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  • 4401.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Historien bakom misslyckade strategier för upprorsbekämpning: James S Corum: Bad Strategies: How Major Powers Fail in Counterinsurgency Zenith Press, 2008.2009In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 6, p. 131-133Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 4402.
    Ångström, Jan
    Uppsala universitet.
    Ideas and Norms on Future War and Warfare2011In: Strategic Insights, ISSN 1938-1670, E-ISSN 1938-1670, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 36-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I will develop a slightly different approach that instead assumes that the future is path-dependent. This approach allows for a greater impact of agency and can be easily summed up as what happens in 2030 depends upon what we do in 2029, and what happens in 2029 depends upon what we do in 2028, and so on. Agency thus becomes crucial for shaping the future. Moreover, rather than focusing on actions, in this paper, I will primarily focus on norms. Norms change only gradually and slowly and are therefore a more promising baseline than current actions. Specifically, I will focus on norms of political order: about what it means to govern and be governed, how we understand the relationship between the public and private, and the concepts of civil and military. This paper is structured as follows. First, I will briefly discuss current patterns in war and warfare to evaluate whether or not there are trends that can be discerned. This part of the paper is based on the second approach and it serves a springboard to begin to think differently about the future. Throughout the paper, I will use the trends as a point of departure. Second, I will begin with a discussion on what we already know about the future. In doing so, I will critically engage with the NIC documents Global Trends 2025: A Transformed World and Tomorrow’s Security Challenges: The Defence Implications of Emerging Global Trends. In short, my critique will stress the lack of attention given to ideational factors. Third, and finally, I will suggest ideationally driven scenarios and identify the challenges to such a development of war and warfare.

  • 4403.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Introduction: exploring the utility of armed force in modern conflict2008In: Small Wars & Insurgencies, ISSN 0959-2318, E-ISSN 1743-9558, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 297-302Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4404.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Inviting the Leviathan: External Forces, War and State-Building in Afghanistan2010In: Modern War and the Utility of Force: Challenges, Methods, and Strategy / [ed] Jan Angstrom & Isabelle Duyvesteyn, Routledge, 2010, p. 208-230Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4405.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Inviting the Leviathan: external forces, war, and state-building in Afghanistan2008In: Small Wars & Insurgencies, ISSN 0959-2318, E-ISSN 1743-9558, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 374-396Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4406.
    Ångström, Jan
    Uppsala universitet.
    Mapping the Competing Historical Analogies of the War on Terrorism: The Bush Presidency2011In: International Relations, ISSN 0047-1178, E-ISSN 1741-2862, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 224-242Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4407.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Seger: ett begrepp i behov av nyansering2018In: Minnet av Narva: om troféer, parader och historiebruk / [ed] Klas Kronberg, Anna-Maria Forssberg, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2018, p. 213-234Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4408.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum. Uppsala universitet.
    The Changing Norms of Civil and Military and Civil-Military Relations Theory2013In: Small Wars & Insurgencies, ISSN 0959-2318, E-ISSN 1743-9558, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 224-236Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4409.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    The Problem of Victory of Defeat in Modern War2007In: Understanding Victory and Defeat in Contemporary War / [ed] Jan Angstrom & Isabelle Duyvesteyn, Routledge, 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4410.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    The United States Perspective on Victory in a War on Terrorism2007In: Understanding Victory and Defeat in Contemporary War / [ed] Jan Angstrom & Isabelle Duyvesteyn, Routledge, 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4411.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The US perspective on future war: why the US relies upon Ares rather than Athena2018In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 318-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses why the US in its military operations tends to focus on only one dimension in war – the military narrowly understood. More precisely, in the US case, its armed forces tend to be preoccupied with platforms and understand military capabilities as those that deliver death and destruction. I explain this one-sided understanding of the military dimension in war with how the US armed forces think about future war. How the US understands future war is, in turn, a reflection of how it organizes its long-term defense planning procedures. In particular, by approaching the concept of future as by and large structurally determined, a focus on platforms becomes natural. Investments in weapons systems, too, are more easily motivated to Congress since it is easier to attach a price to developing, for example, a new submarine than it is to attach a price to the cost of developing a military organization that is adaptive, learning and anticipating. The understanding of the future as something that happens whether you like it or not is particularly odd in the US context where of course a central tenet of the American dream is that the individual creates her own future.

  • 4412.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Transformation into Nature: Swedish Army Ranger Rites of Passage2016In: Transforming Warriors: The Ritual Organization of Military Force / [ed] Peter Halden & Peter Jackson, London: Routledge, 2016, p. 144-162Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4413.
    Ångström, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Är 11 september och kriget mot terrorism bevis för en civilisationernas kamp?2008In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 3, p. 18-39Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4414.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Duyvesteyn, Isabelle
    Modern war and the utility of force: challenges, methods and strategy2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 4415.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Duyvesteyn, Isabelle
    University of Utrecht.
    War, what is it good for?2010In: Modern War and the Utility of Force: Challenges, Methods, and Strategy / [ed] Jan Ångström & Isabelle Duyvesteyn, Routledge, 2010, Vol. 35, no 5Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4416.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Honig, Jan Willem
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section. Department of War Studies, King's College, London.
    Regaining Strategy: Small Powers, Strategic Culture, and Escalation in Afghanistan2012In: Journal of Strategic Studies, ISSN 0140-2390, E-ISSN 1743-937X, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 663-687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Western operations in Afghanistan, small European powers escalate in different ways. While Denmark and the Netherlands have contributed to Western escalation through integration with British and US forces, Norway and Sweden have done so by creating a division of labour allowing US and British combat forces to concentrate their efforts in the south. These variations in strategic behaviour suggest that the strategic choice of small powers is more diversified than usually assumed. We argue that strategic culture can explain the variation in strategic behaviour of the small allies in Afghanistan. In particular, Dutch and Danish internationalism have reconciled the use of force in the national and international domains, while in Sweden and Norway there is still a sharp distinction between national interest and humanitarianism.

  • 4417.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Noreen, Erik
    Uppsala universitet.
    Swedish strategy and the Afghan experience: from neutrality to ambiguity2017In: The Swedish presence in Afghanistan: security and defence transformation / [ed] Arita Holmberg & Jan Hallenberg, London: Routledge, 2017, p. 31-54Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4418.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Widen, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Contemporary military theory: the dynamics of war2015Book (Refereed)
  • 4419.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Adopting a Recipe for Success: Modern Armed Forces and the Institutionalization of the Principles of War2012In: Comparative Strategy, ISSN 0149-5933, E-ISSN 1521-0448, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 263-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevailing explanation of the institutionalization of the principles of war is misleading. Although the introduction of the principles into Western doctrine coincided with total war and the need to train unprecedented numbers of soldiers and junior officers in tactics, the fact that the principles disappeared from doctrines immediately prior to and during the Second World War suggests that they were not institutionalized to meet an increased need to educate the military. Instead, we test two other explanations: one drawing on the principles’ military effectiveness and one drawing upon the principles’ explanatory power. We find that neither one of these hypotheses stand. Instead, we conclude by elaborating on how the institutionalization of the principles of war can be made understandable using non-rationalist frameworks, in particular the growth of a particular kind of identity of staff officers in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. According to this framework, the two world wars interrupted—rather than promoted—the institutionalization of the principles, since the wars with their large death tolls and mass recruitment increased the difficulties of creating a separate and unique identity for the burgeoning corps of staff officers.

  • 4420.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Religion or reason?: exploring alternative ways to measure the quality of doctrine2016In: Journal of Strategic Studies, ISSN 0140-2390, E-ISSN 1743-937X, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 198-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we address the often ignored issue of quality standards for doctrine. In doing so, we contribute to the existing literature on military doctrine, since much of previous research has focused on outlining the effects of doctrine or the causes of particular doctrinal content, rather than how we should measure its quality. The predominant way of understanding quality of doctrine is based on the rationalist understanding of doctrine as a force multiplier. However, rationalist aims do not necessarily tell us anything about the contents of doctrine. Hence, a doctrine can be seemingly of high quality, but ultimately impede or lead armed forces astray. Rather than focusing on the utilitarian side of doctrine, we suggest that doctrine should mainly be understood as articles of faith or a belief system. And thus the quality of doctrine becomes inextricably linked to military norms and military identity. Writing doctrine thus becomes part of ritual, rather than reason.

  • 4421.
    Åqvist, David
    Swedish Defence University.
    Autentiskt ledarskap på Militärhögskolan Karlberg: En kvalitativ och kvantitativ studie av föredöme2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vissa forskare anser att autentiskt ledarskap är grunden för alla positiva former av ledarskap. Andra forskare menar på att det är en fördjupning av delen föredöme i den svenska modellen, utvecklande ledarskap, vilken används av svenska Försvarsmakten.

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att undersöka kadetterna vid Försvarshögskolan Karlbergs syn på de ingående delarna i föredöme och applicera teorin autentiskt ledarskap på detta. Förhoppningen var att genom detta identifiera skillnader och likheter mellan teorin och kadettens syn på föredöme och därigenom tydliggöra de teoretiska perspektivens relation till varandra. Utöver detta skulle studien även kunna ge en bild av i vilken utsträckning kadetternas ledarskap kännetecknas av ett autentiskt ledarskap samt föredöme.

    För att svara på detta har studien genomfört en kvantitativ enkätundersökning samt en kvalitativ intervjustudie. Dessa har visat att kadetterna kännetecknas av en hög grad av autentiskt ledarskap samt att kadetternas syn på föredöme till en viss del är likvärdig gentemot autentiskt ledarskap, men att en svaghet råder i de två perspektiven.

  • 4422.
    Åsander, Max
    Swedish Defence University.
    Man, kvinna eller soldat?: En diskursanalys av genusuttryck i Försvarsmaktens rekryteringsmaterial2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4423.
    Åsberg, Henrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Beslutsprocessen vid anskaffning av system till Försvarsmakten: JAS 39 Gripen och dess utveckling inom svenska flygvapnet2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under kalla kriget förberedde Sverige sig för att försvara landet mot en invasion. Detta ledde till en mängd olika materielanskaffningar till Försvarsmakten; bland annat stridsflygplanet JAS 39 Gripen.

    Idag ska svenska Försvarsmakten ha förmågan att utföra nationella likväl som internationella insatser. Det mer globala operationsområdet blev aktuellt efter Berlinmurens fall under 90-talet och tillika kalla krigets slut. Internationaliseringen av Försvarsmakten gjorde att materielsystem behövde utvecklas för att möta de nya kraven som den globala arenan nu ställde. Den politiska inriktningen för myndigheten varierar i takt med den säkerhetspolitiska situationen i vår omvärld.

    I denna uppsats undersöks vilka aktörer som är inblandade i beslutprocessen vid anskaffning av materiel till Försvarsmakten. Undersökning riktar in sig mot JAS 39 Gripen-systemet och dess utveckling. Syftet med undersökningen är att ge en förklarande bild för de personer som befinner sig utanför processen. Den ska även försöka att utröna huruvida Försvarsmaktens internationalisering och samarbete med andra nationer har påverkat utvecklingen av JAS 39 Gripen.

    Resultatet visar att den globala marknaden tillsammans med den nya inriktningen för Försvarsmakten under 90-talet har lett till en ständigt pågående uppgradering av JAS 39 Gripen till att bli ett interoperabelt stridsflygplan. De inblandade aktörerna i beslutsprocessen har i och med det ökat och anskaffning av Nato-kompatibla delsystem är ett led i utvecklingen.

  • 4424.
    Åsbom, Markus
    Swedish Defence University.
    NATOs avskräckning i en förändrad säkerhetsmiljö: En kvalitativ fallstudie på NATOs avskräckningsstrategi från 1999 till idag2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Alliances should have a big amount of capabilities and strong individual states to deter successfully. NATO needs to decide who their adversary is, what actions to deter and what countermeasures to deter them. They should also increase their conventional forces and willingness to use nuclear weapons as a response to aggression. With this background in previous research the problem of this thesis is how does an alliance deterring strategy look like and how is it tailored to fit the adversary, threat and countermeasures. The aim for this thesis is to explain how the deterring strategy of NATO looks like and how it has changed since after the cold war till today.

    The results show that the deterring strategy has changed focus. From the focus on territorial, broad and denial deterrence in the strategic concept from 1999. To the focus on territorial, extended, broad and denial deterrence in the NATO summit meeting in Warsaw 2016.

  • 4425.
    Åselius, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    ”Kriget som utrikespolitiskt instrument”2017In: Från krig till fred till krig / [ed] Kurt Almqvist & PJ Anders Linder, Stockholm: Axel och Margareta Ax:son Johnsons stiftelse för allmännyttiga ändamål , 2017, p. 11-19Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4426. Åselius, Gunnar
    Nya frågor för militärhistorikerna: Ett debattinlägg i Hans Delbrücks anda2008In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, no 3, p. 477-487Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4427.
    Åselius, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Edström, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Sverige mer skyddat mot väpnat angrepp än någonsin2014In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 10/3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4428.
    Åström, Rickard
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Syftet med svenskt deltagande med väpnad trupp i internationella fredsfrämjande insatser - har regeringens argumentation förändrats?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4429. Åström, S.
    et al.
    Wilde, B.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Ljungquist, M.
    Johansson, J.
    Wiklund, B.
    Sjuksköterskans roll i kommunal hälso- och sjukvård: erfarenheter av sjuksköterskor integrerade i vårdlag vid servicehus och som personalledare vid gruppboende1997Report (Other academic)
  • 4430.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    Begreppslogistik och mönsterförståelse2009In: Tankar om fälttåg / [ed] Peter Ahlström & Ulf Högström, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS), 2009, p. 219-231Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4431.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    Enduring war: Heroes’ Acre, ‘the empty throne’, and the politics of disappearance2016In: Critical Military Studies, ISSN 2333-7486, E-ISSN 2333-7494, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 155-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    War memorials are a common and often controversial part of the commemoration of past wars. In order to better grasp their importance for the way war endures below the surface of peace, this article stages an ethnographic encounter with a Namibian monument: Heroes’ Acre. The memorial embodies the official Namibian narrative on past wars by emphasizing a nationalist and quasi-religious symbolism, a framing that has been challenged by a number of writers pointing to the need for going beyond the state discourse. This article complements and complicates the way Heroes’ Acre appears in discourse by focusing on the interstices and absences at the site. By drawing upon my own visit to the monument as well as theoretical engagements, most notably Georgio Agamben’s discussion of ‘the empty throne’, I read Heroes’ Acre as a place where political power functions through emptiness, as it allows the future of war to endure in the present. Engaging particularly with the empty graveyard at the site, I argue that its emptiness needs to be understood as a guarantee for war – not in case it occurs – but as a ready-made symbol of glory, always virtually there, waiting to be fulfilled.

  • 4432.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Ethics, the military imaginary, and practices of war2019In: Critical Studies on Security, ISSN 2162-4887, E-ISSN 2162-4909Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4433.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    Forget Clausewitz2014In: The International Journal of Baudrillard Studies, ISSN 1705-6411, E-ISSN 1705-6411, Vol. 11, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modern study of war originates in many ways in Carl von Clausewitz classic On War. One of Clausewitz most influential positions is the idea that war is political, summed up in the statement that ‘war is the continuation of politics by other means.’ Traditional approaches to war often draw on this idea to outline how tactics and operations work as means to strategic and political ends. Critical approaches on the other hand, have instead invoked Michel Foucault’s idea that ‘politics is the continuation of war by other means,’ enabling an understanding for how politics relate to a struggle of life and death. This paper outlines a critique of both ideas by drawing on Jean Baudrillard’s discussion of the Gulf-war. It argues that taking the link between war and politics for granted produces a reality which in many ways reflects and reifies war as a mode of politics, or politics as a mode of war. The text ends by arguing that if we are to think war seriously and critically we need to think it beyond politics, and a starting point to do so is to forget Clausewitz.

  • 4434.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    Introduction: Baudrillard and War2014In: The International Journal of Baudrillard Studies, ISSN 1705-6411, E-ISSN 1705-6411, Vol. 11, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4435.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    Japanese warrior transformation: bushido as the continuation of death by other means2016In: Transforming warriors: the ritual organization of military force / [ed] Peter Haldén & Peter Jackson, New York: Routledge, 2016, p. 109-125Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4436.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    Krigspropaganda i kejsardömet: Japan utbildar sina sjöofficerare för erövringskrig2014In: Krigspropaganda: från 1914 till idag / [ed] Anders Frankson & Andreas Nyberg, Sundbyberg: Semic , 2014, p. 36-46Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4437.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    Krigsvetenskaplig årsbok 20072008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 4438. Öberg, Dan
    Requiem for the battlefield2018In: The disorder of things websiteArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4439.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Suicide, the only politically worthy act2016In: Narrative Global Politics: Theory, history and the personal in international relations / [ed] Elizabeth Dauphinee, Naeem Inayatullah, London: Routledge, 2016, first, p. 191-199Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4440.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    The Disappearance of the Face: Servility and Social media2013In: The International Journal of Baudrillard Studies, ISSN 1705-6411, E-ISSN 1705-6411, Vol. 10, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4441.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Violent Fragments2015In: Journal of Narrative Politics, ISSN 2368-2507, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 150-152Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4442.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    War, transparency and control: the military architecture of operational warfare2016In: Cambridge Review of International Affairs, ISSN 0955-7571, E-ISSN 1474-449X, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 1132-1149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contemporary research, transparency is commonly understood to indicate and guarantee openness, in ways that make it synonymous with positive characteristics of governing. However, the allegedly benevolent link between transparency and governing has also been questioned, giving rise to arguments that transparency enables violent social control. Drawing upon this latter view, the article stages an encounter between critical debates on transparency and critical accounts of war to examine the way that they come together in the operationalization of warfare. Engaging particularly with Jean Baudrillard’s writing on transparency, the article inquires into the way control is socially manufactured and administered through military doctrines. It concludes that the operationalization of warfare is not, as many tend to argue, first and foremost about a response to practical problems when conducting wars. Rather, it consists of the potential to unveil global space and global time as an attempt to maintain and control future political becoming

  • 4443.
    Öberg, Dan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Warfare as design: Transgressive creativity and reductive operational planning2018In: Security Dialogue, ISSN 0967-0106, E-ISSN 1460-3640, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 493-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that the politics of contemporary Western warfare finds an important reference point in discourses on military design. In the 2010s, military design has become a trending topic in military discourses on command and planning methodology. Since Clausewitz, warfare has been considered a phenomenon characterized by a tension between creativity and linear planning, and the ideal commander as someone with the vision to overcome this. By mapping and analyzing tactical, operational, and strategic narratives and practices, the article illustrates how they emphasize a warfare based both on experimentation and artistry and on traditional operational planning. In so doing, military design relies on reductive military concepts to push the tension identified by Clausewitz towards its extreme end-point, idealizing creativity as an objective of warfare. The article ends by asking to what extent military design risks spilling over into other dimensions of social and political life. It concludes that in pushing creativity as part of war, military design builds on and justifies transgressive political practices with the risk of becoming a vital aspect of future governing.

  • 4444.
    Öberg, Rebecka
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Deciphering National Identity: - a discourse analysis of India's foreign policy behaviour during the 2014 Crimean crisis2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study builds on the idea that discourses have the power to show that national identity did influence the puzzling foreign policy behaviour of India in March 2014 during the Crimean crisis. When analysing the material and illustrating the identified discourses, discourse- theorists Laclau and Mouffe’s framework is used both as theory and method. Discourse analysis has its starting point in the idea that the reality is accessed by the means of language. The use of Laclau and Mouffe’s discursive framework is motivated by the fact that it aims to create an understanding of the social phenomena in question (e.g. the Indian puzzling foreign policy behaviour) by applying discourse analytical tools on texts. Moreover, discourse analysis claims that identities are the result of discursive processes and that political articulation, e.g. foreign policy behaviour, creates the society; ideas that goes well with this paper. Since language is “structured discourses” and because it creates the world which we live in, it is possible to turn to the use of language when conducting a discourse analysis. To decipher which discourses that evolved around the Crimean crisis in March 2014, and to make the connection between national identity and foreign policy behaviour, articles from the three most read Indian newspapers in English are used as material. These articles are triangulated with statements published during 2014 on the homepage of the Indian Ministry of External Affairs. This paper tells a rather alternative story compared to that of interest- and power based explanations with roots in realism, since it emphasises that national identity influences foreign policy behaviour. The analysis concludes that two discourses can be deciphered in the material, namely Democracy and Multipolarity, which thus can be seen as elements of Indian national identity. These two discourses imply that the Indian national identity can explain its puzzling foreign policy behaviour in the Crimean crisis in March 2014. 

  • 4445.
    Öberg, Rebecka
    Swedish National Defence College.
    "KRIS": en begreppshistorisk analys utifrån ett Nato-perspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie tar avstamp i begreppet kris, då dess komplexitet och mångtydighet gör det

    intressant att studera utifrån en begreppshistorisk ansats. För begreppets fortlevnad har det

    historiskt sett utvidgats till att inrymma flera bakomliggande meningar som passar den

    aktuella verkligheten. Syftet med studien är således att urskilja hur begreppet kris förändrats

    utifrån Natos konceptdokument under årtalen 1968, 1991, 1999 samt 2010 med hjälp av

    begreppshistorisk teori och metod. Reinhart Koselleck är en av begreppshistoriens urfäder

    vilket gör att hans teoretiska ramverk samt metod fungerar som verktyg vid illustrerandet av

    den begreppsliga förändringsprocessen. Dessutom tillmötesgår den begreppshistoriska

    metoden det spontana intresset för språk och ordbetydelser, varför den bedöms vara som

    given för denna uppsats. Materialet som ligger till grund för denna begreppshistoriska analys

    består av fyra strategiska konceptdokument från Nato. Att studien genomförs utifrån ett Nato-

    perspektiv beror på att ett av alliansens huvudsyften är att hantera kriser av varierande grad.

    Dessutom fokuserar Natos konceptdokument på aktuella hot och utmaningar i vilka den

    begreppsliga förändringsprocessen kan skönjas. De slutsatser som presenteras är att

    begreppet kris förändrats i och med alla de nya hot och risker vilka återfinns som

    konsekvenser av bland annat globaliseringen och den teknologiska utvecklingen. Den

    begreppsliga förändringen tar sig uttryck i att det utvidgats till att innehålla fler

    bakomliggande meningar, såsom exempelvis cyberattack och klimatförändringar.

  • 4446.
    Öberg, Viktor
    Swedish Defence University.
    Biddle, The Afghan model och rebellernas skicklighet i Operation unified protector2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The 2001 campaign in Afghanistan where precision airpower and special operation forces alongside indigenous allies were used to topple the Talibans has brought debaters to argue whether it was a revolution of warfare or a fluke. Stephen Biddle has argued that this Afghan Model is deeply dependent on the indigenous ally being at least as skilled as its enemy.

    Ten years later, a similar concept was used in Libya to overthrow the Gaddafi-regime. This paper examines and compares the skill of the rebels and the regime forces fighting on the ground in Libya, in order to test Biddle’s Afghan Model theory. Hence, the purpose for this study is to broaden the understanding as to when and how often the Afghan Model may be used.

    Initially, rebels demonstrated low levels of tactical skill in comparison to regime forces. However, rebels gradually improved their skills and by the end of the fighting, months later the skill gap had been reduced considerably. Without drawing a definite conclusion, the analysis indicates, that skill of the indigenous ally in order for the Afghan Model to work is of importance, however not to the same degree as presented by Biddle.

  • 4447.
    Ödeen, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Akademiserad officersutbildning - mål eller medel?2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to a decision taken by the supreme commander of the Swedisharmed forces 17 Jan 2001 all future education of personnel shall be subjectedto the rules and regulations lined out by the National Agency for HigherEducation in Sweden. I have tried to find out the level of knowledge regardingacademic methods of education in the Swedish armed forces today. I have alsotried to form a overall picture of how the decision by the supreme commanderhas been received in the force. My essay is a qualitative examination with themain focus on an inquiry where I have conducted in-depth interviews withpersonnel from different levels of the force. In addition to my primary data Ihave supplemented secondary data mainly to create background andinternational comparison. In my essay I have three main questions; how do theparticipants (in the inquiry) position themselves in regards of the trend towardsacademic education, and how do they state reasons for their position? Have allthe participants the same comprehension regarding what academic educationactually implies? From an historical perspective how do the participantsexperience the forces handling of matters like theory of sciences and researchbefore the supreme commander decision 17 Jan 2001? I have in my essay cometo the conclusion that the general comprehension of academic education is inits favour. However positive the attitude there is some matters of concern thatis shared by many of the respondents. There is an widespread uncertaintyconcerning the implementation of academic education. There is also a generalimpression amongst the respondents that we in Sweden were a lot moreacademic in our perspectives before the cold war.

  • 4448.
    Öfverholm, Ragnar
    Swedish Defence University.
    Svensk Underrättelsetjänst inom COIN2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte är att titta på hur det svenska underrättelsereglementet från 2010 förhåller sig till kontemporära COIN teorier i en internationell miljö. Sverige saknar en egen COIN doktrin och nyttjar idag den amerikanska doktrinen FM 3-24 samtidigt som ett arbete sker för att anpassa reglementen mot NATO doktriner för ökad interoperabilitet. Undersölningen jämför därför FM UndR med underrättelsedoktriner samt COIN doktriner från USA och NATO. Uppsatsen utgår från David Kilcullens COIN teorier för underrättelsetjänst vilka operationaliserats i ett analysverktyg som anlagts på empirin.

    Resultatet av undersökningen visar att det svenska underrättelsereglementet har stora brister kopplat till det perspektiv som förespråkas inom COIN-sfären. Trots detta finns stora likheter till både amerikanska så väl som NATO doktrinerna 2.0 vilka rör underrättelsetjänst. Med detta som bakgrund kan slutsatsen dras att FM UndR utgör en tillräcklig grund för att svensk underrättelse personal ska kunna tillgodogöra sig av både amerikanska och NATO COIN doktrinerna.

  • 4449.
    Öhlund, Robert
    Swedish Defence University.
    Demokratiska krigsbrott: En studie av tyska krigsfångar i franska och amerikanska händer2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I studien kommer jag analysera skillnaden mellan norm och praxis i implementerandet av Genevekonventionen från 1929. Genom en fallstudie av två västerländska, demokratiska stater med samma norm, det vill säga 1929 års Genèvekonvention vill jag studera deras behandling, det vill säga praxis, av tyska krigsfångar från den 11 maj 1942 fram till Västtysklands grundande, den 23 maj 1949.

    Metoden jag har använt mig av i mitt arbete är en kvalitativ fallstudie, med utgångspunkt i tidigare intervjuer, rapporter och litteratur. I fallstudien kommer behandlingen av de tyska krigsfångarna att undersökas för att se hur Frankrike och USA implementerade Genèvekonventionen i praktiken.

    Därefter kommer resultatet att analyseras med hjälp av Zygmunt Baumans teorier. Bauman är en professor i sociologi som analyserat sambandet mellan moderniteten och förintelsen. Dessa teorier kommer att användas för att förklara och redogöra de bakomliggande orsakerna till varför det uppstår en skillnad mellan norm och praxis hos upplysta och demokratiska stater, när dessa stater ska implementera folkrätten vid behandlingen av krigsfångar.Bauman menar att västerlandet sen upplysningen har haft en stark strävan efter att uppnå rutiner och ett slags beteendemönster. Genom att normalisera upplevda händelser kan de lättare förstås och förklaras. Genom att applicera samma resonemang på våldsanvändningen vid behandlingen av krigsfångar skulle det kunna innebära ett kontinuerligt och fortlöpande övergrepp. Våldet skulle ha sin grund i att det blivit en vana, en rutin och således någonting man förväntar sig. Förutom rutinen talar Bauman om auktoriseringen och avhumanseringens som viktiga förutsättningar för våld och övergrepp.

    När Tyskland kapitulerade våren den 7 maj 1945 togs miljontals tyska soldater till fånga av de allierade. Fångarna samlades ihop i olika typer av koncentrations och fångläger. Syftet med mitt arbete blir att inledningsvis undersöka om de franska och amerikanska trupperna gjorde sig skyldiga till krigsbrott i och med hanterandet av tyska krigsfångar, under och efter andra världskriget.

  • 4450.
    Öhman, Anna
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Baksidan med de fredsbevarande operationerna: En feministisk studie av orsakerna bakom sexuell exploatering2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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