first measured thrust and the other shock cell geometry. In addition, the resistive elements were evaluated as gas temperature sensors. The microplasma source was found to provide the greatest improvement in both specific impulse and thrust efficiency, increasing the former from an un- heated level of 44 s to 55 s when heating with a power of 1.1 W. This corresponded to a thrust efficiency of 53 %. This could be compared to the results from the wire and printed heaters which were 50 s and 18 %, and 45 s and 14 %, respectively. The combined results also showed that imaging the shock cells of a plasma heated thruster was a simple and effective way to determine its performance compared to the traditional thrust balance method.

  • 4753.
    Sturesson, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section. Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Angstrom Space Technol Ctr, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Div Microsyst Technol, Sweden.
    Zahra, Khaji
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Div Microsyst Technol, Sweden.
    Lena, Klintberg
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Div Microsyst Technol, Sweden.
    Greger, Thornell
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Angstrom Space Technol Ctr, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Div Microsyst Technol, Sweden.
    Ceramic Pressure Sensor for High Temperatures: Investigation of the Effect of Metallization on Read Range2017In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 2411-2421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A first realization of membranes by draping a graphite insert with ceramic green body sheets, and a study on the relationship between circuit metallization, made by double- layer screen-printing of platinum and electroplating of silver on top of platinum, and the practical read range of ceramic LC resonators for high-temperature pressure measurements, are presented. As a quality factor reference, two-port microstrip meander devices were positively evaluated. To study interdiffusion between silver and platinum, test samples were annealed at 500, 700, and 900 °C for 4, 36, 72, and 96 hours. The LC resonators were fabricated with both metallization methods, and the practical read range at room temperature was evaluated. Pressure sensitive membranes were characterized for pressures up to 2.5 bar at room temperature, 500 and up to 900°C. Samples electroplated with silver exhibited performance equal to or better than double-layer platinum samples for up to 60 hours at 500°C, 20 hours at 700°C, and for 1 hour at 900°C, which was correlated with the degree of interdiffusion as determined from cross- sectional analysis. The LC resonator samples with double-layer platinum exhibited a read range of 61 mm, and the samples with platinum and silver exhibited a read range of 59 mm. The lowest sheet resistance, and, thereby, the highest read range of 86 mm, was obtained with a silver electroplated LC resonator sample after 36 hours of annealing at 500°C. 

  • 4754.
    Styrenius, Carl-Henric
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Problemet att väta och värdera framgång i operationer och fälttåg2009In: Tankar om fälttåg / [ed] Peter Ahlström & Ulf Högström, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2009, p. 125-139Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4755.
    Styrenius, Carl-Henrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Kosovokonflikten som strategisk duell: en studie och diskussion av USA:s indirekta strategi mot Serbien före Allied Force2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the framework of André Beaufres’ theory of total strategy, the aim of thisessay has been to describe and analyse chiefly the United States’ actions during theyear prior to the war in Kosovo, which took place in 1999. The analysed sources havemainly been of American origin, which naturally has had consequences for thereliability of my findings. Independent sources, in the form of official documents,have therefore been used to ascertain the result of the parties’ actions. Afterestablishing the course of events it has been the object of the research to analyse thestrategic objectives of the United States and the actions it took to achieve these, aswell as the resulting Serb counter-actions. The analysis has clearly indicated thefundamental function that freedom of action has for the ability to choose strategicobjectives and to facilitate their achievement.

  • 4756.
    Stärnevall, Olof
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Förändringen inom den ryska Östersjömarinen sedan Kalla krigets slut2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Russia has since the fall of the Soviet Union faced some severe economic issues. During the 1990s the economy was rebuilt from a planned economy towards a more liberalized economy, and therefore a crisis was at hand. This unbalanced economy turned after the millennium, since a new president with a strong will strengthened Russia’s economy. This development after the Cold War also affected the Russian armed forces. The purpose of this essay is to describe the change in the Russian Baltic Fleet since the end of the Cold War. The study intends to answer the following questions: How have the economic recourses, the material situation and finally how the tasks changed in the Russian Baltic Fleet since the Cold War ended? To answer these questions I have analyzed a wealth of published materials covering this subject. The essay is built on three parameters: tasks, resources and material. With these three dimensions in mind I have built a total picture of the alterations that have been made in the Russian Baltic Fleet over the passed years.  The study has been carried out with the help of a comparative descriptive method.

        The result of this essay shows that the purpose and tasks for the Baltic Fleet have changed since the end of the Cold War. During the 1980s the goals in the Baltic were more aggressive and apparent. The strategic goals changed after the Cold War and the Baltic Fleet became more defensive. The tasks today concentrate upon Russia’s maritime interests, international cooperation and intervention.

        The Russian Fleet suffered from severe economic reductions during the 1990s. Since the new millennium the Russian economy has been strengthened and so have the Baltic Fleet. The result of how the material situation has changed since the Cold war ended is substantial. During the 1990s the number of ships became fewer and fewer.  Since 1998 the reduction of ships has stabilized and has since then been the same. The ships that serve in the Baltic Fleet are very old and few new ships have been added to the fleet.

  • 4757.
    Ståhl, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Vad är strategisk rörlighet?2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic mobility is a conception that is frequently used in today’s modernwarfare. But what is strategic mobility really? Is it enough to buy moderntransport aircraft to have strategic mobility? This essay has the purpose ofshowing that strategic mobility is a complex conception. The subject has beendealt with using a systems scientific theory and a qualitative descriptivemethod has been employed. The technique for collecting information wasstudying literature. These are the questions that have been considered: IsSweden, as a nation, in need of the capability or the function known asstrategic mobility? What is strategic mobility and is there a difference betweenthe capability and the function of strategic mobility and in that case, what isthis difference?Strategic mobility appears to be a complex conception that covers a big area;everything from what transport capacities are required to what units need to beinteroperable, not only for transportation but also for the cooperation with othercountries’ units.The conclusion is, that Sweden is in need of strategic mobility capability, thatstrategic mobility is a system of transport abilities, materiel and equipment,personnel and know-how and finally, that strategic mobility is a capability andnot a function..

  • 4758.
    Ståhlberg, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    NATO:s operativa planeringsprocess: ett paradigmskifte för svensk operativ planeringsmetodik?2001Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay is a comparative analysis of NATO’s and Sweden’s operational planning processes and recommends the rout for Sweden to take regarding the choice of a national operational planning process. Initially the theoretical model of the essay, consisting of military theory, research within the frame of “Naturalistic Decision Making” and the Armed forces internationalisation according to ”FMI 2020, rapport 4” is motivated. The planning processes are described and transformed in order to allow for an equivalent comparison. The analysis elucidates the differences and the similarities, and accounts for the strengths and weaknesses of the planning processes. The result displays that the structural similarities between the planning processes do not motivate their parallel use. All through the analysis the Swedish model presents a trace to the reflecting concentration within military theory. NATO´s model presents an inclination to be more conformable to law and indicates a distinct focus on enemy and own centre of gravity. The Swedish planning process displays a shortage in the realm of “Naturalistic Decision Making.” Further more, the role of the commander is vague and the planning process focuses on producing and evaluating courses of action in stead of using time for war-gaming an early produced course of action. NATO´s planning process presents the same shortcomings but the role of the commander is more distinct and formalised. Our national model does not cope with the demands according to "FMI 2020, rapport 4”, among other things due to the lack of interoperability. NATO´s model in principle fulfils the demands and is seen as the international norm. As a whole, operational problems are best solved through an application of NATO´s planning process. NATO´s model is therefore recommended as method for Swedish national operational planning.

  • 4759.
    Stålhandske Persson, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Intention – nödvändighet eller överflödigt?2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay aims to investigate the relevance of the theory Command Concepts in a modern conflict against an irregular opponent.

    The research is conducted through a case study of the two battles of Fallujah, Operation Vigilant Resolve and Operation Phantom Fury/Al Fajr.

    Through analysing the commander’s intent and the effect it has on the outcome of the battle the essay aims to provide a substitute for smaller nations that cannot afford a large investment in advanced military technology.

    The essay concludes however that no definitive proof can be found that the commander’s intent is the sole solution to winning the battle and that a balanced approach with both significant training of commanders and technological investments is needed to be relevant in the future.

  • 4760.
    Stööp, Gabrielle
    Swedish Defence University.
    Politikens vändningar: En kvalitativ textanalys av möjliggörandet av den svenska regeringens policyförändringar i flyktingpolitiken under hösten 20152017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie har möjliggörandet av de policyförändringar som den svenska regeringen presenterade 24 november 2015, då Sveriges asylmottagande skulle bli mer restriktivt och regleras ned till minikrav enligt internationella konventioner och EU-rätten, undersökts. Detta var en tydlig svängning från regeringens tidigare öppna, flyktingvänliga politik och det är därför av intresse att undersöka hur en sådan svängning kan möjliggöras. Genom en enfallstudie genomförd tillsammans med en kvalitativ textanalys har uttalanden från regeringsmedlemmar och andra framstående aktörer (Migrationsverket, Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap, kommuner och länsstyrelser) undersökts och klargjorts enligt Kingdons multiple-streams-teori. Regeringens svängning visar på att en policyförändring kan möjliggöras med hjälp av hur en situation uppfattas. Regeringens egen uppfattning av situationen som en kris för Sverige öppnar upp för policyförändringar. Den restriktivare flyktingpolitiken måste därefter gestaltas på ett sätt som gör att det ligger i linje med regeringens övriga värden. Det kvarstår dock frågetecken kring teorin multiple streams bäring i svensk kontext och huruvida detta är det bästa sättet att förklara policyförändringar under kriser. 

  • 4761.
    Sund, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Teknisk tillgänglighet och dess nyckeltal - utifrån en marin kontext2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Availability is essential to create effect with technological systems. This leads to a need to actively work on follow-up and key indicators to be able to optimize organization and design in order to achieve the desired effect, with the resources available. Fundamental to this is to have common terminology, good communication and an understanding of the roles of those involved.

     

    This study examines the concepts of availability and compares the definitions from literature with reality. The aim is to clarify and highlight problems with concepts of availability, key indicators and the work being done on this. This is partly done by testing whether or not existing concepts are still valid. The objective is for this work to support needs expressed regarding a discussion of availability concepts, and to be a prelude for further studies.

     

    The results of the study show that existing concepts of availability are still valid. The question that arises relates instead to which type of availability should be in focus. Nevertheless, it is quite clear that it is a challenging task, from an availability perspective, to manage multifunctional platforms with different operating profiles. Furthermore, there are also discrepancies both between literature and reality, and within and between organizations. It was also noted that there is a lack of uniform follow-up procedures, and that this is primarily an issue for commanders and management.

  • 4762.
    Sundberg, Petter
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hybridkrigföringens fördelar: en fallstudie av en hybrid aktör2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a lot of studies on Hybrid Warfare. The purpose of these studies has been to define Hybrid Warfare, or to see if a war could be called Hybrid or not. One thing that has been missing, is a study on what the advantages of using Hybrid Warfare could be. The aim of this study is to examine the advantages of using Hybrid Warfare. To make this possible, we must assume that the actor is Hybrid, and then examine how they could benefit from it. This study uses Frank G. Hoffman’s theory and definition of Hybrid Warfare.

     

    The research design will be a case study, where the Norwegian resistance and the Allied forces are a hybrid actor. By using a qualitative method, the benefits of Hybrid Warfare in different operations can be analysed and discussed.

     

    The advantage for an actor to utilize hybrid warfare is that it has a wider range of methods to choose from. The actor still utilizes the benefits of combined weapons and various methods of intelligence acquisition. But at the same time, it can carry out irregular actions without the moral limitations which conventional warfare entails.

  • 4763.
    Sundberg, Ralph
    et al.
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Eck, Kristine
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum. Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Introducing the UCDP Non-State Conflict Dataset2012In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 351-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article extends the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) by presenting new global data on non-state conflict, or armed conflict between two groups, neither of which is the state. The dataset includes conflicts between rebel groups and other organized militias, and thus serves as a complement to existing datasets on armed conflict which have either ignored this kind of violence or aggregated it into civil war. The dataset also includes cases of fighting between supporters of different political parties as well as cases of communal conflict, that is, conflict between two social groups, usually identified along ethnic or religious lines. This thus extends UCDP’s conflict data collection to facilitate the study of topics like rebel fractionalization, paramilitary involvement in conflict violence, and communal or ethnic conflict. In the article, we present a background to the data collection and provide descriptive statistics for the period 1989–2008 and then illustrate how the data can be used with the case of Somalia. These data move beyond state-centric conceptions of collective violence to facilitate research into the causes and consequences of group violence which occurs without state participation.

  • 4764.
    Sundberg, Tommy
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies.
    Faktorer för snabb tillit: Teori och operativ erfarenhet2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In modern armed forces temporary groups and force packaging are more common than ever. The trend seems to be international and temporary units are combined with sub-units from different nations. The purpose of this study is to examine which factors are essential in order to form swift trust within a temporary multinational unit with limited or no time for common training. By studying existing research in this area answers are found of what we mean by swift trust and what central factors it is composed of. The theories found are broken down to research questions in order to create a tool for measuring and analyzing opinions of swift trust within a multinational temporary unit. A case-study of a Swedish/Finnish Marine-company deployed to operation EUFOR Tchad/RCA is conducted by a questionnaire in a study group of 67 Swedish Marines participating in the operation.

    Swift trust stands out as a special case of trust which emerges when the time for traditional building of trust step-by-step is not present. The study shows that stereotypical impressions, category-driven information and role-based interaction are important factors in the beginning of a temporary cooperation. It is also shown that mutual exchanges of knowledge and testing, e.g.by training together, are vital factors in order to continue trust building within a unit.

    The major findings of the study are that the theories of swift trust seem to be valid and applicable on temporary units in a multinational context. Besides a validation of existing theory, cultural differences emerge as an important factor to consider in order to establishing swift trust.

  • 4765. Sundelius, B.
    et al.
    Grönvall, Jesper
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Strategic dilemmas of biosecurity in the European Union2004In: Biosecurity and bioterrorism, ISSN 1538-7135, E-ISSN 1557-850X, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 17-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems for societal/homeland security in both Europe and the United States are in flux to adjust to 21st century threats, such as terrorism, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, regional conflicts, state failures, and organized crime. It is important that reforms take place, on both sides of the Atlantic that recognize the interdependence of Europe and the United States.(1) Security, including biosecurity, for Europe is strongly connected to security in the U.S. Diseases transcend borders, and their consequences can be the same, irrespective of where the outbreak occurs or whether it is a natural occurrence or an act of bioterrorism. This article examines the political and strategic dilemmas and complexities that would confront the European Union (EU) in the event of a bioterrorism attack or a naturally occurring outbreak. Although several initiatives have been taken by the 15 member states and within the EU Commission, the EU is not institutionally prepared for transnational, rapidly moving diseases that could cause grave consequences in Europe and other regions, including the U.S.(2) The prime responsibility for protecting European citizens against outbreaks rests with each member state. However, with intertwined and open European societies, the consequences would likely spill across borders. The EU Commission would have to become involved because such aspects as the internal market and freedom of movement would be affected. Responsibility, but not authority, would be pushed to the top. A coordinated EU response to such crises depends on European political leadership.

  • 4766.
    Sundelius, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    En nationell säkerhetsstrategi för Sverige i tiden2016In: Nordisk Tidskrift för vetenskap, konst och industri, ISSN 0029-1501, Vol. 92, no 3, p. 257-268Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4767.
    Sundelius, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). Uppsala universitet, Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap, MSB.
    Introduction: Actions Applicable to CBRN Prevention,Detection, and Response: From Interblocking Stovepipes to Interlocking Networks2013In: Biosecurity and bioterrorism, ISSN 1538-7135, E-ISSN 1557-850X, Vol. 11, no supplement 1, p. 258-259Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4768.
    Sundelius, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Societal Security: An Emerging Field of Scholarship Underpinning Practices in the Baltic Sea Region2016In: The Baltic Sea Region: Hard and Soft Security Reconsidered / [ed] Andzans, Maris & Bruge, Ilvija, Riga: Latvian Institute of International Affairs , 2016, p. 157-168Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4769.
    Sundelius, Bengt
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Wiklund, Claes
    Huvudredaktör för Nordisk tidskrift för vetenskap, konst och industri.
    Säkerheten främst: Nordiskt samarbete efter 60 år2012In: Världspolitikens Dagsfrågor, ISSN 0042-2754, no 9, p. 1-32Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4770.
    Sundeman, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Den svåra enigheten, två staters ställningstagande inför Irakkrisen 20032005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4771.
    Sundquist, Johan
    Swedish Defence University.
    Krav på sensorn i aktiva skyddssystem2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally armor has been used to protect armored vehicles and main battle tanks. However, today armor piercing weapons has developed to such an extent that armor cannot provide enough protection. To counter-act this, active protection systems has been developed which detect and destroy threats before it hits the vehicle. This report examined what requirements should be imposed on a radar in an active protection system. In the report the author investigates at which distances the radar must be able to detect threats on if the system would be mounted on either an armored vehicle or a main battle tank. The results indicated that the range of the radar is dependent on: threat velocity, the armors ability to protect against residual effect and the active protection systems warhead.

  • 4772.
    Sundquist, Oskar
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Ett effektbaserat angreppssätt till operationer i förhållande till den svenska militära doktrinen2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4773.
    Sundqvist, Andreas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Hamas förändring mot en mer modern krigföring2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines the Palestinian organization Hamas’ change of tactics from 2008 to 2014.

    The methodology used is a case study of two conflicts between Hamas and Israel and the main focus is the land battle. To understand and explain Hamas’ change of tactics, a theory by Stephen Biddle is used. The theory is called the Modern System and explains victory and defeat in land operations. When fully used the Modern System reduces the exposure of military units to enemy fire.

    The essay’s conclusions confirm that Hamas changed their tactics to a more regular type of warfare between the 2008 conflict and the one in 2014. Although they did not fully implement The Modern System into their tactics, they managed to reduce the soldiers’ exposure and therefore became less vulnerable to Israel’s technological weapons. Hamas managed to resist Israel’s bigger and more technological advanced army for a while during the 2014 conflict because of better use of the Modern System.

  • 4774.
    Sundqvist, Folke
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Traditionella underrättelsefrågor vid val av sensorkombinationer2001Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the extensive changes that the Swedish Armed Forces are undergoing within the framework of a Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA), there are reasons to examine what demands sensor-systems are needed to meet in the future. The Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI) and The Swedish Defense Materiel Administration (FMV) made a study and identified important abilities. Some of the abilities were Identification, Verification of Targets before Impact and Battle Damage Assessment (BDA) and will be further examined in this paper. The aim of this paper is to clarify if specified intelligence-questions toward Command and Control system can help to select adequate combination of multiple sensors that solves the chosen abilities that are needed within the specified timeframe in 2010. Open literature, reports and researches from FOI have been used during this work. To start the work it was necessary to couple ability towards. Then the questions were coupled towards classes of sensors. Different types of sensors were then divided in different sensor-classes. The result of the analysis shows that specified intelligence-questions could work in pinpointing out appropriate combination of sensors but the results were not unique. Further questions have to be found and answered i.e. conditions of the atmosphere and furthers information of the target. These facts could increase the possibility for the Command and Control system to deliver appropriate combination of multiple sensors in the future. An ability that will work within the timeframe is Battle Damage Assessment.

  • 4775.
    Sundström, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Med tjänsteutövning mot effektmål: arbetsmetoder nyttjade av plutonchefer i underhållstjänst2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4776.
    Sundström, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Att förändra förändringen, att leda till leda: en kritisk analys av Försvarsmaktens strategiska förändringsarbete av ledningsstrukturen2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this essay was to analyze The Swedish Armed Forces capacity asan organization to create conditions to accomplish and implement the strategically alterationof its command structure. I have therefore been studying the two latest alteration processesthat the organization has accomplished, “Command Organization 2000” and “CommandAnalysis 2002” in order to understand if, and if so in what ways the organization usesprevious knowledge in new alteration processes.The theoretical framework was built up by an overarching summary of the mostcommon issues and problems that an alteration process can encounter, in order tosubstantiate the use of John P Kotters (1996) model as a theoretical framework for the essay.Kotters model is used to analyze the problems that can appear during an alteration processand describes how to be able to prevent and/or overcome them. In order to accomplish asuccessful alteration process Kotters model presents eight steps which all ought to be carriedout. If the process fails to accomplish one of the eight steps it is likely that the process willbe unaccomplished and the purpose of the alteration will be missed. Thereby it is likely thatthe whole process has been nothing else but a waste of the organizations time and resources.Kotter also emphasize the importance of a true leadership during the alteration process andits determining factor on the process possibility to become successful. An organization thathas to much management instead of true leadership is an organization that will have anunaccomplished alteration process, as well as it is a sign that there is something very wrongwith the focus of the organization.The empirical research of the essay was based on literature research in the officialdocuments of The Swedish Armed Forces and on interviews of officers who where involvedin the analyzed processes. The purpose of the interviews was mainly to widen the empiricalmaterial in order to understand which important decisions and considerations that wheredone during the processes but never were put down on paper.The most important conclusions of my research was as follows; The Swedish ArmedForces lacks the ability as an organization to evaluate its alteration processes and transferconclusions and experiences to coming processes, the alteration process “Command Analysis2002” and its implementation was not based on any scientific basis or any theoretical model– conscious or unconscious, the fellow workers of The Swedish Armed Forces was not givenany time or ability to understand what attitude they should have towards the alterationprocess and to the changes that it resulted in. The conclusions can therefore be summarizedto the comprehensive understanding that The Swedish Armed Forces lacks the organizationalability to accomplish strategically alteration of its command structure.

  • 4777.
    Sunnelid, Mats
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Utbildning vid Tekniskt Chefsprogram - alternativa utbildningsmodeller i en jämförelse2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research paper has taken an interest in how the education at the Advanced CommandCourse Technical Orientation has been performed with during the initial technical year. I havecompared this to three alternative ways of conducting education. These three alternative wayshave consisted of the three models of education:1. Problem Based Learning2. Five-step Model3. Thematic EducationThe purpose of this research paper is to illustrate how the education can be developed to reach ahigher degree of knowledge of technical systems and holistic view to prepare the officer for thenext level.I have compared these three models to the education at the Advanced Command CourseTechnical Orientation regarding advantages and disadvantages concerning that the students aremilitary officers. When examinated the students will become commanders or administrativeofficials to commanders within the Armed ForcesFrom pedagogic literature and official reports within and outside the Armed Forces, I haveidentified some factors that affect the demands and possibilities for military officers to serveafter their education, mainly with focus on the future and the need for knowledge of technicalsystems. These factors are the basis for my comparison.My research shows that the officer is taking part in a more complex world. After the fall ofSoviet Union, the rise of global terrorism and implementation of advanced technical systems,we are now looking at a non-linear act of war. Because of this, there are great advantages withtraining officers according to theories of adult learning, inter disciplinarity, comprehensive viewand knowledge of systems.

  • 4778.
    Sunnergren, Martin
    Swedish Defence University.
    Slaget om Malta analyserat i ett militärteoretiskt perspektiv: Wardens och Boyds luftmaktsteorier tillämpade på ett empiriskt exempel2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Slaget om Malta, under andra världskriget, hade en avgörande roll vad gäller kriget i Medelhavet. Maltas strategiska läge gjorde att det var en åtråvärd ö för axelmakterna och britterna kämpade för att försvara sin position. I kampen om sjöherraväldet hade luftrummet stor betydelse och hur flygstridskrafterna användes var direkt avgörande. John A. Warden III och John Boyd är båda framstående luftmaktsteoretiker och deras teorier har fått stort genomslag, framförallt i västvärlden. Syftet med denna uppsats är att tillämpa dessa teorier på ett empiriskt exempel, slaget om Malta, beträffande luftstridskrafternas användande. Undersökningen bär mot att utröna hur långt teorierna är användbara för analysen av slaget om Malta. Uppsatsen genomförs med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys och komparativ analys för att jämföra teorierna med händelseförloppet. Resultatet av undersökningen visar att teorierna är tillämpningsbara för händelseförloppet under slaget. Hela Boyds teori samt delar ur Wardens teori är långt användbara för analysen.

  • 4779.
    Sunnhed, Joakim
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Doktrin för markoperationer, Doktrin i gerillakrigföring?: en liknelse på taktisk nivå mellan svenska taktiska grundprinciper för markarenan och grundprinciper för gerillakrigföring2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag är det för en stark stat i västvärlden inte svårt att vinna ett konventionellt krig. Dock har man svårt med konflikter där en stat möter en icke-stat, till exempel USA i Afghanistan idag, trots att gerillan nästan uteslutande är sämre rustad och tränad jämfört med sin motståndare. Sverige är ett förhållandevis litet land och frågan finns om vi skulle klara en eventuell invasion. Det har tidigare existerat en debatt om gerillakrig är något för de svenska stridskrafterna och det torde vara aktuellt än idag. Principer för hur striden ska föras benämns i Sverige taktiska grundprinciper. Man kan fråga sig vart dessa taktiska grundprinciper, som fastställs i och med doktrinupprättandet, är hämtade från. Dessa ska förmedla beprövad erfarenhet, men Sverige har inte varit i krig på 200 år.

    I konflikter där gerillan visat upp brukande av principer har man också varit framgångsrik. Ernesto Che Guevara och Mao Tse-tung teoretiserade båda om kriget i skrift och båda var mycket framgångsrika. Därför torde det vara intressant att undersöka hur dessa principer i teorin stämmer överens med våra svenska taktiska grundprinciper, då dessa taktiska grundprinciper ska vara tillämpbara i alla situationer.

    Syftet är att undersöka om de svenska taktiska grundprinciperna stämmer överens, eller liknar de principer framgångsrika gerillakrigare förordar i sina litterära verk och om vissa principer är mer allmängiltiga än andra inom gerillakrigföringens taktik. Om Sverige som liten nation ska förhindra en invasion, kommer principerna för krigföring från gerillakrigare som också fått agera underlägsen styrka?

    Frågan som ska besvaras i denna uppsats lyder: finns det likheter mellan Ernesto Che Guevaras och Mao Tse-tungs grundprinciper för gerillakrigföring på taktiskt nivå och svenska taktikens grundprinciper på markarenan? Om likheter finns, vilka är dessa?

  • 4780.
    Suominen, Ville
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Driving Forces Influencing Debate on Intensified Finnish-Swedish Defence Cooperation2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This descriptive study focuses on analyzing the factors influencing public debate on intensified Finnish-Swedish defence cooperation, using qualitative abductive content analysis (a combination of Grounded theory analysis and text/content analysis) as the research method. The study was conducted using a model adapted from Tomas Valasek’s hypothesis on pooling and sharing (Surviving Austerity - The case for a new approach to EU military collaboration, 2011), inducted from a corpus collected from Finnish and Swedish public defence debates from 1.1.2013 to 31.3.2014. The main research question is: what are the driving forces influencing debate on intensified bilateral Finnish-Swedish defence. Secondary research questions were developed from the corpus in four categories: historical, political/military, economic and attitudinal factors. Using these as the analysis model, the corpus was deductively analyzed to increase understanding of the individual factors and to find driving forces.

    The main result of this study is that the existence or lack of trust is seen as a key driving force influencing debate, either furthering or hindering cooperation. Other driving forces seen as influencing debate are the existence or lack of:

    • understanding of the historical background of cooperation from both countries’ point of view
    • commitment and clarity of political/military goals
    • political commitment to the political/military purposes of cooperation instead of domestic economic gain
    • a legally binding framework for cooperation.
  • 4781.
    Svahnqvist, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Svenska expeditionära luftstridskrafter?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for attainable, moveable and interoperable forces for commitment around the worldhas increased. Sweden is a member of the European Community (EC) and contributes with forcesto standing forces readiness record both to EC and NATO. The Swedish Air Force is standing inreadiness for a number of tasks. Today the most challenge task is the Nordic Battle Group (NBG)task. The Swedish Air Force has units within the BG and also in direct support to it, so calledenables. NBG is designed to be autonomous and first force in to theatre. This means for theSwedish Air Force that they might have to establish a local Air Force by them self in theatre. Thisdemands an expeditionary capacity.The purpose of this essay is to examine to what extent the transformation of the Swedish AirForce support expeditionary capabilities.The overarching question is to what extent is the Swedish Air Force expeditionary? To be able toanswer this question I have to define expeditionary. After this is done I will compare stationarybehaviour with expeditionary. Stationary behaviour is based on the Swedish national defenceagainst an attack on Sweden during the Cold war. To examine the transformation of the SwedishAir Force from a national stationary behaviour towards a expeditionary behaviour I will use theSwedish Air Force development plan (FVUP). I will identify strength and weaknesses within theSwedish Air Force. Finally I will analyze the Swedish Air Force to what extent they hastransformed towards a expeditionary capability.The result of the study shows that the Swedish Air Force has a total expeditionary capability ofaverage. Command and control (C2) has the lowest measured level of expeditionary capability.The reason is the heritage of the old national defence of Sweden witch has not been transformingtowards an international and expeditionary capability. Mobility is the capability that hastransformed best towards an expeditionary capability. Strategic airlift, Air to Air refuelling andmodule thinking especially within the airbase function have contributed to the result.

  • 4782.
    Svanberg, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Jominis inverkan på Amerikanska doktriner2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the essay is to examine whether Jominis principles of military theory has bearing on today's battlefields, by affecting American doctrine, and thus strategic and operational thinking. For even if today's high tech battlefield is far more complex and consists of more dimensions, than there were when Jomini composed his theories. It is important to understand the classical strategic thinking that makes up the basis for the operational as well as tactical decisions made.It is interesting to investigate whether and how Jominis theories really have an impact on the American doctrine developed since 1976. Especially so as in Western Europe, includingSweden, doctrine is primarily considered to be borne out of Clausewitz theoretical vision of war.It becomes important to have an understanding of this as Swedish military personnel interact with American military personnel in the international arena, which occurs nearly on a daily basis.

    The essay concludes that Jominis principles continue to hold sway of U.S.doctrine. This in itself provides a new understanding of howU.S.strategic and operational thinking works. And how Jomini has influenced the design of them, it also gives an insight into how contemporary high-tech battlefields, which consists of several dimensions is influenced by classic military theory and strategic thinking. This in turn also affects the tactical decisions taken on the battlefield.This also provides an understanding of the military theory and strategic view that affects American military personnel, which is important to understand when Swedish military personnel interact with them in the international arena, particularly at the higher levels of the command structure.

  • 4783.
    Svanberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Signalspaning: en underrättelseresurs vid specialoperationer?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4784.
    Svanborg, Christer
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Informationsoperationer vid krigsspel?2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay explores the possibilities of using information operations in wargaming,and offers a proposal of how to integrate that in operational staffexercises at the Swedish National Defence College (SNDC). What is thedifference in using traditional war games? Is it possible to use the older wargames if you want to exercise other methods?The essay starts with an overview of military theory, war-gaming andinformation operations in general. The latter two will be more deeply exploredwith the business modelling method, objective, concept and process. My theoryconclusions will be referred to in to the discussion part of my essay.After that I will compare the results of my comparison and look aftersimilarities and differences between war games with or without informationoperations. The result shows that there is no difference in objectives, but morein the different processes that appear under concepts related to war-gaming.The biggest changes were to be found in the time-frames and evaluation.The remaining part of the essay, the discussion part, gives examples of what afuture exercise concept at the SNDC could look like with elements ofinformation operations. I will also point out key factors that must be performedbefore using war games to exercise this. The key factors are also stronglyconnected to the Swedish military doctrine, which the essay is based on.

  • 4785.
    Svantesson, Monica
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section. Stockholms universitet.
    Threat Construction inside Bureaucracy: A Bourdieusian Study of the European Commission and the Framing of Irregular Immigration 1974-20092014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines how we construct security threats. Theoretically, it contributes to the literature on securitization and threat construction, which has hitherto overlooked how influential bureaucracies that – in contrast to the police and the military – have little to gain from widened threat perceptions, may still contribute to threat construction.

    The dissertation studies the European Commission and the issue of irregular immigration. By using frame analysis, it firstly explores what constructions of irregular immigration that the Commission generates and to what extent these contribute to threat construction. Using the Bourdieusian concepts of field, capital and habitus, it secondly analyzes how certain constructions of irregular immigration are authorized at the expense of others, due to the inner bureaucratic logic of the Commission.

    The empirical result reveals that the Commission mostly defines irregular immigrants as victims, yet simultaneously favors policy solutions that mainly seek to avert immigration. The Commission thus contributes to threat construction primarily through its policy solutions. Studying the inner logic of the Commission field highlights how informal routines and tacit power relations between Commission departments authorize certain frames over others. Importantly, the analysis shows how the naming of irregular immigrants as victims tends not to cost the officials anything in terms of symbolic capital, whereas the suggesting of less restrictive solutions tends to do so. Definitions and policy solutions thus follow different bureaucratic logics, which enables a mismatch between them. Moreover, the threat construction appears not because Commission officials believe that restrictive measures are the only way to solve problems linked to irregular immigration. On the contrary, officials believe that a multitude of solutions are needed. Instead, the threat construction is an unintended consequence of the logic of the field.

  • 4786.
    Svartz, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Splitterskyddad granatkastare (Grkpbv 90120) - ett system för strid i bebyggelse?2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine if Grkpbv 90120 (Mortar Combat Vehicle90120) is a system for the future, and can continue to constitute an indirect firesupport system even for urban warfare.The transformation of the Swedish Armed Forces affects, among other things, achange in tasks and the introduction of Network Centric Defence. One of theimplications is an increased significance of urban warfare, especially whenkeeping peace support operations and global urbanisation trends in mind. Theproblem comes out of the fact that Grkpbv 90120 was originally intended for atype of unit that normally does not fight in urban terrain. By examination of theterrain and its conditions for combat, it has been possible to specify requirementsfor the indirect fire support system of an attached unit. Subsequently, therequirements have been compared to the abilities of Grkpbv 90120. Urban warfareconstitutes hilly terrain characterised by difficulty of observation, short firingdistances, proximity to protection, three-dimensional combat and the mix ofcivilians, friends and foes. Grkpbv 90120 fulfils a number of basic requirementsfor urban warfare, but must be developed within the areas of target engagementand protection, among other things, precision engagements, gradable effect andpenetration and also protection against handheld weapons at every angle of attack,also during darkness.After some development, the Grkpbv 90120 will be an indirect fire supportsystem for an attached unit, which is well suited for future urban warfare.

  • 4787.
    Svedin, Lina
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Organizational Cooperation in Crises2009Book (Other academic)
  • 4788.
    Svedjenäs, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Jag måste fråga mamma: En studie om anhörigstöd och social interaktion2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syftar till att visa hur Försvarsmakten (FM) bör möta och arbeta eller socialt interagera med mammor, för att dessa ska känna sig mer positiva till sina barns deltagande i internationella insatser.

    Tidigare forskning och information utgiven av FM riktar sig inte specifikt till mammor som i många fall kan vara en väldigt viktig anhöriggrupp för våra soldater och sjömän.

    Undersökningen fokuserar dels på vilka behov av stöd målgruppen har, men också på hur man ur ett socialpsykologiskt perspektiv ska få mammor att se insatsen som meningsfull.

    Uppsatsen innehåller information om hur tre mammor har känt sig och upplevt kontakten med FM då deras söner gjort utlandstjänst, hur en mamma känner sig inför att hennes son för första gången ska göra utlandstjänst, hur en chef ur utlandsstyrkan brukar bemöta anhöriga till sina soldater och hur FM´s anhörigstöd allmänt ser ut.

  • 4789.
    Sveninge, Ivar
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Försvarsmaktens flygunderhållssystem: system Fenix, ett generationsskifte2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4790.
    Svenserud, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Krigföring - Manöverkrigföring eller en ny paradigm2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Generations of war. William S. Lind and Thomas X. Hammes are two advocates of fourth generation warfare. Fourth generation warfare combatants uses all available tools to reach their goals. Different to today’s warfare fourth generation warfare has no distinct battlefield. Instead the society is the place om battle.

     

    In this essay the author will provide a broader definition of fourth generation warfare that originates from Lind´s and Hammes´. The main issue of this essay is; if there is a change of paradigm in warfare. To answer this question the broader definition of fourth generation warfare and William S. Lind´s theory on maneuver warfare will be tested. The method of this studies is a theory testing case study with most similar design. The theories are tested on two cases, more exactly the Israeli actions during both Palestinian Intifadas.

     

    The theories are decomposed into three indicators per theory, the indicators are the tested in the cases.

     

    The result shows that the authors broader definition in not in accordance with the cases. Thereby the result shows that there has not been a change of paradigm in warfare.

  • 4791.
    Svensk, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Avvägning mellan synfält och räckvidd med infraröda sensorer - Nödvändighet eller utvecklingsfråga?2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att som operatör ha möjlighet att se i ett elektromagnetiskt spektrum som det blotta ögat inte kan upptäcka bidrar till en rad fördelar. Den militära nyttan av IR-sensorer har drivit utvecklingen inom många av dess användningsområden som till exempel målsökare och mörkerkapacitet i totalt mörker. Det finns en svårighet kopplat till IR-sensorer och det är att det måste ske en avvägning mellan dess synfält och dess räckvidd. Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka vad det är som tvingar tillverkarna av dessa sensorer till att välja mellan dessa två parametrar. Detta för att sedan kunna ha en diskussion om eventuella lösningar och deras bidrag till de två grundläggande förmågorna verkan och underrättelse/information. Två nyare tekniker kommer även att undersökas för att kunna upptäcka alternativa lösningar på problemet.Undersökningen visade på att det största hindret var ett fysikaliskt sådant och detta var kopplat till bildformeringen, optikens fokallängd. En kort fokallängd gav ett brett synfält medan en längre fokallängd gav bättre räckvidd.

  • 4792.
    Svensson, Alexander
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hybriddrift i stridsfordon, fördelar och nackdelar2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Petro-electric IFVs (Infantry fighting vehicles) or hybrid-IFV’s are not a new phenomenon. During the 1900’s Germany as well as the U.S both tested vehicles constructed with hybrid technology. In spite of several identified advantages, no serving hybrid-IFV exists today. This essay examines the possible military benefits from electrical hybrid-drive. It is not however, to be seen as an assessment of whether the Swedish armed forces should procure a hybrid vehicle or not. Through a method of description this essay aims to describe advantages and disadvantages of hybrid-drive in a light IFV. The survey relies on a comparative analysis of answers given in semi-structured interviews. Each source could represent a different side in a future acquisition process. Results are presented in a table showing the advantages and the criteria pertaining to each advantage. Amongst the benefits are improved maneuverability, due to increased acceleration, and "silent" mode which improves both protection and endurance. Several benefits rely on energy storage i.e. batteries, regenerative braking is an example of this. Batteries, in turn, are marred with a variety of problems. And therefore demand improved performances and safety systems in order not be deemed as disadvantages.

  • 4793.
    Svensson, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Försvarsmaktens utlandsstyrka: en organisation med krav på hög flexibitet och anpassningsbarhet i en föränderlig värld2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay has been to study the way in wich the SwedishArmed Forces’ International Unit deals with lessons learned and in what waythey have been implemented in the organization. The main question of theessay is; (A) Is the Swedish Armed Forces’ International Unit a learningorganization, and if so, to what degree? Five sub-questions amount to the mainquestion: (1) In what way are lessons learned implemented into theorganization? (2) From the lessons learned, how large is the will of correctionin the organization? (3) In what way are the lessons learned communicatedinside the organization and between the different levels? (4) How does theorganization see itself; as small parts or as a system within a system? (5) Towhat extent is the Personnel Department capable of handling staffing vacancieswithout loosing competencies?The theoretical framework has been Argyris’ and Schön’s theories of single -and double - loop learning. Peter Senge’s Five Disciplines and LenaWilhelmson’s learning dialog. The method used is qualitative with a deductiveapproach. The essay is based upon interviews with officers that have beenserving as commanders in, the international unit at different levels or insupporting roles. An observation study has also been accomplished inconnection with a lessons learned seminar at the International Unit.The essay has come to the following results:(A) The answer to the main question is divided. The will for corrections andimplementation of lessons learned is high. On the other hand, the structures andold cultures in the organization mean there is a limitation of correction andsystems thinking.(1) There is no lack of lessons learned; the limitations are because of the lackof methods to systematically develop these lessons.(2) The will for correction among the staff is high but the lack of clear visionsand priorities make corrections hard to carry out.(3) Dialog is the main way to communicate between employees at the samelevel but also between different levels.(4) The way of thinking in a system of systems is at a low level in theorganization. The organizational structures have to be changed and a higherdegree of process thinking has to be implemented to make this possible.(5) The handling of personnel vacancies in the units is very good. When itcomes to the structure that supports the training of the unit, it is the opposite.

  • 4794.
    Svensson, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Infanteri: det bortglömda vapnet2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Starting with the direction stated in the Swedish Armed Forces’ reply to the Swedish governmentdefence policy 2009, according to my analysis we are heading towards a new main focus inour capability and force development. On the one hand a priority and focus on land operations,and on the other hand a considerable increase in capability and volume regarding so-called lightinfantry and ground combat. This requires, from today’s starting point, a resumption ofcompetence and ability when it comes to infantry and ground combat. The purpose of this essay isto look into whether today’s training in units with the core capability to fight on their feet, can beseen as so-called light infantry or if it is something else.This essay compares the training in ground combat being conducted in the airborne battalion,amphibious battalion and the light mechanized battalion with the characteristics of so-called lightinfantry. The core question being answered is formulated as follows: Are Swedish ground combatforces being given relevant training in proportion to the characteristics of so-called light infantrytoday.The result of this essay shows that the airborne squadron is definitely being given a relevanttraining in ground combat in accordance with my analysis of light infantry characteristics today.This is also true for the amphibious rifle coy, whose training in ground combat is in line with thedevelopment towards a light ground combat unit, with a distinct focus on offensive operations andground combat. The light mechanized infantry company’s distinguishing mark is ground combatin the urban environment. My research shows that the areas that need to be developed in theircombat training today are small unit tactics and the capability to fight on their feet in restrictiveterrain without the support of infantry vehicles. This is in order to fully, and in conformity withairborne and amphibious units, act as a true “light infantry”.

  • 4795.
    Svensson, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Offensiva informationsoperationer: en nödvändig svensk förmåga?2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Regeringens uppdrag till FM avseende militära informationsoperationer(MIO) är tydligt. FM skall bygga upp en kompetens, omfattande metoderför skydd, planering och genomförande av MIO.Är IO, och då särskilt de offensiva metoderna relaterade till funktionen, enviktig komponent i de framtida väpnade styrkorna, och vad krävs för attFM framgångsrikt skall kunna implementera en reell operativ förmågaavseende MIO, är de övergripande frågeställningarna som besvaras i dennauppsats.Inledningsvis definieras begreppet IO. Omvärldens syn på IO, en fördjupadbeskrivning av de offensiva metoderna samt en redovisning av FMinriktning i ett tioårigt perspektiv, utgör uppsatsens empiriska underlag.Avslutningsvis värderas uppsatsens slutsatser relativtmanöverkrigföringens grundprinciper och en hypotes formuleras.

  • 4796.
    Svensson, Benjamin
    Swedish Defence University.
    THOMPSONS VÄG TILL FRAMGÅNG: är klassisk upprorsbekämpning fortfarande relevant?2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Should classical theories about counterinsurgency remain in the past or be considered in relation to future insurgencies? Scholars have discussed the relevance of classical counterinsurgency theories earlier in this century and disagreed about how relevant the classics are. The aim with this bachelor thesis was to study if Robert Thompson's Basic Operational Concept could explain the progress U.S. troops made in the insurgency that took place in Iraq under Operation Iraqi Freedom. In the early years of Operation Iraqi Freedom, U.S. troops had problems controlling the insurgency but other scholars asserted that progress was made after 2006 when classical theories about counterinsurgency were applied to the emergency. This thesis has a case study design and the author used qualitative text analysis of secondary sources, including interviews and research material from RAND Corporation. The theory used was based on Thompson's Basic Operational Concept. The majority of the concept was found to have been rigorously applied after 2006 and therefore, based on the result from this thesis, should be considered as a possible rationale for the progress U.S. troops made in the emergency. 

  • 4797.
    Svensson, Carl-Magnus R
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Homo Politicus vs Homo Civicus: hur utformar olika politiska system beslut om militärt våld och vilka militära effekter får det för den militära operationen?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Decision-making on military violence varies with a nation’s civil-military relation. Applying a theoretical framework that uses the concept of power to determine the normative and ruling principles will allow a model to describe and categorise the civil-military relation. The theory is applied on the Falklands conflict and the Swedish issue of violating submarines in the early eighties. The effects that are examined are time and the apprehension of the conception over the strategic goal for the operation.

    The purpose of this study is to examine how different types of relations between politicians and the military organisation, are affecting the design of the decision process. The study explains what normative and ruling principles that are underlying how different political systems make decisions on military violence.

    The results indicate that the concept of power can be fruitful to categorise the civil-military relation and thereby describe how different political systems makes decisions on military violence. Sweden had an inclination towards governmental regulation and to hand over the decisions to the military operator, but had also a pragmatic attitude when decisions were urgently needed. The dominating inclination in UK during the Falklands conflict was to closely co-ordinate actions through negotiations between the civil and military operators. Actual similarities between the UK and Sweden did exist as well. However, a difference was the level of integration. A formal integration of the military supreme command into the Ministry of Defence will socialise the military operator so that he will detect political intentions and internalize him to take decisions with political considerations. In the case of Sweden co-ordination was run on basis of ad-hoc which gave the military operator large amount of freedom to act at the expense of the civil control

  • 4798.
    Svensson, Christian
    Swedish Defence University.
    Stress och psykisk ohälsa: En studie på hur åtgärder för att förebygga psykisk ohälsa kan påverka stress och stresshantering hos personal i Försvarsmakten2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Försvarsmakten har de senaste åren riktats mot att ha en ökad förmåga till insatser utanför Sveriges gränser och den ökade rotation på personal kommer öka behovet av stöd och omhändertagande efter insatsen.

        Tidigare arbeten har visat att kunskap i hur stress motverkas och förhindras kan förhindra att personal utvecklar posttraumatiskt stressyndrom, därför anser författaren det vara intressant att veta om åtgärder och faktorer innan och under en insats för att förebygga psykisk ohälsa kan påverka stress och stresshanteringsförmågan hos personalen.

        Syftet med arbetet är att undersöka om åtgärder och faktorer innan och under en insats för att motverka och förhindra psykisk ohälsa hos personalen i Försvarsmakten, stämmer med vedertagen teori om stress och stressprevention. 

    Metoden som författaren använt för att besvara syftet och frågeställningarna är inledningsvis en deskriptionsstudie med kvalitativ ansats för att beskriva teori, två teoretiska modeller och viktiga åtgärder och faktorer för att förebygga psykisk ohälsa. Därefter används en deduktiv metod när författaren analyserar de åtgärder och faktorer som svenska försvarsmakten genomför mot teorin och de två teoretiska modellerna om stress och stressprevention.

    De viktigaste slutsatserna av detta arbete är:

    -          Att flera av de åtgärder och faktorer som svenska försvarsmakten genomför innan och under en insats har en positiv effekt på personalens stresshanteringsförmåga enligt teorin och de två teoretiska modellerna.

    -          Teorin och de två teoretiska modellerna stödjer inte Försvarsmaktens intresse att rekrytera personal ur gruppen studerande ur stresshanteringssynpunkt.

    -          Metoder som mentalträning och skriva-av-sig är åtgärder som har fördelen att individen själv kan styra metoden samt att de har en positiv effekt på personalens stresshanteringsförmåga under en insats enligt teorin.

  • 4799.
    Svensson, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Leadership challenges for officers in charge of professional soldiers in comparison to conscripts2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of new strategic circumstances, Europe’s armed forces are currently going through transformations, which in a several cases have resulted in introductions of professional forces and soldiers. The previous mass conscription forces are increasingly replaced by smaller but more flexible professionalised units.

    This research mainly covers these transformations from officers’ points of view as the circumstances for military leadership may change with the introduction of professional units. Focus is directed to newly emerging leadership challenges for officers in charge of professional soldiers in comparison to conscripts.

    Comparisons on views and lessons learnt from Swedish and Austrian officers provide the main content on which this research is based on. Both are officers within an organization that since the end of the cold war, are going through these kinds of transformations.

    Parallels and comparisons to experiences from other European armed forces are also made as well as educational perspectives on Swedish and Austrian military leadership.

    The outcome of this research is a several distinguished capabilities and competences with an increased importance for officers in charge of professional soldiers.

  • 4800.
    Svensson, Emelie
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Democratic Strength and Cowardly Barbarism?: a discourse-theoretic study on the gendering of terrorism in the Swedish political discourse2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to map out the gendered constructions of terrorism and terrorists within the Swedish political discourse. The starting point of the research are the recent terror attacks in Paris 2015 and in Brussels 2016, a time at which the Swedish government presented a number of new and more aggressive counterterrorism strategies for combating terrorism and Daesh. Seeking to understand how these strategies are justified and legitimized to the Swedish people, the study seeks to contribute to the literature of gender and terrorism, with a specific focus on gendered nationalism and masculinity. Based in the belief that everything in the social world is structured in gendered hierarchies of masculinities and femininities, a discourse theoretic analysis is carried out on Swedish government minister’s speeches and statements. Empirical findings indicate several gendered constructions; a hegemonic masculinization of Sweden and the EU and a subordinate masculinization and feminization of Daesh.

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