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  • 4301.
    Scott, David
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Brandow, Carina
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hobbins, Jennifer
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Capturing the citizen perspective in crisis management exercises: possibilities and challenges2015In: International Journal of Emergency Services, ISSN 2047-0894, E-ISSN 2047-0908, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 86-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– Supporting and communicating with citizens is a vital part of societal crisis management. Training exercises may offer an opportunity to develop capabilities among managers in this regard. The purpose of this paper is to examine this potential in an analysis of how citizens were portrayed and perceived by participants in a major crisis management exercise.

    Design/methodology/approach– Observation, document analysis and short interviews during the exercise were used as data collection methods. Data were subjected to thematic analysis to capture core themes in relation to the research aim.

    Findings– Patterns in how citizens’ reactions were portrayed in the exercise were identified to form a citizen behaviour typology. Observations during the exercise also demonstrated some of the challenges in incorporating the citizen perspective. However, findings regarding the perception of the citizen perspective also demonstrate the ability of exercise participants to meet and respond to public behaviours with respect and seriousness.

    Originality/value– Variation is an important condition for learning in exercises, and the identified typology is suggested as a starting point for achieving this in incorporation of the citizen perspective in training scenarios. The results of the study are discussed in terms of a learning framework with the aim of explicitly developing crisis managers’ ability to interact and communicate with citizens in crisis situations.

  • 4302.
    Scott, David
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Civil-militär samverkan - En nulägesbild: PM sammanställd inom ramen för ett uppdrag av Försvarsdepartementet2015Report (Other academic)
  • 4303.
    Scott, David
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Postpandemic nightmare: a framing analysis of authorities and narcolepsy victims in Swedish press2017In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 91-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore the framing of victims and authorities in Swedish press during the narcolepsy crisis, occurring in the aftermath of the A(H1N1) vaccination campaign. Reporting from five major newspapers was analysed using an inductive and a deductive frame of analysis. The inductive analysis showed that the focus in the reporting on victims was their struggles in everyday life, coping with the disease, while the focus regarding authorities was on criticism and accountability. The deductive analysis revealed the use of a number of framing devices that reinforced the view of victims as vulnerable and authorities as deserving criticism. The underlying significance of the media portrayal and the implications from a crisis communication perspective are discussed.

  • 4304.
    Scott, David
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Enander, Ann
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Socialt genererade kriser - En kunskapsöversikt över samhällskriser med sociala förtecken: PM sammanställd inom ramen för ett uppdrag av Försvarsdepartementet2015Report (Other academic)
  • 4305.
    Sdao, Francesco
    et al.
    University of Basilicata, Italy.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sole, Aurelia
    University of Basilicata, Italy.
    Albano, Raffaele
    University of Basilicata, Italy.
    Pascale, Stefania
    University of Basilicata, Italy.
    Giosa, Luciana
    University of Basilicata, Italy.
    A GIS implementation of a model of systemic vulnerability assessment in urbanized areas exposed to combined risk of landslide and flood2012In: Geographic Information Analysis for Sustainable Development and Economic Planning / [ed] Giuseppe Borruso, Stefania Bertazzon, Andrea Favretto, Beniamino Murgante och Carmelo Maria Torre, IGI Global, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4306.
    Sdao, Francesco
    et al.
    Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Dipartimento di Strutture, Geotecnica, Geologia Applicata.
    Sole, Aurelia
    Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Fisica dell'Ambiente.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Albano, Raffaele
    Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Ingegneria e Fisica dell'Ambiente.
    Giosa, Luciana
    Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Fisica dell'Ambiente.
    Pascale, Stefania
    Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Fisica dell'Ambiente.
    Implementazione in ambiente GIS di un modello di valutazione della vulnerabilità sistemica2010In: Procedings at Sesta Conferenza Nazionale in Informatica e Pianificazione Urbana e Territoriale (INPUT 2001)  Campus di Macchia Romana, Potenza 13 - 15 Settembre 2010, Potenza: Campus di Macchia Romana , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [it]

    Nel presente lavoro si illustra l’implementazione in ambiente GIS (Geographic Information Systems) di un modello di vulnerabilità di tipo sistemico ad eventi combinati di frana ed inondazione. Il modello proposto è stato applicato al territorio comunale di Potenza (Basilicata) ed ha consentito la creazione di una mappa della vulnerabilità sistemica dalla quale è possibile sia individuare gli elementi territoriali che presentano una perdita maggiore della propria funzionalità a causa dell’evento calamitoso sia quelli che influenzano maggiormente il sistema territoriale. La mappa di vulnerabilità sistemica potrebbe, pertanto, essere uno strumento decisivo nella gestione dell’emergenza e della difesa dell’ambiente.

  • 4307.
    Segerby, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Direkt flygunderstöd i Sverige: en nyhet?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid insatsen i Kongo 1961- 63 var en av uppgifterna för svenska flygvapnet direkt understödav FN:s markstyrkor. Hur löstes då denna uppgift? Var det ett väl inövat koncepteller tvingades flygförare och markstridskrafter att uppfinna en metodik på grundav rådande omständigheter? Det kan vara så att Sverige hade en väl utvecklad förmågavilken både hade stöd i doktrinära dokument och som övades. Det kan även förhålla sigså att de berörda piloterna fick improvisera och ta fram nya metoder på plats i Afrika.I uppsatsen analyseras källmaterial ur Krigsarkivets samlingar hämtade från Flygstabenoch Första flygeskadern mellan 1948 och 1961. Exempel på dessa källor är övningsbestämmelser,taktiska verk och reglementen.Svaret som uppsatsen ger är att Sverige övade Direkt flygunderstöd, DFU, under nästanhela 50- talet. Det fanns föreskrifter för samverkan och i pilotutbildningen fanns lektioneri ämnet. I slutet av perioden övergår fokus efterhand till luftförsvar och attack påstörre operativt djup.Dagens flygvapen med JAS 39 Gripen håller inte på att införa en ny förmåga. Direktflygunderstöd i Sverige är ingen nyhet!

  • 4308.
    Segergren, Mathias
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Interoperabilitet och expeditionär förmåga2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sveriges allt större internationella åtaganden i kombination med den av riksdagen antagna solidaritetsförklaringen gör att behovet av att kunna genomföra expeditionära operationer ökar. Försvarsmaktens mål är att stärka denna förmåga. Ett sätt att öka verkningsgraden i en multinationell operation är att verka för interoperabilitet. Syftet med uppsatsen är att studera hur uttryck av interoperabilitetskrav återfinns i styrdokument för expeditionära operationer i Försvarsmakten med fokus på Nordic Battlegroup och dess transportförmåga.

    Studiens resultat är att interoperabilitetskrav existerar i styrdokument för expeditionära operationer men att dessa krav kunde härledas bättre vilket skulle kunna leda till en bättre förståelse för verksamheten vilket gynnar interoperabilitet.

    Studien föreslår även vissa förbättringar som kan göras avseende begreppet interoperabilitet vilket skulle kunna leda till ytterligare stärkt interoperabilitet.

  • 4309.
    Segerman, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Precisionsbekämpning av taktiska markmål, en framtida förmåga?2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4310.
    Sehlberg, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Varför dessa helikopterhaverier?: En jämförande studie mellan stridsflygshaverier och helikopterhaverier2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate, compare and discuss possible factors that have contributedto the big increase in helicopter crashes in the last ten years compared to fighter jets. The problem is looked upon and analyzed from an HTO perspective (human, technology and organisation). A lot of the essay is focused on the investigation reports that has followed all crashes between 1997-2007. Organisational change, different aircrafts and education and training are examples of other factorsthat are discussed in the essay. The most important conclusions that have been drawn are that helicopter crashes are mostly due to human factors reasons. Fighter jet crashes have more variation in the causes. Factors that may have been contributing in increasing helicopter crashes compared to fighter jets are:- The fusion between the army, marine and air force helicopter units- Helicopter flying is more frequently done on a lower altitude- There are more people part of the helicopter crew which can affect the flight

  • 4311.
    Sellberg, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Stridsvagn 122 och Remote Weapon Station: Nya möjligheter till verkan och stridsteknik2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay studies the Swedish main battle tank stridsvagn 122 and Remote Weapon Station. There is a gap between 120mm and 7.62mm. The observation possibilities in certain situations is limited. The purpose of this essay is to investigate which new abilities a remote weapons station can bring. The following issues are investigated: How does a Remote Weapon Station affect tactics on squad level? Who in the crew is most suited to man the system? Which scalable effects can a remote weapon station bring? The method used is qualitative text analysis. The analyzed material consists of regulations and manuals from the Armed Forces, information from the defence industry. Literature about Weapons and tanks written by civilian authors will be used in order to get a source from outside the Armed Forces. The conclusions drawn are that a remote weapons platform can contribute to enhancements of battle tactics on squad level. A Remote Weapons Station can introduce different new scalable effects depending on the weapon chosen for the specific task. I believe that the loader is the person in the crew that is most suited to man the RWS-system, but a higher degree of flexibility would be reached if also the tank commander could operate the system, since the loader in some situations must direct his full attention to the canon.

  • 4312.
    Selling, Daniel
    Swedish Defence University.
    UAV:n och krigaridealet: en studie i genderrelaterade uppfattningars påverkan på diskursivt bemötande av militär teknologi2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The fact that technological revolutions have a large impact on the way we conduct war is a commonly accepted fact, but is it the technological innovations themselves? Or is the way we perceive them? One aspect not commonly considered is the impact of gendered preconceptions. This study aims to explore the theory of underestimation of military technology considered feminine presented by Lauren Wilcox, by studying discursive presentations of the UAVs and their pilots in three articles. The results of this study are twofold. Firstly, UAVs and their crews are associated with masculine attributes to a low degree, although there seem to be a difference between the crew and the UAV itself. Secondly, the discursive approach to UAVs share similar traits with the early opinions of the machine gun and airplane described by Wilcox. Conclusively, this study indicates that there may be a connection between gendered attributes and discursive approaches to new military technology, although more research on the discursive discrepancy between craft and crew is required.

  • 4313.
    Senic, Sebastian
    Swedish Defence University.
    Têt-offensiven: En analys utifrån krigföringens taktiska principer och grundläggande förmågor2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Têt-offensiven 1968 var en rad taktiska nederlag för Nordvietnam, men den strategiska vinst som slutligen skulle få Nordvietnam att vinna kriget. Vietnamkrigets aspekter av asymmetri och revolutionär krigföring gör att den akademiska synen ofta utgår från teorier avseende dessa. Men Têt-offensiven var på många sätt en konventionell offensiv. Då krigföringen i Vietnam har många paralleller med dagens konfliktområden kan en analys utifrån en konventionell krigföringsteori bidra till förståelsen även av moderna krig.

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att analysera Nordvietnams Têt-offensiv utifrån Försvarsmaktens teorier om grundläggande förmågor för krigföring och krigföringens taktiska grundprinciper.

    Forskningsfrågor som besvaras i uppsatsen är:

    • Vilka förmågor och principer var avgörande för Nordvietnams genomförande av Têt-offensiven?

    • Vilka förmågor och principer var avgörande för USA:s senare framgångar under Têt-offensiven?

    Metoden som används är en analys av fallstudien Têt-offensiven, grundad i kvalitativ textanalys.

    Nordvietnams effektiva utnyttjande av överraskning och vilseledning för inledningen av offensiven möjliggjordes genom hög grad av samordning av förband. Den senare bristen på kraftsamling och USA:s effektiva förmåga att kraftsamla olika verkanssystem och förband ledde till taktiska nederlag för Nordvietnam.

  • 4314.
    Sennersten, Erik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Sverige, Förenta Nationerna och Polisens utlandsstyrka: En fallstudie av policy och praktik i freds- och säkerhetsfrämjande arbete2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige har alltid uttalat ett starkt stöd till Förenta Nationerna, FN. I den allmänna debatten har det på senare tid dock handlat om att Sveriges och i-ländernas allt mindre deltagande i FN-ledda missioner gör att FN:s insatser tappar i trovärdighet och legitimitet. För att se om det finns fog för kritik om minskat deltagande i FN-ledda insatser i Sveriges internationella freds- och säkerhetsfrämjande arbete, så undersöks i denna uppsats om Polisens utlandsstyrkas deltagande i internationella insatser har förändrats över tiden 2001-2011. I uppsatsen undersöks även hur Sveriges uttalade policy om stöd för FN samspelar med vad som sedan implementeras i praktiken genom regeringens uppdrag till den svenska polisen. De som förvaltar och genomför regeringens beslut på området är Polisens Utlandssektion och dess utlandsstyrka. Undersökningen har kommit fram till att en förskjutning har skett från FN-ledda missioner till förmån för EU-missioner och den Gemensamma Säkerhets- och Försvarspolitiken. Flera förklaringar ges till detta, bl.a. har en uttalad policy och ambition växt fram till stöd för en intern och extern krishanteringsförmåga inom EU. Vidare har FN sökt stöd hos regionala organisationer för att avlastas det allt högre trycket på FN som global krishanterare. En annan framväxande svensk policy är att missionsland väljs utifrån prioriteringen av Sveriges och EU:s bistånd. Där är valet av FN, EU eller OSSE mindre viktigt för svenskt vidkommande. Flera av dessa faktorer påverkar sannolikt Sveriges val av arena i det internationella freds- och säkerhetsfrämjande arbetet. Rent operativt har det dock lett till en förskjutning till förmån för EU-missioner på bekostnad av FN-ledda insatser.

  • 4315.
    Serander, Emil
    Swedish Defence University.
    En föränderlig värld, en föränderlig tid: En fallstudie om svenskt strategiskt uppträdande2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En central del av den svenska självbilden och därmed även av landets strategiska kultur härstammar från rikets ställning som militärt alliansfritt. Tydliga uttryck för denna ställning borde således kunna återfinnas i officiella svenska utrikes- och säkerhetspolitiska dokument. Under en period på 2000-talet faller emellertid uttryck som förkunnar denna ställning bort från nämnda dokument, närmare bestämt från Utrikesdeklarationerna och Försvarsbesluten. Den militära alliansfrihetens ”bortfall” innebär således att ett svensk säkerhetspolitiskt strategiskifte under denna tid blir skönjbart. Det strategiska skiftet hamnar vidare, ofrånkomligen, i strid med landets strategiska kultur och utgör ett fenomen som existerande modeller inom nämnda teoribildning har svårt att ”acceptera”.

    I denna undersökning har syftet varit att genom en relativt ny modell inom teoribildningen strategisk kultur, hämtad från Alan Bloomfield, studera om, och i sådana fall varför, ett svenskt strategiskifte ägt rum och hur detta kan ske utan att det står i strid med rikets strategiska kultur. Undersökningen utgör även, ofrånkomligen, en teoriprövning av den nämnda teorimodellen. Studien utgör en enstaka fallstudie vilken sträcker sig över tid där författaren genom en kvantitativ innehållsanalys, i samverkan med en enklare textanalys, mäter korrelationen mellan variabler och därigenom undersöks vilken inverkan dessa har på att det urskiljbara svenska strategiskiftet äger rum.

    I studiens påvisas att tre faktorer, vilka hämtats ifrån det teoretiska ramverket, i samverkan med en politisk vilja medför att ett skifte avseende vilken ”subkultur” som dominerar Sveriges strategiska uppträdande är det som medför att den militära alliansfriheten, tillfälligt, avskaffas. Det subkulturella skiftet är vidare det som möjliggör att den i studien identifierade förändringen i rikets strategiska uppträdande inte bryter mot rikets strategiska kultur varvid även den prövade teoretiska modellen kan hävdas ha fyllt sitt syfte.

  • 4316. Setterlind, S.
    et al.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, FOA 55, Beteendevetenskapliga institutionen.
    Må bättre genom avslappning1983 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 4317. Setterlind, S.
    et al.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Om konsten att hantera sitt liv: D. 2, Avslappning och stresshantering1994Book (Other academic)
  • 4318. Setterlind, S.
    et al.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Hälsohögskolan i Värmland.
    Stressprofilen: Ett psykosocialt mätinstrument1988In: Företagssköterskan, ISSN 0283-913X, no 1, p. 37-39Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4319. Setterlind, S.
    et al.
    Larsson, Gerry
    The Centre for public Health Research, The County Council of Värmland, Sweden.
    The Stress Profile: A psychosocial approach to measuring stress1995In: Stress Medicine, ISSN 0748-8386, E-ISSN 1099-1700, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 85-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stress Profile is a psychosocial instrument for measuring stress in life in general and at work at the levels of the individual, the group and the organization. It has been tested and standardized on more than 4000 men and women. The present article outlines the design and the developmental stages of the Profile. It also describes its use at individual and company levels. The impact of the scientific development of behavioural medicine has greatly improved and extended the application of behavioural methods. The Stress Profile is based on this methodological and scientific development. It is a questionnaire consisting of 224 questions, 20 of which concern background variables and ten criteria. The remaining questions map a number of areas derived from current stress research. The data are computer processed and a graphic profile is produced. This presentation includes illustrations of results from Swedish companies, where the Stress Profile has been used.

  • 4320. Setterlind, S.
    et al.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Psykologiska institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Saltin, B.
    Hälsoläge, arbetsmiljö och stresshantering på Bromma gymnasium våren 19911992Report (Other academic)
  • 4321.
    Sidhage, Anton
    Swedish Defence University.
    Säkerhetspolitik eller identitetspolitik?: En fallstudie av identitetsbaserade motiv till skärpt krigsmaterielexportkontroll i Sverige2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the following thesis is to identify if and how a national Swedish identity could set boundaries for the Swedish national arms export. This is done by examining identity based motives behind proposition 2017/18:23 on a restricted arms export. A more restricted arms export could, according to several referral bodies, come to threaten the physical security of Sweden. Ontological insecurity is a phenomenon which dictates that, when a state experiences a discrepancy between its identity and its actions, a feeling of shame will arise which in turn threatens the states ontological security. According to Brent Steele, a nations ontological security is as, if not more important to the nation as physical security is. With the use of a discourse analysis of Swedish foreign declarations and parliament debates, this study found a severe discrepancy between the Swedish national identity and national actions in the form of arms export. The study found that Swedish identity is clearly positive linked to values like democracy, peace and human rights while the dominant narrative of the Swedish arms export clearly links the national arms export to signifiers like dictatorship, conflict and oppression. The discrepancy between Swedish identity and its arms export will according to the theory of ontological security, demand a change of actions. Therefore, the threatened Swedish ontological security could be a motive behind proposition 2017/18:23 on a restricted arms export.

  • 4322.
    Sigfrid, Olof
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Hotbilder och dess utmanare: De mediala opinionsbildarnas filtrering av hotbilder och maktutövande i den svenska Nato-debatten2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines perceptions of threats and the actors in the Swedish Nato-debate. The particular sequence of debate which is investigated took place in Swedish media during the summer of 2015. The objects examined in this study are the actors involved in the debate and the perceptions of threats formed by these actors. Lack of knowledge regarding how debates are formed by actors, through their perceptions of threats, makes us unable to fully comprehend how and why these perceptions are formed. This lack of knowledge makes us unable to evaluate the debate beyond the claims of the participating actors. This study seeks to explain how perceptions of threats in the chosen debate-sequence were formed through filtration. Theory considering filtration of perceived threats states that the actors forming perceived threats does this through psychological-, bureaucratic-, political- and medial processes. Actors and their perceived threats can also exercise power. Whether the actors and their discourses have exercised power in the Swedish Nato-debate is examined through a relational- and productive power perspective. Results show that the participating actors examined, scientists, journalists and politicians, have all formed perceived threats through different forms of filtration, and all actors have in some way exercised relational or productive power in the debate.     

  • 4323.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Collection and Distribution of Disaster Field Data2010In: Proceedings of the First National Symposium on Technology and Methodology for Security and Crisis Management / [ed] Fredrik Gustafsson, 2010, p. 48-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This extended abstract describes a field test of the Field Information Support Tool (FIST) during the international Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief exercise Pacific Endeavor 2010, in Singapore and the Philippines.

  • 4324.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Cyber Security in Tactical Network Infrastructure for Command and Control2014In: Network Topology in Command and Control: Organization, Operation, and Evolution / [ed] T. J. Grant, R. H. P. Janssen, H. Monsuur, Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2014, p. 241-269Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging information and communications technology has had significant importance for military operations during the last decades. Development within such technology areas as sensors, computers, and wireless communications has allowed for faster and more efficient collection, transmission, storage, processing, analysis, and distribution of data. This has led to new and improved military capabilities within command and control, intelligence, targeting, and logistics. However, the increased complexity and interdependencies of networked systems, the continuously growing amounts of data, changing non-technical requirements, and evolving adversary threats makes upholding cyber security in command and control systems a challenging task. Although some best-practice approaches have been developed, finding good solutions for protecting critical infrastructure and important information assets is still an open research question requiring an interdisciplinary approach. This chapter describes recent developments within emerging network technology for command and control, and suggests focus areas where further research is needed in order to attain sufficient operational effect from the employed systems. While a gradual and evolutionary progress of military cyber security has been seen, a long-term commitment is required within such areas as procurement, standardization, training, doctrinal, and legal development, in order to achieve military utility of command and control systems.

  • 4325.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Increasing Robustness in the Network Society: A Comprehensive Approach to Cyber Security in Sweden2011In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference of the Society for Philosophy and Technology, Denton, TX, USA, May 26-29, 2011: Technology & Security / [ed] David Kaplan och Adam Briggle, Denton: University of North Texas , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the emerging digital threats that our increasingly connected network society is faced with. It considers a strategy based on collaboration and information sharing between civilian and military agencies aimed at increasing societal robustness in a small, yet highly connected country with limited resources.

    The term Network Society, first coined in the 1990s by Jan van Dijk (2006) and Manuel Castells (1996), refers to a societal structure formed by the abundant access to information and communication technologies (ICTs), allowing information to be generated, processed and distributed on the basis of the knowledge accumulated in the nodes of the network. In the network society, government decision making and public service delivery are conducted by increasing use of advanced ICTs (Yang and Bergrud, 2008). ICT is also leveraged to create new and improved public services, for more efficient service provisioning and for reduction of operating expenses.

    However, as information becomes pervasive, complex intersystem dependencies are formed that may induce serious vulnerabilities. These vulnerabilities can manifest as single points of failure in critical infrastructures, but also as an increased exposure to antagonistic threats such as cyber attacks. Mitigating the vulnerability of our increasingly technology-dependant society has therefore become a high-priority task for many governments and administrations of technically mature countries with well-developed ICT infrastructures. In Sweden, commonly ranking among the top countries in the world when it comes to ICT use, cyber security has become an increasingly important issue.

    In 2010, the Swedish government decided to develop a national strategy for the protection of critical public services and infrastructure. The work was initiated by the identification of sectors containing functionality that continuously needs to be upheld in order to guarantee delivery of basic societal services, such as power production, water and food distribution, voice and data communications, emergency health care and financial services. These highly important societal functions are faced with several threats; traditional ones such as natural disasters and large-scale accidents may lead to disruptions limiting the access to goods and services. There are also new threats, brought on by the transition to a network society.

    Preparing for these extreme events is an obviously difficult task, not least since they are unexpected by nature and hard to characterize in detail. When it comes to cyber security, this holds even more true. Not only is the target hard to predict, but the method of attack and the extent of the resulting consequences are often difficult to fully evaluate. A challenging problem is the initial classification of a cyber attack – as a criminal act or a military aggression. Since the identity of the attacker is commonly unknown, and since information flowing through computer networks is oblivious to geographical boundaries, an attack emanating from a server physically located in a certain country could in reality be initiated by a person in the same country as the victim, or equally by a government-sanctioned entity in an unidentified hostile nation.

    Creating a robust network society requires a systematic analysis of existing threats, which vulnerabilities they may exploit, what assets that are involved and an assessment of the resulting risk. Several countries have invested substantial resources in building new lines of defense against the emerging digital threats, where the U.S. is probably the one that has come the farthest by the establishment of its Cyber Command. Sweden is in these circumstances a quite small country, geographically the size of California but with a population not exceeding 10 million. Even though the degree of national ICT development is high, the available resources for dealing with the threat of large scale hostile cyber attacks are limited, both when it comes to civilian agencies and the armed forces. Combining resources in a comprehensive approach to cyber security is thus needed in order to achieve effect.

    A focus on increased collaboration, information exchange, education and combined exercises between the stakeholders responsible for responding to cyber attacks is most likely a key factor in increasing robustness of the network society. Besides reactive resources, which can be used to mitigate the consequences of an attack, proactive methods and assets are also needed to prevent an attack from succeeding or to limit its consequences. Signals intelligence and information operations have proven to be useful methods in this work and an extensive cooperation between parties possessing these capabilities is thus highly valuable. One must also realize that technology itself will not solve any problems, either civilian or military, but the focus must instead be on how it is used and in what context.

  • 4326.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Kanalsamverkan för en mer robust trådlös kriskommunikation2012In: Att kommunicera det (o)tänkbara: Hur formar vi framtidens riskkommunikation?, Mittuniversitetet , 2012, p. 29-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle har vi vant oss vid att information och kommunikation är ubikvitär, det vill säga alltid inom räckhåll. I de nordiska länderna, som vanligtvis intar topplaceringar i internationella jämförelser av såväl internetanvändande som tillgång till avancerade kommunikationstjänster, är denna trend särskilt tydlig. Vår ökande tillit till systemen som tillhandahåller dessa tjänster innebär vidare att vi numera anförtror dem med allt ifrån personlig information till kritiska samhällstjänster.

    När en kris inträffar sätts våra kommunikationssystem på stora prövningar. Detta gäller inte minst de trådlösa kommunikationssystem som såväl myndigheter som privatpersoner är direkt beroende av. Robustheten i trådlösa system har dock ofta prioriterats lägre än faktorer såsom datahastighet och pris, samtidigt som operatörer inte ansett att kostnaden för ett robust system kunnat räknas hem. Flera av de kriser som inträffat de senaste åren har därför visat att befintliga kommunikationssystem inte alltid lever upp till förväntningarna på tillgänglighet.

    Detta paper diskuterar hur robusthet och störtålighet i trådlösa kommunikationssystem kan förbättras, samtidigt som kostnadsökningar och systemkomplexitet begränsas. Vi presenterar ett förslag med tekniska och administrativa metoder för utökad samverkan mellan olika kommunikationskanaler, såsom ett system för obligatorisk samtrafik mellan operatörer och täckningskomplettering genom flyttbara eller luftburna basstationer för mobilkommunikation.

  • 4327.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Non-State Actors in Cyberspace Operations2013In: Journal of Military Studies, ISSN 2242-3524, E-ISSN 1799-3350, Vol. 4, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing importance of cyberspace to modern society, and its increasing use as an arena for dispute, is becoming a national security concern for governments and armed forces globally. The special characteristics of cyberspace, such as its asymmetric nature, the lack of attribution, the low cost of entry, the legal ambiguity, and its role as an efficient medium for protest, crime, espionage and military aggression, makes it an attractive domain for nation-states as well as non-state actors in cyber conflict.

    This paper studies the various non-state actors who coexist in cyberspace, examines their motives and incitements, and analyzes how and when their objectives coincide with those of nation-states. Literature suggests that many nations are currently pursuing cyberwarfare capabilities, oftentimes by leveraging criminal organizations and irregular forces. Employment of such non-state actors as hacktivists, patriot hackers, and cybermilitia in state-on-state cyberspace operations has also proved to be a usable model for conducting cyberattacks. The paper concludes that cyberspace is emerging as a new tool for state power that will likely reshape future warfare. However, due to the lack of concrete cyberwarfare experience, and the limited encounters of legitimate cyberattacks, it is hard to precisely assess future effects, risks and potentials.

  • 4328.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Reconfigurable Radio Systems: Towards Secure Collaboration for Peace Support and Public Safety2010In: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Information Warfare and Security / [ed] Josef Demergis, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences Publishing, 2010, p. 268-274Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As military priorities are shifting from invasion defense to crisis management and peace support operations, the capability to partake in efficient inter-organizational collaboration is becoming increasingly important for armed forces across Europe. The “solidarity clause” of the Treaty of Lisbon, which entered into force on December 1st 2009, dictates that all EU member states shall act jointly if another member state is the target of a terrorist attack or the victim of a natural or man-made disaster. Sweden has gone even further, stating that it will not remain passive if a member state or another Nordic country is attacked, and expects these countries to act in the same manner if Sweden is attacked. This declaration obligates Sweden to be able to collaborate successfully with allied partners, both within own territories and abroad. Application-based collaboration tools for use in unpredictable settings, requiring high user mobility and network survivability, put high demands on the underlying ICT systems in order to function correctly. Networks employing the TErrestrial Trunked RAdio (TETRA) standard are becoming pervasive as platforms for interagency collaboration in crisis response. Although these networks provide many benefits compared to legacy technology they lack the possibility to offer secure, infrastructure-less and disruption-tolerant communication in challenging environments. Emerging ICT such as MANET-based Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS) shows potential for overcoming these problems, in addition to resolving issues of technical heterogeneity. The Common Tactical Radio System (GTRS) is an RRS being developed by the Swedish Armed Forces, intended to be the future ICT system for all parts of the forces, used both in national and international mission settings. However, remaining challenges include threats of node compromisation and adversary network infiltration, as well as the safeguarding of confidential information shared by collaborating parties and preventing information leakage. This paper contributes by (i) giving a summary of recent work in mechanisms for achieving information security in tactical MANETs and Hastily Formed Networks for disaster response. The paper also (ii) presents in-progress work towards the design of a gossip-based cross-layer Distributed Intrusion Detection System (DIDS) for the GTRS system, which takes resource constraints of portable devices into account, and offloads traffic analysis and anomaly detection to more powerful “Big Brother” nodes. An outline of the proposed DIDS architecture is presented, and the paper (iii) suggests future work towards offering a dependable and trustworthy communications platform for efficient and secure inter-organizational collaboration.

  • 4329.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. School of Informatics, University of Skövde.
    Secure Tactical Communications for Inter-Organizational Collaboration: The Role of Emerging Information and Communications Technology, Privacy Issues, and Cyber Threats on the Digital Battlefield2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development within the area of information and communications technology (ICT) has been rapid during the last couple of decades. Advancements in mobile technology, such as smartphones and other portable devices with embedded sensors, rapid expansion of communications infrastructure, and increased spectrum utilization, has had a major impact on civilian society, but increasingly also on professional organizations such as the Swedish Armed Forces. While this technology allows for enhanced capabilities in the areas of command and control, situational awareness, and information management, it also leads to new challenges in such areas as cyber security and privacy. For armed forces in many parts of the world, being able to deploy in new types of missions, such as humanitarian assistance and response operations due to natural or man-made disasters, is an increasingly sought-after capability. Such operations commonly require collaboration amongst several heterogeneous organizations, which in turn requires technical as well as organizational interoperability. While the actors must be able to share certain information efficiently, with regards to integrity and availability, sensitive or classified information must be safeguarded in terms of confidentiality.

    This thesis is concerned with studying emerging ICT for use on the battlefield of tomorrow, investigating how it can lead to more effective operations, and what preconditions that must be met in order for the technology to be of utility for inter-organizational collaboration. In particular, the thesis studies how an acceptable level of information security can be upheld in interconnected tactical communications networks. It is found that Mobile Ad-hoc Networks, Software-Defined Radio and Cognitive Radio are emerging technologies that, while still immature, can contribute to improved capabilities for communications, command and control, and information collection. Furthermore, Hastily Formed Networks is found to be an effective framework for collaboration between heterogeneous actors. However, in order for emerging ICTs to provide military utility, several non-technical requirements must be met. These include usability, trust, legality, cost, and verifying that the technology is in accordance with current military doctrine. Antagonistic as well as unintentional threats must also be mitigated, including information leaks caused by cyberattacks or insiders, and possible consequences of reduced user privacy.

    Besides to the Swedish Armed Forces, this thesis should be of interest to armed forces of comparable countries, and for professional organizations faced with similar challenges. Among the drawn conclusions, the thesis recommends continuously evaluating emerging ICT in support of new capabilities, through academic research as well as internal concept development. Adopting an incremental and modular process is also recommended when developing or procuring new ICT systems, instead of making long-term investments in proprietary technology. Furthermore, a focus should be put on promoting military requirements in future civilian ICT standards. In this way development costs can be reduced, while facilitating tactical use of commercial off-the-shelf products. Regarding information security in tactical networks for inter-organizational collaboration the thesis concludes that employing best-effort methods could allow for efficient information exchange between actors, while upholding acceptable risk levels regarding data leakage.

  • 4330.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Säkerhet i cybermiljön2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den snabba utvecklingen inom IT-området under de senaste decennierna har haft stor betydelse för Försvarsmaktens verksamhet men har samtidigt även inneburit många nya möjligheter för det civila samhället. I synnerhet har framsteg inom sensorteknik, datateknik och kommunikationsteknik inneburit att man idag kan inhämta, överföra, lagra, och analysera stora mängder data på ett snabbare och mer effektivt sätt än tidigare. Detta har kommit till nytta inom bland annat system för ledningsstöd, stridsledning, underrättelsetjänst och logistik.

    På samma gång har dock komplexiteten, de inbördes systemberoendena och volymerna data som hanteras i informationssystemen ökat kraftigt. I kombination med att karaktären på Försvarsmaktens verksamhet medför särskilda krav på systemsäkerhet och skydd mot antagonistiska hot, är upprätthållandet av en tillräcklig säkerhetsnivå i cybermiljön en utmaning. Att kunna skydda viktiga informationstillgångar mot förekommande risker är samtidigt en nödvändighet för att den nya tekniken ska kunna bidra till militär nytta. Förmågan att kunna verka i cybermiljön måste utvecklas och regelbundet tränas i fredstid, för att denna ska kunna stå till förfogande vid behov.

    Försvarsmakten är på väg mot en högre grad av mognad och förståelse för cybermiljöns förutsättningar och krav. Det krävs dock ett kontinuerligt arbete inom flera områden för att cybermiljön och de system som ingår i denna ska bidra till en reell effekt. De aspekter som belyses i denna rapport bedöms vara av särskild vikt.

  • 4331.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Towards Secure Collaboration Through Emerging ICT:  A Distributed IDS for Tactical MANETs2010In: Collaboration Tools in the Military Environment / [ed] Jorma Jormakka och Sakari Oksa, Helsinki: Finnish National Defence University, Department of Military Technology , 2010, p. 47-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4332.
    Sigholm, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Andersson, Dennis
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut.
    Privacy on the Battlefield?: Ethical Issues of Emerging Military ICTs2011In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of Computer Ethics: Philosophical Enquiry: Crossing Boundaries: Ethics in Interdisciplinary and Intercultural Relations / [ed] Jeremy Mauger, Milwaukee: INSEIT , 2011, p. 256-268Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Privacy on the battlefield? A bizarre thought at first glance – but is it really that far-fetched? In this study we look at modern conflicts, such as the war on terror, and dig deeper into what privacy means to a soldier engaged in such a campaign. With the ever-increasing amount of technology used for troop command and control, there is less room for an individual soldier to act without being watched. An open question is how the soldiers will react to all this surveillance. It is a long established fact that excessive workplace surveillance may result in negative performance consequences for the affected employees. We believe it is fair to raise the same question about emerging technology for the modern battlefield, and to critically assess this technology from a privacy perspective. Our study does not reveal any hard evidence of ongoing privacy violations, nor of the actual significance of privacy in modern warfare. We do however provide a model for studying how soldier performance relates to the fulfillment of various needs, and examine where attributes such as privacy fit in to the equation. We also call for the research community to pick up the thread and conduct empirical studies on the matter.

  • 4333.
    Sigholm, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bang, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Towards Offensive Cyber Counterintelligence: Adopting a Target-Centric View on Advanced Persistent Threats2013In: Proceedings of the 2013 European Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference / [ed] Joel Brynielsson & Fredrik Johansson, IEEE Computer Society, 2013, p. 166-171Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the traditional strategies for cyber defense in use today are necessary to mitigate broad ranges of common threats, they are not well-suited to protect against a persistent antagonist with access to advanced system exploitation techniques and knowledge of existing but yet undiscovered software vulnerabilities. Addressing the threat caused by such antagonists requires a fast and offensive Cyber Counterintelligence (CCI) process, and a more efficient interorganizational information exchange. This paper proposes a framework for offensive CCI based on technical tools and techniques for data mining, anomaly detection, and extensive sharing of cyber threat data. The framework is placed within the distinct context of military intelligence, in order to achieve a holistic, offensive and target-centric view of future CCI. The main contributions offered are (i) a comprehensive process that bridges the gap between the various actors involved in CCI, (ii) an applied technical architecture to support detection and identification of data leaks emanating from cyber espionage, and (iii) deduced intelligence community requirements.

  • 4334.
    Sigholm, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section. Sloan School, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Falco, Gregory
    CSAIL, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA; FSI, Stanford University, USA.
    Viswanathan, Arun
    NASA Jet Proplusion Laboratory, Caltech, USA.
    Enhancing Cybersecurity Education through High-Fidelity Live Exercises (HiFLiX)2019In: Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE conference proceedings, 2019, p. 7553-7562Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The people responsible for building the IT products and infrastructure of tomorrow – today’s students of the computing disciplines – oftentimes do not have the opportunity or proper motivation to develop cybersecurity skills meeting the needs of the job market. This paper introduces High Fidelity Live eXercises (HiFLiX) a teaching/learning activity designed to expose students to cybersecurity challenges resembling those they could face in a future work environment. We describe a HiFLiX prototype study, conducted as a collaboration between the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s CyberSecurity@CSAIL research group and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Our analysis indicates that the proposed delivery method met the stipulated cybersecurity educational outcomes and increased the motivation for future cybersecurity studies in the majority of participants. Two previously unknown software flaws were also discovered.

  • 4335.
    Sigholm, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Larsson, Emil
    Svenska Dagbladet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Determining the Utility of Cyber Vulnerability Implantation: The Heartbleed Bug as a Cyber Operation2014In: Military Communications Conference (MILCOM), 2014 IEEE, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 110-116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flaws in computer software or hardware that are as yet unknown to the public, known as zero-day vulnerabilities, are an increasingly sought-after resource by actors conducting cyber operations. While the objective pursued is commonly defensive, as in protecting own systems and networks, cyber operations may also involve exploiting identified vulnerabilities for intelligence collection or to produce military effects. The weapon zing and stockpiling of such vulnerabilities by various actors, or even the intentional implantation into cyberspace infrastructure, is a trend that currently resembles an arms race. An open question is how to measure the utility that access to these exploitable vulnerabilities provides for military purposes, and how to contrast and compare this to the possible adverse societal consequences that withholding disclosure of them may result in, such as loss of privacy or impeded freedom of the press. This paper presents a case study focusing on the Heart bleed bug, used as a tool in an offensive cyber operation. We introduce a model to estimate the adoption rate of an implanted flaw in Open SSL, derived by fitting collected real-world data. Our calculations show that reaching a global adoption of at least 50 % would take approximately three years from the time of release, given that the vulnerability remains undiscovered, while surpassing 75 % adoption would take an estimated four years. The paper concludes that while exploiting zero-day vulnerabilities may indeed be of significant military utility, such operations take time. They may also incur non-negligible risks of collateral damage and other societal costs.

  • 4336.
    Sigholm, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Raciti, Massimiliano
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Best-Effort Data Leakage Prevention in Inter-Organizational Tactical MANETs2012In: Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE Military Communications Conference, IEEE Communications Society, 2012, p. 1143-1149Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS), based on technologies such as Software Defined Radio (SDR) and Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) offer considerable advantages for military operations, such as increased network survivability and interoperability. The RRS-based Common Tactical Radio System (GTRS), currently in development by the Swedish Armed Forces, is designed for use in diverse geographical settings and for purposes varying from international combat missions to national contingency operations. However, protecting these networks from attacks and safeguarding the carried information against leaks is an ongoing research challenge, especially in combined scenarios where tactical data may flow across organizational boundaries. This paper presents a best-effort approach to Data Leakage Prevention (DLP) for inter-organizational RRS-based networks. The proposed architecture makes use of data mining techniques and an efficient n-dimensional clustering algorithm which has previously been successfully used for real-time anomaly detection in critical infrastructure protection. The DLP architecture is developed as an extension to the GTRS system, modeled and simulated in OPNET™ Modeler. Our results show that common data leaks can be efficiently identified by the proposed scheme, while keeping the important false positive rate at a very low level.

  • 4337.
    Sigurdsson, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Data- och informationsfusion i marin miljö2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4338.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Ett militärtekniskt perspektiv på förmågeutveckling2017In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 1, p. 71-92Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes how external changes, doctrines, personnel, organization and technology have interacted over time. Based on Swedish government terms in office from 1991 to present time, we give a general overview of some important changes in the international development and their influence on defence policy reports, defence policy bills and on the Swedish Armed Forces capability development. We use two approaches, demand pull and technology push, to describe the changes observed. Among external changes, the ongoing technology development is important. In order to meet the challenges of the future, we propose that the Swedish Armed Forces should increase their investments on research and development as well as on technology forecasting.

  • 4339.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Hult, Gunnar
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Jensen, Eva
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Reberg, Michael
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Biverot, Erik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Löfgren, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Persson, Björn
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Technology Forecast 2013 Military Utility of Six Technologies: a Report from Seminars at the SNDC Department of Military-Technology2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Four technology forecast reports from the Fraunhofer Institute and two internet based search reports from Recorded Future have been reviewed by staff at the Department of Military- Technology at the Swedish National Defence College (Note that there probably are other technology areas, equally interesting, but not included in this study). The task given by FMV was to assess the military utility of the chosen technologies in a time frame from 2025 to 2030, from a SwAF viewpoint.

    We assess the military utility of a certain technology, as its contribution to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, within identified relevant scenarios.

    The technologies were grouped in three classes; technologies with potentially significant, uncertain or negligible military utility.

    The following technologies were assessed to have a potential for significant military utility;

    • Alternative fuels
    • High altitude platforms
    • Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
    • Cyber Defence
    • The forecasting and analysis technology described in the report "Future of Cyber Threats" if the tool is combined with advanced artificial intelligence algorithms

    The following technology was assessed to have uncertain military utility;

    • The forecasting and analysis technology described in the report "Future of Cyber Threats" in its present form

    The following technology was assessed to have negligible military utility;

    • Walking machines

    The method used was first to make a summary of each forecast report. The technology was then put into one or more scenarios that are assessed to be the best in order to show possible military utility as well as possibilities and drawbacks of the technologies. Based on a SWOT-analysis, the contribution to SwAF capabilities and the cost in terms of acquisition, C2 footprint, logistic footprint, doctrine/TTP, training, facilities and R&D were assessed. Conclusions regarding the military utility of the technology were drawn.

    Our evaluation of the method used shows that there is a risk that the assessment is biased by the participating experts’ presumptions and experiences from their own field of research. The scenarios that were chosen do not cover all aspects of the technology and their possible contribution to operational capabilities. It should be stressed that we have assessed the six technologies’ potential military utility within the presented scenarios, not the technology itself.

    The chosen definition of military utility clearly affects the result of the study. The definition (the military utility of a certain technology is its contribution to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, within identified relevant scenarios) has been slightly modified from the one used in the Technology Forecast 2012. It is believed to be good enough for this report, but could be further elaborated in the future.

    The greatest value of the method used is its simplicity, cost effectiveness and the tradeoff that it promotes learning within the working group. The composition of the working group and the methodology used is believed to provide for a broad and balanced coverage of the technologies under study. This report provides executive summaries of the Fraunhofer and Recorded Future reports and helps the SwAF Headquarter to evaluate the military utility of emerging technologies within identified relevant scenarios.

    Given the limited quantitative base (only 2 reports) for assessing the potential value of using the tool Temporal Analytics™ used by Recorded Future, our conclusion is nevertheless that the overall value of using the tool for technology forecasting is rather poor. Our assessment is that Recorded Future at present can’t be used as an alternative to the Fraunhofer Institute. Overall, the quality of the Fraunhofer reports is considered to be balanced and of a high level of critical analysis regarding technology development. These reports are in line with our task to evaluate the military utility of the emerging technologies. In the case of Recorded Future’s technology forecast, the sources that are relevant for making military predictions are considered to be ill-suited for aggregation in the form the tool in focus, Temporal Analytics™, provides. The tool requires further development to fit military purposes. Further use of Recorded Future in the technology forecast process is therefore not recommended, at least not until the tool has been combined with advanced artificial intelligence algorithms.

    We propose that the Department of Military Technology at SNDC could be involved in the early phase of the Technology Forecast process giving support to FMV in choosing which technology areas that should be selected to be studied by the Fraunhofer Institute within the framework of the Technology Forecast project (Teknisk Prognos).

  • 4340.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Backstrom, M.
    Loren, J.
    Microwave field-to-wire coupling measurements in anechoic and reverberation chambers2002In: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 222-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the differences in radiated susceptibility (RS) testing in anechoic (AC) and reverberation chambers (RC) is essential for analysis of the susceptibility of electronic systems to microwave radiation. We have studied microwave field-to-wire coupling for some basic wire geometries above a ground plane in ACs and RC. Results for receiving parameters such as the antenna receiving cross section sigma(w) and the effective antenna length of the wire, h(e), are presented. The ratio between the maximum and average values of sigma(w) may exceed 15 dB in the AC, the average being equal to sigma(w) measured in the RC. Large variations in sigma(w) show that the outcome of an RS test in an AC may depend strongly on the direction and polarization of the incident field. For a realistic RS test in ACs only a few angles of incidence can typically be afforded, implying a substantial risk for undertesting. Furthermore, a. measured in the RC follows a chi(2)-distribution with two degrees of freedom. The measurements in the AC do not follow the same distribution.

  • 4341.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Hult, Gunnar
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Hagenbo, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Persson, Björn
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Technology Forecast 2014 Military Utility of Four Technologies: A Report from Seminars at the SNDC Department of Military-Technology2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Four technology forecast reports from the Fraunhofer Institute have been reviewed by staff at the Department of Military-Technology at the Swedish National Defence College. The task given by the Swedish Defence Material Administration, FMV, was to assess the military utility of the given technologies in a time frame to 2040, from a Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) point of view.

    We assess the military utility of a certain technology as its contribution to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, based on identified relevant scenarios. Since a new capability catalogue is under development at the SwAF Headquarters, we will only present general assessments of the capability impact from the technologies under study.

    The technologies were grouped in three classes; technologies with potentially significant, uncertain or negligible military utility. The classification uncertain is given for technologies that are difficult to put in the two other classes, however it is not because the technology readiness level (TRL) is not reached by 2040.

    The following technologies were assessed to have a potential for significant military utility;

    Kinodynamic motion planning

    This technology is a prerequisite for reaching full autonomy of highly agile unmanned systems and is probably a logical, evolutionary way to go forward. It will affect most SwAF capabilities through enhanced mobility. This technology should be studied by the SwAF, preferably within all operational environments.

    Bio-inspired Adaptive Camouflage Surfaces

    "Bio-inspired camouflage" should be viewed in a broad multispectral perspective involving design requirements for low contrast in the visual- and IR-spectrum as well as, for most applications, low reflectivity in the radar-band. There is an ongoing duel between sensor development and camouflage systems and our assessment is that the fewer and more valuable platforms we have, we will need better camouflage performance in order to maintain low probability of detection and short detection distances for an adversary, at least if faced with a technologically mature adversary. Our overall assessment is that bio-inspired adaptive camouflage systems have significant potential for military utility.

    UCAV

    If the idea that UCAV are superior in air combat is realizable, we may be facing a paradigm shift of the same magnitude as that which airborne radar or air-to-air missiles introduced. Thus, UCAV are deemed to have potential for significant military utility in future air operations even though it is, at present, hard to predict how they will be used to maximize their military utility.

    The following technology was assessed to have uncertain military utility;

    Bulk metallic glass (BMG)

    If BMG innovations prove to form a new performance step in armour and weapons development, it will from a Swedish perspective be crucial to take part in that development or else take the risk of being inferior on the battlefield. Given the many uncertainties concerning production and applications, we assess BMGs to have uncertain potential for military utility in 2040. However, the SwAF should monitor the development and applications in this area.

    None of the studied technologies were found to have negligible military utility. .

    The method used in this technology forecast report was to assign each Fraunhofer report to one reviewer in the working group. First, a summary of each forecast report was made. The Fraunhofer assessment of technical readiness level (TRL) in 2030-40 was held to be correct. The technology was then put into one or more scenarios that were assessed to be suitable in order to assess the military utility as well as indicate possibilities and drawbacks of the technologies. Based on a SWOT-analysis, the contribution to SwAF capabilities and the cost in terms of acquisition, C2 footprint, logistic footprint, doctrine/TTP, training, facilities and R&D were assessed. Finally, conclusions regarding the potential military utility of the technology were drawn.

    The chosen definition of military utility clearly affects the result of the study. The definition (the military utility of a certain technology is its contribution to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, within identified relevant scenarios) is the same that was used in the Technology Forecast 2013. It is believed to be good enough for this report, but could be further elaborated in the future. An article that in depth presents our concept of military utility has been elaborated at the department.1

    Our evaluation of the method used shows that there is a risk that the assessment is biased by the participating experts’ presumptions and experiences from their own field of research. The scenarios that were chosen do not cover all aspects of the technology and their possible contribution to operational capabilities. It should be stressed that we have assessed the four technologies’ potential military utility within the specific presented scenarios, not the technology itself. When additional results have been found in the analysis this is mentioned.

    The greatest value of the method used is its simplicity, cost effectiveness and the tradeoff that it promotes learning within the working group. The composition of the working group and the methodology used is believed to provide for a broad and balanced coverage of the technologies under study. This report provides executive summaries of the Fraunhofer and Recorded Future reports and the intention is to help the SwAF Headquarter to evaluate the military utility of emerging technologies within identified relevant scenarios.

    Overall, the quality of the Fraunhofer reports is considered to be balanced and of a high level of critical analysis regarding technology development. These reports are in line with our task to evaluate the military utility of the emerging technologies.

    We appreciate that the Department of Military Technology at SNDC this time has been involved in the early phase of the Technology Forecast process.

  • 4342.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bäckström, Mats
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Lorén, Jörgen
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Microwave Field-to-Wire Coupling Measurements1998Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of antenna receiving properties of wires and cables is essential in the analysis of susceptibility of electronic systems to microwave radiation. This paper presents measurements of receiving parameters for basic wire geometries. Directional properties of realized gain, receiving cross section and of effective antenna lenght for the wires are presented. The impact of measured directivity effects of the order of 15 dB on radiated susceptibility testing in anechoic and mode-stirred chambers is discussed.

  • 4343.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bäckström, Mats
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Lorén, Jörgen
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Microwave Field-to-Wire Coupling Measurements in Anechoic and Reverberation Chambers2002In: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 222-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the differences in radiated susceptibility (RS) testing in anechoic (AC) and reverberation chambers (RC) is essential for analysis of the susceptibility of electronic systems to microwave radiation. We have studied microwave field-to-wire coupling for some basic wire geometries above a ground plane in ACs and RC. Results for receiving parameters such as the antenna receiving cross section and the effective antenna length of the wire, he, are presented. The ratio between the maximum and average values of the antenna receiving cross section may exceed 15 dB in the AC, the average being equal to the antenna receiving cross section measured in the RC. Large variations in the antenna receiving cross section show that the outcome of an RS test in an AC may depend strongly on the direction and polarization of the incident field. For a realistic RS test in ACs only a few angles of incidence can typically be afforded, implying a substantial risk for undertesting. Furthermore, the antenna receiving cross section measured in the RC follows a Chi-square-distribution with two degrees of freedom. The measurements in the AC do not follow the same distribution.

  • 4344.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Hult, Gunnar
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Persson, Björn
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Thunqvist, Ola
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Technology Forecast 2016: The Military Utility of Future Technologies: a Report from seminars at the Swedish Defence University’s Military-Technology Division2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Three technology forecast reports from the Fraunhofer Institute and four reports on literature studies (sometimes called scanning reports) from the Swedish Defence Research Institute (FOI) have been reviewed by staff at the Military-Technology Division at the Swedish Defence University (SEDU). The task given by the Defence Material Administration FMV was to assess the military utility of the given technologies in a time frame to 2040, from a Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) point of view.

    In the review we assess the military utility of a certain technology as a possible contribution to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, based on identified relevant scenarios. Since a new capability catalogue is under development at the SwAF Headquarters, this report will only present general assessments of the capability impact from the technologies under study.

    The technologies were grouped into four classes: potentially significant, moderate, negligible, or uncertain military utility.

    The following technology was assessed to have a potential for significant military utility;

     Multi robot systems

    The following technologies were assessed to have a potential for moderate military utility;

     Over-the-Horizon Radar

     Space-based imaging radar

    The following technology was found to have negligible military utility.

     Moving Target Defence

    The following technologies were assessed to have uncertain military utility;

     Software-Defined Networking

     Transient Materials- Programmed to Perish, but this technology should be monitored since it might reach high technical readiness level (TRL) by 2050-60

    The method used in this technology forecast report was to assign each report to one reviewer in the working group. First, a summary of each forecast report was made. The Fraunhofer assessment of TRL in the time period to 2035 was held to be correct. The technology was then put into one or more scenarios that were deemed to be suitable in order to assess the military utility as well as indicate possibilities and drawbacks of each technology. Based on a SWOT-analysis, the assessed contribution to the fundamental capabilities and to the factors DOTMPLFI (Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Personnel, Leadership, Facilities and Interoperability) were listed. Furthermore, the expected requirements on the SwAF R&D in order to facilitate the introduction of the technology are given.

    As a consequence of our continuing development of the evaluation process, we have for the first time used a model developed at the division of Military-Technology to assess the Military utility1 of the technologies. Finally, conclusions and an overall rating regarding the potential military utility of each technology were presented.

    The chosen definition of military utility clearly affects the result of the study. The definition (the military utility of a certain technology is its contribution to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, within identified relevant scenarios) is the same as used in our Technology Forecasts since 2013.

    Our evaluation of the method used shows that there is a risk that the assessment is biased by the participating experts’ presumptions and experiences from their own field of research. Also, it should be stressed that the six technologies’ potential military utility was assessed within the specific presented scenarios, and their possible contribution to operational capabilities within those scenarios, not in general. When additional results have been found in the analysis this is mentioned. The last chapter of this report analyzes thinking and debate on war and warfare in three military great powers: USA, Russia and China. Therefore, this chapter has a different structure. Aspects of military technology are discussed at the end of the chapter, but no assessment of the military utility is made.

    The greatest value of the method used is its simplicity, cost effectiveness and that it promotes learning within the working group. The composition of the working group and the methodology used is believed to provide a broad and balanced coverage of the technologies under study. This report is to been seen as an executive summary of the Fraunhofer reports and the reports on literature studies from FOI. The intention is to help the SwAF Headquarters to evaluate the military utility of emerging technologies within identified relevant scenarios.

    Overall, the quality of the Fraunhofer reports is considered to be balanced and of a high level of critical analysis regarding technology development. These reports are in line with our task to evaluate the military utility of the emerging technologies. The FOI reports are considered to be high quality. However, the selection of topics can be discussed since the selection

  • 4345.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Liwång, Hans
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Hult, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Command and Control Section.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    von Gerber, Carl
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Technology Forecast 2017 - Military Utility of Future Technologies: A Report from Seminars at the Swedish Defence University’s (SEDU) Military-Technology Division2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two technology forecast reports from the Fraunhofer Institute, three reports from the Swedish Defence Research Institute (FOI) and two publications from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have been reviewed by staff at the Military-Technology Division at the Swedish Defence University (SEDU). The task given by the Defence Material Administration (FMV) was to assess the military utility of the given technologies in a time frame to up 2040, from a Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) perspective.

    In the review we assessed the military utility of certain technologies as possible contributions to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, based on identified and relevant scenarios. Because a new capability catalogue is under development at the SwAF Headquarters, this report only presents general assessments of the capability impact of the technologies studied.

    The technologies were grouped into four classes: potentially significant, moderate, negligible, or uncertain military utility.

    The classification uncertain military utility was given to technologies that are difficult to put in the other three classes, it was not because the technology readiness level (TRL) will not bereached by 2040.

    The following technologies were assessed to have the potential for significant military utility:

    - Nanocarbons for photonic applications

    The following technologies were assessed to have a potential for moderate military utility;

    - Internet of things (IoT)

    - Materials and technologies for protection against chemical agents

    The following technologies were assessed to have uncertain military utility;

    - Post-quantum cryptography

    - New applications for hyperspectral image analysis for chemical and biological agents

    No technology was found to have negligible military utility.

    The method used in this technology forecast report was to assign each report to one reviewer in the working group. Firstly, each forecast report was summarized. The Fraunhofer assessment of technical readiness level (TRL) in the time period was held to be correct. Each technology was then put into one or more scenarios that were assessed to be suitable for assessing the military utility as well as indicating any possibilities and drawbacks. Based on a SWOTanalysis, the assessed contributions to the fundamental capabilities, and to the factors DOTMPLFI (Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Leadership, Personnel, Facilities and Interoperability), were listed. Furthermore, the expected SwAF R&D requirements, to facilitate the introduction of the technology are given. The Military utility was assessed using a model developed by the Military-Technology Division. Finally, conclusions and an overall rating of the potential military utility of each technology were presented.

    The chosen definition of military utility clearly affects the result of the study. The definition used here (“the military utility of a certain technology is its contribution to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, within identified relevant scenarios”) has been used in our Technology Forecasts since 2013.

    Our evaluation of the method used shows that there is a risk that assessments can be biased by the participating experts’ presumptions and experience from their own field of research. It should also be stressed that the seven technologies’ potential military utility was assessed within the specific presented scenarios and their possible contribution to operational capabilities within those specific scenarios, not in general. When additional results have been found in the analysis, this is mentioned.

    The greatest value of the method used is its simplicity, cost effectiveness and that it promotes learning within the working group. The composition of the working group and the methodology used are believed to provide a broad and balanced coverage of the technologies being studied. This report should be seen as an executive summary of the research reports and the intention is to help the SwAF Headquarters to evaluate the military utility of emerging technologies within identified relevant scenarios.

    Overall, the research reports are considered to be balanced and of high quality in terms of their level of critical analysis regarding technology development. These reports are in line with our task to evaluate the military utility of the emerging technologies.

  • 4346.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Fransson, T
    Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Heat and Power Technology.
    Interactive Teaching of Military-Technology: a pilot study of implementation2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4347.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Norsell, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Fransson, Torsten
    Kungl Tekniska Högskolan (KTH), Skolan för industriell teknik och management, Institutionen för energiteknik.
    Interactive Teaching of Military-Technology: A Pilot Study of Implementation2011In: Stockholm Contributions in Military-Technology 2010 / [ed] Åke Sivertun, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2011, 1, p. 141-150Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interactive learning platform Comp Edu, developed and used since 1997 at the Division of Heat and Power Technology at the Royal Institute of Technology, has recently been introduced as a new tool for teaching Military-Technology at the Swedish National Defence College. In this pilot study, interactive teaching has been tested at the initial training of junior officers at the Swedish National Defence College. Results from a student evaluation of the tool are presented. These results will be incorporated in future implementations of this interactive teaching method on a broader scale in Military-Technology. The students appreciated the freedom of being able to choose when and where to study the pensum and found CompEdu being an excellent tool for facilitating reviewing the chapter before an exam. An outline for future work is presented.

  • 4348.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Thottappillil, R.
    Ye, M.
    Cooray, V.
    Scuka, V.
    Induced voltages in a low-voltage power installation network due to lightning electromagnetic fields: An experimental study1999In: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 265-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the experimental results on the induced common-mode (CM) voltages in a residential low-voltage power installation (LVPI) network exposed to electromagnetic fields from lightning. The objective of this investigation was to find out the severity of induced voltages in a low voltage network due to direct coupling of the lightning electromagnetic fields with the network in the absence of transient overvoltages coming through the distribution lines. Therefore, during the experiment the LVPI network was disconnected from the distribution network to exclude conducted transients in the measured signals entering through the mains. The induced CM voltages in a power outlet of the network were measured simultaneously with the vertical component of the electric field near the installation. The sequence of induced voltage events during the complete duration of one negative cloud to-ground (CG) flash, one positive CG flash, and one cloud hash (CC), thought to be typical, is presented simultaneously with the electric field, It is shown that in addition to the return strokes in ground flashes, other discharge events taking place in the cloud; notably, the bipolar pulse trains associated with the initiation of both CG lightning and cloud lightning, are also important in determining the transient environment of electronic devices connected to a LVPI network. Flashes at a distance of about 25 km produced many induced-voltage pulses as large as 100 V, six such pulses in a time period of 0.4 ms in a negative CG flash, and 11 such pulses in a time period of 3 ms in a CC that immediately followed the ground flash.

  • 4349.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Thottappillil, Rajeev
    Uppsala Universitet, Institutionen för Högspänningsforskning.
    Ye, Ming
    Uppsala Universitet, Institutionen för Högspänningsforskning.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala Universitet, Institutionen för Högspänningsforskning.
    Scuka, Viktor
    Uppsala Universitet, Institutionen för Högspänningsforskning.
    Induced Voltages in a Low-Voltage Power Installation Network Due to Lightning Electronmagnetic Fields: An Experimental Study1999In: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 265-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the experimental results on the induced common-mode (CM) voltages in a residential low-voltage power installation (LVPI) network exposed to electromagnetic fields from lightning. The objective of this investigation was to find out the severity of inducedvoltages in a low voltage network due to direct coupling of the lightning electromagnetic fields with the network in the absence of transient overvoltages coming through the distribution lines. Therefore, during the experiment the LVPI network was disconnected from the distribution network to exclude conducted transients in the measured signals entering through the mains. The induced CM voltages in a power outlet of the network were measured simultaneously with the vertical component of the electric field near the installation. The sequence of induced voltage events during the complete duration of one negative cloud-to-ground (CG) flash, one positive CG flash, and one cloud flash (CC), thought to be typical, is presented simultaneously with the electric field. It is shown that in addition to the return strokes in ground flashes, other discharge events taking place in the cloud; notably, the bipolar pulse trains associated with the initiation of both CG lightning and cloud lightning, are also important in determining the transient environment of electronic devices connected to a LVPI network. Flashes at a distance of about 25 km produced many induced-voltage pulses as large as 100 V, six such pulses in a time period of 0.4 ms in a negative CG flash, and 11 such pulses in a time period of 3 ms in a CC that immediately followed the ground flash.

  • 4350.
    Silfwerplatz, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Utformning av ett svenskt försvar mot fjärrstridsmedel av typen kryssningsrobotar och ballistiska robotar2002Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I uppsatsen studeras hur ett svenskt försvar mot kryssningsrobotar och ballistiska robotar kan utformas.Uppsatsen konstaterar att en aktör med tillgång till kryssningsrobotar och ballistiska robotar har enfjärrbekämpningsförmåga till en förhållandevis låg kostnad. För att ytterligare förstärka sinfjärrstridspotential kan aktören förse dessa vapensystem med massförstörelseeffekt. Uppsatsen visar att ettframtida försvarskoncept mot det aktuella hotet är en kombination av offensiva och defensiva insatser. Föratt skydda nationen från insatser med massförstörelsevapen burna av en kryssningsrobot krävsvapensystem med långa räckvidder så att bekämpningen kan ske över hav eller obefolkade områden. Enbekämpad stridsdel med massförstörelsevapen kan resultera i ett restnedfall med förödande effekt. För attbekämpa ballistiska robotar krävs system med extrema prestanda. Bekämpningssystemen skall kunnamöta inkommande robotar med farter mellan 2500 till 5000 m/s. För att minimera restnedfallet från enmassförstörelsestridsspets krävs att den ballistiska roboten bekämpas i den yttre atmosfären.Trots de stora investeringarna i JAS 39-systemet kommer Sverige att sakna ett relevant försvar motkryssningsrobotar och ballistiska robotar. Uppsatsen bedömer att Sverige inte på egen hand kan bygga uppett försvar mot dessa vapen. De två huvudsakliga motiven till detta är ekonomin och behoven av ensamordnad insats om det finns risk för restnedfall vid en bekämpad massförstörelsestridsdel. Uppsatsenförordar ett internationellt samarbete för ett framtida svenskt försvar mot kryssningsrobotar och ballistiskarobotar. För att kunna skaffa sig en framtida förmåga krävs en omfattande kunskapsuppbyggnad inomlandet. Den nuvarande kunskapsnivån räcker inte ens för att fatta de inledande besluten för enövergripande inriktning.

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