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  • 401.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Rocha de Oliveira, Leonardo
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul.
    Lindergårdh, Lars
    Combitech.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Combitech.
    Learning Priorities and the Role of Computer-Based Training and Simulation on Military Supply Chain Logistics2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military training involves activities that range from combat operations to strategic decisions on how to locate and transport personal and supplies, such as food, ammunition, fuel and medical equipment. Despite of the fact that most military training is difficult to acquire from real situations, the skills required for learning from combat training technology are different from those required for training on military logistics. This research work aims to analyse learning priorities and the role of Computer-Based Training and Simulation (CBTS) on Military Supply Chain Logistics. Military logistics is a complex task that requires expertise for decisions on such factors as: (i) the mission to accomplish; (ii) the place to locate troops and all military facilities at the Area of Operations (AOO); the (iii) combat readiness level that will be expected to equip all the military operations; and the (iv) use of transportation resources and paths to follow in the AOO. In this work, each one of these factors is represented by a number of variables that must be considered as whole to outline the best decisions on supply chain logistics for each military operation. To identify training priorities for considering the implications of all variables that respond for these four factors, this work carried out a qualitative research with in depth interviews with military personal with expertise on making decisions about military logistics. Results from this research shows the skills that are most important to follow for developing expertise on military supply chain logistics and the technology that should best be applied to enhance the training experience. Conclusions from this work shows that training on military logistics involve decisions that are mostly unique, though the current computer-based technology has an important role for training and simulating field situations, thus enhancing the required expertise for making decisions on real military supply chain operations.

  • 402.
    Haglund, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Flottan och det kalla kriget: ett personligt perspektiv2009Book (Other academic)
  • 403.
    Haglund, Magnus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Svenska flottan under kalla kriget: Operationer och taktik i skuggan av hotet från öst2014Book (Other academic)
  • 404.
    Hagström, Linus
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section. The Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section. The Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Hanssen, Ulv
    The Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Allt bör göras för att bygga relationer med Nordkorea2017In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 405.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Granåsen, Magdalena
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Anders
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Command and Control Section.
    Ekenstierna, Christina
    Swedish Armed Forces, Sweden.
    Framework for C2 Concept Development: Exploring Design Logic and Systems Engineering2018In: 23rd International Command and Control Research & Technology Symposium: Multi-Domain C2 / [ed] Alberts, David, International Command and Control Institute , 2018, Vol. Topic 9, article id 23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conditions for military operations have changed due to, e.g., globalization, climate change, and nations' ambitions and actions. This has resulted in new demands on command and control (C2) capability. Further, the rapid evolution of information technology has provided vigorous opportunities to enhance the C2 capability, e.g., through advanced communication, information management, and decision support. However, the need to rely on modern technology also causes increased vulnerabilities. The sociotechnical nature of C2 systems means that the development of C2 systems is complex and challenging. Developing C2 concepts requires collaboration between people from different knowledge disciplines, traditions, and perspectives. Therefore, there is a need for elaborated concept development approaches and structures that promote collaborative efforts. The objective of this paper is a framework for the development of C2 concepts that enhance the collaboration of people from different traditions. The study was carried out as case study performed in two steps: theoretical development and formative evaluation. The case study targets the development of C2 concepts for future military operations of the Swedish Armed Forces. The framework includes terminology models, a development process, and system representations. The case study shows that in diverse teams, it is essential to agree upon terminology, development process, and systems representations used for the development to avoid misunderstandings and unnecessary rework. The framework explored in this paper is only in its first version. However, the development and the application of the framework was found to facilitate and focus the work of the multi-disciplinary team.

  • 406.
    Hamberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    NBF- Förmågan att se på andra sidan kullen eller ”Kejsarens nya kläder"2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    So- called “Network Based Defense” (NBD) was introduced in Sweden in connection with the transformation of the Swedish Armed Forces in 1999. NBD is based on the U.S. variant Network Centric Warfare (NCW), which in turn is derived from research on the concept of Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA). In Sweden the concept was introduced and included not only the Armed Forces but was intended to also support the Swedish civilian agencies in order to create networks and hence share the available information and thus more effective crisis management and to provide more "bang for the buck." In developing the concept of NBD the Swedish Armed Forces used both economic and human resources, in the form of research, new technologies, new organization and new methods.

    Between year 2004 and 2006 the Armed Forces once again entered the process of reorganization. This time to “classic” military hierarchical organization and NBD as development engine disappeared due to economic cutbacks, together with the decision to participate in the European Union (EU) rapid reaction force. The purpose of this essay is to study the theories and ideas behind the concept and why the concept "disappeared" a few years later. The result of the work suggests that the concept of NBD in its abstract form was too theoretical. The process of organization introduced by HKV -04 is the clearest example of this abstract ambiguity concerning command and responsibility. Research suggests that responsibility is the basis of military organization and operations. The results also shows that a number of experiences from the development of the NBD has been used in the more practically oriented transformation of the Armed Forces necessary by the commitments for the so- called Nordic Battle Group (NBG-08).

    The results have also shown correlation between NBD development and the increased Nordic cooperation in the form of sea and air surveillance and the well-developed body interaction within the framework of the national crisis management capacity in Sweden.

  • 407. Hammarstrom, M.
    et al.
    Heldt, Birger
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    The diffusion of military intervention: Testing a network position approach2002In: International Interactions, ISSN 0305-0629, E-ISSN 1547-7444, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 355-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assesses the fruitfulness of applying network analysis to diffusion of interstate military conflict. Specifically, the network position approach is applied in a statistical analysis, using a new global dataset of interstate military interventions in conflict systems, 1945-1991. We find that the network position approach is consistently supported, whereas competing or complementary approaches are less empirically successful. The findings reported in the present study can be utilized to refine the results of previous studies. While these show that interstate conflict diffusion tends to occur among contiguous states, the network position approach is able to identify which of the contiguous states are most likely to become targets of diffusion.

  • 408.
    Hanssen, Ulv
    et al.
    Japaninstitutet, Handelshögskolan, Stockholm, Sverige; FU Berlin.
    Hagström, Linus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Tøffere press og sanksjoner mot Nord-Korea er ineffektivt og kanskje også kontraproduktivt2017In: Verdens gang, ISSN 0806-0894, article id 9 oktoberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 409.
    Hedlund, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Josefsson, Anders
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Command and Control Section.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ledarskap och ledning i en förändrad organisatorisk kontext2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande bok har ambitionen att sätta samman tre års forskningsresultat (2016-2018) inom ramen för det av Försvarsmakten (FM) finansierade forskningsprojektet Ledarskap och ledning i en förändrad organisatorisk kontext och omsätta kunskaper till ett pedagogiskt och lättillgängligt material som kan användas i såväl Försvarshögskolans ordinarie kurs- och utbildningsprogram, som enskild läsning eller som utgångspunkt för gruppdiskussioner, seminarier och förberedelser inför något av de teman som tas upp i boken. Bokens innehåll speglar forskningsprojektets sammansättning som består av forskare från Ledarskapsavdelningen i Stockholm, Försvarshögskolans Ledarskapscentrum i Karlstad, och Ledningsvetenskap i Stockholm. Att bokens empiri kommer från militär kontext hindrar inte att bokens innehåll även kan vara av stort intresse för civila läsare, särskilt inom ramen för dem med intresse för civil-militär samverkan i såväl nationella som internationella insatser.

  • 410.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section. Swedish Defence University.
    AI, Autonomy and Airpower: the End of Pilots?2019In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 337-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military pilots have long been central to airpower projection in both combat and non-combat operations. While the historical and contemporary roles of military aviators have been examined extensively in previous scholarship, the present study distinguishes itself by evaluating the future prospects of military aviators. By so doing, it argues that technological advances in autonomy and artificial intelligence (AI) will most likely lead to the development of pilotless aerial vehicles (PAVs), if current technological and social trends persist. In this new order, the military pilot will become a thing of the past.

  • 411.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Air Power in Humanitarian Intervention: Kosovo and Libya in Comparative Perspective2018In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 39-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It would be hard to overstate the importance of air power in humanitarian intervention (HI) and the Responsibility to Protect (R2P). Yet, the role of air power in HI and R2P has been understudied. This article seeks to remedy the lack of systematic investigation. It does so by developing a framework for assessing the effectiveness of air power during military operations in HI and R2P and applies it to NATO’s air campaigns in Kosovo (Operation Allied Force) and Libya (Operation Unified Protector). Upon examination NATO is revealed to have fared better in Libya than Kosovo in positively accomplishing its stated humanitarian objectives, minimizing collateral damage and reducing the costs for the interveners, all of which are aspects considered by the model. The relative effectiveness of Operations Unified Protector is generally attributed to geography, diplomacy and technology. It is argued that better ground support, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and burden sharing are needed to enhance the utility of air power in HI and R2P even further.

  • 412.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Decapitation in Libya: Winning the Conflict and Losing the Peace2017In: The Washington quarterly, ISSN 0163-660X, E-ISSN 1530-9177, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 135-149Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 413.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Fully integrated content analysis in international relations2017In: International Relations, ISSN 0047-1178, E-ISSN 1741-2862, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 447-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Content analysis has once again come to the forefront of discussions regarding methods in International Relations (IR). The first wave of content analysis in IR lasted from the 1940s to the 1960s and was marked by a commitment to quantitative and manual analyses. The second wave of content analysis appeared around the third millennium and continues to pervade the discipline also proceeds in a predominantly quantitative manner but emphasizes computer-assisted analysis rather than manual analysis. Critics and advocates of the method alike have, highlighted numerous shortcomings with these approaches. In order to address these limitations, the present investigation argues for a fully integrated content analysis that has the potential to ameliorate the identified weaknesses that have hitherto plagued the method. It accomplishes this task by combining all facets of the method: quantitative, qualitative, manual, and computer-assisted content analyses within a single research project.

  • 414.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    Intelligence and Diplomacy in the Security Dilemma: Gauging Capabilities and Intentions2018In: International Politics, ISSN 1384-5748, E-ISSN 1740-3898, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 519-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determining whether the opposition is benign or malign is central to the security dilemma. In this context, states have to decide whether the military capabilities of others are for defensive or offensive purposes. Despite the importance of this issue, states’ use of intelligence and diplomacy to gauge others’ capabilities and intentions and its implications for exacerbating, ameliorating and escaping the security dilemma have hardly been addressed. The few who have engaged with the topic have only done so superficially. This article engages with the subject matter at length and argues that both intelligence and diplomacy are double-edged swords in the security dilemma. Intelligence is particularly useful in attaining information regarding the capabilities of others and diplomacy is of great value in acquiring information about their intentions. Yet, they are both prone to error. The best prospects of mitigating and escaping the security dilemma are therefore by utilizing intelligence to gauge others’ capabilities and diplomacy to decipher their intentions, even though these efforts may instead end up aggravating the security dilemma dynamics due to mistakes.

  • 415.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section. Swedish Defence University.
    Swedish Air Power History: A Holistic Overview2018In: Air Power History, ISSN 1044-016X, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 7-14-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 416.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    The ethics of Carr and Wendt: Fairness and peace2018In: Journal of International Political Theory, ISSN 1755-0882, E-ISSN 1755-1722, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 314-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The classical realist writings of E.H. Carr and constructivist publications of Alexander Wendt are extraordinarily influential. While they have provoked a great number of reactions within the discipline of International Relations, the ethical dimensions of their works have rarely been studied at length. This article seeks to remedy this lack of examination by engaging in an in-depth scrutiny of the moral concerns of these two mainstream International Relations scholars. On investigation, it is revealed that Carr demonstrates a strong commitment to the ethical principle of fairness and Wendt a moral concern for the prevention of the use of organized violence. These concerns are shared by Rawlsians and cosmopolitans in International Relations, and these findings may thereby encourage closer engagement between these diverse communities that rarely speak to one another and strengthen disciplinary research on morals.

  • 417.
    Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Air Operations Section.
    The Past, Present and Future of Realism2018In: Realism in Practice: An Appraisal / [ed] Davide Orsi, J. R. Avgustin & Max Nurnus, Bristol: E-International Relations Publishing , 2018, p. 29-42Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 418.
    Hickman, Karl
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Weissmann, MikaelSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.Nilsson, NiklasSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.Bachman, Sascha-DominikBournemouth University.Gunneriusson, HåkanSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.Thunholm, PerSwedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CATS (Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies).
    Hybrid Threats and Asymmetric Warfare: What to do?2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The international security environment has seemingly departed from a post-cold war period of everlasting peace and has instead evolved into a volatile and increasingly grey area of war and peace. Security challenges arising from both hybrid wars and hybrid threats are high on security agendas in Sweden and Europe as well as internationally. However, despite the attention there is a lack of research that addresses how such “new” wars and threats should be handled. While studies do exist on specific issues, a comprehensive approach to how hybrid wars and threats are to be handled is still lacking. This is particularly the case when it comes to the sharing of experiences between states. This workshop constituted a first step towards developing such a comprehensive approach.

    The workshop’s aim was to be a bridge across disciplinary boundaries as well as between researchers and practitioners within and outside Sweden; integrating each group’s extensive experiences and knowledge into a coherent whole. Besides producing and disseminating new knowledge, the intention of the workshop was to establish a foundation for long-term collaboration; the first step in the creation of a European Network on Hybrid Warfare Capabilities that can work across borders and link state of the art of research and practice.

    Although mainly a scientific workshop, a number of practitioners were invited, with a mix of presentations by academics and practitioners. This was intended to foster innovative and reflective discussions across the academic-practitioner divide. The workshop also aimed to develop new ideas associated with hybrid threats/warfare in order to facilitate future cooperation

    These proceedings include a summary of the key points made by the presenters, along with conclusions and policy recommendations derived from the ensuing discussions. Conference programme and a list of abstracts for the papers and presentations can be found in the appendix.

  • 419.
    Holmberg, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Hansén, Dan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Uhr, Christian
    Lunds universitet.
    Situational Awareness and its Impact on Crisis-Induced Action: the Norwegian 22/7 Case2015In: Armed Forces for 2020 and beyond: Roles | Tasks | Expectations / [ed] Walter Feichtinger, Benedikt Hensellek, Wien: Federal Ministry of Defence and Sports, Austria , 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 420.
    Holmberg, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Bynander, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    A multidisciplinary approach to studying a societal crisis2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 421.
    Holmberg, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Mattsson, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst).
    Rethinking the use of C2 methods for small states facing an adversary with superior resources2015In: International Society of Military Sciences 2015 (ISMS 2015), 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 422.
    Holmberg, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Svenson, Pontus
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Information Fusion for Collaborating Commanders at Different Levels2011In: 16th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, Quebec City, Canada, June 21-23, 2011., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a position paper discussing the authors’ views on the role of automated information fusion in the interaction between different command levels. The purpose of the paper is to initiate a discussion on the relationship between automated fusion and the flexibility in a mission. The sharing of data/information/knowledge between commanders at different levels is a difficult task in many respects. We focus on the role of automated information fusion techniques in this frame. The paper asks two major questions: (1) Does automated fusion generate the unwanted side-effect of less flexibility? (2) How should a situational picture be represented at different command levels to promote cooperation? We also discuss some disadvantages of using traditional information fusion methods developed to handle either high or low level information. The conclusion is that information fusion techniques have to be chosen with care when making information systems that should be jointly used by commanders at different levels.

  • 423.
    Holmberg, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Svenson, Pontus
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Lessons identified from the use of automated information fusion in collaborative environments2012In: 2012 IEEE International Multi-Disciplinary Conference on Cognitive Methods in Situation Awareness and Decision Support (CogSIMA): Conference Publications, 2012, p. 202-205Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present some lessons identified from FOI experiments on combining sensor data fusion and information fusion. Some ideas for future work are also presented.

  • 424.
    Holmberg, Toni
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Hur skall vi kunna förstå och hantera operationskonst?2008In: Krigsvetenskaplig årsbok 2007 / [ed] Dan Öberg, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2008, p. 207-214Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 425.
    Holmberg, Toni
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Operativa förutsättningar2009In: Tankar om fälttåg / [ed] Peter Ahlström & Ulf Högström, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2009, p. 117-123Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 426.
    Hugemark, Bo
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Den stora armén2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 427.
    Hugemark, Bo
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Military History Section.
    Den stora armén under kalla kriget2015Book (Other academic)
  • 428.
    Hugemark, Bo
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Military History Section.
    Möta, hejda, slå- så skulle Sverige försvaras2019Book (Other academic)
  • 429.
    Hugemark Malmström, Louise
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Military History Section.
    Garderad neutralitet: förberedelser för svesnktg västsamarbete i krig2014Book (Other academic)
  • 430.
    Hugemark-Malmström, Louise
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Garderad neutralitet:förberedelser för svenskt västsamarbete i krig: En kommenterad forskningsöversikt2014Book (Other academic)
  • 431.
    Huldt, Bo
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Militärhistorisk Tidskrift 19941994Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]
    • Bjørn Westerbeek Dahl, Carl heinrich von der Osten og Pufendorfværkets plancher af Slaget ved Nyborg 1659, Erik Dahlberg, Karl X Gustav, Bavnegård, Theatrum Europaæum, Gorries von Gorgas
    • Gunnar Artéus, Clausewitz och forskningen om Karl XII:s fälttåg, Föredrag på Militärhögskolan den 8 november 1991, Fälttågsplan, Lewenhaupt, Poltava, Som fältherre
    • Gunnar Åselius, Clausewitzreceptionen i Sverige intill första världskriget, Föredrag på Militärhögskolan den 8 november 1991, Genomslag i Sverige, Politikens betydelse, Moltkes åsikt, Johan Peter Lefrén, Carl Otto Nordensvan
    • Ali Pylkkänen, Petsamo- den finska ”koloniseringsgarnisonen”, Organisationen av gränsbevakningen, Bevakningen, Statsförvaltningen i Petsamo
    • Erik Falkehed, The U.S. Military Attaché´s reporting from the Baltic States 1939-40, The military attaché system, Historical background, Major Huthsteiner, The treaties of “Mutual Assistance”, Reports up to January 1940, Closing Riga station in August 1940
    • Knut-Olav Drivenes, Den norska truppförbandsutbildningen I Sverige 1943-1945, ”Helseplanen”, Rikspoliti og Reservpoliti, Utrustning, Mål/oppgaver
    • Henrik Nerpin, Militärteknologiskt samarbete och köp från utlandet, Importerade och gemensamma projekt, Studium av vissa projekt, Aspekter på samarbete med utlandet
  • 432.
    Huldt, Bo
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University. Militärhistoriska avdelningen (MHA) Försvarsmakten.
    Böhme, Klaus-RSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Militärhistorisk Tidskrift 19981998Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]
    • Magnus Julihn, Svenska frivilliga till det vita Finlands hjälp, Stabsofficerare och Svenska brigaden, Finland före inbördeskriget, Efter kriget, I Sverige vid krigsutbrottet, Ålandsexpeditionen, Föreningen Finlands vänner, Svenska stabsofficerare på den vita sidan, Svenska brigaden
    • Cay Holmberg, Ubåtsteknik från Tyskland, Teknikutveckling, Skrov, Snorkel/periskop, Maskineri, Radar, Vapen
    • Gabriella Theiler, ”Snygg gosse”, En ÖB:s syn på en försvarsminister, Helge Jung, Allan Vougt, Carl August Ehrensvärd, Nils Swedlund, Jungs kritik av Vougt, Jungs egen politik
    • Henrik Sjövall, Atomvapnet och lantkrigsföringen i Sverige 1945-1949, Svensk kunskap, Samtida debatt, Studier och överväganden

     

     

  • 433.
    Huldt, Bo
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University. Militärhistoriska avdelningen (MHA) Försvarsmakten.
    Böhme, Klaus-RSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Militärhistorisk tidskrift 19991999Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]
    • Jan Nordin, Den svensk-danska alliansfrågan 1863, Svensk säkerhetspolitik i samband med den dansk-tyska krisen, Det strategiska läget, Storpolitiken, Utrikespolitiken, Skandinavismen, Inrikespolitiken, Ekonomiska och militära faktorer
    • Rune Svensson, Sveriges hemliga vapen?, C-byråns verksamhet under andra världskriget, En analys av mål medel organisation och verksamhet i stort, Kan man vara rättvis, Före 1939, Gränssektionen, Från en man till tusen, Kapten Ternberg,  Underrättelseverksamhetens former och innehåll, Hemligheter
    • Jan Wangenfors, Wennerströmaffären, Uppväxt och karriär, Moskva 1949-1952, Washington 1952-1957, Stockholm 1957-1963, Sammanvägning av hela perioden
    • Lars Ericson, Solidaritet eller Försvar?, Den svenska militären och de fredsbevarande operationerna 1956-1996, Mellersta östern 1956, Kongo 1960, Cypern 1964, Mellersta östern 1973, Det f d Jugoslavien 1993
  • 434.
    Huldt, Bo
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University. Militärhistoriska avdelningen (MHA) Försvarsmakten.
    Böhme, Klaus-RSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Militärhistorisk Tidskrift 20002000Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]
    • Jan-Olof Olofsson, Utskrivningar och andra pålagor, En studie i stormaktstidens bördor, Utskrivningar, Ständernas särart och roll, Riksdagarna 1627-1641, Förmyndarregeringen, Riksdagarna 1642-1653 och 1654-1679
    • Sam Nilsson, Gärna förvarning men först en rejäl brunnskur…, Från Sarajevo till krigsutbrott, En studie i förvarning 1914, Rapportörerna, Sverige 1914, Från mord till ultimatum, Mot stormaktskrig
    • Christer Erixon, Flygvapnets doktrin och krigsplanläggning 1945-1960, Andra världskrigets slut, Hotbilden, Försvarsbeslut 1948 och 1958, Flygstridskrafternas utveckling, Försvaret av Göteborg, Invasionsförsvaret, Krigsplanläggning
    • Claes Henrikson, The only war they had, Defining leadership, The country and the people, The war/unit/enemy, Strategy and tactics, Lanning´s tour in Vietnam
  • 435.
    Hult, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    A small-state perspective on technology and warfare2015In: Military thinking in the 21st century / [ed] Gudrun Persson, Carolina Vendil Pallin, Tommy Jeppsson, Stockholm: Krigsvetenskapsakademien , 2015, 1, p. 247-261Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 436.
    Hult, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Arms acquisition: Why is it so difficult?2010In: Militærteknikk, ISSN 0806-6159, no 2-3, p. 32-35Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 437.
    Hult, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Arms Acquisition: Why is it So Difficult?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several examples of failed arms acquisition programs, where costs have been underestimated, and unproven technology misunderstood.

    Arms acquisition programs seem to suffer from particular difficulties, judging from the results obtained. This is not only a U.S., and to some extent U.K., phenomenon, although the debate is by far most active in those two nations. The problems express themselves as cost overruns, delayed deliveries, and fundamental, sometimes insoluble, technical challenges. The term “acquisition” is here used for the complete life cycle process of a system, covering concept generation, design phase, prototypes, volume production, operational use, various upgrades, and disposal. The problems are typically, but not always, encountered in the design phase.

    Is military acquisition inherently more difficult than similar programs in non-military business areas? The fact that these programs are usually paid for by public money, that large sums of money are involved, and that programs often are not competed, all contribute to making these programs much more prone to extensive media coverage, in particular concerning any failures, compared to similar big-money, high-tech programs in the private sector.

    In this paper we will examine the technologies involved and their sometimes extraordinary pace of development, some inherent difficulties with big military programs, the fundamental difficulties with cross-border collaboration and the funding challenges in times of austerity, and we will propose some remedies.2We believe that the conclusions of this paper are relevant e.g. for the ongoing negotiations for Sweden-Brazil military cooperation and arms acquisition.

  • 438.
    Hult, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Innovative Thinking in Arms Acquisition2010Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Key note speech at the EuSec 2010 - Systems Engineering and Innovation Conference, May 23-26 2010, Stockholm, Sweden.

  • 439.
    Hult, Gunnar
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Vad får försvarets samarbeten kosta?2012In: Ny Teknik, ISSN 0550-8754, Vol. 14 augustiArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 440.
    Hult, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Claesson, Vilgot
    Sweden - Aeronautics RTD Programme and Research Agenda2012In: Proceedings of the Sixth European Aeronautics Days: Innovation for Sustainable Aviation in a Global Environment / [ed] Dietrich Knörzer, Joachim Szodruch, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2012, p. 432-436Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Aeronautics RTD programme in Sweden was in the past dominated by the needs for the development of military aircraft and this programme is still continued to support the Gripen but with a lower level of effort. The national Aeronautical Programme (NFFP) started in 1994 and is now in its fifth phase (2009-2012). Its objectives are to: (i) strengthen Swedish competitiveness; (ii) strengthen the capability to participate in international research cooperation; (iii) support Swedish Armed Forces.

  • 441.
    Hult, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Jonsson, Björn
    GARTEUR: Long-Term R&T Collaboration in Europe2012In: Proceedings of the Sixth European Aeronautics Days: Innovation for Sustainable Aviation in a Global Environment / [ed] Dietrich Knörzer, Joachim Szodruch, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2012, p. 447-450Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GARTEUR (Group of Aeronautical Research and Technology in EU-Rope) is a multinational organisation that performs high quality, collaborative, pre-competitive aeronautical research. It is based on a government-to-government agreement (MoU) between seven European nations with major research and test capabilities in aeronautics. GARTEUR was formed in 1973 by the governments of France, Germany and the United Kingdom in the wake of the formation of Airbus. The Netherlands joined the group in 1977. Sweden joined GARTEUR in 1991, followed by Spain in 1996 and Italy in the year 2000. The GARTEUR focus is on research topics aimed at long term R&T because this is considered essential to assure sustained competitiveness of the European aerospace industries. A key asset of GARTEUR is its unique mechanism for cooperation, which has been used successfully for numerous collaboration projects over the past decades. It is the only framework in Europe for both civil and military aeronautics R&T.

  • 442.
    Hulterström, Patrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Widen, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Strid: en teoretisk analys2013In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 4, p. 50-73Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 443.
    Hulterström, Patrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Widén, Jerker
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Tre perspektiv på strid2019In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 3, p. 7-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to introduce three different approaches to combat, and to analyze and compare six different theories of combat with the help of these perspectives. This includes theories of, for example, Clausewitz, Boyd, Van Creveld and Lanchester. By categorizing and analyzing such theories, the knowledge of how combat can be understood and investigated increases. The three different perspectives are called human-centered, social and physical perspective. The perspectives are in turn structured around four concept-pairs (dimensions) that are used to analyze and interpret the theories. The dimensions are termed existential-instrumental, mental-physical, descriptive-prescriptive and qualitative-quantitative. Among other things the results show that all six theories, regardless of perspective, are needed to better explain how the phenomenon of combat can be understood. Some conflicts between these theories are apparent and often based on misconceptions, conceptual disorder or on selective analyses. We also show both the pros and cons of the perspectives and analytical tools presented, and how the framework could be used in further research on combat, not just theoretical but also empirical.

  • 444.
    Huskaj, Gazmend
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section. School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    The Current State of Research in Offensive Cyberspace Operations2019In: Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security, Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2019, p. 660-667Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-attacks have increased since the 1988-Morris worm and can target any connected device from any place in the world. In 2010, Stuxnet received a lot of attention as the first cyber-weapon. Its targets were the Iranian nuclear enrichment centrifuges. Nation states are developing cyberspace capabilities to conduct offensive cyberspace operations. Academic researchers have been calling for a more transparent discussion on offensive capabilities and have pointed out the positive impact researchers had during the development of nuclear capabilities. Shrouded in secrecy, the development of offensive capabilities used for operations makes it difficult to conduct research. Therefore, one way to mitigate this is to conduct a systematic review of the current state of research in offensive cyberspace operations. The systematic review method makes it possible to establish certain inclusion and exclusion criteria and systematically go through academic articles to identify the contents, thoughts and research focus of academic researchers. Six scientific databases were queried and 87 articles were read and clustered. The first insight is that, based on the results of the queried databases, research about offensive cyberspace operations is limited. The resulting clusters are a general cluster about cyberspace operations, followed by research in policy, decision-making, governance, capabilities, levels, models, training, deterrence and international affairs. These are then further grouped into: a) general cyberspace operations; b) deterrence; c) international affairs; d) modelling, simulation and training. The article concludes that research into offensive cyberspace operations is maturing as more information is becoming public. Secondly, current research lists some good basic ideas regarding effects which can be achieved through offensive cyberspace operations, how they should be conducted, and related tools, techniques and procedures. However, discrepancies in research efforts exist, with the majority of research coming primarily from the western world. In addition, secrecy and the resulting limited access to information, coupled with research being either too technically focused or too qualitatively focused, show that there still remains room for research in this field. Finally, some directions for future research are examined.

  • 445.
    Huskaj, Gazmend
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section. School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Moradian, Esmiralda
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Cyber Deterrence: An Illustration of Implementation2018In: 13th International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security (ICCWS 2018) / [ed] John S. Hurley & Jim Q. Chen, Sonning: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2018, p. 304-311Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber deterrence is a strategy to deter attackers from conducting cyber-attacks in the first place. However, several issues exist when implementing cyber deterrence, which are identified in this paper. The findings show (1) non-existence of the deterrence strategy  (2) no doctrine or decision competence to retaliate to an adversary, (3) the armed forces have no authority to retaliate when Swedish sovereignty in Cyberspace is threatened, (4) no norms or regulations exist concerning retaliation, (5) no clear governance on using offensive cyber capabilities, and finally, (6) no credibility in its cyber deterrence posture regarding how much Sweden is willing to sacrifice to protect its electoral system, which is a Swedish national interest. Therefore, this research investigates how cyber deterrence can practically be implemented in Swedish cyber security policy. So far, researchers generally focused on the human aspect of cyber deterrence. By using the case study research strategy and utilizing the Swedish electoral system as a case, this paper examines possibilities to merge the human dimensions of cyber security with the technological dimensions. Data collection is performed through documents studies and semi-structured interviews with experts in the area to identify cyber deterrence components. Further, a mathematical approach is discussed in the paper to express the relationship between an adversary and a deterrent depicting each of the actor’s risk calculus. A result of the research work performed in this paper, the deterrence components for Swedish cyber deterrence are proposed and risk calculus is performed. Moreover, measures to increase Swedish cyber deterrence posture are proposed the practical implementation of cyber deterrence in Swedish cyber security policy in order to deter attacks on the Swedish electoral system is demonstrated.

  • 446.
    Högström, Ulf
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Behov och förmågor för fredsframtvingande insatsstyrkor i lågintensiva konflikter: Lärdomar från Somalia2005In: Reviderade texter i krigsvetenskap från 2000-2002: Krigsvetenskapliga institutionen, Försvarshögskolan / [ed] Anders Cedergren, Vällingby: Elanders Gotab AB , 2005, p. 519-531Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 447.
    Högström, Ulf
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Fältövningsmetodik2009In: Tankar om fälttåg / [ed] Peter Ahlström & Ulf Högström, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 448.
    Högström, Ulf
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Lära om taktik: Några tankar om utbildning och undervisning i taktik2011In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, ISSN 0023-5369, no 1, p. 116-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Taktik är en central del både för arméns förmåga och utveckling samt i de kurser i krigsvetenskap som genomförs på FHS. Området taktik är omfattande och denna text förklarar inte vad taktik är utan försöker endast öka förståelsen för lärandet om taktik. Vad innebär det att lära om taktik, finns det särskilda pedagogiska utmaningar att förhålla sig till? Taktik är inte bara praktik det finns även en utvecklad militärteori som kan användas som stöd i utbildningen. Lärarrollen i taktik innebär att officeren förutom att vara en god officer och föregångsman även behöver ha en god pedagogisk förmåga. Handledarrollen är central och kräver både omdöme och ödmjukhet. De militära utbildningsmetoderna behöver dels dokumenteras samt fortsatt utvecklas. Lärare i taktik behöver kontinuerligt tränas och kompetensutvecklas i både militära som civila pedagogiska metoder. Att lära om taktik är att träna en kollega i att tänka och välja för att lösa en komplex militär uppgift. Detta innebär att även taktikläraren måste tänka och välja de medel och metoder som bäst gynnar denna process med lärandet i fokus.

  • 449.
    Högström, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Baudin, Arne
    Pensionerad från Försvarsmakten, Sverige..
    Fältövning: steget mellan tanke handling2018In: Militära Arbetsmetoder: Lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm; Jerker Widén; Niklas Wikström, Malmö: Universus Academic press , 2018, p. 295-309Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns ett antal pedagogiska koncept inom den militära professionen[1], vilka använts under lång tid (ca 200 år). Dessa baseras på beprövad erfarenhet[2]  där all slags erfarenheter tagits tillvara, inklusive vetenskap, tester och försök. Professionen har funnit dessa vara effektiva, vilket innebär att de är under ständigt användande och ständig utveckling. Framträdande koncept är applikatoriska exempel (applex), krigsspel, fältövningar och stabstjänstövningar vilka även kan kombineras med varandra och användas på ett flexibelt sätt utifrån syftet och målsättningen med verksamheten. Alla dessa koncept genomförs på olika sätt. De har utvecklats och gått i arv inom institutionerna i den militära professionen. Självklart används även andra koncept inom den militära utbildningen såsom lektioner, föreläsningar och litteraturstudier av militärhistoria, teknik, militärteori och inte minst ledarskap. Det militära yrket kan av lättförklarliga skäl sällan utövas i sitt mest extrema sammanhang. Den enskilde militären utövar sällan eller aldrig sitt yrkes våldsinslag i full skala. Således krävs det metoder för att kunna uppleva verklighetens vingslag i olika miljöer och sammanhang så nära som möjligt. Fältövning är en av dessa som syftar till att åstadkomma detta och denna militära metod har använts sedan tidigt 1800-tal.[3]

    Fältövning, krigsspel och applikatoriska exempel är alla koncept att simulera, förbereda och träna militär personal utan onödig blodspillan och skador. Fältövningar syftar till att krigsplanlägga, testa planer, utveckla taktik och stridsteknik och till att utbilda inom taktik och operationskonst.  Fältövning och krigsspel baseras på någon form av scenario (fiktivt eller verkligt) och är nära besläktade med varandra eftersom fältövning kan genomföras som ett krigsspel i terrängen. Att kunna skapa, planera och leda genomförandet av fältövningar är en viktig del av den militära professionen.

    [1] Brehmer Bernt, Från Yrke till profession, Försvarshögskolan 2011, sid 19. Bremer påpekar bl. a ”officersprofessionen har en kärna som gör den unik, nämligen att på legala grunder utöva våld till landets försvar grundat på förmågan att leda väpnad strid”.

    [2] Brehmer Bernt, Från Yrke till profession, Försvarshögskolan 2011, sid 23-32, angående beprövad erfarenhet i en profession av karaktär officersyrket; bl.a. att det i beprövad erfarenhet ingår all slags erfarenhet, relevant vetenskap, tester och försök. Vidare att den är formulerad och värderad, är under ständig prövning och har legal status bl.a. genom gällande reglementen och doktriner.

    [3]  I Allgeheime Kriegsschule i Berlin gjorde sig slagfältsexkursioner (i dag fältövningar) mer och mer gällande, från 1827/1828. Denna preussiska pedagogik kopierades i andra länder och blev en viktig del av den klassiska militära skoltraditionen. Hämtat från internt pm vid FHS 2006-05-16, av professor Kent Zetterberg och Gunnar Åselius. Framgår även i Artikel, The modern model of the battlefield tour and staff ride, Defence Studies ,Vol. 5, No 1, David Ian Hall,  King`s College, 2005.

  • 450.
    Högström, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Wistedt, Erik
    Försvarets Materielverk (FMV), Sverige.
    Progression vid utbildning i markoperationer och taktik2018In: Tankar om Defensiven / [ed] Tommy Jeppsson, Stockholm: Kungl. Krigsvetenskapsakademien och Försvarshögskolan , 2018Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to discuss the education and training of army officer’s cadets at the Swedish Defense University. During the resent year, the training program has gone through a larger development. Education in tactics and war science has changed. The discussion focuses on requirements concerning tactical objectives, tactical knowledge, tactical methods, military capability and ability to evaluate land operations. We also present our opinion on the army cadet’s tactical progression.

     

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