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  • 351.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Lajksjö, Örjan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Beslutsfattande under stress: En jämförelse av olika modeller2003In: Direkt ledarskap / [ed] G. Larsson & K. Kallenberg, Stockholm: Försvarsmakten , 2003, p. 240-251Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 352.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Lajksjö, Örjan
    Tedfeldt, Eva-Lena
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Eriksson, Benny
    Johansson, Ann
    LoS - Ledarskap och Självkännedom: Presentation och utvärdering av en personligt inriktad ledarskapsövning2001Report (Other academic)
  • 353.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Larsson, B. W.
    Quality of care and service as perceived by adults with developmental disabilities, their parents, and primary caregivers2001In: Mental retardation (Washington, D.C. Print), ISSN 0047-6765, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 249-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How adults with developmental disabilities perceive quality of the care and service they receive was investigated and these perceptions compared with those of their parents and primary caregivers. The sample was 34 adults with developmental disabilities, one of their parents, and their primary caregiver, all from a small Swedish municipality. We adapted Quality From the Patient's Perspective by using simple words and fewer response choices. Results showed it was possible to assess how adults with developmental disabilities evaluated actual care and service conditions. Evaluations of the subjective importance ascribed to these conditions proved too difficult. A high degree of similarity was found in ratings of perceived reality of care and service conditions by the adults with developmental disabilities, their parents, and caregivers.

  • 354.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum. Innlandet University College, Elverum, Norway.
    Lindqvist, Anne
    The Swedish Armed Forces, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Military psychology in Sweden2017In: Handbook of Military psychology / [ed] Stephen V. Bowles and Paul T. Bartone, Springer, 2017, p. 519-523Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is the country on earth with the longest unbroken period of peace (since 1814). However, since the Balkan conflicts in the early 1990s, Swedish military forces have been frequently engaged in multinational peacekeeping and peace enforcement operations. Military psychology in Sweden needs to be seen against this background. In the last decade, psychologists have been involved in selection, deployment psychology, occupational healthcare, veteran affairs, research and education. A consequence of this diversity is that military psychology as a concept and source of common identification no longer plays an important part. However, different aspects of psychology still play, and will likely continue to play, an important part in the Swedish military and civilian defence organization.

  • 355.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Centrum för folkhälsoforskning, Högskolan i Karlstad.
    Ljunggren, G.
    Nyberg, A-B.
    Resare, B.
    Prevention av livsstilsrelaterade sjukdomar genom ett personlighetspsykologiskt baserat behandlingsprogram: Resultat av en försöksverksamhet vid vårdcentralen i Storfors1994Report (Other academic)
  • 356.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, FOA 55, Beteendevetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lothigius, Johan
    Psykiska skäl som gund för sänkt militär tjänstbarhet: Preliminär presentation av hur ett nytt bedömningssystem skulle kunna utvecklas och införas1986Report (Other academic)
  • 357.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Lundell, Emil
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Svensén, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Redovisning av genomförd verksamhet 2017 inom FoT-projektet "Återhämtning efter skarpa insatser"2018Report (Other academic)
  • 358.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Lundell, Emil
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Svensén, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Enskilt tjänstgörande 1990-2015: hur mår de idag och vilken långsiktig effekt har vardagsstress?2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med undersökningen var att kartlägga hur svenska officerare som gjort insatser som enskilt tjänstgörande upplever sig må idag och särskilt beakta vardagsstressens betydelse.

    Studiens teoretiska ramverk utgörs av en modell över vardagsstress, vilket urskiljer sig gentemot tidigare forskning där allvarliga reaktioner som Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) ofta varit i främsta fokus.

    En enkät skickades till samtliga nu levande svenskar som varit enskilt tjänstgörande officerare under perioden 1990-2015 (N = 1198). Svar erhölls från 653 personer (54,5% svarsfrekvens).

    Resultatet visar att majoriteten av deltagarna upplever att de mår bra idag. Endast en mindre grupp rapporterar att de besväras av fysiska, emotionella eller kognitiva stressreaktioner (symptom). Resultatet visar även att ju starkare kombinationen av vardagliga glädjeämnen och funktionell stresshantering är i förhållande till kombinationen av vardagliga oros- och irritationsmoment och dysfunktionell stresshantering, desto lägre är förekomsten av symptom och vice versa.

    Undersökningens främsta praktiska slutsats är att undersökningsdeltagarna i huvudsak mår bra idag. Studiens viktigaste teoretiska slutsats är att den prövade modellen ger ett betydelsefullt kunskapstillskott för förståelse av hur vardagshändelser och hanteringsstrategier samspelar med stressreaktioner och indikationer på PTSD.

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  • 359.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Lundell, Emil
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Svensén, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Internationell tjänst 2011-2015: hur mår dessa kvinnor och män idag och vilken långsiktig effekt har vardagsstress?2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med undersökningen var att kartlägga hur svenska kvinnor och män som gjort internationella insatser upplever sig må idag och särskilt beakta vardagsstressens betydelse.

    En enkät skickades hem till samtliga nu levande svenskar som genomfört en eller flera militära internationella insatser för Försvarsmaktens räkning under perioden 2011-2015(N = 4594), de personer som genomfört insatser som enskilt tjänstgörande (till exempel som observatörer) ingår ej i undersökningen eftersom de medverkat i en samtidig, separat studie. Svar erhölls från 199 kvinnor och 1614 män (40.5% svarsfrekvens, 46 personer avstod från att ange kön). Det dominerande svarsmönstret är att undersökningsdeltagarna upplever att de mår bra idag. Dock besväras cirka 15-25% ”ofta” eller ”mycket ofta” av fysiska, emotionella eller kognitiva stressreaktioner (symptom). Sex procent av kvinnorna (n = 11) redovisar en tydlig indikation på PTSD motsvarande siffra bland männen är tre procent (n = 50).

    Undersökningens främsta praktiska slutsatser är att flertalet undersökningsdeltagare i huvudsak mår bra idag. Samtidigt är antalet personer som uppvisar tydlig PTSD indikation inte är försumbart och detta behöver följas upp av Försvarsmakten. Studiens viktigaste teoretiska slutsats är att den prövade modellen ger ett betydelsefullt kunskapstillskott för förståelse av hur vardagshändelser och hanteringsstrategier samspelar med stressreaktioner och indikationer på PTSD.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 360.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad. The Inland University College of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway..
    Lundell, Emil
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    Svensén, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    Interrelationship of emotional stability, hassles, uplifts, coping and stress-related symptoms in Swedish female and male military veterans2021In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 217-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on previous research, two hypotheses were tested: (1) the higher the frequency of daily uplifts and use of functional coping strategies, and the lower the frequency of daily hassles and use of dysfunctional coping strategies, the lower the prevalence of stress‐related symptoms will be, and vice versa; and (2) the direct relationship between the personality dimension emotional stability and stress‐related symptoms, will be moderated by daily hassles, daily uplifts and coping processes. A quantitative test of a qualitatively developed model was performed. A questionnaire was sent to all Swedish military veterans who had served in the period 2011–2015 and 1859 individuals (1,614 men and 199 women, 46 individuals did not mark gender) responded (40.5% total response rate). All analyses were made separately for men and women. Comparisons between theoretically favorable and unfavorable profiles across the model variables, daily uplifts, daily hassles, functional coping and dysfunctional coping (based on a cluster analysis), showed considerable differences regarding the prevalence of stress‐related symptoms as predicted by the model and supporting the first hypothesis. Regression and moderation analyses yielded limited support for the second hypothesis. As predicted, female veterans reported a higher frequency of physical, emotional and cognitive stress‐related symptoms than male veterans. The main conclusion is that the theoretical model stood up well when empirically tested and offers a promising approach to future studies on everyday stress and health. The results contribute with new knowledge of military veterans compared to the main stream PTSD, depression and drug abuse‐oriented studies.

  • 361.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Lundin, Josi
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Zander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ledarskapsmodellen: Konsten att matcha individuella och organisatoriska förutsättningar2017 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 362.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Lundin, Josi
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Zander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    The Leadership Model: The Art of Matching Individual and Organizational Characteristics2018 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 363.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Mazeikiene, Asta
    Department of Physiology, Biochemistry, Microbiology and Laboratory Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius University, Vilnius, (LTU).
    Smaliukiene, Rasa
    The General Jonas Zemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania, Vilnius, Lithuania;5 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius, Lithuania, (LTU).
    Psychological prediction of stress-related hair stereoid hormone levels in young men: A person-centered approache2023In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to: (1) identify individual profiles in young men regarding personality and cognitive appraisal style employing easy-to-use instruments, and (2) to explore how such profiles relate to biological stress indicators. The sample consisted of 173 male Lithuanian conscripts. An assessment was made after one month into their basic military training. Levels of cortisol, cortisone and testosterone were established through analysis of hair samples. Psychological assessments included the Big Five model of personality as well as cognitive appraisal style and perceived stress during the previous month of service. Four unique personality profiles were identified in a cluster analysis that differed significantly as theoretically expected on the Perceived Stress Scale. Statistically significant between-profile differences were found on cortisol and cortisone but not on testosterone. The personality profile with the highest scores on all three biological markers was characterized by high scores on Extraversion and Openness and low scores on Agreeableness. Second, three distinct cognitive appraisal style profiles emerged. They were related as theoretically expected to perceived stress, but they were unrelated to the hair steroid hormone concentration levels. Third, the combination of the most psychologically vulnerable personality profile, which included low scores on Emotional stability, and the most stressed cognitive appraisal style profile, yielded the clearest result and showed that it was possible to detect individuals with significantly higher stress-related hair steroid hormone levels using psychological instruments. Practical potential implications include identification of individuals who are most psychologically vulnerable and in need of close monitoring.

  • 364.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Michel, P-O.
    Lundin, T.
    Systematic Assessment of Mental Health Following Various Types of Posttrauma Support2000In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 121-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we evaluated the influence of different forms of support (peer support, ventilation or defusing led by the ordinary group leader, and more formal debriefing sessions led by an external counselor) on mental health following traumatic experiences, using a prospective study design. The sample consisted of a Swedish battalion (N = 510), which was part of NATO’s implementation force in Bosnia in 1996. Preservice assessment was made of personality, sense of coherence, and mental health. One third of the soldiers experienced traumatic situations during their service. Results showed that poor mental health after service was related more to preservice mental health and sense of coherence than to trauma exposure and posttrauma support. Peer support followed by a defusing session had a positive effect on postservice mental health, although this did not apply to the individuals with the worst preservice mental health. The value of formal debriefings could not be evaluated due to insufficient data.

  • 365.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Department of Health and Social Science, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway, (NOR).
    Molnar, Malin
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, (SWE).
    Tinnerholm Ljungberg, Helena
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, (SWE).
    Björklund, Christina
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, (SWE).
    Leadership through the subordinates' eye: perceptions of leader behaviors in relation to age and gender2023In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 44, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The study represents a theory-based leadership approach in exploring the subordinate's perceptions of leadership behaviors in relation to age, gender and type of work environment. The aim was (1) to compare subordinates' ratings of their respective leaders' leadership behaviors based on of the leaders' age and gender, controlling for type of work environment and (2) to analyze the relationship between the subordinates' ratings of their leaders' leadership behaviors and their ratings of the outcome of these leadership behaviors.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Data were collected using the Developmental Leadership Questionnaire (DLQ) from a sample of Swedish leadership course participants (n = 10,869) and their respective subordinates (n = 97,943). The DLQ measures leadership behaviors designed to reflect the following leadership styles: developmental leadership, conventional-positive leadership, conventional-negative leadership and destructive leadership.

    Findings

    Results showed that older leaders (51 years or older) were rated less favorably than younger (29 years or younger) and mid-aged leaders. Female leaders received more positive ratings than male leaders. A 3-way analysis-of-variance showed strong main effects for age, gender, and type of work environment and no significant interaction effects. A significant model with high equivalents of R2 coefficients (Cox and Snell, 1989; Nagelkerke, 1991) was obtained in a logistic regression analysis. Developmental leadership and conventional-positive leadership made significant positive contributions to the subordinates' ratings of the outcome of their leaders' leadership behaviors. Destructive leadership behaviors contributed negatively to the outcome ratings.

    Research limitations/implications

    Weaknesses include the cross-sectional study design. The large sample size is a strength, and the results have novel implications for leadership theory related to subordinates' view on leadership.

    Practical implications

    Counter-stereotype age and gender findings may have implications for organizational decisions and processes regarding selection of managers. Development programs are suggested for all categories but for older, male leaders with a focus on reducing their use of leadership behaviors perceived negatively by their subordinates, whereas younger female leaders should be encouraged to continue to develop their positive leadership behaviors.Originality/valueThe theory-based approach on subordinates' perceptions of leadership behaviors with a simultaneous focus on age, gender and type of work environment, based on a large-scale data set, is new.

  • 366.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, (NOR).
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Bandlitz-Johansen, Rino
    Norweigan Defence University College, (NOR).
    Waller, Gudmund
    Norwegian Royal Naval Academy, (NOR).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Moral stress and coping: Relationship with long-term postitive reactions and PTSD indication in military personnel2022In: Ethics & behavior, ISSN 1050-8422, E-ISSN 1532-7019, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 672-683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between moral stress reactions and resulting coping efforts in severely morally challenging situations. Long-term positive reactions and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) indicators following morally challenging situations are also studied. The sample consisted of cadets and officers (n = 332) from Norway and Sweden. Long-term positive reactions were found to be associated with limited moral stress reactions during the challenging episode and frequent use of acceptance and positive reappraisal coping strategies. Long-term high scores on a PTSD indicator scale covaried with high scores on Openness, a strong moral stress reaction, and frequent use of instrumental coping strategies. The main conclusion is that the immediate moral stress reaction and coping strategies following morally challenging situations appear to be related to both positive long-term reactions and to indicators of PTSD.

  • 367.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Kallenberg, Kjell
    Örebro universitetssjukhus, Sverige.
    Waaler, Gudmund
    Royal Norwegian Naval Academy, Norway.
    Moralisk stress bland "first responders"2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 368.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Waaler, Gudmund
    Royal Norwegian Naval Academy, Norway.
    Kallenberg, Kjell
    Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Stress reactions following acute situations involving moral challenges among health care professionals2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 177-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many health care professionals have to make morally difficult decisions during acute, stressful situations. The aim was to explore the applicability of an existing qualitatively developed model of individual reactions among professional first responders following such situations using a quantitative approach. According to the model, the interaction of antecedent individual and contextual characteristics affect the immediate emotional reactions to acute, stressful events involving a moral dilemma. Continuous coping efforts and the quality of social support will also affect the long‐term positive and negative reactions to the event. The participants (n = 204, about 50% response rate) represented three Swedish health care professions stationed at a university hospital and a regional hospital: Physicians (n = 50), nurses (n = 94) and “others” (n =60, mainly social welfare officers and assistant nurses). Except for the personality dimension emotional stability which was measured using an established instrument, all measurement scales were operationalizations of codes and categories from the qualitative study (ten scales altogether). Four multiple regression analyses were performed with long‐term positive and negative reactions in everyday acute and morally extremely taxing situations respectively as dependent variables. The outcome showed that long‐term positive reactions covaried with much use of the coping strategies Emotional distancing and Constructive emotional confrontation and a perception of a well‐functioning Formal social support. Regarding long‐term negative reactions, higher age and little use of Emotional distancing accounted for much of the variance. Immediate emotional reactions also contributed significantly. Conclusion: the results largely supported the model concepts and their assumed relationships.

  • 369.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Inland University College of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Daily uplifts, daily hassles, and coping in military veterans: post-deployment reintegration2024In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 16-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our first aim was to explore the relationship between daily uplifts, daily hassles, and coping styles the first year after returning from international military missions and post-deployment work, family, and private reintegration in military veterans. Our second aim was to identify individual patterns regarding daily uplifts, daily hassles, and coping styles and to explore how they relate to the above-mentioned aspects of post-deployment reintegration. Questionnaire responses were received from 446 Swedish military veterans. Regression analyses showed that daily hassles and an escape-avoidance coping style made significant contributions in the predicted, negative direction to the amount of explained variance on reintegration indicator scales. A high level of perceived threat during the last mission also contributed to more negative integration. Using a person-centered approach, three unique profiles of response patterns were identified using a cluster analysis based on the uplift, hassles, and coping style scores. One profile was labeled “resilient and well-functioning”; its members showed favorable reintegration scores. A second profile was called “ambitious and struggling.” These individuals scored medium-high on the reintegration scales. The third profile consistently indicated the least favorable reintegration scores and was labeled “worried and avoidant.” The results confirm and deepen our existing knowledge.

  • 370.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    18 mjuka medel mot moralisk stress i militär miljö2015Book (Other academic)
  • 371.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    18 ways to improve military officers' management of moral stress2015In: 18 ways to improve military oficers' management of moral stress: 1-4 June 2015, Tartu, Estonia, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 372.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    18 ways to improve military officers' management of moral stress2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 373.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Inland University College of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Svensén, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad. Inland University College of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway.
    Military veterans' perception of quality of care following international operations2024In: Cogent Psychology, E-ISSN 2331-1908, Vol. 11, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high number of military veterans seek professional help at primary healthcare centers for mental health problems. The main aim of this study was to map veterans’ perception of the quality of the care they received when seeking such help after their last tour of duty. A secondary aim was to explore personality and mission-related characteristics of veterans who seek professional help for mental health problems after missions. Questionnaire responses were obtained from 2512 Swedish veterans (43.4% response rate). Among the responders, 210 individuals had sought help for mental health problems at primary healthcare centers. Their perception of the quality of the healthcare was measured using the Quality from the Patient’s Perspective (QPP) questionnaire, which is derived from a theoretical model. Comparisons between the military help seekers and an age and gender matched group of civilian outpatients showed that the military group perceived the information they had received, and the commitment, empathy and respect shown by the physicians, considerably more negatively than the civilian patients. Comparisons between the help-seeking veterans and those who had not sought help, showed that the help seekers were younger and scored significantly lower on emotional stability and higher on conscientiousness. In addition, they perceived the leadership of their immediate commander during the last tour of duty more negatively and they reported fewer daily uplifts and more daily hassles during the tour. It was concluded that a more extensive collaboration between the armed forces and the healthcare system is strongly recommended and that it is necessary to provide education to healthcare providers.

  • 374.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Svensén, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Institutionen för ledarskap och ledning, Leadership and Command & Control Division Karlstad.
    Uplifts and functional coping versus hassles and dysfunctional coping: A balance model test of health outcomes2023In: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, ISSN 1061-5806, E-ISSN 1477-2205Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 375.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Waaler, Gudmund
    The Royal Norwegian Naval Academy, The Norwegian Defence University College, Norway.
    Moralisk stress: professionella moten med moraliskt laddade situasjoner2018In: Necesse, ISSN 2464-353X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 32-37Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 376.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    The Centre for Public Health Research, The County Council of Värmland, Sweden.
    Nordström, L.
    Ljunggren, G.
    Nyberg, A.
    Resare, B.
    Schedewin, G.
    Wahlgren, M.
    The Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck personality types, health-related behaviour, and indicators of transitory ill-health1995In: European Journal of Personality, ISSN 0890-2070, E-ISSN 1099-0984, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 75-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to scrutinize the relationship between personality type as described by Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck, health-related behaviours, and indicators of transitory ill health in a community sample. The sample consisted of all per sons aged 40 years (45 men and 35 women) in a Swedish municipality who agreed to take part in a health examination at the primary health care centre of the municipality. The Short Interpersonal Reactions Inventory (Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck, 1990) was used to measure personality type. Self-report data were obtained regarding seven health-related behaviours. Health was assessed in three ways; self-report (paper and pencil), self-report (interview response to physician), and measures of 36 biological variables including immune system indicators. The allocation of persons to the different personality types proved problematic using the established methods. By combining the types, according to Eysenck's personality model, and performing a cluster analysis on this combination, a ‘healthy’ and a ‘stressed’ profile were identified within both the male and the female group of subjects. Persons in the healthy personality cluster showed more favourable scores on the health-related behaviour indices and on the self-report health scales than the persons in the stressed cluster. They also tended to score lower than those in the stressed cluster on most of the biological markers known to increase during acute stress. The possibility that this implies a higher level of strain for the persons in the stressed cluster on various bodily systems is discussed.

  • 377.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Ohlsson, Alicia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Daily uplifts and adaptive coping as a buffer against daily hassles: relationship with stress reactions over time in military personnel2017In: Scandinavian Psychologist, E-ISSN 1894-5570, no 4, article id e13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of how daily hassles and uplifts interact with each other and with stress reactions over time in military personnel. Interviews were conducted with 15 Swedish veterans five years after an international peace enforcement mission. The grounded theory method was used and result patterns were generated for six specific time periods distributed before, during, and after the mission. A theoretical model was developed showing that everyday uplifts combined with adaptive coping can be sufficient to limit stress reactions related to daily hassles. The model was supported by the fact that, five years after the mission, none of interviewees had received a PTSD diagnosis or needed professional psychological treatment. The last-mentioned outcome is noteworthy in itself given the severe stress often encountered in peace enforcement missions and previous research observations of high PTSD incidence, suicide rates, criminality, and substance abuse in mission participants.

  • 378.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    Oskarsson, Emma
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad.
    Testutveckling med personlighetspsykologiskt fokus2021Report (Other academic)
  • 379.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum. Hedmark University College, Elverum, Norway.
    Sandahl, Christer
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Söderhjelm, Teresa
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Sjövold, Endre
    Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet, Norge.
    Zander, Ann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Leadership behavior changes following a theory-based leadership development intervention: a longitudinal study of subordinates’ and leaders’ evaluations2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 62-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to evaluate effects of leadership courses based on the developmental leadership model at the leadership behavioral level. A longitudinal design was employed with assessments before, one and six months after the leadership courses. The sample consisted of 59 leaders who made self-ratings and were rated by at least three subordinates on each occasion. Leadership behaviors were measured with the Developmental Leadership Questionnaire (DLQ). A limited increase of favorable leadership behaviors and a significant reduction of unfavorable leadership behaviors were found, particularly according to the subordinates’ ratings. A cluster analysis yielded three meaningful leader profiles and showed that this pattern was found in all three profiles, irrespective of how favorably they were rated before the onset of the intervention.

  • 380.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    The Centre for Public Health Research, The County Council of Värmland, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Setterlind, S.
    A Stress Reduction Program Led by Health Care Personnel: Effects on health and well-being1991In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 90-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to evaluate a stress control program which can be led by nurses. The program consisted of 10 three hour sessions conducted weekly. The meetings were devoted to theoretical lectures, discussions about personal stress experiences, and relaxation training. Participants read written material and practiced relaxation between sessions. Subjects in an intervention group showed significant changes in the following variables: fewer perceived daily hassles; more positive self-esteem; improved problem-focused coping capacity; improved eating and exercise habits; fewer self-reported psychological symptoms; improved subjective health status and well-being; lowered level of diastolic blood pressure; reduced waist-hip ratio; and an increase in actions taken against stressors. The results were discussed as promising but it was noted that the program seemed to attract a select group; women with academic training.

  • 381.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, FOA 55, Beteendevetenskapliga institutionen.
    Setterlind, S.
    Mental träning: Historik och nuvarande status1985In: Idrottsforskaren, ISSN 0348-9787, no 3-4, p. 14-32Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 382.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, FOA 55, Beteendevetenskapliga institutionen.
    Setterlind, S.
    Mental träning inom idrotten1983Book (Other academic)
  • 383.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Centrum för folkhälsoforskning, Högskolan i Karlstad.
    Setterlind, S.
    Work load/work control and health: Moderating effects of heredity, self-image, coping, and health behavior1990In: International Journal of Health Sciences, ISSN 0924-2287, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 79-88Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 384.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    The Centre for Public Health Research, The County Council of Värmland Sweden.
    Setterlind, S.
    Starrin, B.
    Routinization of stress control programs in organizations: A study of Swedish teachers1990In: Health Promotion International, ISSN 0957-4824, E-ISSN 1460-2245, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 269-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to design and evaluate a stress control programme which can be carried out by employees in work organizations without direct assistance from specialists. The target group was Swedish high school teachers. Using a two-step model, so called health teams at six high schools were trained by a specialist. A health team is usually comprised of three to five voluntarily recruited persons, generally a school nurse and a few teachers. After this training, the health teams arranged voluntary circles with their colleagues at their respective schools. A treatment group of teachers (n = 56) followed the programme. Programme participants learned relaxation, discussed various aspects of stress, and were equipped with target group adapted training materials. The circles met five to eight times at 2–3 week intervals, 1–3 h per session; all sessions were held during the subjects' spare time. Compared with a control group of teachers (n = 33), the programme participants reported significantly different mean responses in the following respects at a post-training assessment: (i) fewer perceived stressors in the work situation; (ii) more use of emotion-focused coping strategies such as distancing, positive reappraisal, seeking social-emotional support, and self-control, (iii) improved health behaviour (drinking, exercise, nutrition, relaxation and smoking); (iv) fewer physical and emotional stress reactions; (v) a more cheerful overall mood state and a higher sense of well-being and work satisfaction; (vi) less work-related ill health; (vii) a lower intensity of reaction in response to daily hassles; and (viii) an increase in actions taken against stressors-individually and collectively-at work and in the private situation. It was suggested that routinization of stress control programmes in work organizations requires the following: the presence of goal-oriented and entrepreneurial intraorganizational change agents to lead the programmes, the presence of a specialist to train and supervise the local change agents, the availability of comprehensive and target group adapted (raining aids, and formal implementation of the programme in the organizational structure.

  • 385.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, FOA 55, Beteendevetenskapliga institutionen.
    Setterlind, S.
    Steffner-Starrin, L.
    Avslappningsträning inom hälso- och sjukvård: teoretisk orientering och praktisk handledning1985Book (Other academic)
  • 386.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Setterlind, Sven
    Om konsten att hantera sitt liv: D. 1, Handbok i stresshantering1994Book (Other academic)
  • 387.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Fors, Maria
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Leader development in natural context2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 388.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Robertson, I
    Bandlitz Johansen, R
    The new role of the commander2010Report (Other academic)
  • 389.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Bakken, B.
    Indirect leadership: A quantitative test of a qualitatively developed model2007In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 771-778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the applicability of a previously developed model of indirect leadership (qualitative Grounded Theory case study) in a broader military context.

    Design/methodology/approach – The model was operationalised to specific questionnaires for high-level managers, middle-level managers, and lower-level employees. Data were obtained from 147 Norwegian and 134 Swedish military officers, representing all three levels, and serving in the Army and Air Force respectively.

    Findings – The theoretical model of indirect leadership was partly supported. Higher importance was attributed to image-oriented top-down influence, rather than to action-oriented influence via directly subordinate commanders, which may be understood using developmental, transformational, and authentic leadership formulations. Meaningful patterns of subgroup differences were obtained.

    Research limitations/implications – Indirect leadership is complex and bottom-up influences were not taken into account, not all aspects of the top-down influence process were covered, only military contexts were studied, and no meaningful analysis of possible gender-related differences was possible in this male-dominated context.

    Practical implications – The obtained support of the theoretical model legitimises its use as a tool in higher military management education and coaching.

    Originality/value – The measurement tools of indirect leadership and the quantitatively based support of a Grounded Theory model with a how-focus on indirect leadership.

  • 390.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Vrbanjac, Aida
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Leadership and Management (ILM).
    Björkman, Torsten
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division.
    Indirect leadership in a military context: A qualitative study on how to do it2005In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 215-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To develop a theoretical understanding of how indirect leadership is done in a military context.

    Design/methodology/approach – A grounded theory approach was used. Twenty-two high-level Swedish commanders, and six of their subordinates were interviewed.

    Findings – A model was developed which suggests that indirect leadership can be understood as consisting of two simultaneous processes. One is action-oriented and consists of interacting with a link (usually a small group of directly subordinate managers) which passes the messages down to lower organisational levels. The other influence process is image-oriented and consists of being a role model. Both processes are filtered through a “lens” which consists of the relative impact of a safety culture on the activities. In the favourable case, the employees at the lower levels trust both the link and the higher management. This appears to be a necessary condition for commitment and active participation. In the unfavourable case, there is a lack of trust. This breeds redefinitions of the messages and a necessity for relying on reward and punishment to obtain obedience.

    Research limitations/implications – Lack of representativeness, indirect influence from lower to higher levels, as well as possible gender-related aspects, not studied.

    Practical implications – The suggested model may be a valuable tool in higher management education.

    Originality/value – The identification of two co-occurring pathways of influence.

  • 391.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Vrbanjac, Aida
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Björkman, Torsten
    Safe handling of advanced military technology: A leadership issue2005In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Military Technology / [ed] S. Axberg, 2005, p. 207-212Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 392.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Sköld, Tomas
    Swedish National Defence College, Ledarskapsinstitutionen.
    Wiréng, B.
    Civil personals kompetensutveckling: en kvalitativ undersökning av en försöksverksamhet2000Report (Other academic)
  • 393.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Leadership Division, Karlstad. Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania, Inland University College of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway.
    Smaliukienė, Rasa
    The General Jonas Zemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania, Vilnius, (LTU).
    Mažeikienė, Asta
    Vilnius University, Vilnius, (LTU).
    Vaičaitienė, Ramute
    The General Jonas Zemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania, Vilnius, (LTU).
    Bekešienė, Svajonė
    The General Jonas Zemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania, Vilnius, (LTU).
    Mazgelytė, Eglė
    Vilnius University, Vilnius, (LTU).
    Karčiauskaitė, Dovilė
    Vilnius University, Vilnius, (LTU).
    Perceived stress and hair cortisol level amongst conscripts during basic military training: A repeated measures study2022In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 541-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to examine hair cortisol levels and self-reported stress amongst conscripts during their basic military training, and how they are related to four types of theory-derived determinants. The following prediction was made: lower levels of perceived stress and hair cortisol will be associated with: (1) higher levels of emotional stability (the individual nonmilitary aspect); (2) a lower degree of private life problems (the contextual nonmilitary aspect); (3) more positive attitudes toward the military, higher engagement in military service, and higher adaptability to military conditions (the individual-military aspect); and (4) stronger group cohesion and better leadership (the contextual-military aspect). The sample consisted of a total of 107 male Lithuanian conscripts. Assessments were made at the beginning of their basic military training, in the middle, and at the end. Established instruments were used on all self-reported scales. Hair cortisol levels were established through analyses of hair samples. Low to moderate levels of stress were found throughout the basic training period regarding perceived stress levels. Hair cortisol levels were mainly unrelated to the self-rating scales. Regarding perceived stress, the prediction was fully confirmed. The future value of the theoretical model is discussed.

  • 394.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Centrum för folkhälsoforskning, Högskolan i Karlstad.
    Starrin, B.
    Patient-nurse interactions: relationships between person characteristics, empathy, content of communication, and patients' emotional reactions1990In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 129-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relationships between antecedent person variables (sex and age), empathic understanding, content of communication, and patients' emotional reactions were studied in 3200 patient-assistant nurse dyadic interactions. The sample consisted of 32 psychiatric patients (20 males and 12 females, mean age: 61 years) and eight female assistant nurses at a nursing-home in Sweden. Four assistant nurses were younger (25 years old or less) and four were older (45 years old or more). All interactions were regular morning meetings at which the patient's activity plans for the day were discussed. These meetings were held in each patient's private room, and lasted for about 15 min. High empathic understanding on part of the helper covaried with more communication of "everyday character" and communication dealing with "personal and emotional qualities", with less communication dealing with "facts and practical issues", and with a more cheerful emotional state among the patients during the encounters. Male patients were more cheerful during encounters with younger assistant nurses while female patients were more cheerful when interacting with older assistant nurses. Helpers with higher scores on empathic understanding seemed to have a higher awareness of relational history.

  • 395.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, FOA 55, Beteendevetenskapliga institutionen.
    Starrin, B.
    Bood, S-Å.
    Stade, M.
    Bemästring av stess: Preliminär utveckling av en mätmetod1984Report (Other academic)
  • 396.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Centrum för folkhälsoforskning, Högskolan i Karlstad.
    Starrin, B.
    Wilde, B.
    Contributions of stress theory to the understanding of helping1991In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 79-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper is theoretical, patient centred, and focuses on the two following questions: (1) In what way might a stress theoretical approach further our understanding of how helping can affect somatic and psychological processes in patients, and (2) in what way might stress theory offer action oriented guidelines for those who offer help ? A stress model is outlined involving relationships between a patient's cognitive appraisal of a given care situation, his or her coping efforts, and emotional and physiological reactions. Several conditions, related to the patient and to the care giving situation, which might influence the patient's appraisal process are discussed. Possible short- and long-term effects of helping in the somatic and psychological domains are presented. Two examples of common care situations are analysed to show how stress theory may offer helpers an action oriented tool. The concept of participatory caring, implying not only patient involvement but actual power sharing between patients and health professionals, is discussed.

  • 397.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, FOA 55, Beteendevetenskapliga institutionen.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet.
    Bemästring av stress: Kompendium på Lazarus, R.S. (1966): Psychological Stress and the Coping Process1983Report (Other academic)
  • 398.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet.
    Decision making in stressful conditions: A model based on the coping perspective1984Report (Other academic)
  • 399.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Hälsohögskolan i Värmland.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Effects of relaxation training on verbal ability, sequential thinking, and spatial ability1988In: Journal of the Society for Accelerative Teaching and Learning, ISSN 0273-2459, Vol. 13, p. 147-163Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 400.
    Larsson, Gerry
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, FOA 55, Beteendevetenskapliga institutionen.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet.
    Etiskt ansvar och etisk kompetens vid värnpliktsinskrivningar1981In: Psykolognytt, ISSN 0033-3220, Vol. 2, p. 5-8Article in journal (Refereed)
567891011 351 - 400 of 622
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