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  • 401.
    Björeman, Carl
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, The Military History Division.
    Var vi redo ?: Svenska armén under kalla kriget2013Book (Other academic)
  • 402. Björeman, Carl
    Var vi redo?: svenska armén under kalla kriget2013Book (Other academic)
  • 403. Björeman, Carl
    År av uppgång, år av nedgång: Försvarets ödesväg under beredskapsåren och det kalla kriget2009Book (Other academic)
  • 404.
    Björk, Jesper
    Swedish Defence University.
    Drönarens etiska debatt: en analys av nyhetsartiklar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the past 20 years use of unmanned aerial vehicles, or drones, have increased immensely. The US has since the beginning of the 21st century employed armed drones as their weapon of choice in the war on terror. As a result, a lot of questions concerning the ethical aspects of the drone has been raised. This thesis aims to clarify whether these aspects can be linked to the drone’s characteristics as unmanned, or if they’re rather connected to the tactics utilised by the Americans. Furthermore, the conclusions drawn from this can help countries like Sweden, understand if the use of armed drones would result in the same split in public opinion as in the US. The analysis shows, through a survey of US media, that the ethical debate mainly focuses on aspects linked to how drones are used by the US. Consequently, it seems plausible that the mere acquisition of armed drones by Sweden is not enough to launch a major debate about the ethics of unmanned aircraft.

  • 405. Björk, M.
    et al.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Skottdramat i Falun: Psykologiska konsekvenser för militär och civil personal, värnpliktiga och frivilligkursdeltagare1997Report (Other academic)
  • 406.
    Björk, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Logistikteori för Specialförband vid genomförande av specialoperationer2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Specialförband och specialoperationer beskrivs ofta i förhållande till reguljära enheter och konventionella operationer. De beskrivs som något som ligger utanför reguljära förbands förmågor. Detta kan i sin tur ställa andra krav på specialförbandslogistiken än på logistiken för reguljära förband.

     

    Den logistikteori som finns idag är i huvudsak baserad på fallstudier av konventionell krigföring. Det saknas alltså ett teoretiskt ramverk för specialförbandslogistik och idag baseras det på doktriner och handböcker som bygger på praktiskt vunna erfarenheter. Syftet med denna uppsats är att analysera fram viktiga principer för specialförbandslogistik och i och med det ge ett bidrag för att öka förståelsen för just fenomenet specialförbandslogistik vid genomförande av specialoperationer.

     

    Genom att analysera specialförbands och specialoperationsempirin, både deduktivt med hjälp av befintlig logistikteori och induktivt genom extensiv läsning, har logistikteorin utvecklats. Några principer från logistikteorin har nyanserats och omarbetats, någon har strukits och några tillkommit. Principerna för specialförbandslogistik vid genomförande av specialoperationer är integrering, framsynthet, improvisation, flexibilitet, tillgänglighet, tempo, enkelhet, överlevnad, effektivitet, kreativitet, operationssäkerhet och interoperabilitet.

  • 407.
    Björk, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Materielförsörjning av specialförband2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Specialförband ska tillföra handlingsalternativ som ligger utanför reguljära förbands förmågor. Specialförband ska genomföra specialoperationer i hela kontinuumet mellan fred och krig med bred palett av förmågor. Detta ställer höga krav på en adekvat materielförsörjning som svarar mot de krav som ställs på specialförbanden. Trots detta är det lite forskat inom detta område.

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att med utgångspunkt i McRavens specialförbandsteori och med stöd av strategiskt vald empiri inom materielförsörjning identifiera kriterier som bör beaktas vid materielförsörjning av specialförband. Resultatet är femton kriterier som är av vikt för en materielförsörjningsorganisation. Kriterierna klustrades i fyra grupper: personliga egenskaper, organisatoriska egenskaper, metodologiska egenskaper och materiella egenskaper. Det uppsatsen visar på som är mycket viktigt är de personliga egenskaperna, utan dessa kommer det vara svårt att uppnå de övriga kriterierna som identifierades.

  • 408.
    Björk, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS).
    Geopolitisk dynamik: Ett teoriutvecklande anspråk2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the social sciences, geopolitical theory is used in order to analyze states actions and commitments when it comes to foreign policy. This thesis develops a new understanding of geopolitical theory. Firstly, the development and application of geopolitical theory, from its foundations in the early twentieth century to contemporary geopolitical studies is discussed. Secondly a revised understanding of the variables integrated in the concept and how it can be operationalized as an analytical tool is presented and tested empirically.The critical assessment of the research field of geopolitical theory tells us that six different geopolitical perspectives have been considered the most influential (room, strategy, power projection, identity, affiliation and governance) when it comes to analyzing state action. This model is applied as an analytical tool and thus tested on a single case. The case study is an analysis of foreign policy discussions at the state level in Sweden. This has determined how the geopolitical perspectives function in relation to each other as well as presenting the need of new geopolitical perspectives, in order to understand a state’s foreign policies actions and commitments.The case study clearly shows the merits in using geopolitical perspectives and letting them interplay. The most important result, however, is that future studies needs to consider the connections between the six perspectives. The study has confirmed the need of an additional geopolitical perspective (ideology). Ideology as a seventh perspective addresses the issue of political intentions among a state’s representatives, and in that way helps to explain the dynamic connections between the other six geopolitical perspectives that influence states actions and commitments when it comes to foreign policy.

  • 409.
    Björkaman, Torsten
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Officer: yrke eller profession2010Report (Other academic)
  • 410.
    Björkaman, Torsten
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Melin, Mertil
    Wikström, Niklas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Finlands militärstrategiska ledning och organisering2010Report (Other academic)
  • 411.
    Björkland, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Flerspråkig kriskommunikation: En grundad teori om kommuners anpassning efter invånare som inte talar svenska2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Globalisation and diversity has increased the presence of different languages in Swedish municipalities. As the local administrative authorities with responsibility for the public crisis management, how are these municipalities coping with crisis communication recipients that are not speaking Swedish? Through an inductive approach, this thesis formulates a theory of crisis communication adaptation by studying Swedish municipalities with a large part of inhabitants with foreign backgrounds. This thesis finds that municipalities that are not adapting their crisis communication to non-Swedish speakers follows a discourse that paints a picture of these recipients as at least understanding the Swedish language. Municipalities that do adapt their crisis communication have drawn lessons from local incidents that complements this discourse. This grounded theory is a unique combination of crisis contingency, crisis communication and foreign language speakers as recipients. Other studies that this thesis relates to has focused on the broader aspects of intercultural communication, crisis communication as a legitimating and relational building process and how globalisation may exacerbate the need to adapt to a changing community. Risk communication is encompassing these perspectives, and this thesis provides a narrowed focus of this field. Further studies may contribute to how well the understandings of the municipalities reflects upon the recipients’ knowledge of Swedish and how the recipients themselves take part in crisis communication.

  • 412. Björklund, Gabriel
    Robert Pape och Falklandskriget - En teoriprövande enfallsstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Robert A. Pape, an American political scientist, have created a universally known theory about how to successfully conduct military coercion. In his comprehensive quantitative research from multiple cases of coercion Pape’s conclusion is that the denial strategy of air power is what historically have been working. From his cases where he draws his conclusion there is one case missing. Pape has excluded the case of the Falklands war. According to some researchers, the Falklands war which was won by Great Britain, had a successful outcome due to their utility of the air power. This essay aims to test if Papes theory of military coercion has the potential to explain the victory of Great Britain in the Falklands War. By conducting a single case study by means of a qualitative text analysis, the answer is to be found.

    The results shows that Great Britain mainly used a denial strategy with the air powers. The Falklands war could have been predicted by this usage. Although it is a conventional conflict, involving both the navy, army and the airforce, it is hard to believe it was only because of the air powers the war was won. The use of a denial strategy can therefore not explain the victory for Great Britain, but it can be a part of the explanation.

  • 413.
    Björklund, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    En värdegrund2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 414.
    Björklund, Stéphanie
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University.
    Malmio, Irja
    Swedish Defence University.
    “Jag är inte en kvinnlig kadett. Jag är en kadett på Karlberg.”: En kvalitativ studie om kvinnliga kadetters upplevelse av sin situation på Militärhögskolan Karlberg under studierna vid Officersprogrammet och i Försvarsmakten.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the content from the Swedish Armed Forces plan from 2015 for implementing gender mainstreaming, there are aspirations to increase the number of women in the organisation and in higher ranks (Försvarsmakten, 2015). One solution is to recruit more women to the Officers’ programme, but also ensuring that women who have already enrolled as officers will remain in their occupation (Österberg, Jonsson, Brandow, Klockare & Eriksson, 2017). In order to elucidate how female cadets experience their situation during their training and their situation within the Swedish Armed Forces a qualitative study was performed where six female cadets were interviewed. A thematic analysis was used to analyze the results and three factors emerged; ambition, culture and visibility. Ambition relates to expectations before and during the education, personal grit, perceived demands and family planning. Culture embodies traditions, personal treatment and jargon, idealizing of masculinity, as well as strategies for adaption. The last factor, visibility, derives from the way women are made visible from belonging to a minority where the identity of being a woman is further enhanced through the recruitment and marketing campaigns of the Swedish Armed Forces, who often focus on women. Women are made visible because of their sex, not for their achievements. Suggestions for improvement according to this study is that the Swedish Armed Forces should reconsider their focus on women in their internal and external communication. Further suggestions include involving employees at lower levels of the organisation in the work related to implementing the value system, where practical accomplishment of the value system is an integrated part of the education at the Officers’ programme and to introduce mentors for the female cadets.

  • 415.
    Björkman, Hans
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Fartygsbaserade helikoptrar: ur en teknisk och underhållmässig synvinkel2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 416.
    Björkman, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Akademiseringen av officersutbildningen: En lång och krokig väg?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Akademiseringen av officersyrket i Sverige fick sitt genombrott när Försvarshögskolan fick examensrätt 2007. Föreliggande uppsats syftar till att undersöka akademiseringsprocessen inom Försvarsmakten och, om görligt, beskriva vilka konsekvenser och möjligheter akademiseringen gav. Ett vidare syfte är att beskriva vilka bevekelsegrunder som förelåg beslutet att akademisera officersutbildningen.

    Frågeställningarna är följande: Hur kan, utifrån valda huvuddokument och handlingar, akademiseringen av officersprofessionen i Sverige beskrivas? Vilka jämförelser gjordes med andra nationer och vilka effekter, vilken påverkan, fick detta för framtagandet av strukturen för Försvarshögskolans nuvarande militära utbildningar? Om vi betraktar officersutbildningen som en akademisk yrkesexamen, hur skulle då en alternativ utbildning med en civil akademisk examen och en kortare militär yrkesutbildning kunna vara uppbyggd?

    Arbetsmetoden är att kritiskt undersöka innehållet i källmaterialet och som mätinstrument används statsvetaren Nils Andréns teoretiska modell för säkerhetspolitisk analys. Arbetet utgår från hypotesen att långsiktiga politiska beslut avseende Försvarsmakten grundas på objektivitet och rationalitet.

    Undersökningen visar att akademiseringsprocessen löpt i två parallella spår med sinsemellan skilda motiv och tidsrymder. Vidare visar arbetet att jämförelser med andra nationer gjordes och att intryck från dessa, främst avseende att utbildningen skall vara akademisk, togs tillvara. Resultatet från undersökningen tyder också på att en civil akademisk examen och en kortare militär utbildning sannolikt inte är en lämplig modell för officersutbildning. Hypotesen visar sig kunna falsifieras, vilket tyder på att långsiktiga politiska beslut avseende Försvarsmakten inte alltid fattas på objektiva och rationella grunder.

  • 417.
    Björkman, Torsten
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies.
    Linje- och stabsorganisering2018In: Militära arbetsmetoder: en lärobok i krigsvetenskap / [ed] Peter Thunholm, Jerker Widén, Niklas Wikström, Malmö: Universus Academic Press , 2018, p. 193-233Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 418.
    Björkman, Torsten
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Melin, Mertil
    Wikström, Niklas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Den svenska försvarsmaktens högkvarter: analys av dess storlek och sammansättning2009Report (Other academic)
  • 419.
    Björkman, Torsten
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Melin, Mertil
    Wikström, Niklas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Den svenska försvarsmaktens högkvarter är inte större än våra grannländers2009In: Vårt Försvar, ISSN 0042–2800, no 3, p. 18-19Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 420.
    Björnberg, Linus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Militär nytta med mobiltelefoni och Radio180: En systemanalys av sambandssystem2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The military communication system RA180 is aging while mobile telephony is evolving rapidly. These systems differ from each other in many aspects, but the overall skill in using a mobile phone offers benefits for military communication. Previous research has shown that there are some flaws in mobile telephony, but how these deficiencies relate to a communication system that is already in use by the Armed Forces have not been studied yet.

    This essay aims to investigate whether there is any military utility of using mobile telephony for the communication instead of RA180. A systems analysis, where the systems are compared and evaluated, will be implemented for this purpose. The essay reveals several opportunities available when mobile telephony is used as communication systems and one of the main potential is that the system has a higher availability due to the existing infrastructure. Mobile telephony has a lower military utility than RA180 in a specific scenario, but for several of the reasons that resulted in a lower military utility there are solutions. Encryption is one of these and there are options that would improve security significantly in mobile telephony.

  • 421.
    Björnehed, Emma
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Land Operations Section.
    Praktisk examination och examination av praktik: möjligheter och begränsningar2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om praktisk examination och hur man kan och bör examinera praktik är någonting som under en längre tid har varit uppe för diskussion på Försvarshögskolan (FHS). Denna artikel syftar till att diskutera möjligheter och begränsningar med praktisk examination. Fokus kommer att vara på utbildningen av officerare inom det ämne författarna verkar – krigsvetenskap. Artikeln tar sig an frågan med utgångspunkt i gällande rättsläge, högskolepedagogisk forskning- och praktik. Det övergripande syftet är att förstå vad man faktiskt får göra, hur det sker rättssäkert och hur det kan göras i praktiken. Artikeln diskuterar även vad som bör examineras praktiskt och hur detta då skall göras.

  • 422.
    Björnermark, Jonathan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Armén vs Flygvapnet: Uppföljning och hantering av materiella brister inom den tekniska tjänsten2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Technical Service is one of the cornerstones that make the Swedish armed force operational. Handle and manage failure within technical materials are, among other tasks, something that technical service needs to deal with. The aim with this paper is to examine two different systems that handle the follow-up of different failures, one system from the army and one system from the airforce. Based on the aim, the systems will be compared and discussed through different points of view, focusing on the advantage and disadvantage. Looking at the background description of the systems, it shows that ARGUS and DA go two different tracks when they do a follow up. ARGUS focus on the follow up of the material, while DA focuses on the follow up in an individual aspect. Further in the background, it shows that, the same procedure isused in the report process, a four-step-model. The background is followed up by an analysis of two different cases where the follow up systems is the main point and after that, a discussion around the result was made. During the discussion, the writer of this paper made up some conclusions, and those are as follows. In the beginning, the ARGUS system was complicated to use. The fact that you needed to type in the report twice in two different kinds of systems made it complicated to use. However, this problem, were fixed due the integration of the system within another system. In the DA system, everyone that uses this system needs to be loyal against the system, due the lack of connection between report and report writer. As a summary of the whole paper, the writer recommends a system that has both of these parts, in other words, both individual follow up and materials follow up, might make the system more effective.

  • 423.
    Björnfors, Martin
    Écoles de Saint-Cyr Coëtquidan.
    Insurgent Organisation Structure: A Neglected Subject?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On 1 November, 1954 an armed insurgency against French rule commenced with a large scale terrorist attack throughout various parts of Algeria. France responded by sending troops from the continent to Algeria and was soon involved in a full out counterinsurgency against the Front Liberé National (FLN), a revolutionary movement organised in a classical communist insurgent pattern.

    Many of the experiences the French gained conducting counterinsurgency in Algeria have been examined by writers of COIN literature. The conclusions have been incorporated into counterinsurgency doctrines of many countries, and the works of Galula, who experienced the war, is considered basic literature for many counterinsurgency courses. This has been inherited by modern COIN literature. The US FM 3.24 draws from the French experiences and theorists in its main body.

    This essay examines whether modern counterinsurgency literature derived from French experiences and theories gained, fighting FLN fails to address the question on how the insurgent organisation is structured. It provides a few arguments why we should know this, such as knowing your enemy’s structure will help you understand his vulnerabilities. To archive this and lay a foundation for the argumentation it first compares the Algerian FLN to modern day Taliban to establish if their organisational structures are different or similar.

  • 424.
    Blandford, Petter
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Manöverkrigföring: en jämförelse mellan William S Lind och Marine Corps doctrinal publication 1-3, tactics2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 425.
    Blimark, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Reduktionen av svensk kirurgisk operationskapacitet vid höjd beredskap2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska FM är beroende av civil sjukvård för kirurgiskt omhändertagande i händelse av skadeutfall. Under det kalla kriget vilade den svenska krigssjukvårdsorganisationen på den militära sjukvårdsorganisationen, civilförsvaret och den civila sjukvården. År 2014 är den militära kirurgiska omhändertagandeförmågan reducerad till ca 1 % av tidigare kapacitet. Civilförsvarets organisation och stor del av fasta installationer och beredskapsförråd har reducerats starkt. Uppgiften att planera och organisera för civilt skydd är i enlighet med ansvars-, likhets- och närhetsprinciperna delegerad till regional och lokal nivå. Centrala myndigheter bistår med vägledning. Den civila sjukvården har genomgått stora förändringar präglade av medicinsk utveckling med hög grad av specialisering parallellt med ekonomiska sparbeting. Detta har inneburit en långt driven rationalisering och effektivisering. Den beredskap för stora skadeutfall i händelse av väpnad konflikt som de svenska akutsjukhusen tidigare hade, finns inte längre kvar. Sjukvårdshuvudmännen uppfattar inte att de har uppgiften att planera för att hantera den storlek av skadeutfall som skulle följa på ett högintensivt väpnat angrepp. Många sjukhus ligger idag nära kapacitetstaket under ordinarie verksamhet och har små möjligheter att med uthållighet hantera större belastning. Beredskapslager av läkemedel och förbrukningsartiklar för kirurgisk verksamhet finns endast förrådsställda i starkt begränsad omfattning. De högteknologiska sjukhusen är sårbara för störningar avseende kraft, el, vatten, värme och IT. Reservfunktioner håller ojämn kvalitet bland sjukhusen och uthålligheten är generellt låg. Orsakerna till denna utveckling står huvudsakligen att finna i statsmakternas och de centrala myndigheternas tolkning av Sveriges säkerhetspolitiska läge och uppfattningen att väpnad konflikt på svenskt territorium är utesluten. Sveriges katastrofmedicinska beredskap bör integreras i den nationella säkerhetsstrategi som efterlyses i Försvarsberedningens rapport från 2013. En sådan strategi skulle kunna fungera som en övergripande vägledning för att säkerställa att Sverige får en tillfredställande beredskap för kirurgiskt omhändertagande av såväl militär personal som civilbefolkning.

  • 426.
    Blix, Karl
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Framgång med vilseledning: En uppsats om framgångsfaktorer inom militärvilseledning2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT:

    General Sun tzu said ”All warfare is based on deception.” This quote acknowledges the importance of deception in warfare. History is filled with examples of deceit and deception in war. But what is it that makes a deceptive operation successful?

     

    This thesis is a single case study and the purpose is to recognize the key factors for success in a deceptive operation, by analyse of a deceptive operation during the second world war named Mincemeat. It is of great importance to know the methods and principles behind deception. First of all it may provide helpful knowledge for planning of such operations. It might also decrease the risk of being misled by your enemy.

              

    The choice of operation Mincemeat is based on the fact that it is known to be one of the most spectacular and successful deceptive operations. Instruments for evaluation have been two theories about deception, Dewar’s six principles and Bell & Whaley’s theory of cheating. With these two theories the study resulted in six key factors, which made the operation a success.  

  • 427.
    Blixt, Oscar
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Air Power and Morale: Preventing Demoralization with Air Support2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Air Power is feared globally as a devastating and relatively precise weapon. However, its positive effects on own ground forces are not as well understood. Even though Air Support has been used to great effect in the Iraqi and Afghanistan conflict, little work has been undertaken analyzing its effect on the soldiers who have received Air Support in critical situations.

    There exist theories explaining demoralization and the mechanisms that trigger Combat Stress Reaction, which leads to demoralization. By applying Lambert´s Proto-Theory to the first-hand account of soldiers who have experienced combat and Air Support, this thesis paper tries to analyze the effect of Air Power in preventing demoralization.

    In the analysis Air Power and CAS in particular, are shown in the analysis to be effective in preventing demoralization as explained by Lambert´s Theory. The result of the analysis also shows a tenuous correlation between positive morale and Air Support.  The paper recommends further research into morale and friendly CAS, both to maximize the effects of Air Power but also to motivate CAS and Air Support as an essential mission of an Air Force. 

  • 428.
    Blohm, Sara
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Preparatsökande hundar i internationell tjänst: En fallstudie om en liten enhets erfarenhetshantering2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This case study presents how the unit of munition-searching dogs of the Swedish armed forces handles their experiences from international service. The subject is particularly interesting as previous research into the area is nonexistent. The questions asked in the study are answered through the authors findings that training and preparation of this unit has developed thanks to the input of lessons learned from previous missions. This paper, based manly on experience reports, show that the unit successfully uses the method for handling lessons learned chosen within the Swedish armed forces.

  • 429. Blom, E. Henje
    et al.
    Olsson, E. M.
    Serlachius, E.
    Ericson, Mats
    Swedish Defence University.
    Ingvar, M.
    Heart rate variability (HRV) in adolescent females with anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder2010In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 99, no 4, p. 604-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate heart rate variability (HRV) in a clinical sample of female adolescents with anxiety disorders (AD) and/or major depressive disorder (MDD) compared with healthy controls and to assess the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) on HRV. Methods: Heart rate variability was measured in adolescent female psychiatric patients with AD and/or MDD (n = 69), mean age 16.8 years (range: 14.5-18.4), from 13 out-patient clinics and in healthy controls (n = 65), mean age 16.5 years (range: 15.9-17.7). HRV was registered in the sitting position during 4 min with no interventions. Results: Logarithmically transformed high frequency HRV (HF), low frequency HRV (LF) and standard deviation of inter beat intervals (SDNN) were lower in the clinical sample compared with the controls (Cohen's d for HF = 0.57, LF = 0.55, SDNN = 0.60). This was not explained by body mass index, blood pressure or physical activity. Medication with SSRI explained 15.5% of the total variance of HF, 3.0% of LF and 6.5% of SDNN. Conclusions: Adolescent female psychiatric patients with AD and/or MDD show reduced HRV compared with healthy controls. Medication with SSRI explained a part of this difference.

  • 430. Blom, Eva Henje
    et al.
    Olsson, Erik M. G.
    Serlachius, Eva
    Ericson, Mats
    Swedish Defence University.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Heart rate variability is related to self-reported physical activity in a healthy adolescent population2009In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 106, no 6, p. 877-883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated whether there is a relationship between heart rate variability (HRV) versus lifestyle and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a population of healthy adolescents. HRV is as an index of tonic autonomic activity and in adults HRV is related to lifestyle and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but it is not known if this is the case in adolescents. HRV was registered for 4 min in sitting position in 99 healthy adolescents (age range 15 years 11 months-17 years 7 months) and repeated after 6 months. On both occasions there were significant correlations (P < 0.05) between physical activity and HRV, with respective r values: high frequency (HF) 0.26, 0.30; low frequency power (LF) 0.35, 0.29 and the standard deviation of inter-beat intervals (SDNN) 0.28, 0.37. There was no significant interaction between first and second measurements. In contrast, there were no correlations to sleeping patterns, eating habits and smoking. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease [body mass index (BMI = weight (kg)/length in m(2)), systolic blood pressure and p-glucose] did not show any repeatable significant correlations to HRV. Multiple regression models showed that physical activity was a predictor for HF, LF and SDNN in both measurements. In conclusion HF, LF and SDNN were reproducible after 6 months and were related to physical activity on both occasions.

  • 431.
    Blom, Niclas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Försvarsmaktsgemensamt logistikregemente: kompetensutveckling inom ammunitionstransporter2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 432.
    Blomberg, Björn
    Swedish National Defence College.
    USA versus al-Qaida: linjärt tänkande mot asymmetriska metoder - en studie kring den amerikanska problematiken i kampen mot terrorismen2002Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay has been to investigate in what way attacks made by alqaidaare assignable to what is called asymmetric warfare, and in what way youcan interpret the American administration´s response and actions to thoseattacks as a result of linear thinking. Furthermore I want to analyse whatdifficulties that may appear in the relationship between linear thinking andasymmetric methods. To support and fulfil this aim I shall investigate threeattacks committed by al-Qaida, these are: the bombing of the Americanembassies in Africa in 1998, the attack on USS Cole in 2000 and the attacks on11 September 2001, and the subsequent reports made from institutions in theAmerican administration. To interpret and fulfil the purpose of the essay I useLinda Beckerman´s theory about the non linear dynamics of war, and StevenMetz´s and Douglas Johnson´s definition and theory of asymmetric forms anddimensions. One conclusion is that the United States must improve their abilityto identify the world around them and consequently improve their adaptability.In order to do this they have to broaden their horizon of comprehension andthus be better prepared for unexpected developments of events which wouldimprove the possibility of taking the right action in both short and long termperspectives.

  • 433.
    Blomberg, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Gerillakrigföring, ett luftmaktsteoretiskt komplement inom defensiv luftmakt?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Warden har en generell och beprövad teori om hur man når framgång med luftmakt. Många menar dock att den defensiva delen av teorin behöver kompletteras för att bättre omhänderta små staters perspektiv. I teoribildning om asymmetriska krig, pekar teorin på att den svagare parten kan nå framgång om man använder en motsatt strategi i förhållande till sin motståndare. Defensivens motsatta strategier indelas i direkt och indirekt krigföring. Denna studie avser att specifikt undersöka om gerillakrigföring kan komplettera Wardens generella luftmaktsteori inom defensiv luftmakt, vilket är ett outforskat område. Gerillakrigföringens framgångsfaktorer utgör grund för en kompletterande förklaring till Wardens generella luftmaktsteori och leder till undersökningens hypotes. Hypotesens giltighet prövas med en fallstudie av serbernas respons på Nato:s Operation Allied Force 1999. Hypotesen påstår att ”om luftöverlägsenhet kan bytas mot tid, då kan man nå framgång med defensiv luftmakt”. Tid är gerillans övergripande framgångsfaktor och skapas genom överlevnadsförmåga och taktiskt initiativ. Resultatet påvisar att Wardens generella teori om defensiv luftmakt kan kompletteras och breddas till att även omfatta fler handlingssätt med indirekt strategi. Specifikt tillförs faktorer för att kunna väga överlevnadsförmåga och begränsad offensiv som ett komplement till att enbart luftöverlägsenhet leder till framgång med defensiv luftmakt.  

  • 434.
    Blomdahl, Emma
    Swedish Defence University.
    Människohandel som en säkerhetsfråga2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine which security approach dominates Sweden’s strategy for combating human trafficking. The two approaches covered in this essay are the state- centred perspective, and the individual-centred perspective. These approaches are being used because those two approaches are on each end of the security spectrum, and it is important to discover from what approach Sweden is working. This is important because it might help us to get a bigger understanding on why certain policies are being made. It could also help us to understand the obstacles that might appear when actors work from different approaches, and the effects this might have for the people involved in human trafficking. This research paper attempts to answer the questions:

    From an analysis of Sweden’s work in combating human trafficking, is the state-centred or the individual- centred security perspective the most prominent?

    And

    Does the different actors covered in this study work from different security perspectives while combating human trafficking?

    The study is a qualitative study based on written materials and semi-structured interviews with human trafficking experts, police and policy makers. The conclusion of the study is that Sweden does not have a single approach in its security perspective towards human trafficking and that there is a slight difference among the actors from what perspective they are working to combat human trafficking. However, the research highlighted that the majority of the studied sources do state that the individual should be seen as the security focal-point in regards to human trafficking. The difference in how these two security perspectives are viewed leads to a discrepancy between the set security goal and the actual work carried out to combat human trafficking. 

  • 435. Blomgren, Ebbe
    et al.
    Carlstedt, Leif
    Fredholm, Lars
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish National Defence College, FOA 55, Beteendevetenskapliga institutionen.
    Shalit, Ben
    Civilbefolkningens uppfattning av hot under Karlskogahändelserna 19841984Report (Other academic)
  • 436.
    Blomgren, Elena Alvarez
    Swedish Defence University.
    ’Funktionen som inte uppfyllde sin funktion’ : En kvalitativ fallstudie om funktionen tjänsteman i beredskaps förutsättningar till kunskap under branden i Västmanland 20142017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The forest fire in Västmanland 2014 is one of the largest crises in Swedish modern history. The management of the forest fire raised some questions about the Swedish crisis management system and in particular the function of the on-call desk officer[1], which did not work as expected. The crisis management system has some key-positions who need to posses a certain kind of knowledge. The Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency recommends the government which authority should hold the position on-call desk officer. It is the on-call desk officers’ job to initiate and establish the crises management in serious crises. What happens if the desk officer on-call does not posses the knowledge that is needed to initiate and establish crisis management in a serious crisis? The aim of this study is not to assess the management of the forest fire in Västmanland. The case forest fire in Västmanland is used to investigate which level of knowledge is expected and what given prerequisites of it is to acquire the expected knowledge. The study indicates that the on-call desk officer lacked knowledge in the handling of the forest fire in Västmanland 2014. The lack of knowledge consisted of two parts, the lack of knowledge of the Swedish crisis management system, and lack of expected knowledge of forest fires.

    [1] There is no formal English translation of the Swedish position: Tjänsteman i beredskap. The word on-call desk officer is the author’s own translation of the position.

  • 437.
    Blomqvist, Edith
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Sjöherravälde: är Corbetts teorier applicerbara på modern ubåtskrigföring?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Naval supremacy, Corbett’s theories within the framework of modern submarine warfare?

    Study of Corbett’s theories and how they apply on modern submarine warfare. Basics of naval warfare is initially described as well as by Corbett complied methods for establishing, disputing and practising naval supremacy and also the submarine as a weapon. Subsequently follows a study of historical sources of modern submarine warfare. This includes Scapa Flow 1939, submarine warfare at the battle of the Atlantic sea and the United States attack on Japanese sea trade in addition to the attack on Belgrano and the preliminary of the Falkland war. 

    Focus is on the different methods for naval supremacy that Corbett describes: naval battle, blockade, fleet in being, minor counterattacks, defence against invasion, attack and defence on trade as well as attack, defence and support of military expeditions. With these in context the study results in a discussion about modern submarine warfare that in large extent verifies Corbett’s theories.

  • 438.
    Blomqvist, Henrik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Gerillans defensiva kulmination - En tvåfallstudie av LTTE Och Daesh2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the applicability of culminations theory in a guerrilla context. In battle, a crucial factor is to assess who has superior strength. Culmination theory is a central concept in conventional warfare, could the same theory support the analysis of guerrilla warfare?Previous research tends to focus on the results of guerrilla wars. By using the concept of culmination this research attempts to determine, by assessing the battle, whether the guerrilla reached the point of culmination and by that evaluate the applicability of culmination theory in guerrilla warfare.The research design consists of a two-case study to analyse the LTTE and Daesh and thereby highlight culmination theory’s applicability on guerrillas. Written documents are used as sources of empirical data for the two-case study. The result of the survey shows that LTTE and Daesh reached their defensive point of culmination and that culmination theory is generalizable in a similar guerrilla context.

  • 439.
    Blomqvist, Martin
    Swedish Defence University.
    NATO:s misslyckande att undvika civila dödsfall i Libyen 20112015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study revolves around the NATO-led Operation Unified Protector in Libya 2011. The military campaign was executed under a UN mandate to protect the Libyan civilian population. Despite the mandate civilians died because of NATO bombings. The purpose of this study is to identify inadequate measures in avoiding civilian casualties during the operation and to continue to work towards minimizing civilian casualties caused by military organizations in international interventions.

    Early in the operation, NATO’s objective altered from protecting the civilians to over­throwing the Libyan regime. At the same time NATO changed its military targeting. This study concludes that the alteration of the primary objective to have increased the risk of harming innocent civilians in the area of operation because the protection of civilians became a secondary objective.

  • 440.
    Blomqvist, Niklas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    En studie av den svenska FN-insatsen i mali2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen skall undersöka och skapa ökad förståelse och kunskap kring vad som formar och påverkar Sveriges val att delta med militär trupp i internationella insatser. Genom en ökad förståelse och kunskap inom området kan denna uppsats utgöra ett litet bidrag inom forskningen genom att undersöka varför Sverige väljer att bidra med militära maktmedel i internationella insatser utanför vårt närområde.

     Sverige har en lång tradition av att bidra med militära förband till FN:s fredsbevarande och fredsframtvingande insatser. Sverige har även beslutat att skicka ett styrkebidrag till FN:s insats MINUSMA i Mali. Beslutet har fattats av två olika regeringar, som trots olika ideologiska grunder ändå har valt att fatta liknande beslut. 

    Uppsatsen undersöker med stöd av Graham Allisons teorier kring beslutsfattande frågan om varför Sverige väljer att delta i insatsen och vilka faktorer som påverkar beslutet. I undersökningen har modell I och III använts. Analysen enligt modell I visar på en enlighet kring beslutet i riksdagen, där landets övergripande målsättningar är tydligt definierade.

    Modell III påvisar en större spridning mellan aktörerna och det interna maktkamp som föregår beslutet. Även om riksdagen fattar ett beslut i nära konsensus finns olika faktorer och motiv bakom aktörernas agerande i processen, vilket antyder både inrikespolitisk maktkamp och en kamp mellan försvars- och utrikespolitik. 

    En sammanfattning av resultatet visar att det föreligger både rationella och altruistiska drivkrafter bakom beslutet. Sveriges önskan att kunna vara en stark röst i världen för fred, frihet och demokrati gör att engagemanget i FN är ett medel att nå ett ökat inflytande på den internationella politiska arenan. Det råder även en enighet i Sverige att vi skall fullfölja en tradition av att solidariskt och osjälviskt bidra till en bättre värld med de medel och metoder som står oss till buds.

  • 441.
    Blomqvist, Niklas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Likformighet i ledning?: Hur omhändertar försvarsmakten begreppet ledning?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syftar till att analysera hur försvarsmakten omhändertar krigsvetenskapens variabler för ledning –teknik, människa och metod– i dess tre nivåer; den militärstrategiska, den operativa samt den taktiska.Metoden som används utgörs av en kvalitativ metod som analyserar försvarsmaktens inriktande och styrande dokumentation.Resultatet visar att försvarsmakten till stor del omhändertar krigsvetenskapens teorier om ledningssystem.Det finns idag en otydlighet hur begreppet ledning omhändertas av försvarsmakten. Från att historiskt varit en egenskap hos en befälhavare har ledning i nutid utvecklats till något som har karaktäriserats till att utgöra ett system där människor möter metoder och teknik med syfte att skapa en planerad samordning av en given verksamhet med givna komponenter i en mer eller mindre känd kontext. Ledning inom försvarsmakten definieras olika beroende på vilket reglemente, doktrin eller anvisning som behandlar området.Forskningsmässigt är ämnesområdet är relativt nytt, även om företeelsen ledning troligvis har funnits så länge som människan har ägnat sig åt strid och krigskonst. Genom systematisering, vetenskapligt intresse och inte minst en teknisk utveckling, har behovet av att studera krigets ledning ökat för att kunna behålla och utveckla krigföringsförmåga.

  • 442.
    Bloom, Joakim
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Ränderna går aldrig ur, renässans för gallerskydd?2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 443.
    Blysa, Gustav
    Swedish Defence University.
    Kombinerad bekämpning som metod för verkan: Lätt infanteritaktik under brittiska markoperationerna i Falklandskriget2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation has investigated how a light infantry force has used combined arms during an amphibious operation, specific factors related to the operations character affecting the possibility to develop combined arms have also been highlighted. The case chosen for the study was Parachute Regiments actions during the three battles of Darwin – Goose Green, Mount Longdon and Wireless Ridge during the Falklands War. As a analytical tool Robert Leonhard’s theory about the three principles of combined arms was used together with indicators borrowed from the theory about the warfighting functions purposes of fires.

    Two of the battles were found to be only partially characterized by Leonhard’s first two principles, complementary systems and dilemmas. The third principle about favorable terrain was neglected. The third battle was throughout characterized by the first two principles and to a larger extent than the former by the third principle.

    The dissertation concludes that light infantry can use combined arms during amphibious operations. The battles studied were, however, often characterized by unfavorable disposition of the force which affected the possibilities to use combined arms. Leonhard´s third principle was usually neglected. The most important amphibious aspects affecting the possibilities to combined arms were found to be naval gunfire support, light field artillery and the scarcity of light all-terrain vehicles.

  • 444.
    Boatright, Axel
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Totalförbud av massförstörelsevapen: En jämförelse av de officiella kärnvapenstaternas argumentering2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan slutet av andra världskriget har förhandlingar förts om massförstörelsevapen och deras fara för vår värld. Trots förhandlingar som har genomförts är det endast biologiska och kemiska vapen det finns totalförbud mot. Kärnvapen härjar fortfarande fritt bland världens fem officiella kärnvapenstater: USA, Ryssland, Kina, Storbritannien och Frankrike.

    Uppsatsen är en kvalitativ textanalys med information framförallt från förhandlingar om nedrustning.  Syfte med uppsatsen är att jämföra kärnvapenstaternas uttalande gentemot biologiska vapen, kemiska vapen och kärnvapen.

    Resultatet visade sig att samtliga stater varit för totalförbud av kemiska och biologiska vapen men när det gäller kärnvapen är det endast Kina som har varit tydlig i sin åsikt. Med maktbalansteori som utgångspunkt i analysen visade det sig, att kärnvapen som är det sista massförstörelsevapen länderna har kvar, är svårare att för staterna att förbjuda en de två tidigare vapentyperna.

  • 445.
    Bodahl, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Band eller hjul?: Lämpligt fordon för EOD-specifika behov i Afghanistan.2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background to this paper is the events that have taken place in the Swedish area of responsibility in Afghanistan where Swedish troops have been ambushed by the insurgents. Although the troops primarily where riding in Toyota Land Cruisers they had no casualties. I think that the Swedish force needs other vehicles that can be armed and are armoured.

    When I compared three different types of armoured vehicles, I found that PTGB 6 is the vehicle of choice, according to the special needs that a Swedish EOD-squad, their task and their equipment have. 

  • 446.
    Bodin, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Attityder till anställning som officer hos ungdomar i Sverige2001Student paper otherStudent thesis
  • 447.
    Bodén, Kim
    Swedish Defence University.
    Förändrade förutsättningar i kampen om statliga trojaner: En studie av policyprocessen om hemlig dataavläsning 2005 – 20172018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 448.
    Bodén, Magnus
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Har FN blivit bättre på att etablera fredsfrämjande operationer i Afrika?2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The end of the cold war marked a clear change in the number of Peace SupportOperations around the world. When the bipolar world of the East and the Westended between 1989 and 1991 it triggered a chain of intra-state conflicts in manyareas in the world, not least in Africa. This study is trying to deal with the UnitedNations (UN) and its capability to intervene with military means in Africanconflicts. The observation that caught the interest of this subject is the notion thatthe UN has serious difficulties to mobilise political will and action to be able toengage in African conflicts. Even when the UN has decided on establishment ofPeace Support Operations, it normally takes a long time to deploy and it is hard toreceive qualified military units, unless colonial ties justifies the quick response ofindividual nations. What explains this difficulty? The UN has tried to analyse anddetermine what is required of them in order to become a credible and forcefulactor in the management of inter- and intra-state conflicts around the world. TheBrahimi Report was released in 2000 by an expert panel for UN Peace Operations.This report still forms the foundation for how the UN should adjust and developits capability for effective conflict prevention, conflict management and executionof Peace Support Operations. The scientific question is therefore; how can PeaceSupport Operations in intra-state conflicts become successful?The purpose of this study is to examine whether the UN-led Peace SupportOperation in Liberia (UNMIL) was an ideal operation when compared withselected recommendations of the Brahimi report, and if the operation therebycould be classified as successful.

  • 449.
    Bogg, Jonas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Amerikanska armén under operation Desert Storm och tillämpningen av manöverkrigföring2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 450.
    Bohlin, Christer
    Swedish Defence University.
    Försvarsviljan i Sverige 1963-20092016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The defence will in Sweden 1963-2009

    One country population’s will to defend itself is discussed in this survey. How has the defence will changed since the 1960’s up till today, and why it is that way? Earlier researches show that Sweden has a population who is willing to defend their country, even if the number of the ones willing changes year to year. This survey will try to describe the defence will in Sweden over the years, and what it is that affects the defence will.

    The main question is: How can the changes in the Swedish defence will from 1963 to 2009 be explained form the yearly public surveys made by ‘Styrelsen för psykologiskt försvar’ (The Board of Psychological Defence)?

    The survey will be conducted using a quantitative method where tables and charts will be constructed using data made by SPF) yearly public surveys. The prominent researcher Gertie Elsässer wrote a doctoral dissertation in 1987 where she made a comparison between the population’s will to defend their country and the population’s belief in the future. This hypothesis will be tested in this survey regarding the period from 1975 to 2009, as well as a comparison between the population’s defence will and their belief in the future and how it correlates. The survey’s results suggest that the population’s belief in the future and their willingness to defend their country is not always correlating. The willingness to defend ones country can be altered with an increase of the population’s confidence in the defence.

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