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  • 4401.
    Öberg, Rebecka
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Deciphering National Identity: - a discourse analysis of India's foreign policy behaviour during the 2014 Crimean crisis2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study builds on the idea that discourses have the power to show that national identity did influence the puzzling foreign policy behaviour of India in March 2014 during the Crimean crisis. When analysing the material and illustrating the identified discourses, discourse- theorists Laclau and Mouffe’s framework is used both as theory and method. Discourse analysis has its starting point in the idea that the reality is accessed by the means of language. The use of Laclau and Mouffe’s discursive framework is motivated by the fact that it aims to create an understanding of the social phenomena in question (e.g. the Indian puzzling foreign policy behaviour) by applying discourse analytical tools on texts. Moreover, discourse analysis claims that identities are the result of discursive processes and that political articulation, e.g. foreign policy behaviour, creates the society; ideas that goes well with this paper. Since language is “structured discourses” and because it creates the world which we live in, it is possible to turn to the use of language when conducting a discourse analysis. To decipher which discourses that evolved around the Crimean crisis in March 2014, and to make the connection between national identity and foreign policy behaviour, articles from the three most read Indian newspapers in English are used as material. These articles are triangulated with statements published during 2014 on the homepage of the Indian Ministry of External Affairs. This paper tells a rather alternative story compared to that of interest- and power based explanations with roots in realism, since it emphasises that national identity influences foreign policy behaviour. The analysis concludes that two discourses can be deciphered in the material, namely Democracy and Multipolarity, which thus can be seen as elements of Indian national identity. These two discourses imply that the Indian national identity can explain its puzzling foreign policy behaviour in the Crimean crisis in March 2014. 

  • 4402.
    Öberg, Rebecka
    Swedish National Defence College.
    "KRIS": en begreppshistorisk analys utifrån ett Nato-perspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie tar avstamp i begreppet kris, då dess komplexitet och mångtydighet gör det

    intressant att studera utifrån en begreppshistorisk ansats. För begreppets fortlevnad har det

    historiskt sett utvidgats till att inrymma flera bakomliggande meningar som passar den

    aktuella verkligheten. Syftet med studien är således att urskilja hur begreppet kris förändrats

    utifrån Natos konceptdokument under årtalen 1968, 1991, 1999 samt 2010 med hjälp av

    begreppshistorisk teori och metod. Reinhart Koselleck är en av begreppshistoriens urfäder

    vilket gör att hans teoretiska ramverk samt metod fungerar som verktyg vid illustrerandet av

    den begreppsliga förändringsprocessen. Dessutom tillmötesgår den begreppshistoriska

    metoden det spontana intresset för språk och ordbetydelser, varför den bedöms vara som

    given för denna uppsats. Materialet som ligger till grund för denna begreppshistoriska analys

    består av fyra strategiska konceptdokument från Nato. Att studien genomförs utifrån ett Nato-

    perspektiv beror på att ett av alliansens huvudsyften är att hantera kriser av varierande grad.

    Dessutom fokuserar Natos konceptdokument på aktuella hot och utmaningar i vilka den

    begreppsliga förändringsprocessen kan skönjas. De slutsatser som presenteras är att

    begreppet kris förändrats i och med alla de nya hot och risker vilka återfinns som

    konsekvenser av bland annat globaliseringen och den teknologiska utvecklingen. Den

    begreppsliga förändringen tar sig uttryck i att det utvidgats till att innehålla fler

    bakomliggande meningar, såsom exempelvis cyberattack och klimatförändringar.

  • 4403.
    Öberg, Viktor
    Swedish Defence University.
    Biddle, The Afghan model och rebellernas skicklighet i Operation unified protector2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The 2001 campaign in Afghanistan where precision airpower and special operation forces alongside indigenous allies were used to topple the Talibans has brought debaters to argue whether it was a revolution of warfare or a fluke. Stephen Biddle has argued that this Afghan Model is deeply dependent on the indigenous ally being at least as skilled as its enemy.

    Ten years later, a similar concept was used in Libya to overthrow the Gaddafi-regime. This paper examines and compares the skill of the rebels and the regime forces fighting on the ground in Libya, in order to test Biddle’s Afghan Model theory. Hence, the purpose for this study is to broaden the understanding as to when and how often the Afghan Model may be used.

    Initially, rebels demonstrated low levels of tactical skill in comparison to regime forces. However, rebels gradually improved their skills and by the end of the fighting, months later the skill gap had been reduced considerably. Without drawing a definite conclusion, the analysis indicates, that skill of the indigenous ally in order for the Afghan Model to work is of importance, however not to the same degree as presented by Biddle.

  • 4404.
    Ödeen, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Akademiserad officersutbildning - mål eller medel?2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to a decision taken by the supreme commander of the Swedisharmed forces 17 Jan 2001 all future education of personnel shall be subjectedto the rules and regulations lined out by the National Agency for HigherEducation in Sweden. I have tried to find out the level of knowledge regardingacademic methods of education in the Swedish armed forces today. I have alsotried to form a overall picture of how the decision by the supreme commanderhas been received in the force. My essay is a qualitative examination with themain focus on an inquiry where I have conducted in-depth interviews withpersonnel from different levels of the force. In addition to my primary data Ihave supplemented secondary data mainly to create background andinternational comparison. In my essay I have three main questions; how do theparticipants (in the inquiry) position themselves in regards of the trend towardsacademic education, and how do they state reasons for their position? Have allthe participants the same comprehension regarding what academic educationactually implies? From an historical perspective how do the participantsexperience the forces handling of matters like theory of sciences and researchbefore the supreme commander decision 17 Jan 2001? I have in my essay cometo the conclusion that the general comprehension of academic education is inits favour. However positive the attitude there is some matters of concern thatis shared by many of the respondents. There is an widespread uncertaintyconcerning the implementation of academic education. There is also a generalimpression amongst the respondents that we in Sweden were a lot moreacademic in our perspectives before the cold war.

  • 4405.
    Öfverholm, Ragnar
    Swedish Defence University.
    Svensk Underrättelsetjänst inom COIN2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte är att titta på hur det svenska underrättelsereglementet från 2010 förhåller sig till kontemporära COIN teorier i en internationell miljö. Sverige saknar en egen COIN doktrin och nyttjar idag den amerikanska doktrinen FM 3-24 samtidigt som ett arbete sker för att anpassa reglementen mot NATO doktriner för ökad interoperabilitet. Undersölningen jämför därför FM UndR med underrättelsedoktriner samt COIN doktriner från USA och NATO. Uppsatsen utgår från David Kilcullens COIN teorier för underrättelsetjänst vilka operationaliserats i ett analysverktyg som anlagts på empirin.

    Resultatet av undersökningen visar att det svenska underrättelsereglementet har stora brister kopplat till det perspektiv som förespråkas inom COIN-sfären. Trots detta finns stora likheter till både amerikanska så väl som NATO doktrinerna 2.0 vilka rör underrättelsetjänst. Med detta som bakgrund kan slutsatsen dras att FM UndR utgör en tillräcklig grund för att svensk underrättelse personal ska kunna tillgodogöra sig av både amerikanska och NATO COIN doktrinerna.

  • 4406.
    Öhlund, Robert
    Swedish Defence University.
    Demokratiska krigsbrott: En studie av tyska krigsfångar i franska och amerikanska händer2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I studien kommer jag analysera skillnaden mellan norm och praxis i implementerandet av Genevekonventionen från 1929. Genom en fallstudie av två västerländska, demokratiska stater med samma norm, det vill säga 1929 års Genèvekonvention vill jag studera deras behandling, det vill säga praxis, av tyska krigsfångar från den 11 maj 1942 fram till Västtysklands grundande, den 23 maj 1949.

    Metoden jag har använt mig av i mitt arbete är en kvalitativ fallstudie, med utgångspunkt i tidigare intervjuer, rapporter och litteratur. I fallstudien kommer behandlingen av de tyska krigsfångarna att undersökas för att se hur Frankrike och USA implementerade Genèvekonventionen i praktiken.

    Därefter kommer resultatet att analyseras med hjälp av Zygmunt Baumans teorier. Bauman är en professor i sociologi som analyserat sambandet mellan moderniteten och förintelsen. Dessa teorier kommer att användas för att förklara och redogöra de bakomliggande orsakerna till varför det uppstår en skillnad mellan norm och praxis hos upplysta och demokratiska stater, när dessa stater ska implementera folkrätten vid behandlingen av krigsfångar.Bauman menar att västerlandet sen upplysningen har haft en stark strävan efter att uppnå rutiner och ett slags beteendemönster. Genom att normalisera upplevda händelser kan de lättare förstås och förklaras. Genom att applicera samma resonemang på våldsanvändningen vid behandlingen av krigsfångar skulle det kunna innebära ett kontinuerligt och fortlöpande övergrepp. Våldet skulle ha sin grund i att det blivit en vana, en rutin och således någonting man förväntar sig. Förutom rutinen talar Bauman om auktoriseringen och avhumanseringens som viktiga förutsättningar för våld och övergrepp.

    När Tyskland kapitulerade våren den 7 maj 1945 togs miljontals tyska soldater till fånga av de allierade. Fångarna samlades ihop i olika typer av koncentrations och fångläger. Syftet med mitt arbete blir att inledningsvis undersöka om de franska och amerikanska trupperna gjorde sig skyldiga till krigsbrott i och med hanterandet av tyska krigsfångar, under och efter andra världskriget.

  • 4407.
    Öhman, Anna
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Baksidan med de fredsbevarande operationerna: En feministisk studie av orsakerna bakom sexuell exploatering2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4408.
    Öhman, Pontus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Fysisk träning: förståelse och planering2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4409.
    Ölund, Richard
    Swedish Defence University.
    Vilken faktor leder till att överraskning uppnås på en taktisk nivå?: En teoriprövande fallstudie på slaget vid Golanhöjderna och anfallet av Narviks hamn2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The principles of war are considered timeless and are described differently depending which scholar is studied. The purpose of the thesis is to further the discussion on the principles. This thesis focuses on surprise and conducts a case study with a theoretical framework based on Basil Liddell Hart and Jim Storr to examine if the framework can explain what factor was the most contributing for achieving surprise in the cases of the battle at Golan heights 1973 and the assault on the port of Narvik 1940.

    The results show that movement is the most contributing factor, but can be critiqued because of the dilemma posed by surprise. It can only be proven that surprise have been successfully achieved after knowing the outcome. The results also argues that the principles of war are based on previous observations and will therefore be able to explain the outcome of most events that take place within the realm of contemporary military theory.

  • 4410.
    Örming, Lovisa
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Drone strikes and the spread of al-Qaeda: Process tracing from Pakistan to Yemen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles (UCAV) or drones have in recent years become the modus operandi of US counterterrorism strategy to eliminate sought out terrorists.Since the initiation of systematic drone strikes in Pakistan 2004, their use has increased andalso expanded into other countries. In 2012 Yemen experienced equal levels of strikes asPakistan. Thirteen years have passed since the “war on terror” began and although Osama bin Laden has been killed, al-Qaeda still prevails and might be expanding. This study examines apossible spread of al-Qaeda from Pakistan to Yemen, since the initiation of drone strikes, byprocess tracing. Building on the literature of al-Qaeda, counterterrorism and UCAV, the aimhas been to analyze drone strikes affect on terrorism by tracing al-Qaeda’s development.Findings suggest there are indications of a spread from al-Qaeda in Pakistan to Yemen,although further research is required to confirm uncertainties in the material.

  • 4411.
    Örming, Lovisa
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Drone strikes and the spread of al-Qaeda: Process tracing from Pakistan to Yemen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles (UCAV) or drones have in recent yearsbecome the modus operandi of US counterterrorism strategy to eliminate sought out terrorists.Since the initiation of systematic drone strikes in Pakistan 2004, their use has increased andalso expanded into other countries. In 2012 Yemen experienced equal levels of strikes asPakistan. Thirteen years have passed since the “war on terror” began and although Osama binLaden has been killed, al-Qaeda still prevails and might be expanding. This study examines apossible spread of al-Qaeda from Pakistan to Yemen, since the initiation of drone strikes, byprocess tracing. Building on the literature of al-Qaeda, counterterrorism and UCAV, the aimhas been to analyze drone strikes affect on terrorism by tracing al-Qaeda’s development.Findings suggest there are indications of a spread from al-Qaeda in Pakistan to Yemen,although further research is required to confirm uncertainties in the material.

  • 4412.
    Örming, Lovisa
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Drönarattackers effekt på terrorism: fallet Pakistan2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The United States use of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles (UCAV) or drones for targeted killings of terrorists has been on the rise in recent years and the method has become the core element of president Obamas strategy in the war against terror. This study examines the deterrent effect of targeted killings on terrorism using UCAV/drones as a method of counterterrorism. Building on the literature on counterterrorism, UCAV, targeted killings, deterrence theory and statistics on terrorism the study provides a case study of the CIA drone operations in Pakistan between the years 2004-2010. The goal has been to analyze drone operations and the extent of terrorism from the beginning of the drone campaign until 2010. This as a means of identifying possible trends in terrorism activity due to the occurrence of drone strikes. Findings suggest that the possibility of a deterrent effect is far from evident and that there are some indications of increased terrorism.

  • 4413.
    Örnjäger, Malin
    Swedish Defence University.
    Svens krisberedskap: och förväntningar på samverkan2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skogsbranden i Västmanland 2014 utvecklades till en samhällstörning som ställde höga krav på det svenska krisberedskapssystemet. Ett stort antal samhällsaktörer var involverade i insatsen som i efterhand har blivit föremål för granskning på flera håll. Insatsen har kritiserats bland annat för bristande samverkan och effektivitetsproblem. Den här studien undersöker varför insatsen drabbades av effektivitetsproblem och huruvida krisberedskapssystemets utformning påverkade. Med hjälp av teorin om byråpolitik som berör konkurrens mellan samverkanspartners har insatsen analyserats genom rapporter och utredningar. Utifrån det teoretiska ramverket har intressekonflikter, beslutsmandat och implementeringseffekter analyserats. Resultatet av analysen visar att effektivitetsproblem kan spåras till krisberedskapssystemets struktur. Studien menar vidare att styrande principer, ansvars-, likhets-, närhetsprincipen samt det geografiska områdesansvaret, i systemet bidrog till att en byråpolitisk beslutsstruktur uppstod vilket hämmade insatsens effektivitet. Därmed föreslås också att de förväntningar som krisberedskapssystemet etablerar på aktörer gällande samordning och samverkan kompletteras med en tillsynsfunktion.

  • 4414. Örtenwall, Per
    et al.
    Almgren, Ola
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    The Bomb Explosion in Myyrmanni, Finland 20022003In: International Journal of Disaster Medicine, ISSN 1503-1438, E-ISSN 1755-4713, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 120-126Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4415.
    Östbring, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Doktrin - Prövad kunskap?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Doctrine is one of the foundations of a nation’s war fighting capability and, in this respect,should be seen as normative guidelines for the present and immediate future. As such,doctrine provides military commanders with a tool to manage situations, which wouldotherwise be seen as extremely stressful and impossible to deal with. For this to be the case,doctrine must be built on relevant information based on an analysis of the world around usand the experiences of armed forces on live operations, but also on experiences linked toexercise activities and a nation’s history and circumstances.Thus doctrine should be seen as knowledge-based guidelines for action. Is this actually thecase? Doctrine claims to be based on tried and tested knowledge. Is this wishful thinking, or isreality something else, with completely different controlling factors influencing thedevelopment of a nation’s doctrine? Analysis and evaluation results in lessons learned and itis worth remembering and taking advantage of this hard-earned knowledge. The aim of thisessay is, therefore, to investigate whether or not the lessons learned by the British ArmedForces during the 1982 Falklands War have influenced the development of British doctrinesince the War. To achieve this aim two publications of British maritime doctrine, The NavalWar Manual (1969) and The Fundamentals of British Maritime Doctrine (1995), have beenexamined, along with the lessons learned from the War, using the six fundamental capabilitiesas a basis. The results show that the British Royal Navy learned a considerable number oflessons both during and after the War. Because there are 26 years between the publications ofthe two documents, it can be stated that there has been a development in doctrine. Accounthas been taken of the lessons learned during the Falklands War, but not to the extent that onemight expect or wish. Developments in the world around us since the Falklands War are, inmany cases, so comprehensive and of a kind that the lessons learned from the Falklands Warare more current today than they were during the development of the 1995 doctrine.

  • 4416.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    A Totally Different Reality: Recruitment of Ethnic Cultural Minorities in the Swedish Armed Forces2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4417.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Preparatory Military Training: An Experiment in Integrating Minorities in the Swedish Armed Forces2017In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 2, no 5, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Preparatory Military Training (PMT) project, a labour market programme, resulted in 2012 from a collaboration between the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) and Public Employment Service (PES), with the former in the lead role as organizer. The project wanted to attract long-term unemployeds of non-EU immigrant extraction and prompt them to undertake ten weeks of training and practice in SAF facilities on a voluntary basis. The SAF's aim was essentially to incite them to enlist at a later stage so as to benefit from their expertise in non-European languages and cultures on international missions, and also to strengthen the SAF's image as an attractive employer. Implementation results showed that while PMT failed to attract as many participants as anticipated and to generate a significant number of later enlistments, it was successful in most other respects : the Swedish military managed to reach out to a much sought-after recruitment target group, and saw its image improve in the eyes of participants who were overall very satisfied with it, notably with the military part of the training. The Public Employment Service, for its part, regarded it as one of the most successful labour programmes ever conducted in Sweden as most participants found jobs or pursued further studies upon completion of PMT. Yet, the programme was discontinued after 2014, not least because of another round of military downsizing. But the recent reinstatement of conscription in Sweden will likely make the findings derived from it useful in making the armed forces more representative of society's diverse composition.

  • 4418.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    The first year with an AVF in Sweden: The recruit’s view2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4419.
    Österberg, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    We want you as our new recruit: Prerequisites for recruitment to and retention in the Swedish Armed Forces2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to study the prerequisites for the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) in order to recruit sufficient numbers of suitable individuals to the organization, and to retain those within the organization.

    The thesis comprises three studies (Study 1-3) where Study One comprises data gathered, with a longitudinal design, when Sweden relied on conscription for the manning of the Armed Forces. Results show that those wanting to do international military service assessed themselves higher for required qualities than those individuals not volunteering for international military service. Study Two shows that job satisfaction, according to Hackman and Oldham´s Job satisfaction model, is higher when job characteristics are good, and they in turn affect the Critical Psychological States, as proposed by Hackman and Oldham. Study Three indicates that there is a relation between performance orientation, job characteristics, job satisfaction and retention. In sum, this thesis suggests that there are different incentives for recruiting and retaining personnel to a conscripted force, and an all-volunteer force. Furthermore, the thesis indicates that an all-volunteer force concept is not the best way of manning the armed forces, for Sweden and countries with similar society, size and likewise a critical geopolitical position. 

  • 4420.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Motivation och identitet2017In: Rustad för risk: Riskpsykologi för militärer och insatsorganisationer / [ed] Ann Enander och Marcus Börjesson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 1, p. 69-89Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4421.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Börjesson, Marcus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Profiling the Swedish Ranger: Perceptions of Motivation, Profession and Risk and Safety Issues2018In: Special Operations Forces in the 21st Century: Perspectives from the Social Sciences / [ed] Jessica Glicken Turnley, Kobi Michael & Eyal Ben-Ari, Routledge, 2018Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4422.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Conscripts’ willingness to sign up for international military service2010In: Europe Without Soldiers: Recruitment and Retention Across the Armed Forces of Europe / [ed] Leuprecht, Christian, London: McGill-Queen's University Press , 2010, p. 109-126Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4423.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    ”Värnplikten öppnar en värld av möjligheter”: Viljan att fortsätta i Försvarsmakten hos värnpliktiga på Livgardet år 20102010Report (Other academic)
  • 4424.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Värnpliktigas intresse för internationell tjänst och officersutbildning2008Report (Other academic)
  • 4425.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Carlstedt, Leif
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Vilka är möjligheterna att rekrytera unga män och kvinnor till det svenska försvaret?: Fyra empiriska studier2007Report (Other academic)
  • 4426.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Arbetstillfredsställelse hos anställda soldater: Preliminär redovisning av en enkätstudie2012Report (Other academic)
  • 4427.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    New Ways of Recruiting: an Evaluation of the SAF Efforts of Recruiting Ethnic Minorities2014In: XVIII ISA World Congress of Sociology: Books of Abstracts, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition to an all-volunteer force in Sweden has meant that the Swedish armed forces (SAF) need to try different ways to recruit personnel. For countries that abandoned conscription, there have almost always arisen recruitment problems.  The new direction for the SAF, going from an invasion based defense to a more operational defense force with international focus, puts demands on cultural awareness and language skills among soldiers and officers to another extent than before. In November 2012 the SAF, together with the Swedish Public Employment (SPES) Service, started a joint project called preparatory military training. The aim of this project was to attract 500 individuals with a cultural background from outside the European Union, and language skills in other languages than Swedish and English, to start a 10 weeks long preparatory military training. Preparatory military training aims at giving participants an insight into how a career in the armed forces would look like, as well as get the opportunity to develop academically. Out of these 500 individuals, the SAF aims at recruiting 300 individuals to start the basic military training in the SAF. All participants live at the military barracks and receive free meals and they are allowed paid travel home four times during the course and are paid activity support from the Swedish Public Employment Agency.  Men and women live separately with separate facilities. The SAF and the SPES share 50 % of the education and training at the barracks.

    Phase two of the project starts in the autumn of 2013 and aims at attracting 300 individuals to start the preparatory military training.

    The paper assesses the effectiveness of this new and original project.

  • 4428.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Preparatory military training: Recruitment of ethnic cultural minorities to the Swedish Armed Forces2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4429.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Utvärdering av förberedande militär utbildning2014Report (Other academic)
  • 4430.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Jag vill hellre jobba som diplomat: en studie av värnpliktiga på Arméns jägarbataljon som valt att inte söka internationell tjänst2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den första juli 2010 gick Sverige från ett försvar baserat på plikt till ett försvar baserat på frivillighet. I och med denna förändring kan inte längre värnplikten garantera personalförsörjningen till internationella insatser. Att kunna förstå vad som bidrar till en god rekrytering av personal, såväl kvantitets- som kvalitetsmässigt, är avgörande för hur väl Försvarsmakten lyckas med personalförsörjningen. Syftet med denna studie var att få en djupare förståelse för faktorer som bidrar till valet att inte söka internationell tjänst hos värnpliktiga jägarsoldater. Lika viktigt som det är att identifiera faktorer som bidrar till ett vidare engagemang i Försvarsmakten, lika viktigt är det att belysa faktorer som synes påverka individens val att inte söka internationell tjänst. Resultaten visade att skälen till att inte välja att söka internationell tjänst kan förstås utifrån en huvudkategori, Andra planer, samt fem omgivande faktorer.

  • 4431.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Recruitment to international military service: The officers' view2012In: New wars, new militaries, new soldiers: Conflicts, the Armed Forces and the soldierly subject / [ed] Gerhard Kümmel och Joseph Soeters, Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012, p. 233-245Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4432.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    The attractiveness of the Swedish Armed Forces2015In: The attractiveness of 6 western Forces among young people: P. Manigart (Chair), 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4433.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Officer recruitment in Sweden: Enhancing the process2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recruitment process for the three-year officer program (OP), it is a big dropout in the period from application to the start of the program. Because of this is, the OP has not been fully manned since 2008. To supply the Swedish Armed Forces with a sufficient number of officers are a priority and henceforth the SAF have a need for increasing the numbers of officers. Furthermore, a large number of retirements within the officer corps have also reduced the numbers of officers. In order to increase recruiting efficiency and increase the proportion of individuals who complete the entire recruitment process to OP, a project was launched at the Swedish Defence University designed to evaluate the recruitment into, and dropouts from the OP. Results carried out under the project shows that the earlier people jump out of the recruitment process, the older and more academically educated, they tend to be. Further, the results show that personal contact from officers and cadets already in the system has a positive relation on people’s willingness to complete the recruitment process. The project implemented a different recruitment strategy in 2016, the outcome showed that the percentage of applicants who started the program was higher than before, and the dropout rate was lower than ever.

  • 4434.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Officer recruitment to the Swedish Armed Forces: A critical issue2015In: ERGOMAS: Program and abstracts / [ed] T. Szvircesv Tresch (Chair), 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4435.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Pridobivanje častnikov - izboljševanje procesa: Officer Recruitment - Improving the Process2018In: Sodobni vojaški izziv / Contemporary Military Challenges, ISSN 2232-2825, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 23-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The only way to become an officer in Sweden is to complete the three-year Officers’ Programme (OP). In the selection process for the OP, there is a large gap between the number of applicants and the number of individuals who start the programme. One consequence of this is that the OP has not been fully manned since 2008, thus leaving the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) with a shortage of officers. Manning the SAF with sufficient officers with the right qualifications is a priority, and henceforth the number of cadets must increase. Therefore, in 2014, a project was launched with the aim of examining recruitment to and selection for the OP, as well as identifying success factors and areas of improvement. An additional ambition was to introduce measures intended to increase recruiting efficiency based on the results, and the proportion of individuals who enter the OP.

    The project led to the implementation of a different recruitment strategy in 2016 and 2017. Early in the selection process applicants were contacted by cadets already studying on the OP, and were invited to an information meeting at the Swedish Defence University. Those who were selected to start the OP were also contacted by their future platoon commanders, who provided useful information. The outcomes show that the numbers of cadets starting the OP increased, and the dropout rate during the selection process was lower than before.

  • 4436.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Klockare, Ellinor
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Eriksson, Bo
    Försvarsmakten.
    Metodutveckling för effektivare rekrytering av särskilda målgrupper (MER): Slutrappport2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Försvarsmaktens (FM) och Försvarshögskolans (FHS) projekt Metodutveckling för effektivare rekrytering av särskilda målgrupper (MER) syftar till att utveckla och utvärdera aktiviteter som attraherar och rekryterar målgrupper som FM har svårt att nå via de vanliga rekryteringsmetoderna. Under 2014-2015 var kvinnor som klarat rekryttestet den särskilda målgrupp som var i centrum. Det övergripande målet med projektet var att öka antalet och andelen kvinnor som tar anställning eller tecknar avtal efter genomförd grundläggande militär utbildning (GMU). Detta skedde bland annat genom kontaktskapande och aktiviter i perioden från godkänt rekryttest via antagningsprövning och fram till GMU, det vill säga jobba med individer som visat intresse och potential för FM, vilket också är kostnadseffektivt. Kontaktskapandet och aktiviteterna bidrar till att kvinnorna känner sig inkluderade och kan skapa sig ett bättre beslutsunderlag för vidare avancemang i FM eller inte.

    Sammanfattningsvis demonstrerar projektet att det verkar vara effektivt att arbeta i rekryteringsfasen med personer som har visat intresse och potential. Projektet bidrar med ny kunskap för ökad rekryteringseffekt. Genom att utveckla metoder, mäta utfall av kontakt, arbetssätt och aktiviteter kan vi mäta rekryteringseffekt och därigenom utveckla styrande dokument, metoder samt arbetssätt. En erfarenhet är att många som söker sig till FM är osäkra på vad ett jobb i FM innebär och många söker till FM utan att veta vad de vill eller kan göra inom organisationen. De individer som kontaktas av projektet har ofta frågor som relativt enkelt kan besvaras.

    Aktiviteterna i projektet är uppskattade och anses värdefulla av deltagarna. Aktiviteterna stärker intresset för att fortsätta i rekryteringsprocessen och ta anställning eller teckna avtal i FM och undanröjer onödiga hinder för att fortsätta mot anställning/avtal.

  • 4437.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Eriksson, Bo
    Försvarsmakten, Sverige.
    Årsredovisning 2014 - Metodutveckling för effektivare rekrytering av särskilda målgrupper2015Report (Other academic)
  • 4438.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Förhållanden som bidrar till att värnpliktiga jägarsoldater söker internationell tjänst2009Report (Other academic)
  • 4439.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Sohlberg, Jennifer
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Behålla soldater: En studie av ett tidvis tjänstgörande kompani samt individer som antagningsprövat2014Report (Other academic)
  • 4440.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum. Karlstad universitet, Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Rydstedt, Leif
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Lillehammer, Norway.
    Job satisfaction among Swedish soldiers: Applying the Job Characteristics Model to newly recruited military personnel2018In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 302-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A professional military organization was introduced in Sweden in 2010. This means that the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) need to attract and employ soldiers, and to retain them within the organization. This scenario creates new types of challenges in manning the organization. The transition to an all-volunteer force puts job satisfaction in focus in order to retain personnel. This cross-sectional study of the relations between working conditions and job involvement among 300 recently employed soldiers showed that the dimensions of the Job Characteristics Model related significantly to job satisfaction and work motivation and (negatively) to turnover intentions from the SAF. The results further showed that all the critical psychological states contributed independently to the variance in the outcome variables.

  • 4441.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Rydstedt, Leif
    Högskolan i Innlandet, Norge.
    Kleiven, Jo
    Högskolan i Innlandet, Norge.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    The Path To Job Satisfaction: Applying The Theory Of Purposeful Behavior To Military Conditions2017In: Journal of Defense Resources Management, ISSN 2068-9403, E-ISSN 2247-6466, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 27-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between, on one hand, personality and performance orientation and, on the other, job satisfaction and turnover intentions, using Barrick’s et al. theory of purposeful behavior. Using a questionnaire, data about job satisfaction, performance orientation and turnover intentions were collected from 300 newly recruited Swedish soldiers. A path analysis gave partial, but not full support to the assumptions behind the theory of purposeful behavior model. No relationships were found between the personality traits of emotional stability and conscientiousness, nor to either performance orientation or directly to job satisfaction. On the other hand, performance orientation showed a consistent relationship to perceived levels of the job characteristics, which mediated the path between the person-related variables and the outcome variables. Performance orientation also showed a strong direct relationship to general job satisfaction, which, in turn, was strongly related to turnover intentions.

  • 4442.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Rydstedt, Leif W
    Lillehammer University College.
    Core values and attitudes among Swedish conscripts volunteering for international missions: An exploratory study2013In: The Journal of Values Based Leadership, ISSN 2153-019X, E-ISSN 1948-0733, Vol. 6, no 2, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to assess core values and attitudes among conscribed soldiers volunteering for international peacekeeping missions (n=146), by a comparison with conscripts from the same class and regiment that did not apply for international missions (n=275).The sample consisted of an entire class of conscribed soldiers whereof 389 completed all three repeated surveys. There were no demographical differences between the groups. Volunteers expressed higher altruistic basic values and held more positive attitudes toward their military education. The findings in this study are of importance for the Swedish armed forces as success in international missions is dependent on soldiers with sound values in order to better understand different cultures in the areas where deployments now are taking place.

  • 4443.
    Österberg, Yngve
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hur förklarar Regional Security Complex Theory Mistralaffären: en undersökning gällande RSCT och försvarsmateriella handelsavbrott2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Regional Security Complex Theory (RSCT) innefattar analysenheter som är nära kopplade till försvarsmateriella handelavtal och har därför ett teoretiskt ramverk som kan hjälpa förstå och förklara avtalen i detalj. Det är dock oklart exakt hur detta ska göras eftersom det inte tas upp i Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security. Syftet med denna uppsats är att med hjälp av RSCT förklara Mistralaären för att sedan undersöka om det finns en underliggande process gemensamt för liknande fall.

  • 4444.
    Östlund, Andreas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Erhåller svenska förband en relevant utbildning?: en studie av FS 15 utbildning inför Afghanistan 20082009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has a long tradition in training soldiers and units for the defense of their ownterritory. This has been the main effort of the Swedish units during the cold war. TheSwedish units of today have to deal with tasks and environments other than thetraditional ones. Moreover, the Swedish units face a belligerent force that has differentmotives, ways and means than the enemy during the cold war.The aim of the thesis is to discuss whether the Swedish soldier and unit training aresuited for this new enemy. Do the Swedish units receive a relevant and proper training?The thesis is accomplished in the form of a case study. The thesis is implementedthrough questions which are the base for the analytical tool. This tool will be used foranalyzing the training of soldiers and units.The thesis shows that the Swedish units receive a relevant training concerningcounterinsurgency with a direct and indirect approach. The analysis also shows apotential for development concerning lessons learned and training in the phenomenainsurgency.

  • 4445.
    Östman, Hans
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Vilar doktriner för civil-militärt samarbete på aktuell forskning?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Doctrines constitute armed forces most important guidelines on how to achieve political objectives with military means. To serve its purpose doctrines should be developed on rational grounds based on current world situation and most recent research. However many thinks that other factors such as organisations cultures and special interests influence doctrinal development.

    Civil-military cooperation has in contemporary conflicts gained in importance. Strategies in complex peace support operations are increasingly based on integrated approaches between various functions and actors. Civil-military operations have traditionally played a secondary and supportive role in military organisations.

    This paper will study the role of scientific research in doctrinal development. More to the point, doctrines within the highly topical field of civil-military cooperation are tested regarding coherence with recent research. Doctrines concerning civil-military cooperation in Great Britain and United States have been compared to recent research. The result shows that these doctrines have taken care of relevant opinions within recent scientific research.

  • 4446.
    Östman, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Civil-militär samverkan under fredsoperationen i Kongo2002Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to study civil- military cooperation during the peace operationin Congo between 1960 and 1964 from a culture-constructivist perspective. The study has been performed as a case study and literature written mainly by militaryofficers and UN-officials who were in active duty in Congo between 1960 and 1964has been used.Based on the case study it appears that there were many cooperation problems, despitea well thought-out concept and a lot of efforts made by military and civilian personnelin order to improve civil-military cooperation. It also appears that military andcivilian personnel experienced similar problems. A culture-constructivist theory has been used as an analytic tool in the essay anddifferences between civil and military actors´ collective identities, opinions of realityand norms have constituted the foundation to explain cooperation problems. In the analysis it appears that cooperation problems not only occurred between civiland military actors but also within each branch (civil and military) and betweendifferent hierarchic levels in the organisation. It also appears that the context, inwhich a person exists, as well as the person’s background and profession, is importantfor that specific person’s opinions and set of values. The main conclusion of the analysis is that culture-constructivist differences betweencivil and military actors, at least to a large extent, can be seen as an explanation to theproblems that occurred in civil- military cooperation in the peace operation in Congoduring 1960-1964.

  • 4447.
    Östrand, Rebecka
    Swedish Defence University.
    Resolution 1325- Försvarsmaktens arbete med att implementera resolution 1325 i enlighet med Regeringens handlingsplan för samma resolution2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Förenta nationerna antog år 2000 resolution 1325 som benämns kvinnor, fred och säkerhet. Den svenska Regeringen har antagit en handlingsplan för resolutionen gällande åren 2009-2012. Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka hur Försvarmakten har följt och arbetat med Regeringens handlingsplan för resolution 1325 under åren 2009-2012.

    För att undersöka Försvarsmaktens arbete har Vedungs implementeringsteori använts, detta för att möjliggöra en undersökning om hur väl Försvarsmakten implementerat resolution 1325 i sitt arbete för att uppfylla de tre övergripande målen som Regeringen satt upp i handlingsplanen. En kvalitativ textanalys av skriftliga öppna källor är den metod som har använts för att besvara uppsatsens frågeställningar.

    De slutsatser som dragits av den här undersökningen är att Försvarsmakten lagt ner mycket arbete på att lyckas med implementeringen av resolution 1325 i syfte att uppfylla Regeringens handlingsplan. Trots arbetet är det dock ett flertal delar ur handlingsplanen som uppsatsförfattaren anser att Försvarsmakten ännu inte lyckats uppfylla.

  • 4448.
    Ødegaard, Geir
    Swedish National Defence College.
    En sammenligning av USAs og EUs strategier i kampen mot terrorismen2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis has been to explore the challenges we are facing todayconcerning the fight against international terrorism. By comparing the counterterrorismstrategies of the US and the EU after 2001, different views on how toapproach this problem can be discovered. Michael Mann’s IEMP model(Ideological, Economical, Military, Political) has been used as a tool to dividethe strategies into 4 areas or categories, and then a comparison has beenconducted within each of these areas.There are many similarities, but also substantial differences between the US andEU strategies for combating terrorism. They both agree that the fight againstterrorism in the long term is about a “struggle for ideas”. Nevertheless, it seemsthey have a different view on the situation, where the Americans considerthemselves to be more in a state of war. This is expressed in several ways, oneof them being through more aggressive language.The biggest differences between the US and EU strategies can be found in themilitary and political areas. The US is displaying a substantially more active andaggressive attitude, both in terms of diplomatic pressure and the use of militaryforces, and they are openly taking the lead in the world community. They willact alone if necessary, independent of the UN or other organizations/nations. Tosummarize, the US appears more unilateral and the EU appears moremultilateral. However, broad international cooperation is a key ingredient forboth of them, and both strategies emphasize the importance of a comprehensiveapproach, where the use of military force is only a part of the solution.

  • 4449.
    Artilleriregementet - Artilleriets stridsskola: självständiga arbeten i krigsvetenskap Försvarshögskolan Yrkesofficersprogrammet 2006-20092009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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