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  • 401.
    Birgersson, Andreas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hur påverkade kärnkraftsolyckan i Japan den svenska kärnkraftspolitiska debatten?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 402.
    Birkeland, Jacob
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Bemästra, bistå eller både och?: En kritisk studie av Provincial Reconstruction Teams roll och agerande i Afghanistan2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The specific task of this thesis is to illustrate the complexity of a cooperation between civilian and military entities by examining Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs) and their role as an actor among others in the field in a war-torn Afghanistan.

    By using counterinsurgency strategy as an analytical framework it has been possible to examine the civilian and military contexts closer. Underlying structures concerning the norms and interpretation of reality of the PRTs has been partly revealed. Studies of the PRTs as one significant bearers of "the comprehensive approach", which includes a holistic approach regarding the use of civilian and military capabilities, new conclusions can be drawn on whether a general civil-military approach can be a part of the solution for current and future conflicts. Based on the counterinsurgency strategy, the author has identified three themes as bearing and thus appears through the thesis as a foundation. These are Coordination, Development and Security. The empirical material is filtered through these themes as they are central to counterinsurgency and there by affect the PRT-concept.

    This study leads to five conclusions regarding the integration of the civilian and military contexts. In summary the conclusions states that it seems to be no starting points for creating a robust culture for cooperation. The absence of common objectives regarding operation, competition between different narratives as well as parallel processes of development and security risks causing a counterproductive outcome. A single resonance must be allowed to emerge from a convergence of civil and military powers as to what should be the civilmilitary mission. With mutual trust and dialogue improved conditions can be shaped to build common ground and goals for what needs to be done in countries with similar problems like Afghanistan.

  • 403. Birkeland Nielsen, M.
    et al.
    Eid, J.
    Mearns, K.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Authentic leadership and its relationship with risk perception and safety climate2013In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 34, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to examine how authentic leadership relates to risk perception in safety critical organizations (SCOs). It is hypothesized that authentic leaders influence risk perception through the mediating effect of safety climate.

    Design/methodology/approach – Using a survey design, the variables were assessed in a cross-sectional sample of 293 offshore oil installation workers from a single company.

    Findings – The authors’ findings show that follower ratings of authentic leadership are negatively related to risk perception and positively associated with ratings of safety climate. Controlling for personality characteristics and leadership responsibility among respondents, the results confirm the hypothesis in that safety climate mediates the relationship between authentic leadership and risk perception. Safety climate had the strongest relationship with risk perception when assessed as a higher order construct.

    Originality/value – This study is one of the first to investigate the relationship between authentic leadership and safety. The results indicate that authentic leadership and safety climate are important factors that relate to risk perception in SCOs. The authors’ findings suggest that SCOs should consider recruiting and developing authentic leaders to foster positive safety climates and risk management.

  • 404. Birkheim, K.
    et al.
    Eid, J.
    William Hystad, S.
    Birkeland Nielsen, M.
    Mearns, C.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Luthans, B.
    The Role of Psychological Capital in Perception of Safety Climate Among Air Traffic Controllers2013In: Journal of leadership & organizational studies, ISSN 1548-0518, E-ISSN 1939-7089, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 232-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that psychological capital (PsyCap) is associated with desired employee behavioral and performance outcomes. Extending previous research, we examine, in two studies, if the PsyCap of Norwegian air traffic controllers is related to their perceptions of safety climate. Based on bootstrapping procedures, results from Study 1 (N = 77) and Study 2 (N = 38) revealed that PsyCap was positively correlated with safety climate. In Study 1, PsyCap explained 31% of the variance in safety climate. Controlling for mediating effects of positive and negative emotions in Study 2, PsyCap explained 15.5% of the variance. These results provide first-time empirical evidence linking PsyCap to safety climate in safety critical organizations.

  • 405.
    Biverot, Erik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Telekrigsförmåga i Nordic Battlegroup2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 406.
    Bjarnesen, Mariam
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    From Perpetrator to Protector?: Post-War Rebel Networks as Informal Security Providers in Liberia2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dismantling of rebel structures at the end of civil war is often considered to be one of the most important aspects of a successful transition to peace. Combatants are expected to lay down their weapons, but also to abandon their wartime networks. Yet, peace agreements and subsequent Disarmament Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) processes do not automatically, or necessarily, destroy rebel networks. In Liberia such structures have lingered since the war came to an end in 2003 and networks of ex-combatants are still active, though maintained and mobilised for new purposes.

    The security political situation in Liberia, with weak formal security institutions and a history of predatory behaviour, has created an environment where informal initiatives for security and protection are called upon. In such an environment informal security groups have a natural platform. Based on original interview material and findings from fieldwork this thesis examines how post-war rebel networks are organised and operate in the informal security arena, while describing the rationale behind these lingering features of war. By doing so this thesis sheds light on how the adaptive capacity of former rebel soldiers is utilised by various Liberian actors, and the risks, but also possible positive outcomes, of such a development.

    This dissertation follows individuals, former rebel commanders in particular, in post-war rebel networks from the time of war to 2013. We will see them, and ex-combatants around them, mobilised as ‘recycled’ warriors in times of regional wars and crisis, as vigilantes and informal security providers for economic and political purposes. Yet, we will also meet them when there are no specific event ex-combatants could be mobilised to fully examine the relevance of post-war rebel networks and ex-combatant identity in contemporary Liberia. In the conclusions basic underlying aims and purposes with the processes of demobilisation and reintegration are challenged. And as this thesis finds, one might even argue that these ex-combatants have succeeded in reintegrating themselves due to, not despite, the fact that they have not been demobilised.

  • 407.
    Bjarnesen, Mariam
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    The Winner Takes it All: Post-War Rebel Networks, Big Man Politics and the Threat of Violence in the 2011 Liberian Elections2018In: Violence in African Elections: between Democracy and Big Man Politics / [ed] Mimmi Söderberg Kovacs;Jesper Bjarnesen, Zed Books, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The holding of multiparty elections has become the bellwether by which all democracies are judged, and the spread of such systems across Africa has been widely hailed as a sign of the continent’s progress towards stability and prosperity. But such elections bring their own challenges, particularly the often intense internecine violence that can follow disputed results. While the consequences of such violence can be profound, undermining the legitimacy of the democratic process and in some cases plunging countries into civil war or renewed dictatorship, little is known about the causes of this violence. By mapping, analyzing, and comparing instances of election violence in different localities across Africa, this collection of detailed case studies sheds light on the underlying dynamics and sub-national causes behind electoral conflicts. It reveals them to be the result of a complex interplay between democratization and the older, patronage-based system of “Big Man” politics and offers practical suggestions for preventing such violence through improved electoral monitoring, voter education, and international assistance.Appealing to policy makers and scholars across the social sciences and humanities interested in democratization, peace-keeping, and peace studies, Violence in African Elections provides important insights into why some communities prove more prone to electoral violence than others, and what can be done to help more democracies succeed.

  • 408.
    Bjerregaard, Thomas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Fjärde generationens krigföring: vetenskapen och propagandan2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is that by highlighting the theory of "Fourth Generation Warfare" (4GW) from two perspectives, science and propaganda, clarify the extent to which 4GW can be understood as a work based on science or a work that uses propaganda techniques to further its message.

    The essay is designed as a qualitative analysis, by applying the definitions of science and propaganda on three papers written by William S. Lind on 4GW.

    The purpose of the paper is not to prove that the concept of 4GW is propaganda in its true sense, but only to show that the techniques and arguments used by Lind is unscientific and has more in common with techniques used in propaganda than with what could be called scientific.

  • 409.
    Bjurholm, Nina
    Swedish Defence University.
    Rekrytering till Försvarsmakten genom Sjövärnskåren: En negligerad rekryteringsbas?2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2010, the political decision was implemented to abolish conscription and build the Swedish Armed Forces on employed soldiers and sailors. Instead of conscription, voluntary military training was introduced in the way of basic military training. The government believes that youth activities, conducted by NGOs such as the Swedish Sea Cadet Corps, are a vital part of recruitment to the Swedish Armed Forces.

    The purpose of this paper is to find out if the Swedish Sea Cadet Corps can make the Swedish Armed Forces attractive and to what extent it motivates young people to apply for basic military training and the now resting conscription.

    This paper is founded on a quantitative method in the form of a questionnaire, based on Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene theory and Hackman and Oldham’s model. The survey was sent to 47 people with a background in the Swedish Sea Cadet Corps and who began the basic military training, NCO training or Officer training, between 2010 and 2013.

    According to this survey, the Swedish Sea Cadet Corps made the Swedish ​​Armed Forces attractive to young people who attended the Swedish Sea Cadet Corps’ summer camps. This was, in particular, thanks to the officers at the summer camps, who acted by being good examples of leaders and representatives of the Swedish Armed Forces.

    One conclusion made is that the Swedish Sea Cadet Corps could be considered as a good recruitment base, where youngsters can try and evaluate military life, which thereafter can lead to motivated and committed recruits.

  • 410.
    Bjursten, Fanny
    Swedish Defence University.
    Fungerande multinationell försvarslogistik - verklighet eller vision?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research paper is to investigate and assess the interoperability of the Swedish Armed Forces Logistics organizations with Nato. The paper also seeks to identify differences in interoperability within the dimensions of organization, behaviour and logistics, and evaluate the possibilities of streamlining cooperation.

    The study is based on Michael Codners theory Dimensions of Multinational Interoperability. The analytical tool that is used in the research paper is based on the OIM model, which was developed to measure organizational interoperability in a military context. The study´s findings indicate significant differences of interoperability in the three dimensions of organization, behavioural and logistics. In addition, the study shows that the Swedish Armed Forces Logistics organization is more interoperable in the dimensions of organization and logistics and less so with regard to behaviour. To attain a higher level of interoperability the two organizations must have a more unified aim regarding the logistics organizations. 

    The study recommends an analysis of the technical dimension of interoperability, which was not analysed in this study, in order to gain a greater overall picture of the Swedish Armed Forces interoperability with Nato regarding logistics. Furthermore the study recommends conducting a more detailed analysis of each of the dimensions in order to achieve greater understanding of each one.

  • 411.
    Björeman, Carl
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Military History Section.
    Försvarets förfall2011Book (Other academic)
  • 412. Björeman, Carl
    Försvarets förfall: Konsten att lägga ned försvaret utan att någon bryr sig2011Book (Other academic)
  • 413.
    Björeman, Carl
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Military History Section.
    Sex överbefälhavare söker en roll2017Book (Other academic)
  • 414.
    Björeman, Carl
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Var vi redo ?: Svenska armén under kalla kriget2013Book (Other academic)
  • 415.
    Björeman, Carl
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Military History Section.
    Var vi redo ? Svenska armén under kalla kriget2013Book (Other academic)
  • 416. Björeman, Carl
    Var vi redo?: svenska armén under kalla kriget2013Book (Other academic)
  • 417. Björeman, Carl
    År av uppgång, år av nedgång: Försvarets ödesväg under beredskapsåren och det kalla kriget2009Book (Other academic)
  • 418.
    Björk, Jesper
    Swedish Defence University.
    Drönarens etiska debatt: en analys av nyhetsartiklar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the past 20 years use of unmanned aerial vehicles, or drones, have increased immensely. The US has since the beginning of the 21st century employed armed drones as their weapon of choice in the war on terror. As a result, a lot of questions concerning the ethical aspects of the drone has been raised. This thesis aims to clarify whether these aspects can be linked to the drone’s characteristics as unmanned, or if they’re rather connected to the tactics utilised by the Americans. Furthermore, the conclusions drawn from this can help countries like Sweden, understand if the use of armed drones would result in the same split in public opinion as in the US. The analysis shows, through a survey of US media, that the ethical debate mainly focuses on aspects linked to how drones are used by the US. Consequently, it seems plausible that the mere acquisition of armed drones by Sweden is not enough to launch a major debate about the ethics of unmanned aircraft.

  • 419. Björk, M.
    et al.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Skottdramat i Falun: Psykologiska konsekvenser för militär och civil personal, värnpliktiga och frivilligkursdeltagare1997Report (Other academic)
  • 420.
    Björk, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Logistikteori för Specialförband vid genomförande av specialoperationer2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Specialförband och specialoperationer beskrivs ofta i förhållande till reguljära enheter och konventionella operationer. De beskrivs som något som ligger utanför reguljära förbands förmågor. Detta kan i sin tur ställa andra krav på specialförbandslogistiken än på logistiken för reguljära förband.

     

    Den logistikteori som finns idag är i huvudsak baserad på fallstudier av konventionell krigföring. Det saknas alltså ett teoretiskt ramverk för specialförbandslogistik och idag baseras det på doktriner och handböcker som bygger på praktiskt vunna erfarenheter. Syftet med denna uppsats är att analysera fram viktiga principer för specialförbandslogistik och i och med det ge ett bidrag för att öka förståelsen för just fenomenet specialförbandslogistik vid genomförande av specialoperationer.

     

    Genom att analysera specialförbands och specialoperationsempirin, både deduktivt med hjälp av befintlig logistikteori och induktivt genom extensiv läsning, har logistikteorin utvecklats. Några principer från logistikteorin har nyanserats och omarbetats, någon har strukits och några tillkommit. Principerna för specialförbandslogistik vid genomförande av specialoperationer är integrering, framsynthet, improvisation, flexibilitet, tillgänglighet, tempo, enkelhet, överlevnad, effektivitet, kreativitet, operationssäkerhet och interoperabilitet.

  • 421.
    Björk, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Materielförsörjning av specialförband2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Specialförband ska tillföra handlingsalternativ som ligger utanför reguljära förbands förmågor. Specialförband ska genomföra specialoperationer i hela kontinuumet mellan fred och krig med bred palett av förmågor. Detta ställer höga krav på en adekvat materielförsörjning som svarar mot de krav som ställs på specialförbanden. Trots detta är det lite forskat inom detta område.

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att med utgångspunkt i McRavens specialförbandsteori och med stöd av strategiskt vald empiri inom materielförsörjning identifiera kriterier som bör beaktas vid materielförsörjning av specialförband. Resultatet är femton kriterier som är av vikt för en materielförsörjningsorganisation. Kriterierna klustrades i fyra grupper: personliga egenskaper, organisatoriska egenskaper, metodologiska egenskaper och materiella egenskaper. Det uppsatsen visar på som är mycket viktigt är de personliga egenskaperna, utan dessa kommer det vara svårt att uppnå de övriga kriterierna som identifierades.

  • 422.
    Björk, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS).
    Geopolitisk dynamik: Ett teoriutvecklande anspråk2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the social sciences, geopolitical theory is used in order to analyze states actions and commitments when it comes to foreign policy. This thesis develops a new understanding of geopolitical theory. Firstly, the development and application of geopolitical theory, from its foundations in the early twentieth century to contemporary geopolitical studies is discussed. Secondly a revised understanding of the variables integrated in the concept and how it can be operationalized as an analytical tool is presented and tested empirically.The critical assessment of the research field of geopolitical theory tells us that six different geopolitical perspectives have been considered the most influential (room, strategy, power projection, identity, affiliation and governance) when it comes to analyzing state action. This model is applied as an analytical tool and thus tested on a single case. The case study is an analysis of foreign policy discussions at the state level in Sweden. This has determined how the geopolitical perspectives function in relation to each other as well as presenting the need of new geopolitical perspectives, in order to understand a state’s foreign policies actions and commitments.The case study clearly shows the merits in using geopolitical perspectives and letting them interplay. The most important result, however, is that future studies needs to consider the connections between the six perspectives. The study has confirmed the need of an additional geopolitical perspective (ideology). Ideology as a seventh perspective addresses the issue of political intentions among a state’s representatives, and in that way helps to explain the dynamic connections between the other six geopolitical perspectives that influence states actions and commitments when it comes to foreign policy.

  • 423.
    Björk, Vilma
    Swedish Defence University.
    En konstruerad verklighet: en narrativ analys av kinesiska ambassaden2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to understand China's use of soft power in Sweden. It focuses on the use of strategic narratives by the Chinese embassy in Sweden. Understanding narratives and analysing them is important because they can uncover political agendas. In order to understand how the embassy constructs an image of China, the study will explore its use of strategic narratives. The narrative analysis, conducted on texts produced by the embassy, demonstrates that there are two metanarratives being constructed: that China is harmonious, and that China is misunderstood.

  • 424.
    Björkaman, Torsten
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Officer: yrke eller profession2010Report (Other academic)
  • 425.
    Björkaman, Torsten
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Melin, Mertil
    Wikström, Niklas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Finlands militärstrategiska ledning och organisering2010Report (Other academic)
  • 426.
    Björkland, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Flerspråkig kriskommunikation: En grundad teori om kommuners anpassning efter invånare som inte talar svenska2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Globalisation and diversity has increased the presence of different languages in Swedish municipalities. As the local administrative authorities with responsibility for the public crisis management, how are these municipalities coping with crisis communication recipients that are not speaking Swedish? Through an inductive approach, this thesis formulates a theory of crisis communication adaptation by studying Swedish municipalities with a large part of inhabitants with foreign backgrounds. This thesis finds that municipalities that are not adapting their crisis communication to non-Swedish speakers follows a discourse that paints a picture of these recipients as at least understanding the Swedish language. Municipalities that do adapt their crisis communication have drawn lessons from local incidents that complements this discourse. This grounded theory is a unique combination of crisis contingency, crisis communication and foreign language speakers as recipients. Other studies that this thesis relates to has focused on the broader aspects of intercultural communication, crisis communication as a legitimating and relational building process and how globalisation may exacerbate the need to adapt to a changing community. Risk communication is encompassing these perspectives, and this thesis provides a narrowed focus of this field. Further studies may contribute to how well the understandings of the municipalities reflects upon the recipients’ knowledge of Swedish and how the recipients themselves take part in crisis communication.

  • 427. Björklund, Gabriel
    Robert Pape och Falklandskriget - En teoriprövande enfallsstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Robert A. Pape, an American political scientist, have created a universally known theory about how to successfully conduct military coercion. In his comprehensive quantitative research from multiple cases of coercion Pape’s conclusion is that the denial strategy of air power is what historically have been working. From his cases where he draws his conclusion there is one case missing. Pape has excluded the case of the Falklands war. According to some researchers, the Falklands war which was won by Great Britain, had a successful outcome due to their utility of the air power. This essay aims to test if Papes theory of military coercion has the potential to explain the victory of Great Britain in the Falklands War. By conducting a single case study by means of a qualitative text analysis, the answer is to be found.

    The results shows that Great Britain mainly used a denial strategy with the air powers. The Falklands war could have been predicted by this usage. Although it is a conventional conflict, involving both the navy, army and the airforce, it is hard to believe it was only because of the air powers the war was won. The use of a denial strategy can therefore not explain the victory for Great Britain, but it can be a part of the explanation.

  • 428.
    Björklund, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    En värdegrund2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 429.
    Björklund, Stéphanie
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University.
    Malmio, Irja
    Swedish Defence University.
    “Jag är inte en kvinnlig kadett. Jag är en kadett på Karlberg.”: En kvalitativ studie om kvinnliga kadetters upplevelse av sin situation på Militärhögskolan Karlberg under studierna vid Officersprogrammet och i Försvarsmakten.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the content from the Swedish Armed Forces plan from 2015 for implementing gender mainstreaming, there are aspirations to increase the number of women in the organisation and in higher ranks (Försvarsmakten, 2015). One solution is to recruit more women to the Officers’ programme, but also ensuring that women who have already enrolled as officers will remain in their occupation (Österberg, Jonsson, Brandow, Klockare & Eriksson, 2017). In order to elucidate how female cadets experience their situation during their training and their situation within the Swedish Armed Forces a qualitative study was performed where six female cadets were interviewed. A thematic analysis was used to analyze the results and three factors emerged; ambition, culture and visibility. Ambition relates to expectations before and during the education, personal grit, perceived demands and family planning. Culture embodies traditions, personal treatment and jargon, idealizing of masculinity, as well as strategies for adaption. The last factor, visibility, derives from the way women are made visible from belonging to a minority where the identity of being a woman is further enhanced through the recruitment and marketing campaigns of the Swedish Armed Forces, who often focus on women. Women are made visible because of their sex, not for their achievements. Suggestions for improvement according to this study is that the Swedish Armed Forces should reconsider their focus on women in their internal and external communication. Further suggestions include involving employees at lower levels of the organisation in the work related to implementing the value system, where practical accomplishment of the value system is an integrated part of the education at the Officers’ programme and to introduce mentors for the female cadets.

  • 430.
    Björkman, Hans
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Fartygsbaserade helikoptrar: ur en teknisk och underhållmässig synvinkel2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 431.
    Björkman, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Akademiseringen av officersutbildningen: En lång och krokig väg?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Akademiseringen av officersyrket i Sverige fick sitt genombrott när Försvarshögskolan fick examensrätt 2007. Föreliggande uppsats syftar till att undersöka akademiseringsprocessen inom Försvarsmakten och, om görligt, beskriva vilka konsekvenser och möjligheter akademiseringen gav. Ett vidare syfte är att beskriva vilka bevekelsegrunder som förelåg beslutet att akademisera officersutbildningen.

    Frågeställningarna är följande: Hur kan, utifrån valda huvuddokument och handlingar, akademiseringen av officersprofessionen i Sverige beskrivas? Vilka jämförelser gjordes med andra nationer och vilka effekter, vilken påverkan, fick detta för framtagandet av strukturen för Försvarshögskolans nuvarande militära utbildningar? Om vi betraktar officersutbildningen som en akademisk yrkesexamen, hur skulle då en alternativ utbildning med en civil akademisk examen och en kortare militär yrkesutbildning kunna vara uppbyggd?

    Arbetsmetoden är att kritiskt undersöka innehållet i källmaterialet och som mätinstrument används statsvetaren Nils Andréns teoretiska modell för säkerhetspolitisk analys. Arbetet utgår från hypotesen att långsiktiga politiska beslut avseende Försvarsmakten grundas på objektivitet och rationalitet.

    Undersökningen visar att akademiseringsprocessen löpt i två parallella spår med sinsemellan skilda motiv och tidsrymder. Vidare visar arbetet att jämförelser med andra nationer gjordes och att intryck från dessa, främst avseende att utbildningen skall vara akademisk, togs tillvara. Resultatet från undersökningen tyder också på att en civil akademisk examen och en kortare militär utbildning sannolikt inte är en lämplig modell för officersutbildning. Hypotesen visar sig kunna falsifieras, vilket tyder på att långsiktiga politiska beslut avseende Försvarsmakten inte alltid fattas på objektiva och rationella grunder.

  • 432.
    Björkman, Torsten
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies.
    Linje- och stabsorganisering2018In: Militära arbetsmetoder: en lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm, Jerker Widén, Niklas Wikström, Malmö: Universus Academic Press , 2018, p. 193-233Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 433.
    Björkman, Torsten
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Melin, Mertil
    Wikström, Niklas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Den svenska försvarsmaktens högkvarter: analys av dess storlek och sammansättning2009Report (Other academic)
  • 434.
    Björkman, Torsten
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Melin, Mertil
    Wikström, Niklas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Den svenska försvarsmaktens högkvarter är inte större än våra grannländers2009In: Vårt Försvar, ISSN 0042–2800, no 3, p. 18-19Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 435.
    Björling, Henrik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Småstatens tekniska dilemma i en föränderlig värld2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sveriges försvarsmakt har under många år efter Försvarsbeslut 2000 anpassats för internationella insatser och i samband med detta även den teknik och materiel som nyttjas. När Försvarsberedningen senare förändrat inriktningen för svenska försvarsmakten, ska försvaret anpassas för att klara de krav som ett nationellt försvar kräver. Med begränsningar får småstater alltjämt problem och svårigheter i de val som måste göras, likt de problem svenska försvarsmakten torde ställs inför vid omställningen mot ett invasionsförsvar. Något som kan ha försvårats av att vi har skapat oss problem med ett optimerat försvar för internationell tjänst och något som framöver kan få konsekvenser för det nationella försvaret.

    Studien avser att identifiera och analysera en småstats utmaningar utifrån de begränsningar som den har. Den belyser dilemman för småstater, vilket uppstår i samband teknisk utveckling och anpassning. Specifikt inriktat på hur teknisk utveckling förändrar en småstats möjlighet att möta striden.

    Studien visar normativt på att Sveriges försvarsmakt å ena sida är pressade att följa med i teknisk utveckling för att kunna hävda sig internationellt och erhålla internationellt stöd, å andra sidan har särskilt taktiska och nationella operativa behov. Dessa tillgodoses inte av denna utveckling eller försöken att hänga med i utvecklingen, där den nationella försvarsförmågan kan bli lidande. Sverige som småstat ett har tydligt dilemma i att följa en teknisk utveckling och samtidigt ha resurser för ett stark nationellt försvar.

  • 436.
    Björnberg, Linus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Militär nytta med mobiltelefoni och Radio180: En systemanalys av sambandssystem2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The military communication system RA180 is aging while mobile telephony is evolving rapidly. These systems differ from each other in many aspects, but the overall skill in using a mobile phone offers benefits for military communication. Previous research has shown that there are some flaws in mobile telephony, but how these deficiencies relate to a communication system that is already in use by the Armed Forces have not been studied yet.

    This essay aims to investigate whether there is any military utility of using mobile telephony for the communication instead of RA180. A systems analysis, where the systems are compared and evaluated, will be implemented for this purpose. The essay reveals several opportunities available when mobile telephony is used as communication systems and one of the main potential is that the system has a higher availability due to the existing infrastructure. Mobile telephony has a lower military utility than RA180 in a specific scenario, but for several of the reasons that resulted in a lower military utility there are solutions. Encryption is one of these and there are options that would improve security significantly in mobile telephony.

  • 437.
    Björnehed, Emma
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Praktisk examination och examination av praktik: möjligheter och begränsningar2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om praktisk examination och hur man kan och bör examinera praktik är någonting som under en längre tid har varit uppe för diskussion på Försvarshögskolan (FHS). Denna artikel syftar till att diskutera möjligheter och begränsningar med praktisk examination. Fokus kommer att vara på utbildningen av officerare inom det ämne författarna verkar – krigsvetenskap. Artikeln tar sig an frågan med utgångspunkt i gällande rättsläge, högskolepedagogisk forskning- och praktik. Det övergripande syftet är att förstå vad man faktiskt får göra, hur det sker rättssäkert och hur det kan göras i praktiken. Artikeln diskuterar även vad som bör examineras praktiskt och hur detta då skall göras.

  • 438.
    Björnermark, Jonathan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Armén vs Flygvapnet: Uppföljning och hantering av materiella brister inom den tekniska tjänsten2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Technical Service is one of the cornerstones that make the Swedish armed force operational. Handle and manage failure within technical materials are, among other tasks, something that technical service needs to deal with. The aim with this paper is to examine two different systems that handle the follow-up of different failures, one system from the army and one system from the airforce. Based on the aim, the systems will be compared and discussed through different points of view, focusing on the advantage and disadvantage. Looking at the background description of the systems, it shows that ARGUS and DA go two different tracks when they do a follow up. ARGUS focus on the follow up of the material, while DA focuses on the follow up in an individual aspect. Further in the background, it shows that, the same procedure isused in the report process, a four-step-model. The background is followed up by an analysis of two different cases where the follow up systems is the main point and after that, a discussion around the result was made. During the discussion, the writer of this paper made up some conclusions, and those are as follows. In the beginning, the ARGUS system was complicated to use. The fact that you needed to type in the report twice in two different kinds of systems made it complicated to use. However, this problem, were fixed due the integration of the system within another system. In the DA system, everyone that uses this system needs to be loyal against the system, due the lack of connection between report and report writer. As a summary of the whole paper, the writer recommends a system that has both of these parts, in other words, both individual follow up and materials follow up, might make the system more effective.

  • 439.
    Björnfors, Martin
    Écoles de Saint-Cyr Coëtquidan.
    Insurgent Organisation Structure: A Neglected Subject?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On 1 November, 1954 an armed insurgency against French rule commenced with a large scale terrorist attack throughout various parts of Algeria. France responded by sending troops from the continent to Algeria and was soon involved in a full out counterinsurgency against the Front Liberé National (FLN), a revolutionary movement organised in a classical communist insurgent pattern.

    Many of the experiences the French gained conducting counterinsurgency in Algeria have been examined by writers of COIN literature. The conclusions have been incorporated into counterinsurgency doctrines of many countries, and the works of Galula, who experienced the war, is considered basic literature for many counterinsurgency courses. This has been inherited by modern COIN literature. The US FM 3.24 draws from the French experiences and theorists in its main body.

    This essay examines whether modern counterinsurgency literature derived from French experiences and theories gained, fighting FLN fails to address the question on how the insurgent organisation is structured. It provides a few arguments why we should know this, such as knowing your enemy’s structure will help you understand his vulnerabilities. To archive this and lay a foundation for the argumentation it first compares the Algerian FLN to modern day Taliban to establish if their organisational structures are different or similar.

  • 440.
    Blandford, Petter
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Manöverkrigföring: en jämförelse mellan William S Lind och Marine Corps doctrinal publication 1-3, tactics2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 441.
    Blimark, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Reduktionen av svensk kirurgisk operationskapacitet vid höjd beredskap2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska FM är beroende av civil sjukvård för kirurgiskt omhändertagande i händelse av skadeutfall. Under det kalla kriget vilade den svenska krigssjukvårdsorganisationen på den militära sjukvårdsorganisationen, civilförsvaret och den civila sjukvården. År 2014 är den militära kirurgiska omhändertagandeförmågan reducerad till ca 1 % av tidigare kapacitet. Civilförsvarets organisation och stor del av fasta installationer och beredskapsförråd har reducerats starkt. Uppgiften att planera och organisera för civilt skydd är i enlighet med ansvars-, likhets- och närhetsprinciperna delegerad till regional och lokal nivå. Centrala myndigheter bistår med vägledning. Den civila sjukvården har genomgått stora förändringar präglade av medicinsk utveckling med hög grad av specialisering parallellt med ekonomiska sparbeting. Detta har inneburit en långt driven rationalisering och effektivisering. Den beredskap för stora skadeutfall i händelse av väpnad konflikt som de svenska akutsjukhusen tidigare hade, finns inte längre kvar. Sjukvårdshuvudmännen uppfattar inte att de har uppgiften att planera för att hantera den storlek av skadeutfall som skulle följa på ett högintensivt väpnat angrepp. Många sjukhus ligger idag nära kapacitetstaket under ordinarie verksamhet och har små möjligheter att med uthållighet hantera större belastning. Beredskapslager av läkemedel och förbrukningsartiklar för kirurgisk verksamhet finns endast förrådsställda i starkt begränsad omfattning. De högteknologiska sjukhusen är sårbara för störningar avseende kraft, el, vatten, värme och IT. Reservfunktioner håller ojämn kvalitet bland sjukhusen och uthålligheten är generellt låg. Orsakerna till denna utveckling står huvudsakligen att finna i statsmakternas och de centrala myndigheternas tolkning av Sveriges säkerhetspolitiska läge och uppfattningen att väpnad konflikt på svenskt territorium är utesluten. Sveriges katastrofmedicinska beredskap bör integreras i den nationella säkerhetsstrategi som efterlyses i Försvarsberedningens rapport från 2013. En sådan strategi skulle kunna fungera som en övergripande vägledning för att säkerställa att Sverige får en tillfredställande beredskap för kirurgiskt omhändertagande av såväl militär personal som civilbefolkning.

  • 442.
    Blix, Karl
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Framgång med vilseledning: En uppsats om framgångsfaktorer inom militärvilseledning2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT:

    General Sun tzu said ”All warfare is based on deception.” This quote acknowledges the importance of deception in warfare. History is filled with examples of deceit and deception in war. But what is it that makes a deceptive operation successful?

     

    This thesis is a single case study and the purpose is to recognize the key factors for success in a deceptive operation, by analyse of a deceptive operation during the second world war named Mincemeat. It is of great importance to know the methods and principles behind deception. First of all it may provide helpful knowledge for planning of such operations. It might also decrease the risk of being misled by your enemy.

              

    The choice of operation Mincemeat is based on the fact that it is known to be one of the most spectacular and successful deceptive operations. Instruments for evaluation have been two theories about deception, Dewar’s six principles and Bell & Whaley’s theory of cheating. With these two theories the study resulted in six key factors, which made the operation a success.  

  • 443.
    Blixt, Oscar
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Air Power and Morale: Preventing Demoralization with Air Support2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Air Power is feared globally as a devastating and relatively precise weapon. However, its positive effects on own ground forces are not as well understood. Even though Air Support has been used to great effect in the Iraqi and Afghanistan conflict, little work has been undertaken analyzing its effect on the soldiers who have received Air Support in critical situations.

    There exist theories explaining demoralization and the mechanisms that trigger Combat Stress Reaction, which leads to demoralization. By applying Lambert´s Proto-Theory to the first-hand account of soldiers who have experienced combat and Air Support, this thesis paper tries to analyze the effect of Air Power in preventing demoralization.

    In the analysis Air Power and CAS in particular, are shown in the analysis to be effective in preventing demoralization as explained by Lambert´s Theory. The result of the analysis also shows a tenuous correlation between positive morale and Air Support.  The paper recommends further research into morale and friendly CAS, both to maximize the effects of Air Power but also to motivate CAS and Air Support as an essential mission of an Air Force. 

  • 444.
    Blohm, Sara
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Preparatsökande hundar i internationell tjänst: En fallstudie om en liten enhets erfarenhetshantering2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This case study presents how the unit of munition-searching dogs of the Swedish armed forces handles their experiences from international service. The subject is particularly interesting as previous research into the area is nonexistent. The questions asked in the study are answered through the authors findings that training and preparation of this unit has developed thanks to the input of lessons learned from previous missions. This paper, based manly on experience reports, show that the unit successfully uses the method for handling lessons learned chosen within the Swedish armed forces.

  • 445. Blom, E. Henje
    et al.
    Olsson, E. M.
    Serlachius, E.
    Ericson, Mats
    Swedish Defence University.
    Ingvar, M.
    Heart rate variability (HRV) in adolescent females with anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder2010In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 99, no 4, p. 604-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate heart rate variability (HRV) in a clinical sample of female adolescents with anxiety disorders (AD) and/or major depressive disorder (MDD) compared with healthy controls and to assess the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) on HRV. Methods: Heart rate variability was measured in adolescent female psychiatric patients with AD and/or MDD (n = 69), mean age 16.8 years (range: 14.5-18.4), from 13 out-patient clinics and in healthy controls (n = 65), mean age 16.5 years (range: 15.9-17.7). HRV was registered in the sitting position during 4 min with no interventions. Results: Logarithmically transformed high frequency HRV (HF), low frequency HRV (LF) and standard deviation of inter beat intervals (SDNN) were lower in the clinical sample compared with the controls (Cohen's d for HF = 0.57, LF = 0.55, SDNN = 0.60). This was not explained by body mass index, blood pressure or physical activity. Medication with SSRI explained 15.5% of the total variance of HF, 3.0% of LF and 6.5% of SDNN. Conclusions: Adolescent female psychiatric patients with AD and/or MDD show reduced HRV compared with healthy controls. Medication with SSRI explained a part of this difference.

  • 446. Blom, Eva Henje
    et al.
    Olsson, Erik M. G.
    Serlachius, Eva
    Ericson, Mats
    Swedish Defence University.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Heart rate variability is related to self-reported physical activity in a healthy adolescent population2009In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 106, no 6, p. 877-883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated whether there is a relationship between heart rate variability (HRV) versus lifestyle and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a population of healthy adolescents. HRV is as an index of tonic autonomic activity and in adults HRV is related to lifestyle and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but it is not known if this is the case in adolescents. HRV was registered for 4 min in sitting position in 99 healthy adolescents (age range 15 years 11 months-17 years 7 months) and repeated after 6 months. On both occasions there were significant correlations (P < 0.05) between physical activity and HRV, with respective r values: high frequency (HF) 0.26, 0.30; low frequency power (LF) 0.35, 0.29 and the standard deviation of inter-beat intervals (SDNN) 0.28, 0.37. There was no significant interaction between first and second measurements. In contrast, there were no correlations to sleeping patterns, eating habits and smoking. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease [body mass index (BMI = weight (kg)/length in m(2)), systolic blood pressure and p-glucose] did not show any repeatable significant correlations to HRV. Multiple regression models showed that physical activity was a predictor for HF, LF and SDNN in both measurements. In conclusion HF, LF and SDNN were reproducible after 6 months and were related to physical activity on both occasions.

  • 447.
    Blom, Niclas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Försvarsmaktsgemensamt logistikregemente: kompetensutveckling inom ammunitionstransporter2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 448.
    Blomberg, Björn
    Swedish National Defence College.
    USA versus al-Qaida: linjärt tänkande mot asymmetriska metoder - en studie kring den amerikanska problematiken i kampen mot terrorismen2002Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay has been to investigate in what way attacks made by alqaidaare assignable to what is called asymmetric warfare, and in what way youcan interpret the American administration´s response and actions to thoseattacks as a result of linear thinking. Furthermore I want to analyse whatdifficulties that may appear in the relationship between linear thinking andasymmetric methods. To support and fulfil this aim I shall investigate threeattacks committed by al-Qaida, these are: the bombing of the Americanembassies in Africa in 1998, the attack on USS Cole in 2000 and the attacks on11 September 2001, and the subsequent reports made from institutions in theAmerican administration. To interpret and fulfil the purpose of the essay I useLinda Beckerman´s theory about the non linear dynamics of war, and StevenMetz´s and Douglas Johnson´s definition and theory of asymmetric forms anddimensions. One conclusion is that the United States must improve their abilityto identify the world around them and consequently improve their adaptability.In order to do this they have to broaden their horizon of comprehension andthus be better prepared for unexpected developments of events which wouldimprove the possibility of taking the right action in both short and long termperspectives.

  • 449.
    Blomberg, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Gerillakrigföring, ett luftmaktsteoretiskt komplement inom defensiv luftmakt?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Warden har en generell och beprövad teori om hur man når framgång med luftmakt. Många menar dock att den defensiva delen av teorin behöver kompletteras för att bättre omhänderta små staters perspektiv. I teoribildning om asymmetriska krig, pekar teorin på att den svagare parten kan nå framgång om man använder en motsatt strategi i förhållande till sin motståndare. Defensivens motsatta strategier indelas i direkt och indirekt krigföring. Denna studie avser att specifikt undersöka om gerillakrigföring kan komplettera Wardens generella luftmaktsteori inom defensiv luftmakt, vilket är ett outforskat område. Gerillakrigföringens framgångsfaktorer utgör grund för en kompletterande förklaring till Wardens generella luftmaktsteori och leder till undersökningens hypotes. Hypotesens giltighet prövas med en fallstudie av serbernas respons på Nato:s Operation Allied Force 1999. Hypotesen påstår att ”om luftöverlägsenhet kan bytas mot tid, då kan man nå framgång med defensiv luftmakt”. Tid är gerillans övergripande framgångsfaktor och skapas genom överlevnadsförmåga och taktiskt initiativ. Resultatet påvisar att Wardens generella teori om defensiv luftmakt kan kompletteras och breddas till att även omfatta fler handlingssätt med indirekt strategi. Specifikt tillförs faktorer för att kunna väga överlevnadsförmåga och begränsad offensiv som ett komplement till att enbart luftöverlägsenhet leder till framgång med defensiv luftmakt.  

  • 450.
    Blomdahl, Emma
    Swedish Defence University.
    Människohandel som en säkerhetsfråga2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine which security approach dominates Sweden’s strategy for combating human trafficking. The two approaches covered in this essay are the state- centred perspective, and the individual-centred perspective. These approaches are being used because those two approaches are on each end of the security spectrum, and it is important to discover from what approach Sweden is working. This is important because it might help us to get a bigger understanding on why certain policies are being made. It could also help us to understand the obstacles that might appear when actors work from different approaches, and the effects this might have for the people involved in human trafficking. This research paper attempts to answer the questions:

    From an analysis of Sweden’s work in combating human trafficking, is the state-centred or the individual- centred security perspective the most prominent?

    And

    Does the different actors covered in this study work from different security perspectives while combating human trafficking?

    The study is a qualitative study based on written materials and semi-structured interviews with human trafficking experts, police and policy makers. The conclusion of the study is that Sweden does not have a single approach in its security perspective towards human trafficking and that there is a slight difference among the actors from what perspective they are working to combat human trafficking. However, the research highlighted that the majority of the studied sources do state that the individual should be seen as the security focal-point in regards to human trafficking. The difference in how these two security perspectives are viewed leads to a discrepancy between the set security goal and the actual work carried out to combat human trafficking. 

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