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  • 451.
    Pilblad, Marcus
    Swedish Defence University.
    Beslut på liv och död: Naturalistiskt beslutsfattande på strategisk nivå2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to expand our knowledge about Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM) in strategic decision-making. A case study of the Cuban missile crisis has been conducted. The purpose of the case study is to enhance knowledge about how NDM can be performed on a strategic level. The thesis aims to answer the questions how the crisis can be explained from a NDM-perspective, which decisions is likely to be made in a NDM-manner. In what way decision-makers can be said to be experts or experienced decision-makers and what we can learn from the Cuban missile crisis in respect to NDM. No earlier research has been identified that has performed this kind of case study. The main theory in this thesis is NDM and mainly the part of NDM that is called Recognition Primed Decision (RPD) by Klein. As a complement the so called STEP-procedure (Story, Test, Evaluate, Plan) by Cohen is used as an indicator alongside RPD. The result of the case study shows that many decisions during the Cuban missile crisis may have been performed in a naturalistic manner. This shows that decisions on the strategic level may be performed in a naturalistic manner with good results and indicates the importance of utilizing more than rational decision making in order to achieve fast and satisfying results. It is the author beliefs that decision making will be much improved by applying more NDM.

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  • 452.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Beslut under osäkerhet2017In: Rustad för risk: Riskpsykologi för militärer och insatsorganisationer / [ed] Ann Enander och Marcus Börjesson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 163-178Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 453.
    Rydmark, Joacim
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division. Förvaltningshögskolan, Göteborg universitet.
    Beslut under osäkerhet: En experimentell milkrovärldsstudie av metoder för att hantera osäkerhet vid ledning och beslutsfattande i komplexa och dynamsika miljöer2002Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
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    Licentiatuppsats
  • 454.
    Meyer, Rikard
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Beslutet om EU Battle Group: ett trendbrott?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ovanstående citat ger en bild av hur snabbt förändringarna sker i vår omvärld idag. Förr varframtiden enkel att förutspå och de planer som gjordes sträckte sig över flera år, men idag ärdet en förändrad värld vi lever i och förändringarnas vindar blåser allt starkare även kringFörsvarsmakten. Detta har inneburit ett stort omställningsarbete för Försvarsmakten och detär en process som går framåt om än i långsam takt. Samtidigt kommer allt fler och snabbarekrav på förändring från den politiska nivån. Ett sådant inspel är ovan nämnda EU BattleGroup koncept där Sverige tillsammans med Finland och Norge och Estland skall sättasamman ett förband som skall vara insatsberett 2008.I denna uppsats studeras hur denna beslutsprocess sett ut och hur den påverkats av de kortatidsförhållandena och den politiska styrningen från EU.Denna beslutsprocess avviker till stor del från andra typer av beslut eftersom den har varitmycket kort och möjligheterna att analysera tänkbara konsekvenser av beslutet har varit små.Därför är det intressant att se om detta är ett trendbrott för hur den politiska styrningenkommer att se ut för Försvarsmakten i framtiden.

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  • 455.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, FOA 55, Beteendevetenskapliga institutionen.
    Beslutsfattande: Teoriöversikt med exempel från civilförsvarets verksamhet1983Report (Other academic)
  • 456.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, FOA 55, Beteendevetenskapliga institutionen.
    Beslutsfattande under stress1985Report (Other academic)
  • 457.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Hälsohögskolan i Värmland.
    Beslutsfattande under stress: Elevkompendium1987Report (Other academic)
  • 458.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Beslutsfattande under stress: En grundläggande modell2003In: Direkt ledarskap / [ed] G Larsson & K Kallenberg, Stockholm: Försvarsmakten , 2003, p. 226-239Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 459.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Lajksjö, Örjan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Beslutsfattande under stress: En jämförelse av olika modeller2003In: Direkt ledarskap / [ed] G. Larsson & K. Kallenberg, Stockholm: Försvarsmakten , 2003, p. 240-251Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 460.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Hälsohögskolan i Värmland.
    Beslutsfattande under stress: Lektionsmall för lärare1987Report (Other academic)
  • 461.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Hälsohögskolan i Värmland.
    Beslutsfattande under stress: Lärarkompendium1987Report (Other academic)
  • 462.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Beslutskontext, beslutsfattande och gruppdynamik2015In: Perspektiv på krishantering / [ed] Deverell, Edward, Hansén, Dan, Olsson, Eva-Karin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 45-72Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 463.
    Åsberg, Henrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Beslutsprocessen vid anskaffning av system till Försvarsmakten: JAS 39 Gripen och dess utveckling inom svenska flygvapnet2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under kalla kriget förberedde Sverige sig för att försvara landet mot en invasion. Detta ledde till en mängd olika materielanskaffningar till Försvarsmakten; bland annat stridsflygplanet JAS 39 Gripen.

    Idag ska svenska Försvarsmakten ha förmågan att utföra nationella likväl som internationella insatser. Det mer globala operationsområdet blev aktuellt efter Berlinmurens fall under 90-talet och tillika kalla krigets slut. Internationaliseringen av Försvarsmakten gjorde att materielsystem behövde utvecklas för att möta de nya kraven som den globala arenan nu ställde. Den politiska inriktningen för myndigheten varierar i takt med den säkerhetspolitiska situationen i vår omvärld.

    I denna uppsats undersöks vilka aktörer som är inblandade i beslutprocessen vid anskaffning av materiel till Försvarsmakten. Undersökning riktar in sig mot JAS 39 Gripen-systemet och dess utveckling. Syftet med undersökningen är att ge en förklarande bild för de personer som befinner sig utanför processen. Den ska även försöka att utröna huruvida Försvarsmaktens internationalisering och samarbete med andra nationer har påverkat utvecklingen av JAS 39 Gripen.

    Resultatet visar att den globala marknaden tillsammans med den nya inriktningen för Försvarsmakten under 90-talet har lett till en ständigt pågående uppgradering av JAS 39 Gripen till att bli ett interoperabelt stridsflygplan. De inblandade aktörerna i beslutsprocessen har i och med det ökat och anskaffning av Nato-kompatibla delsystem är ett led i utvecklingen.

  • 464.
    Vretblad, Bengt
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Nilsson, Claes
    Best Practise and Regulations: Do We Need More Manuals or Less?2008In: DDESB Seminar Proceedings, Palm Springs, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 465.
    Sigholm, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Raciti, Massimiliano
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Best-Effort Data Leakage Prevention in Inter-Organizational Tactical MANETs2012In: Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE Military Communications Conference, IEEE Communications Society, 2012, p. 1143-1149Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS), based on technologies such as Software Defined Radio (SDR) and Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) offer considerable advantages for military operations, such as increased network survivability and interoperability. The RRS-based Common Tactical Radio System (GTRS), currently in development by the Swedish Armed Forces, is designed for use in diverse geographical settings and for purposes varying from international combat missions to national contingency operations. However, protecting these networks from attacks and safeguarding the carried information against leaks is an ongoing research challenge, especially in combined scenarios where tactical data may flow across organizational boundaries. This paper presents a best-effort approach to Data Leakage Prevention (DLP) for inter-organizational RRS-based networks. The proposed architecture makes use of data mining techniques and an efficient n-dimensional clustering algorithm which has previously been successfully used for real-time anomaly detection in critical infrastructure protection. The DLP architecture is developed as an extension to the GTRS system, modeled and simulated in OPNET™ Modeler. Our results show that common data leaks can be efficiently identified by the proposed scheme, while keeping the important false positive rate at a very low level.

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  • 466.
    Asp, Viktoria
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security, Analysis. Försvarshögskolan.
    Blomstrand, Rickard
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security, Analysis.
    Deschamps-Berger, Jenny
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security, Analysis.
    Levy-Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security, Executive Education.
    Narby, Petter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security, Analysis.
    Sandberg, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security, Analysis.
    Besten besegrad: Utvärdering av krishanteringen under skogsbränderna i Ljusdal 20182019Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Skogsbränderna i Ljusdal utgjorde det största brandområdet i Sverige under sommaren 2018. Omkring 200 personer evakuerades. Räddningstjänster från flera delar av Sverige medverkade och internationellt stöd kom från 10 länder. Räddningsinsatsen pågick i 27dagar och innefattade som mest 1300 personer. Efter nio dagar övertog Länsstyrelsen i Gävleborgs län ansvaret för kommunal räddningstjänst.

    Utvärderingen bedömer i vilken utsträckning Länsstyrelsen i Gävleborgs län har arbetat enligt författningarna och riktlinjerna som finns kopplat till dess ansvarsområde under och efter olyckor och kriser. Mycket i krishanteringen fungerade bra. Inom sju av nio områdenhar länsstyrelsen i hög eller i mycket hög utsträckning uppfyllt sitt ansvar. Inom tvåområden har länsstyrelsen i begränsad utsträckning uppfyllt sitt ansvar.

    Områden där länsstyrelsen i mycket hög utsträckning har uppfyllt sitt ansvar

    • TiB-funktion (initiera och samordna det inledande arbetet för att upptäcka,verifiera, larma och informera vid allvarliga kriser som berör länet)
    • Omgående kunna upprätta en ledningsfunktion
    • Inom sitt geografiska områdesansvar verka för samordning av efterarbetet

    Områden där länsstyrelsen i hög utsträckning har uppfyllt sitt ansvar• Samlad regional lägesbild (innan övertagandet)

    • Fungera som sammanhållande funktion och verka för samordning och gemensam inriktning under krisen
    • Övertagande av kommunal räddningstjänst
    • Information till allmänhet och media

    Områden där länsstyrelsen i begränsad utsträckning har uppfyllt sitt ansvar

    • Samlad regional lägesbild (efter övertagandet)
    • Intern informationssamordning

    I utvärderingen dras också slutsatser utifrån utmaningarna som länsstyrelsen mötte samtnågra slutsatser av vikt för krishanteringssystemet. Ett urval presenteras nedan.

    Inledningsvis hämmades länsstyrelsens arbete med regional lägesbild av att Ljusdalskommun hade svårt att formulera en lokal lägesbild. Genom flera proaktiva åtgärder lyckades dock länsstyrelsen skapa en lägesbild utifrån vilken insatserna kunde dimensioneras.

    Övertagandet av kommunal räddningstjänst har i all väsentlighet hanterats på ett bra sätt. Möjligen hade övertagandet kunnat ske något tidigare, men övertagandet har sannolikt underlättats av att avvakta och den operativa insatsen har kunnat fortgå ostörd avlänsstyrelsen. Förberedelserna för övertagande borde däremot ha involverat länsstyrelsensstab i betydligt högre utsträckning.

    Länsstyrelsen har efter övertagandet två roller att hantera: dels ansvaret förräddningsinsatsen, dels det geografiska områdesansvaret inom krisberedskapen. Det medför att det blir svåra avvägningar mellan räddningstjänst och krishantering. I både Gävleborg och i Västmanland 2014 har vissa inblandade kritiserat att hanteringen haft för stort brandfokus. Att räddningsinsatsen har brandfokus och leds av personer med stor erfarenhet av att leda stora räddningsinsatser är lämpligt, men att integrera länsstyrelsensstab med räddningsinsatsens innebär en risk att länsstyrelsens roll och ansvar i krisberedskapen faller undan.

    Det är en utmaning att organisera ledning av en stor insats. Länsstyrelsens organisation före övertagandet kom snabbt igång och utformades utifrån rådande planer och erfarenheter av övningar. Däremot har inte alltid länsledningen och länsstyrelsens stab arbetat helt integrerat. Stabsorganisationen efter övertagandet sattes upp ad hoc. Den stabsstruktur som väljs måste kompletteras med processer som är enhetliga och som övas regelbundet. Detta gäller både inom respektive funktion, men framförallt sådana processer som knyter samman flera funktioner som för att integrera strategiskt och operativt ledarskap, för att följa upp arbetet, för kommunikation och enhetliga budskap samt för planering på kort, medel och lång sikt.

    Frivilliga fick ersättning efter både sommarens bränder och skogsbranden i Västmanland 2014. Ersättningar till frivilliga riskerar att sätta standard och förväntningar till nästa kris. I framtiden kommer det antagligen bli nödvändigt att göra skillnad inom gruppen frivilliga mellan dem som medverkar med någon form av avtal, och därmed har rätt till ersättning, och de frivilliga som gör ideella insatser. De ekonomiska konsekvenserna av frivilliga riskerar annars att bli allt för långtgående. Hur frivilligfrågan hanteras har en nära koppling till de drabbade och allmänhetens förtroende för insatsen och krishanteringen.

    Rapporten består av tre delar: 1) en beskrivning av händelseförloppet utifrån särskilt relevanta teman, 2) en diskussion om vilka lärdomar som kan dras utifrån hanteringen och 3) en utvärdering av Länsstyrelsen i Gävleborgs läns arbete utifrån dess ansvar ochuppdrag.

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    FHS 2019 Besten besegrad - utvärdering av krishanteringen under skogsbränderna i Ljusdal 2018
  • 467.
    Abrahamsson, Jan
    Swedish Defence University.
    Beteendepåverkan genom hot, en fråga om trovärdighet?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tvångsmaktsteorier försöker förstå och förklara vad som skapar framgång vid bruket av tvångsmakt. Tvångsmakt är att med hot, eller småskaliga stridshandlingar, från det militära maktmedlet åstadkomma en önskvärd förändring i en aktörs beteende. Problemet som denna uppsats hanterar är att teorierna om tvångsmakt brister i sin förmåga att förklara vad som skapar ett trovärdigt militärt hot. Detta är ett problem då flera teoretiker påtalar vikten av trovärdighet för att framgångsrikt utöva tvångsmakt. Teoretikerna gör detta utan att förklara eller undersöka denna trovärdighet. En debatt finns om vad som skapar framgång vid bruket av tvångsmakt, är det bara militära relativa kapaciteter eller är det också intresset som står på spel?

     

    Denna teoriutvecklande uppsats syftar till att förklara vad som skapar ett trovärdigt militärt hot och hur detta bidrar till framgångsrik tvångsmakt. Genom en jämförande fallstudie mellan Haiti 1994 och Falklandsöarna 1982 undersöks trovärdigheten i det militära hotet. Det teoretiska ramverket utgörs av tvångsmaktsteorier kombinerat med teorier om militär trovärdighet.

     

    Undersökningen visar att för att vara framgångsrik vid bruket av tvångsmakt ska det finnas en överlägsen militär kapacitet relativt motaktören. Inget samband kan påvisas mellan värdet på intresset och utfallet av tvångsmakt.

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  • 468.
    Hobbins, Jennifer
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Between autonomy and paternalism: Crisis managers’ views on citizens’ responsibilities in crises and contingencies2017In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 269-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public discussions about the division of responsibilities between state and citizen in crises have led to reformulated policies. These are interpreted and put into practice by crisis managers. Hence, their understandings of citizens’ responsibilities are central for actions and resource allocation. This qualitative study focuses on Swedish crisis managers’ understandings of citizens’ (moral) responsibilities and practices of ‘doing’ responsibilities. Three overarching forms of ‘doing responsibilities’ were found: assignment, assessment, and differentiation. These ways of constructing responsibilities were permeated by two diverging rationales: the autonomy rationale, and the paternalism rationale. The two rationales add up to a partly contradictory complexity which may explain individuals’ differing responsibility-taking. Further, not recognizing this contradiction may negatively affect citizen’s willingness to take responsibility when desired.

  • 469.
    Hobbins, Jennifer
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för arbetsvetenskap.
    Lahusen, Christian
    University of Siegen, Germany.
    Between evasion and activism. A qualitative inquiry into the political behaviour of German and Swedish long-term unemployed2015In: PArticipation and COnflict, ISSN 1972-7623, E-ISSN 2035-6609, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 788-813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This comparative article aims to understand the patterns underlying the political behavior of young German and Swedish long-term unemployed individuals. Based on almost 40 qualitative interviews, the analysis follows a grounded theory approach and shows that “unemployment” is not an objective reality that imposes uniform living conditions. Social and political activities diverge considerably, even though our respondents experience similar pressures and sanctions by public opinion, political parties, public administrations, relatives and/or acquaintances. The consequences of unemployment depend on individual mind-sets, support networks and coping strategies. This study identifies informal networks of social relations as one main factor influencing unemployed young peoples’ political behavior. Three types of political involvement are shaped by the routines and norms reproduced within their web of social relations in everyday life: evasion, civic minimalism and reluctant activism. The similarities between the German and the Swedish respondents overshadowed the national differences.

  • 470.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Between reluctance and necessity: the utility of military force in humanitarian and development operations2009Report (Other academic)
  • 471.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Between reluctance and necessity: the utility of military force in humanitarian and development operations2008In: Small Wars & Insurgencies, ISSN 0959-2318, E-ISSN 1743-9558, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 397-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The civil-military interface in peace support operations is changing due to increasingly overlapping tasks, increased military involvement in humanitarian activities, and increased integration of all involved actors, not least through various current strategic concepts. This article not only describes these trends, but also, more importantly, analyses certain consequences in terms of mission effectiveness. The focus of the analysis is the ideas of 'militarisation of humanitarian aid' and the reverse 'humanitarianisation of the military'. The main arguments of this contribution are that the assumptions of increased effectiveness stemming from civil-military integration cannot be taken for granted and that there are harmful consequences stemming from blurring the lines between civilian, humanitarian and military actors. There is, in other words, a need to better specify and explain the causal mechanisms that lead to effectiveness in complex peace support operations.

  • 472.
    Ranstorp, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security, CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Ahlin, Filip
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security, CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Normark, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Centre for Societal Security, CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Between Salafism and Salafi-Jihadism: Influence and Challenges for Swedish Society2019Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the influence from salafi and salafi-jihadist milieus inSweden and the interactions between these different forms. This executivesummary focuses on the evolution of salafi-jihadis milieus in Sweden andsurrounding salafi elements; messages from these milieus; their methods forinfluence and the impact on local communities in Sweden.

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    fulltext
  • 473.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Between the eagle and the bear: Explaining the alignment strategies of the Nordic countries in the 21st century2020In: Comparative Strategy, ISSN 0149-5933, E-ISSN 1521-0448, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 191-208Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 474.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Between the Eagle and the Bear: Explaining the Alignment Strategies of the Nordic Countries in the 21th Century2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 475.
    Ojala, Susanne
    Swedish Defence University.
    Betydelse av tempo vid beslutsfattande i militär operationer2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Betydelsen av tempo i militära operationer och ledningssituationer är viktig. Den ledningsfunktion som har förstått innebörden av tempots betydelse och har förmågan att utnyttja det kan nå framgång. Det finns två grundläggande ledningsfilosofier eller tillvägagångssätt att utföra ledning på, antingen genom ordertaktik med centraliserad ledning eller också uppdragstaktik med decentraliserad ledning. Det framgår inte av tidigare forskningen om det finns ett orsakssamband mellan tempo vid beslutsfattande och framgång. Studien fokuserar på ledningsfunktionen för att närmare undersöka sambandet mellan tempo vid beslutsfattande och tempo. Studien undersöker sambandet empiriskt genom de israeliska flygstridskrafternas deltagande i Sexdagarskriget 1967 och de amerikanska tillsammans med koalitionens flygstridskrafter i Operation Iraqi Freedom 2003. Den teori som används i studien härstammar från van Creveld och är extraherad ur ”Command in War”. Studien har använt sig av en deduktiv metod genom en jämförande fallstudie med teoriprövande ansats.

    Studiens resultat visar att det finns ett orsakssamband mellan tempo vid beslutsfattande och framgång. Det förklaras av ledningsmetoden som tillsammans med organisationens utformning själva kan skapa tempo. Det är viktigt att ledningsfunktionen som helhet håller samma tempo som operationen. Studiens uppvisar också att alla ingående delar inom ledningsfunktionen kan vara med och påverka tempo vid beslutsfattande inom ledningsfunktionen. De slutsatser som kan dras av studien är att Crevelds teori stärker sin trovärdighet vilket ökar möjligheten till generalisering av andra fall.

  • 476.
    Hyllengren, Peder
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Betydelsen av ledarskap, sammanhållning och kamratstöd för prevention och återhämtning/rehabilitering av individuella stressreaktioner: En litteraturöversikt2010Report (Other academic)
  • 477.
    Kuylenstierna, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Sandström, Hans
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Rydmark, Joacim
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Betydelsen av överlägsen expertis och informationsöverläge för skapande av ledningsöverläge2006Report (Other academic)
  • 478.
    Kuylenstierna, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Rydmark, Joacim
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Sandström, Hans
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Betydelsen av överlägsen sensorräckvidd vid olika nivåer på osäkerhet om läget i stridsrummet: Rapport nr 122003Report (Other academic)
  • 479.
    Eriksson, Per-Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Betygssystems påverkan på inlärningsbetingelser: ett pedagogiskt instrument som bör grundas på en pedagogisk idé!2002Student paper otherStudent thesis
  • 480.
    Dijkstra, Gabriel
    Swedish Defence University.
    Beväpning av flygtekniker2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The AK5C has reached the edge of life and is due for replacement. Studies have been investigating a new small arm but focus of these studies has been the army and its personnel. For flight maintenance personnel the AK5C was too heavy and when working on an aircraft the technicians had to lay the weapon aside. The question this study aims to answer is how the future small arms for flight maintenance personnel might look like. To illustrate when a flight technician might use their weapon three scenarios where created. The scenarios where all originated from reglemente flygbassystem and focused on the main tasks of flight maintenance personnel. In the study personnel with deep knowledge in the field of small arms from different branches of the Swedish Armed Forces were interviewed. The aim was to get an understanding of how the organization view the problem. A survey with flight maintenance personnel from Helicopter Squadron was also conducted and provided details of how the users views the problem. The main question that was asked both in the interviews and in the survey to the users was which attribute of a small arm are the most important for each of the scenarios. The primary difference between the interviewed and the survey was the understanding of penetration and range for different weapon types. The conclusion of the study was that a short barrelled automatic rifle could be a solution that could handle all the investigated scenarios. A recommendation is also made to strengthen the flight maintenance company with machineguns to increase the capacity when defending on longer ranges. 

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  • 481.
    Erikson, Josefina
    et al.
    Department of Government, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Oscar
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Beyond client criminalization: Analyzing collaborative governance arrangements for combatting prostitution and trafficking in Sweden2019In: Regulation and Governance, ISSN 1748-5983, E-ISSN 1748-5991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is well known as the first country in the world to adopt client criminalization in an effort to control and eventually eliminate prostitution. Less attention has been paid to the emergence of extensive collaborative governance arrangements that serve as complements to the legal framework. The aim of this article is to provide new knowledge as it investigates the multifaceted ways in which governance arrangements have developed in Sweden, employing collaborative governance theories and the Regulatory–Intermediaries–Target model for this purpose. The strategies of responsibilization directed toward target groups that have been utilized to implement policies to control prostitution and trafficking are also explored. The article analyzes not only the rationale behind the adoption of collaborative governance in Sweden, but also the complex governance practices that have emerged in this regard, in which a range of actors are involved in policymaking and application as well as regulation. We conclude that the previous understanding of the Swedish model needs to be revised, and that although collaborative governance has made a fruitful contribution to the field in question, it also introduces new types of problems, particularly a significant increase in informality and decisionmaking outside the legal framework, primarily by civil society actors.

  • 482.
    Bove, Vincenzo
    et al.
    Department of Politics and International Studies (PAIS), University of Warwick, UK.
    Rivera, Mauricio
    Peace Research Institute Oslo, Norway.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Beyond coups: terrorism and military involvement in politics2019In: European Journal of International Relations, ISSN 1354-0661, E-ISSN 1460-3713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wealth of research in comparative politics and international relations examines how the military intervenes in politics via coups. We shift attention to broader forms of military involvement in politics beyond coups and claim that terrorist violence and the threat of terror attacks provide a window of opportunity for military intervention, without taking full control of state institutions. We highlight two mechanisms through which terrorism influences military involvement in politics: (1) government authorities demand military expertise to fight terrorism and strengthen national security and “pull” the armed forces into politics, and (2) state armed actors exploit their informational advantage over civilian authorities to “push” their way into politics and policy-making. A panel data analysis shows that domestic terror attacks and perceived threats from domestic and transnational terrorist organizations increase military involvement in politics. We illustrate the theoretical mechanisms with the cases of France (1995–1998 and 2015–2016) and Algeria (1989–1992).

  • 483.
    Sörenson, Karl
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Beyond Francafrique: the foundation, reorientation and reorganisation of France’s Africa politics2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report analyses the French-African relationship from a security and defence political point of view. The report focuses on whether French President Sarkozy’s proposed ‘rupture’ (break) with past French African politics is credi-ble given France’s past politics in Africa. To understand this historical relation-ship the report identifies four historical phases in the French-African relation-ship; the French Empire, the French Union, the short lived French Community and today’s network structure which encompasses French and African political leaders, civil-servants, officers, and businessmen.The Imperial period established French rule in the North, West and Central Africa and laid the ground for French-African trade relations as well as intro-ducing French institutions and culture in Africa. The French-African relationship was in part strengthened by the African support to France during the Second World War, which left France with a historical debt to Africa. The Union primarily tried to bridge the post-war call for greater autonomy from the African states while safeguarding French supremacy. The French Community, dissolved after only two years, was the last attempt by France to formally keep the colonial connection. After the end of the Community, President de Gaulle was quick to establish a close relationship with most of the Francophone political leaders. The network instigated by the Gaulle was strengthened through education and common socialisation between the elites of metropolitan France and those of the Francophone African states. Subsequent French presidents upheld the network structure that came to dominate the French-African relationship and France continued its presence in Africa. The network structure was upheld by political liaisons and trade, but also by France acting as a guarantor for African stability by bilateral defence agreements and through military interventions. The inter-ventions became increasingly difficult to motivate and eventually necessitated serious reforms in French-Africa politics. Sarkozy’s attempt to rearrange the current French Africa policy is situated within this historical context. So far Sarkozy seems to envisage a more loosely coupled network between France and African leaders, but which encompasses non-tradi-tional French African partners like Libya and South Africa. This more multi-lateral approach is also reflected in France’s attempt to move away from the bilateral dealings of the past to work closer together with the EU, AU and the UN in Africa. However, the new multilateral transition might be complicated by the earlier, often complex French-African relationship.

  • 484.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Beyond the external - internal security divide: Inter-pillar implications for EU policies of protection2008In: The European Union and Security Sector Reform / [ed] P. Fluri & D. Spence, London: John Harper Publishing , 2008, p. 151-172Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 485.
    Persson, Mariam
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Jörgel, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Matti, Hanna
    Beyond the façade of formal statehood: shadow networks, "big men" and franchised rebellion : case studies from the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Central African Republic2008Book (Other academic)
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  • 486.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Beyond the RtoP: Responsibility as Doing, Being and Sharing2015In: International Politics Reviews, ISSN 2050-2982, E-ISSN 2046-9292, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 50-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review article exposes that the scholarly interest in the notion of ‘responsibility’ in the field of security studies goes far beyond the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ and the debate on emerging ‘responsible stakeholders’ in Asia. It is argued that the significant scholarly attention to ‘responsibility’ reflects political concerns with transnational threats and humanitarian issues, but it also mirrors a quest for status and power in a post-hegemonic security milieu as well as a need to distribute responsibilities among powers in an effective way. The article reviews approximately 160 peer-reviewed articles to expose strengths and weaknesses in the scholarly production of knowledge on responsibility in the field of security studies. The article suggests a new way to categorize works on responsibility in terms of ‘doing’, ‘being’ or ‘sharing’; focusing on one or several of these three aspects is an effective way to capture key contemporary problems in international security.

  • 487.
    Bergfeldt, Sandra
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Biased Mediators and Sustainable Peace: Why are some peace agreements more durable than others?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mediator characteristics have been found to affect both the process of getting warring parties to sign an agreement and how sustainable that agreement will turn out to be. Since the type of peace agreement also has been found to affect the sustainability of peace agreements, this study aims at examining whether the identity of the mediator is related to which type of agreement is being signed and to see if this could be an explaining factor to the previous results in this field. Many earlier studies have defined success in different ways, mainly either as the signing of an agreement or the durability of agreements. This study contributes to the research field by combining these two definitions. Since type of agreement has been shown to affect the durability of peace, factors that influence what type of agreement is signed will also affect how sustainable the agreement will be. Peace agreement sustainability is seen as the definition of success, but in the search for what makes an agreement last, you might have to look at what makes the parties sign the agreement in the first place. This will therefore develop the concept of successful mediation and analyze the two definitions as one. It is argued that international mediators will have a higher degree of comprehensive agreements compared to regional mediators and that this is the reason for why international mediators have been found to generate more durable peace. The results indicate that there is no difference between the two types of actors in terms of how much of the incompatibility is solved in the agreement, but when looking at how many parties are signatories, international and mixed mediators were correlated with a higher degree of comprehensiveness than regional mediators.

  • 488.
    Öberg, Viktor
    Swedish Defence University.
    Biddle, The Afghan model och rebellernas skicklighet i Operation unified protector2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The 2001 campaign in Afghanistan where precision airpower and special operation forces alongside indigenous allies were used to topple the Talibans has brought debaters to argue whether it was a revolution of warfare or a fluke. Stephen Biddle has argued that this Afghan Model is deeply dependent on the indigenous ally being at least as skilled as its enemy.

    Ten years later, a similar concept was used in Libya to overthrow the Gaddafi-regime. This paper examines and compares the skill of the rebels and the regime forces fighting on the ground in Libya, in order to test Biddle’s Afghan Model theory. Hence, the purpose for this study is to broaden the understanding as to when and how often the Afghan Model may be used.

    Initially, rebels demonstrated low levels of tactical skill in comparison to regime forces. However, rebels gradually improved their skills and by the end of the fighting, months later the skill gap had been reduced considerably. Without drawing a definite conclusion, the analysis indicates, that skill of the indigenous ally in order for the Afghan Model to work is of importance, however not to the same degree as presented by Biddle.

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  • 489.
    Danielsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Amnå, Erik
    Örebro universitet.
    Bidrag till vad?: En kunskapsöversikt över effekter och metoder rörande statliga bidrag till ideella organisationer : Rapport till Ungdomsstyrelsen April 20092009Report (Other academic)
  • 490.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Bidrar processorientering av FM centrala ledning till effekttänkande?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Topic selection is organization theory based on the process orientation of the Swedish Armed Forces Headquarters (SAF HQ) and whether it theoretically reinforces effects based thinking as defined in the SAF military strategic doctrine from 2011.

    The essay examines the process orientation of the SAF HQ and if it theoretically can interact with SAF doctrinal basis of effects based thinking. SAF HQ has since the early 21st century worked with the introduction of process orientation in the central management. Several investigations, decisions, and petitions to the government affirm this. During the same period, the SAF introduced effects based thinking, based primarily on other countries' experiences from war. These two approaches are usually considered as two extremes, where the effects based thinking has strong foothold in the military operational perspective and process orientation has strong foothold in the management perspective. When comparing them, several similarities between process orientation and effects based thinking are identified, but there are areas where there are no similarities. The essay concludes that the process orientation of the SAF HQ reinforces SAF conceptual approach in effects based thinking.

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  • 491.
    Gunnarsson, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Bilden av Kina – Kinas bild: Kinesiska försök till vilseledning genom media2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    China has a long tradition of using deception and psychological tactics. During the 2008 Beijing Olympics, China displayed extensive perception management, aiming at showing a better picture of China. The purpose of this study is to examine if China has continued to display a distorted image since the Olympics and if it could be classified as attempts on deception directed towards a western audience.

    By combining case studies with descriptive, comparative and a qualitative content analysis method, three cases are researched in order to establish how they are portrayed in the Chinese newspaper China Daily and the BBC News. The differences discovered are matched with the six different kinds of deception presented in Barton Whaley’s general deception theory.

    In all three cases, numerous examples can be found which indicates that China attempts to deceive their western audience through the media. Both passive and active types of deception are discovered. The results are discussed concerning whether the differences are examples of deception, perception management or both. Numerous suggestions for future studies conclude the paper.

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  • 492.
    Hedlund, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS).
    Weibull, Louise
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS).
    Bilden av oss och de andra: Om svensk trupps möten med civilbefolkning och militära enheter under tjänstgöring i Kosovo 20062008Report (Other academic)
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  • 493.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Bildningens roll i officersutbildningen2010In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 2, p. 164-169Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 494.
    Knutsson, Rickard
    et al.
    National Veterinary Institute (SVA), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Per-Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Institute for National Defence and Security Policy Studies (IHT).
    Brattberg, Erik
    The McCain Institute for International Leadership, Washington DC, USA.
    Hedström, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Institute for National Defence and Security Policy Studies (IHT).
    Bio-Agro Defense Collaboration: The Need of Joint Leadership Education and Training of Strategic Analysts and Decision Makers2015In: Journal of Defense Resources Management, ISSN 2068-9403, E-ISSN 2247-6466, Vol. 5, no 2, article id 1000131Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioweapons deliberately spread to humans and animals is one of the most complex and intersectoral CBRNE threats. It requires multi-sectoral collaboration between law enforcement, public and animal health and in severe cases civil-military collaboration. By building a collaborative management culture between these sectors, through joint education, training and exercise activities, better methods and tools will be obtained in order to reach interoperability and an integrated preparedness approach. Lessons learned and experiences from previous projects, courses, workshops, and simulation exercises require a rationale knowledge transfer. Horison scanning is one example of a method that can be recommended to educate strategic analysts jointly from various sectors and the “Decision Theater” is a dynamic and flexible tool that is useful to train decision makers to examine complex bio-agro defense and biosecurity problems.

  • 495.
    Ericson Wolke, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Biograferade flygare: Recension av Rune Kjellander, Svenska flygvapnets högre chefer 1925–20052015In: Militärhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0283-8400, Vol. 2014, no 2, p. 45-46Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 496.
    Bron, Agnieszka
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Biographical methodology in gender studies and adult learning2008In: Researching Gender in Adult Learning / [ed] Joanna Ostrouch och Edmée Ollagnier, Frankfurt: Peter Lang Verlagsgruppe , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 497.
    Hede, Anna
    Swedish Defence University.
    Biosäkerhet: en kvalitativ studie om säkerhetisering av den "nya" sortens säkerhetshot2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 498.
    Nyström, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Bioterrorism: vad innebär hotet? ; hur kan vi möta hotet?2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world changed on September 11, 2001. Above all the view of modernterrorism is changed. Soon after the disaster, letters containing anthrax-sporesturned up in different places in the US. Twenty-two people were stricken withanthrax. Eleven cases were inhalation cases and five of these were fatal. Thisimplied heavy expenses for the American society as well as psychologicaleffects worldwide.This essay tries to define the threat from bioterrorism and also how this threatcan be faced, particularly from a Swedish perspective. The author, Major ClaesNyström, is a student at the Swedish National Defence College chief-program01-03. Usually working at the Swedish Armed Forces Headquarters, at themedical department, as a veterinary surgeon.What does the threat mean?Transnational terrororganisations, with or without support from different states,are the worst threat in our time. Increased use of violence, high mortality andrandom victims are characteristics of this kind of terrorism.These factors indicate use of weapon of mass-destruction, especially the use ofbiologicalweapons. The anthrax bacteria is probably the most likely to be used,and the smallpox virus is the most dangerous. Spreading is carried out byaerosol and the technique is very simple.Sweden might become a target since an increased involvement in conflicts, likepeace keeping or peace enforcement operations may be regarded as hostile.Infection could also be spread from a neighbouring country, already exposed tobioterrorism.How can this threat be met?There will be no previous warning. A great number of patients with similarsymptoms and/or presence of an unusual infection will indicate that a Bweaponhas been used. Today antibiotics and/or vaccination will be used,certain problems connected with these treatments notwithstanding. A greatnumber of civilian authorities will be affected by a bioterrorattack. The militaryauthorities must take an active part in case of a large attack by terrorists. Thiswill put heavy demands on co-operation between different authorities. Nationalleadership to co-ordinate the work among different authorities will be required.International co-operation within a lot of fields must be launched. Intelligenceservice, medicine, fight against terrorism and international conventions are themost important areas of co-operation in fighting bioterrorism.

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  • 499.
    Åselius, Gunnar
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Birth of the Russian Empire: Tenacious retreat of Sweden as a great power2011In: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, Vol. IV, no 3, p. 29-31Article, review/survey (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Review of recent literature on the battle of Poltava published in Sweden and Russia in 2009, as well as a short overview of previous research.

  • 500. Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Sandin-Bojo, Ann-Kristin
    Starrin, Bengt
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Birthgiving women's feelings and perceptions of quality of intrapartal care: a nationwide Swedish cross-sectional study2011In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 20, no 7-8, p. 1168-1177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The aim was to explore the relationships between the feelings of women who give birth and several birth-related care conditions, the womens' socio-demographic background, personality and perceptions of the quality of intrapartum care. Background. Childbirth is a highly significant emotional event for women and it is an explicit goal that each woman should have a positive childbirth experience. Design. The nationwide study is cross-sectional and was conducted at Swedish maternity units over two months in 2007. Methods. The study group consisted of 739 women (63% response rate). A dimensionality analysis of six emotion items was performed using structural equation modelling (SEM). Non-parametric tests and generalised linear mixed effects model analyses were used to study relationships and to make subgroup comparisons. Results. In the SEM analysis, a positive and a negative feeling factor were identified. Strong associations between the feeling factors and the womens' perceptions of the quality of care were found, particularly in regard to the so-called identity-oriented approach of the midwives and other health professionals. In addition, a higher intensity of negative feelings was associated with a personality pattern characterised by extraversion, emotional instability and lower degree of conscientiousness, a lower level of education and having had delivery through Caesarean section. Conclusions. The positive and negative feelings of women who give birth strongly covary with the women's perception of the quality of their intrapartum care. This pertains in particular to information issues, the midwives showing commitment, empathy and respect, being present during labour and allowing the women to actively participate as much as they want to. Relevance to clinical practice. Subgroup differences indicate that midwives should pay increased attention to childbearing women who have primary school education only, a lower emotional stability and/or deliver through Caesarean section.

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