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  • 351.
    Sjöberg, Toivo
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Skydd av Amfibieförbandens båtar i en förändrad hotbild2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the near future Swedish amphibious forces will be utilised in international operations.The operations can be carried out anywhere in the world. The threats encountered are atthe same time both complex and diffuse and are also changing with technicaldevelopment. The global distribution of weapons, reconnaissance equipment and othermilitary outfits will increase.It is only reasonable that the personnel we deploy is protected by the new technologyavailable. The boats that are used by the amphibious forces should provide the bestpossible protection. The ongoing modernization of the amphibious forces entails, amongother things, a new combat boat being used by the forces. A prototype of the boat isestimated delivered in 2009. When it is produced, it is important that the protection of theboat has a central position even in the trial phase. The boats should be equipped so thatthey can provide enough protection against reconnaissance activities and weapons.During a UN operation it is, as a rule, important to be visible and to show the flag. Whenthe character of the mission changes with short notice, the boats must also be able tofunction in a hidden appearance mode when under threat from weapons. The boatsshould be able to function in both these situations.This paper attempts to present a perspicuous view of the protection technology that theSwedish defence in developing for boats and that will be available in the productionperiod of the new combat boat.

  • 352.
    Sjöholm, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Simulering av ett framtida luftförsvar till sjöss: kryssningsrobotar vs långräckviddiga luftvärnsrobotar2001Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of anti air warfare systems (AAW) for naval forces, tend to be more and more expensive. If AAW will get a more offensive roll in the future, one must perhaps choose between a cruise missile system, or a long range anti air missile system. A stochastic model has been developed. By using this model, 23 625 different simulations have been executed with 189 different combinations of parameters. According to these simulations, a naval force should be armed with both a cruise missile system and a long range anti air missile system. The armament should consist of at least as many cruise missile as long range anti air missiles.

  • 353.
    Sjöwall, Ulf
    Swedish National Defence College.
    USA:s och Sveriges betraktelse över sjöminkrigföringens strategiska roll i ett historiskt perspektiv2001Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The post world war period demands new maritime strategies for the New Century. U.S. military will play an essential role in building coalitions and shaping the international environment through means such as the forward stationing or deployment of forces. This requires significant forward presence involving naval forces in crisis-prone regions. Forward presence and engagement require capability to manoeuvre naval forces from the sea into the littoral waters. With the shift in focus by naval forces from the open ocean strategies of the Cold War to the littoral regions, the potential for mines to frustrate naval plans has increased. Naval forces must have an effective MCM capability to operate in littoral waters. A comparative historic study between U.S. and Sweden can give new prospects in the strategic importance of mine warfare.    This study focuses on U.S. and Swedish reflections on the strategic importance of mine warfare. During the 20 th century mine warfare made a definite breakthrough in sea warfare. This study attempts to give an outline of how attitudes of naval strategy are influenced by conflicts, war and technical development.  

  • 354.
    Skoglund, Ulf
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Network interdiction2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Network interdiction problems involve two opposing forces, a user and anattacker, who are engaged in a warlike conflict. The user operates a network inorder to optimize a function such as moving a supply convoy through thenetwork as quickly as possible, or maximizing the amount of materieltransported through the network. This means that the user is trying to use theshortest or the fastest route to perform transports, and he is trying to maximizethe flow trough the network. The network could be a road net, an electric powergrid or a computer network system. The attacker attempts to limit the user’spossibility to optimize his function. The purpose is to maximize the shortest andfastest route or to minimize the maximum flow through the network. Theattacker obtains this by interdicting arcs or nodes, e.g. by attacking arcs or nodesin order to destroy them entirely or to reduce their capacity. The attacker’sresources are limited and there is a need to optimize the use of them. In manycases the network is big and numerous parameters influence the planning. Thismakes the conditions for planning complex and difficult for the attacker. If theplanning of network interdiction is performed in the traditional way, the planneris forced to use intuition. The result will depend on the planner’s capacity and thetime at his disposal. If algorithms could be used to support the planner, theresources and the effect of the attack would be optimized. This thesis examines ifit is possible to use network interdiction algorithms to plan network interdiction.

  • 355.
    Sonesson, Niklas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Telematikbaserade tjänsters påverkan på tillgängligheten2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine and highlight the possible usefulness of telematicsbased services integrated in vehicles that are a part of the land forces in the new Swedishoperations defence.The Swedish Armed Forces have just started the transformation into a modern, flexibleand mobile defence based on crisis response, a defence that is multifaceted and adapted tocarrying out many different types of operations, both national and international. Measuresneed to be taken in many different branches to be able to accomplish the transformationfrom an anti-invasion defence to an defence based on crisis response.If the reduced amount of units have to be able to perform combining high availability withhigh precision, it is necessary to increase the availability of those units that are a part of andefence based on crisis response.In the civilian society transformation occurs primary because of a demand for increasedprofitability and higher effectiveness.For vehicle manufacturers this implies new techniques being used to meet those demands.With the introduction of telematics in vehicles and by developing telematics basedservices there will be many opportunities to increase profitability and effectiveness inlogistic companies.In the past, technology for civilians had its origin in military technology, e.g. the Internet.Today the opposite is true. Market forces promote development and new civiliantechnologies are being adapted to military environments.A conceivable way of increasing tactical availability and improving the chances forretaining required endurance in the Armed Forces is if telematics based services areintegrated in military vehicles.

  • 356.
    Stark, Olof
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Markmålsrobot på svenska örlogsfartyg i NBF-miljö: politisk vilja och militär förutsättning2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Historical Sweden has had the ability to conduct Naval Gun Support (NGS).Particularly with armoured vessels ore ironclads as they were called. Later oncruisers and destroyers solved the task. From the middle of the eighties up topresent time Sweden’s naval register of shipping have consisted of smallerunits without the capability of Naval Surface Fire Support (NSFS) that is thecurrent used term.Technological evolution up until today enables smaller vessels (surface-shipsand conventional submarines) to carry arms such as Standoff Land AttackMissiles (SLAM). This fact together with the theories about network centricwarfare and manoeuvre warfare facilitates the base of this work.Operations, operational command, network centric warfare and manoeuvrewarfare are some keywords in today’s quality based defence forces. Theseexpressions are also important when new capacities such as ground-to-groundmissile systems are discussed. Furthermore there have to exist political willand military conditions before such systems can be realized. This work examinesif there are political willingness and military circumstances to realizeSLAM-systems aboard tomorrow’s Swedish man-of-war. To get it comprehensiblethe work also includes a brief description of similar, existing, andimagined future missile systems. Further on the work sheds light on how thesystems could be attached to the Swedish operational philosophy of militarycommand and finally how they connect to the Swedish military operationalimperatives. The underlying theories of the composition are the theories aboutmanoeuvre warfare and network centric warfare.

  • 357.
    Stefansson, Niklas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Transnationella logistiksamarbeten: En möjlighet för försvarsmakten att få ökad tillgänglighet på sina tekniska system2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Försvarsmakten fick i början av 2016 leveransen av den första sjöoperativa konfigurationen av det nya helikoptersystemet Helikopter 14 (Hkp14). Upphandlingen av helikoptersystemet gjordes tillsammans med Norge och Finland med visionen att det skulle leda till synergieffekter genom samarbete. Omfattningen av detta samarbete är idag mycket mindre än de initiala avsikterna. Då Försvarsmakten har problem med tillgängligheten på reservdelar och att kostnaderna för försvarsmateriel ökar, har detta lett fram till studiens forskningsfrågor: Vilka är förutsättningarna för ett samarbete med Norge kring reservmaterielförsörjningen av Hkp14 och vilka eventuella vinster skulle ett sådant samarbete ge?

    Genom kvalitativa intervjuer och studier av rapporter identifierades förutsättningarna som sedan sattes i relation till teoribildningar kring logistik, för att kunna bestämma vilka eventuella vinster ett samarbete skulle kunna ge.

    Studien visar att det finns möjligheter att samarbeta inom vissa områden som är kopplade till reservmaterielsförsörjningen, men att de är begränsade då Norge är uppbundna av ett Interim Contractor Support (ICS) avtal med Nato Helicopter Industri (NHI). Efter att kontraktet går ut i mitten av 2019 blir möjligheten att samarbeta bättre och de möjliga vinsterna ökar. Studien visar också att det tänkta samarbetet kan leda till bättre tillgänglighet på reservdelar till en lägre kostnad än utan ett samarbete. 

  • 358.
    Stensson, Patrik
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Thoughts about the Consequences of Inappropriate Application of Systems Engineering2010In: Proceedings of the 7th Europeean Systems Engineering Conference, Stockholm, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Probably unintentional but still excessive application of systems thinking may be a major cause of technology being endowed with hardwired presupposition about activities and contexts, which in human terms would be called prejudice. In turn, this could perhaps be a consequence of inappropriate application of Systems Engineering. A few thoughts are presented about the consequences of predetermination (e.g., Reason 2000; Norman 2002; Vicente 2006), about why this continues to create problems, and about how it might be countered. The aim is to promote a debate that will lead to more appropriate application and thereby increased utility of systems thinking, which occurs when it is balanced with better knowledge about possible consequences. This debate begins with the introduction of a few provocative concepts. The systemic paradox is naturally problematic in this context, and the vicious circle culture thrives on systems thinking and grows from initially harmless flaws to become serious dangers.

  • 359.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section. Ångström Space Technology Centre (ÅSTC), Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sense, Actuate and Survive: Ceramic Microsystems for High-Temperature Aerospace Applications2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In aerospace applications, but also in manufacturing, mining, energy industry and natural hazards, high temperature, corrosion, erosion and radiation, challenge the performance and being of hardware.

    In this work, high-temperature co-fired ceramic (HTCC) alumina and platinum have been used for a range of devices intended for aerospace applications at up to 1000°C.

    The thermomechanics of a pressure sensor was investigated, and the interfacing was attained by wireless powering and reading. However, read range was limited and sensitivity decreased with temperature. Silver, electroplated after sintering, was found to remedy this until it eventually alloyed with platinum.

    Copper was electroplated and oxidized for oxygen storage in a microcombustor, intended for sample preparation for optogalvanic spectroscopy (OGS) to indicate extraterrestrial life. Despite delamination, caused by residual stresses, the device operated successfully.

    Conversely, pre-firing metallization by integration of platinum wires was studied. Freely suspended, and despite heat-induced shape irregularities, these were found advantageous over screen printed elements for gas heating, and temperature and pressure sensing. By fusing off the wires, spherical tips, allowing for impedance monitoring of microplasma sources in, e.g., OGS, were formed.

    Microplasma sources can also be used for gas heating. This, together with screen printed and suspended resistive heaters, was evaluated in a microthruster, showing that plasma heating is the most effective, implying fuel consumption reduction in satellite propulsion.

    In conclusion, HTCC alumina microdevices are thermally stable and could benefit several aerospace applications, especially with the complementary metallization schemes devised here.

    Future developments are expected to include both processing and design, all with the intention of sensing, actuating and surviving in high-temperature environments.

  • 360.
    Sturesson, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Bull, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    On the Applicability and Military Utility of Microsystems in Military Jet EnginesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 361.
    Sturesson, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Uppsala University.
    Khaji, Zahra
    Uppsala University.
    Knaust, Stefan
    Uppsala University.
    Sundqvist, Johan
    Uppsala University.
    Klintberg, Lena
    Uppsala University.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University.
    Thermomechanical stability and integrability of an embedded ceramic antenna with an integrated sensor element for wireless reading in harsh environments2013In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series / [ed] Paul Mitcheson, London: Institute of Physics (IOP), 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the design, manufacturing and evaluation of a small, wirelessly powered and read resonating antenna circuit with an integrated pressure sensor. The work aims at developing miniature devices suitable for harsh environments, where high temperature prevents the use of conventional, silicon-based microdevices. Here, the device is made of alumina with platinum as conducting material. Ceramic green tapes were structured using high-precision milling, metallized using screen printing, and subsequently laminated to form stacks before they were sintered. The device’s frequency shift as a function of temperature was studied up to 900°C. The contributions to the shift both from the thermomechanical deformation of the device at large, and from the integrated and, so far, self-pressurized sensor were sorted out. A total frequency shift of 3200 ppm was observed for the pressure sensor for heating over the whole range. Negligible levels of thermally induced radius of curvature were observed. With three-point bending, a frequency shift of 180 ppm was possible to induce with a curvature of radius of 220 m at a 10 N load. The results indicate that a robust pressure sensor node, which can register pressure changes of a few bars at 900°C and wirelessly transmit the signal, is viable.

  • 362.
    Sturesson, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Uppsala University.
    Khaji, Zahra
    Uppsala University.
    Stefan, Knaust
    Uppsala University.
    Klintberg, Lena
    Uppsala University.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University.
    Thermomechanical properties and performance of ceramic resonators for wireless pressure reading at high temperatures2015In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 25, no 9, article id 095016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the design, fabrication, and thermomechanical study of ceramic LC resonators for wireless pressure reading, verified at room temperature, at 500 °C and at 1000 °C for pressures up to 2.5 bar. Five different devices were fabricated from high-temperature co-fired ceramics (HTCC) and characterized. Alumina green tape sheets were screen printed with platinum paste, micromachined, laminated, and fired. The resulting samples were 21 mm  ×  19 mm with different thicknesses. An embedded communicator part was integrated with either a passive backing part or with a pressure-sensing element, including an 80 µm thick and 6 mm diameter diaphragm. The study includes measuring thermally and mechanically induced resonance frequency shifts, and thermally induced deformations. For the pressure sensor device, contributions from changes in the relative permittivity and from expanding air trapped in the cavity were extracted. The devices exhibited thermomechanical robustness during heating, regardless of the thickness of the backing. The pressure sensitivity decreased with increasing temperature from 15050 ppm bar−1 at room temperature to 2400 ppm bar−1 at 1000 °C, due to the decreasing pressure difference between the external pressure and the air pressure inside the cavity.

  • 363.
    Sturesson, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section. Ångström Space Technology Centre, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden; Division of Microsystems Technology, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Klintberg, Lena
    Division of Microsystems, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Thornell, Greger
    Ångström Space Technology Centre, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden; Division of Microsystems Technology, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pirani Microgauge Fabricated of High-Temperature Co-fired Ceramics with Integrated Platinum Wires2019In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 285, p. 8-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the integration and pressure sensor operation of platinum bond wires in High- Temperature Co-fired alumina (HTCC). Devices were fabricated with a 50 μm diameter wire suspended across a 500 μm wide cavity in green-body state HTCC, electrically connected to screen printed alumina conductors. The substrate shrinkage during sintering to a cavity width of 400 μm causes the wire element to elevate from the cavity ́s bottom surface. Resulting devices were compared with reference devices, containing screen-printed sensor elements, as Pirani gauges operated at 100 °C in constant-resistance mode, and in dynamic mode with a feeding current of 1 A in a pressure range from 10-4 Torr to atmospheric pressure. Also, devices with wire lengths between 500 and 3500 μm were operated and studied in constant-resistance and dynamic mode. Lastly, a device is demonstrated in operation at a mean temperature of 830 °C. The results include wire elements with a consistent elevation from their substrate surfaces, with irregularities along the wires. The wire devices exhibit a faster pressure response in dynamic mode than the reference devices do but operate similarly in constant-resistance mode. Increasing the wire element length shows an increasing dynamic pressure range but a decreasing maximum sensitivity. The sensitivity is retained in high temperature mode, but the dynamic range is extended from about 10 Torr to about 700 Torr.

  • 364.
    Sturesson, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Seton, Ragnar
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Klintberg, Lena
    Uppsala University.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University.
    Persson, Anders
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Effect of Resistive and Plasma Heating on the Specific Impulse of a Ceramic Cold Gas Thruster2019In: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 235-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research and development of small satellites has continued to expand over the last decades. However, propulsion systems with adequate performance have persisted to be a great challenge. In this paper, the effects of three different heaters on the specific impulse and overall thrust efficiency of a cold gas microthruster are presented. They consisted of a conventional, printed resistive thick-film element, a freely suspended wire, and a stripline split-ring resonator microplasma source and were integrated in a single device made from high-temperature co-fired ceramics (HTCC). The devices were evaluated in two setups, where the first measured thrust and the other shock cell geometry. In addition, the resistive elements were evaluated as gas temperature sensors. The microplasma source was found to provide the greatest improvement in both specific impulse and thrust efficiency, increasing the former from an un- heated level of 44 s to 55 s when heating with a power of 1.1 W. This corresponded to a thrust efficiency of 53 %. This could be compared to the results from the wire and printed heaters which were 50 s and 18 %, and 45 s and 14 %, respectively. The combined results also showed that imaging the shock cells of a plasma heated thruster was a simple and effective way to determine its performance compared to the traditional thrust balance method.

  • 365.
    Sturesson, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section. Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Angstrom Space Technol Ctr, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Div Microsyst Technol, Sweden.
    Zahra, Khaji
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Div Microsyst Technol, Sweden.
    Lena, Klintberg
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Div Microsyst Technol, Sweden.
    Greger, Thornell
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Angstrom Space Technol Ctr, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Div Microsyst Technol, Sweden.
    Ceramic Pressure Sensor for High Temperatures: Investigation of the Effect of Metallization on Read Range2017In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 2411-2421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A first realization of membranes by draping a graphite insert with ceramic green body sheets, and a study on the relationship between circuit metallization, made by double- layer screen-printing of platinum and electroplating of silver on top of platinum, and the practical read range of ceramic LC resonators for high-temperature pressure measurements, are presented. As a quality factor reference, two-port microstrip meander devices were positively evaluated. To study interdiffusion between silver and platinum, test samples were annealed at 500, 700, and 900 °C for 4, 36, 72, and 96 hours. The LC resonators were fabricated with both metallization methods, and the practical read range at room temperature was evaluated. Pressure sensitive membranes were characterized for pressures up to 2.5 bar at room temperature, 500 and up to 900°C. Samples electroplated with silver exhibited performance equal to or better than double-layer platinum samples for up to 60 hours at 500°C, 20 hours at 700°C, and for 1 hour at 900°C, which was correlated with the degree of interdiffusion as determined from cross- sectional analysis. The LC resonator samples with double-layer platinum exhibited a read range of 61 mm, and the samples with platinum and silver exhibited a read range of 59 mm. The lowest sheet resistance, and, thereby, the highest read range of 86 mm, was obtained with a silver electroplated LC resonator sample after 36 hours of annealing at 500°C. 

  • 366.
    Sund, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Teknisk tillgänglighet och dess nyckeltal - utifrån en marin kontext2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Availability is essential to create effect with technological systems. This leads to a need to actively work on follow-up and key indicators to be able to optimize organization and design in order to achieve the desired effect, with the resources available. Fundamental to this is to have common terminology, good communication and an understanding of the roles of those involved.

     

    This study examines the concepts of availability and compares the definitions from literature with reality. The aim is to clarify and highlight problems with concepts of availability, key indicators and the work being done on this. This is partly done by testing whether or not existing concepts are still valid. The objective is for this work to support needs expressed regarding a discussion of availability concepts, and to be a prelude for further studies.

     

    The results of the study show that existing concepts of availability are still valid. The question that arises relates instead to which type of availability should be in focus. Nevertheless, it is quite clear that it is a challenging task, from an availability perspective, to manage multifunctional platforms with different operating profiles. Furthermore, there are also discrepancies both between literature and reality, and within and between organizations. It was also noted that there is a lack of uniform follow-up procedures, and that this is primarily an issue for commanders and management.

  • 367.
    Sundquist, Johan
    Swedish Defence University.
    Krav på sensorn i aktiva skyddssystem2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally armor has been used to protect armored vehicles and main battle tanks. However, today armor piercing weapons has developed to such an extent that armor cannot provide enough protection. To counter-act this, active protection systems has been developed which detect and destroy threats before it hits the vehicle. This report examined what requirements should be imposed on a radar in an active protection system. In the report the author investigates at which distances the radar must be able to detect threats on if the system would be mounted on either an armored vehicle or a main battle tank. The results indicated that the range of the radar is dependent on: threat velocity, the armors ability to protect against residual effect and the active protection systems warhead.

  • 368.
    Sundqvist, Folke
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Traditionella underrättelsefrågor vid val av sensorkombinationer2001Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the extensive changes that the Swedish Armed Forces are undergoing within the framework of a Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA), there are reasons to examine what demands sensor-systems are needed to meet in the future. The Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI) and The Swedish Defense Materiel Administration (FMV) made a study and identified important abilities. Some of the abilities were Identification, Verification of Targets before Impact and Battle Damage Assessment (BDA) and will be further examined in this paper. The aim of this paper is to clarify if specified intelligence-questions toward Command and Control system can help to select adequate combination of multiple sensors that solves the chosen abilities that are needed within the specified timeframe in 2010. Open literature, reports and researches from FOI have been used during this work. To start the work it was necessary to couple ability towards. Then the questions were coupled towards classes of sensors. Different types of sensors were then divided in different sensor-classes. The result of the analysis shows that specified intelligence-questions could work in pinpointing out appropriate combination of sensors but the results were not unique. Further questions have to be found and answered i.e. conditions of the atmosphere and furthers information of the target. These facts could increase the possibility for the Command and Control system to deliver appropriate combination of multiple sensors in the future. An ability that will work within the timeframe is Battle Damage Assessment.

  • 369.
    Sunnelid, Mats
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Utbildning vid Tekniskt Chefsprogram - alternativa utbildningsmodeller i en jämförelse2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research paper has taken an interest in how the education at the Advanced CommandCourse Technical Orientation has been performed with during the initial technical year. I havecompared this to three alternative ways of conducting education. These three alternative wayshave consisted of the three models of education:1. Problem Based Learning2. Five-step Model3. Thematic EducationThe purpose of this research paper is to illustrate how the education can be developed to reach ahigher degree of knowledge of technical systems and holistic view to prepare the officer for thenext level.I have compared these three models to the education at the Advanced Command CourseTechnical Orientation regarding advantages and disadvantages concerning that the students aremilitary officers. When examinated the students will become commanders or administrativeofficials to commanders within the Armed ForcesFrom pedagogic literature and official reports within and outside the Armed Forces, I haveidentified some factors that affect the demands and possibilities for military officers to serveafter their education, mainly with focus on the future and the need for knowledge of technicalsystems. These factors are the basis for my comparison.My research shows that the officer is taking part in a more complex world. After the fall ofSoviet Union, the rise of global terrorism and implementation of advanced technical systems,we are now looking at a non-linear act of war. Because of this, there are great advantages withtraining officers according to theories of adult learning, inter disciplinarity, comprehensive viewand knowledge of systems.

  • 370.
    Svartz, Mikael
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Splitterskyddad granatkastare (Grkpbv 90120) - ett system för strid i bebyggelse?2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine if Grkpbv 90120 (Mortar Combat Vehicle90120) is a system for the future, and can continue to constitute an indirect firesupport system even for urban warfare.The transformation of the Swedish Armed Forces affects, among other things, achange in tasks and the introduction of Network Centric Defence. One of theimplications is an increased significance of urban warfare, especially whenkeeping peace support operations and global urbanisation trends in mind. Theproblem comes out of the fact that Grkpbv 90120 was originally intended for atype of unit that normally does not fight in urban terrain. By examination of theterrain and its conditions for combat, it has been possible to specify requirementsfor the indirect fire support system of an attached unit. Subsequently, therequirements have been compared to the abilities of Grkpbv 90120. Urban warfareconstitutes hilly terrain characterised by difficulty of observation, short firingdistances, proximity to protection, three-dimensional combat and the mix ofcivilians, friends and foes. Grkpbv 90120 fulfils a number of basic requirementsfor urban warfare, but must be developed within the areas of target engagementand protection, among other things, precision engagements, gradable effect andpenetration and also protection against handheld weapons at every angle of attack,also during darkness.After some development, the Grkpbv 90120 will be an indirect fire supportsystem for an attached unit, which is well suited for future urban warfare.

  • 371.
    Svensk, Fredrik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Avvägning mellan synfält och räckvidd med infraröda sensorer - Nödvändighet eller utvecklingsfråga?2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att som operatör ha möjlighet att se i ett elektromagnetiskt spektrum som det blotta ögat inte kan upptäcka bidrar till en rad fördelar. Den militära nyttan av IR-sensorer har drivit utvecklingen inom många av dess användningsområden som till exempel målsökare och mörkerkapacitet i totalt mörker. Det finns en svårighet kopplat till IR-sensorer och det är att det måste ske en avvägning mellan dess synfält och dess räckvidd. Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka vad det är som tvingar tillverkarna av dessa sensorer till att välja mellan dessa två parametrar. Detta för att sedan kunna ha en diskussion om eventuella lösningar och deras bidrag till de två grundläggande förmågorna verkan och underrättelse/information. Två nyare tekniker kommer även att undersökas för att kunna upptäcka alternativa lösningar på problemet.Undersökningen visade på att det största hindret var ett fysikaliskt sådant och detta var kopplat till bildformeringen, optikens fokallängd. En kort fokallängd gav ett brett synfält medan en längre fokallängd gav bättre räckvidd.

  • 372.
    Svensson, Alexander
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hybriddrift i stridsfordon, fördelar och nackdelar2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Petro-electric IFVs (Infantry fighting vehicles) or hybrid-IFV’s are not a new phenomenon. During the 1900’s Germany as well as the U.S both tested vehicles constructed with hybrid technology. In spite of several identified advantages, no serving hybrid-IFV exists today. This essay examines the possible military benefits from electrical hybrid-drive. It is not however, to be seen as an assessment of whether the Swedish armed forces should procure a hybrid vehicle or not. Through a method of description this essay aims to describe advantages and disadvantages of hybrid-drive in a light IFV. The survey relies on a comparative analysis of answers given in semi-structured interviews. Each source could represent a different side in a future acquisition process. Results are presented in a table showing the advantages and the criteria pertaining to each advantage. Amongst the benefits are improved maneuverability, due to increased acceleration, and "silent" mode which improves both protection and endurance. Several benefits rely on energy storage i.e. batteries, regenerative braking is an example of this. Batteries, in turn, are marred with a variety of problems. And therefore demand improved performances and safety systems in order not be deemed as disadvantages.

  • 373.
    Sydow, Anders von
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Analys och jämförelse av SEAD-förmågorna hos JAS 39 Gripen samt en svensk UCAV år 20152002Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att jämföra/analysera förmågorna till Suppression of Enemy Air Defences (SEAD) hosJAS 39 och en svensk UCAV år 2015. Årtalet 2015 är valt för att flera bedömare anser att det är först vid dennatidpunkt som en Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) har en utvecklingsnivå som tillåter att de sätts in i SEADuppdrag.I uppsatsen redovisas vilka krav som ställs på en plattforms sensorer och bekämpningsförmåga för attgenomföra ett SEAD-uppdrag mot två utvalda typer av mål. Därefter sker en jämförelse mellan de båda farkosternasförmåga att detektera respektive bekämpa de båda målen. Resultatet visar att JAS 39 som bemannad plattform har enfördel i de fall då operationer är hårt styrda av Rules of Engagement (ROE), särskilt gäller detta vid fredsbevarandeoperationer. Uppsatsen visar även att flygplanradarns förmåga att upptäcka och identifiera markmål är beroende avinförandet av en SAR-mod. Vidare konstateras att en UCAV genom att vara obemannad och signaturanpassad kan tastörre risker vid vapenleverans än JAS 39 Gripen, samt att en liten och signaturanpassad UCAV har stora svårigheteratt bära konventionella signalsökande robotar. En av slutsatserna visar på svårigheterna att med kameror i en UCAVåstadkomma en visuell omvärldsuppfattning liknande den för en pilot. För båda plattformarna gäller att SEADkapacitetenmot en radarstation till stor del är beroende av möjligheten att skjuta signalsökande robotar. Både för JAS39 och en UCAV är ett emitterlokaliseringssystem en viktig komponent för att kunna lokalisera en radarstation. För attklara detta från en plattform krävs Doppler Difference Of Arrival (DDOA).

  • 374.
    Sävensjö, Marcus
    Swedish Defence University.
    Militär nytta med ett nytt radiolänksystem i MKN2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Radio relay links is used to connect the system nodes within the land component commands communication network structure. The radio relay link-system used today, Radio relay link 371, was developed in the mid-80s to support the former communication network structure, Telecommunication System 9000. The development of technology since has made the old radio relay link outdated and the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration has developed a new radio relay link system, RL 373, to the Swedish Armed Forces.

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the new radio relay link better contributed to the military utility, by comparing the two radio relay link systems towards the demands that are set for the communication network structure.

    The study indicates that the implementation of the new radio relay link better contributes to the military utility by adding increased flexibility, both tactical and technical and it also supports higher transmission speeds. The new system is also able to establish two connections in different directions from one piece of equipment and the adaptive modulation capability built in the system also contributes to the desired flexibility.

  • 375.
    Söderblom, Tobias
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Militär nytta med slussen på A262016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the military utility of the lock out chamber [FPL] in the bow of the new Swedish submarine A26 which will be delivered 2022-2024. The lock is seen by some as an outcome of that the Swedish submarine force has been used for surveillance missions and special operations instead of the more traditional warfare missions. This may imply that the submarine will not be optimized for its intended main task: to protect Sweden from military assault.

    The study analyzes potential weaknesses and limitations in the system and gives suggestions to minimize possible impact. Alternative configurations without FPL are analyzed as reference. The strengths and merits of the installation and possible new uses are studied in order to increase the military utility. If the FPL can be used e.g. to harbor various weapon systems the lock will contribute to the flexibility and military utility of the submarine. Some suggestions for new usage are given. This analysis is comprehensive but quite shallow with the intention to suggest time-critical actions and guide further studies.

  • 376.
    Söderman Carlsson, Urban
    Swedish Defence University.
    Telekrigsbibliotek en nationell angelägenhet?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish Armed Forces are according to their development planning process taking actions to establish a new joint unit (SWEWOSE), with electronic warfare capability. SWEWOSÉ S main task will be designated to produce electronic warfare libraries for electronic warfare systems within the armed forces. The unit shall have capability to support with libraries in any state of conflict situation even if the supported unit with library needs conducting operations abroad.

    This essay examines the requirements that justify the establishment of a new unit in times when the armed forces conducting reorganizations and cutbacks in both economy and personnel.

    The possibilities to buy complete system solutions from an external supplier are examined. But also what kind of library support model that is to prefer according to the demands that the Swedish Armed Forces desired, in terms of capability in platform protection and battle space awareness.

    The results show that the demands that the Swedish Armed Forces has decided, best will be ful-filled and justified by a national electronic warfare unit, with library production as a main task.

  • 377.
    Sörenson, Karl
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Tactical Warfare Division, Maritime Operations Section.
    Deterring the Dauntless: Appraising the effects of naval deterrence against the Somali piracy2018In: WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs (JoMA), ISSN 1651-436X, E-ISSN 1654-1642, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 31-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article considers whether the Somali pirates were deterred by the naval task forces between the years 2009 and 2013. By disaggregating data and using previously unpublished records regarding the naval operations, two areas of operations are identified as potential periods of deterrence. The article uses a model of asymmetric deterrence to study the outcomes and equilibria of the navy-pirate interaction. It is found that the naval operations eventually did deter the Somali pirates in the Gulf of Aden, but that this objective was not met in the Somali Basin. It is concluded that the operational focus on the Gulf of Aden coupled with the fact that the area is relatively smaller than the Somali Basin enabled the naval credibility, thus effectively denying the pirates access to the sea. Conversely, limited attention by the naval units and the long Somali southern coast with its open waters impeded naval control in the Somali Basin. In connection to these findings some conclusions regarding naval deterrence are discussed.

  • 378.
    Thalin, Morgan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Vilseledning - ett instrument för ökad informationssäkerhet?2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    International statistics, from incident organisations and police authorities, prove thatintentional computer network penetrations, attempts to penetrate computer networks andcrimes related to IT increase between 60 and 100 percent every year. The fact thatpenetration can be accomplished proves that existing conventional methods for protection arenot always sufficient. Swedish Armed Forces are becoming increasingly more dependent onIT, and are influenced directly as well as indirectly from this development.This research paper accomplishes a brief inventory and description of conventional as well asdeceptive methods for computer network protection. The purpose is to evaluate in what waydeceptive methods contribute to increasing information security in the Swedish ArmedForces in relation to conventional methods. Each method is evaluated with a number ofabilities that are important from an information security perspective. A partial purpose is alsoto investigate if deceptive methods can contribute to Swedish Armed Forces’ ability to carryout information operations. Each deceptive method is evaluated with a number of abilitiesthat, according to the Swedish Armed Forces, are important to be in possession of duringinformation operations.This research paper proves that deceptive protection not only increases the ability of theSwedish Armed Forces to protect their information systems but also their ability to carry outinformation operations. This research paper also proves that deceptive protection does nothave the power of replacing conventional protection, but that it is a complement.

  • 379.
    Theorin, Anders
    Swedish Defence University.
    Försämrade materialegenskaper i aluminiumkonstruktioner - Liquid Metal Embrittlement inducerat av gallium2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility to damage enemy constructions using an efficient method, which might permit a low risk of detection, is studied in this thesis. This damage is based on the phenomena Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME) with which high strength metals can be affected so much that they collapse under their own weight. This thesis studies this effect in a material often used for various constructions, both civilian and military. An experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of LME on an aluminium alloy by exposing the aluminium to the metal known as gallium. A pre-experiment was made in order to determine how the time of exposure affected the LME-process and time-periods were decided accordingly. At each of the timeperiods a yield test was conducted in order to measure losses in strength and elasticity of the aluminium. It was shown that a great reduction in strength and elasticity occurred, where the strength was reduced to 20% of the reference sample and elasticity to 1% of the reference sample.

  • 380.
    Thielen, Alexander
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Hyllengren, Peder
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Frames of the terrorist attack in Sweden: a qualitative study of true and fake news coverage2019In: International Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1471-4825, E-ISSN 1741-5071, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 205-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On 7 April 2017, a terrorist attack occurred in central Stockholm. A hijacked lorry was intentionally driven into crowds along a pedestrian street. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore how the media framed this terrorist attack. The data collection approach was inductive and explorative, mainly involving searching electronic media databases. The qualitative analysis of 1294 articles resulted in four overarching themes describing how the terrorist attack was framed in the media. These frames are as follows: the incident, framed as confirmed, unconfirmed and denied information; the perception of leadership and authorities as trustworthy; the site perceived as a place of sorrow; and crisis management framed as the initial and sequential framing of the professionals, the heroes and the villains. The primary conclusion is that true as well as fake news affects crisis management and public opinion, which may create challenges for the entire society within the crisis management area. 

  • 381.
    Thurell, Fredrik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Slå motståndaren med indirekta bekämpningssystem2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 382.
    Trimintzios, Panagiotis
    et al.
    ENISA.
    Holfeldt, Roger
    Secana.
    Koraeus, Mats
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Uckan, Baris
    Secana.
    Gavrila, Razvan
    ENISA.
    Makrodimitris, Georgios
    ENISA.
    Report on Cyber Crisis Cooperation and Management: Comparative study on the cyber crisis management and the general crisis management2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study is to provide an analysis of cyber crisis management by identifying relations between this emerging field and the better established subject of general crisis management. This includes terminology and key concepts in these fields. This study further seeks to gain knowledge and understanding of the involved actors’ perspectives on the challenges for Cyber Crisis management within the European context.

    The purpose of the study is twofold: to compare concepts from the general crisis management systems with the corresponding systems related to cyber crisis management, and to conduct a conceptual analysis of the language and terminology within these two fields. The primary aim is to analyse the similarities and differences between general and cyber crisis management, employing examples from countries and organizations within the EU.

    Based on interviews with members of key national and EU institutions, and on an analysis of the differences between their practitioner perspectives and the theories of general crisis management, the study arrives at six key areas of recommendations for future activities in the cyber security realm.

  • 383.
    Törnblom, Johan
    Swedish Defence University.
    Militär nytta i Adenviken: En undersökning av de system som används för piratbekämpning2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the counterpiracy in the Gulf of Aden. Pirates has made the international community deploy military forces to police the Gulf of Aden. However most of the systems usedare not designed for counterpiracy. Many are remnants from the cold war. Also downsizing of military forces in the West has resulted in the need to prioritize resources.

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze five systems fighting pirates in the Gulf of Aden using Andersson et al. (2015)´s theory of military utility. The five systems are: light utility helicopter, medium utility helicopter, reconnaissance aircraft, combat boat and drone on tasks of detect, disrupt and deter. With the analysis the thesis discuss how the Swedish Armed Forces can use available recourses more efficiently as possible to aid in producing a greater operative effect on the national and international arena.

    The conclusions show that all systems have the potential to contribute to counterpiracy. Reconnaissance aircraft and drones are suitable to detect pirates. Light utility helicopters are able to detect and disrupt and partially deter. The combat boats are suitable to disrupt and deter. The medium utility helicopters are suitable for all three tasks. The thesis concludes with discussing the importance of the subsystems carried and its effects on a system´s military utility.

  • 384.
    Unnerbäck, Isak
    Swedish National Defence College. Univerzita obrany v Brne .
    Analysis of Unmanned Ground Vehicles systems.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing quantity of soldier equipment in some cases weighing up to 50kg per soldier, a need to decrease the workload of the soldier emerges. There are several conventional solutions in the working, amongst them there are unmanned ground vehicles. But pack animals has for a long time played a major role in war, as modes of transportation, logistics and battle. This study will compare two UGV:s the LS3 and the TAROS V2 to the horse. The purpose is to compare old technology to new to a relatively new problem of high equipment weight.The method used to compare is a military technical system analysis, with the use of a multi-criteria and SWOT analysis. The result of the comparison is that the one of the UGV:s have better mobility and endurance that are up to date with today’s standards.

  • 385.
    Valkner, Magnus Chr.
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Clausewitz teorier om krigens natur vurdert i et teknologisk perspektiv2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 386.
    Vatsel, Soames
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Laestadius, Nils
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Martinsson, Lars
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Lindh, Jens
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    Lärobok i militärteknik - exempelsamling: problem- och övningsbok med ledningar,  Version 2.02019Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Course material with examples for basic course in military technology.

  • 387.
    Veszelei, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Andersson, Kent
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Ribbing, C G
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Järrendahl, K
    Linköpings Tekniska Högskola.
    Arwin, H
    Linköpings Tekniska Högskola.
    Optical constants and Drude analysis of sputtered zirconium nitride films1994In: Applied Optics, ISSN 0003-6935, E-ISSN 1539-4522, Vol. 33, no 10, p. 1993-2001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Opaque and semitransparent dc magnetron-sputtered ZrN films on glass and silicon have been optically characterized with spectral reflectance measurements and ellipsometry. High rate sputtered ZrN has good optical selectivity, i.e., higher than 90% infrared reflectance and a pronounced reflectance step in the visible to a reflectance minimum of less than 10% at 350 nm. The results are comparable with those obtained for single crystalline samples and those prepared by chemical vapor deposition. The complex optical constant (N = n v ik) for opaque films has been determined in the 0.23-25-µm wavelength range with Kramers-Kronig integration of bulk reflectance combined with oblique incidence reflectance for p-polarized light. A variable angle of incidence spectroscopic ellipsometer has been used for determination of the optical constants in the 0.28-1.0-µm wavelength region. The results of the two methods show excellent agreement. The results indicate that ZrN is free electronlike and the Drude model can be applied. The best opaque films had Drude plasma energies (ħω(p) between 6.6 and 7.5 eV and relaxation energies (ħ/τ) between 0.29 and 0.36 eV. Ellipsometer data for the semitransparent films show that the refractive index (n) in the visible increases with decreasing film thickness whereas the extinction coefficient (k) is essentially unchanged. The optical properties are improved by deposition upon a heated substrate.

  • 388.
    Veszelei, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Andersson, Kent
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Optical characterization of sputtered semitransparent zirconium nitride films1993In: Optical materials (Amsterdam), ISSN 0925-3467, E-ISSN 1873-1252, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 257-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin semi-transparent ZrN films have been prepared using reactive dc magnetron sputtering. The films had thickness from 11 to 43 nm and were grown on heated and room temperature glass substrates. The optical constants, N=n+ik, of the thin films have been determined with an RT inversion method in the wavelength interval 0.40 to 2.0 μm. The thickness of the films was determined from the photometric measurements. The optical properties of the thin films on glass were compared to opaque and thin ZrN films grown on single crystalline Si. The Drude parameters were calculated from the measured optical constants in the relaxation region of the thin films. The relaxation time, τ, of the thin films was found to increase with film thickness, substrate temperature and substrate crystallinity. The relaxation time is the mean free time for the electrons between collisions and a long relaxation time corresponds to a film with high optical quality. The observed decrease of τ with decreasing film thickness can be explained by the higher statistical probability of the electrons in a thin film to collide with the two surfaces of the film. Another explanation to the decrease of τ with film thickness is scattering from grain boundaries and lattice impurities. The higher optical quality of films grown on heated substrates is probably due to an increased grain size. The measured optical constants were compared with calculated optical constants, using the Drude model, and the optical behaviour of thin ZrN films was found to be well described by the screened free-electron model.

  • 389.
    Vikström, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Den militära nyttan av kurskorrigerande tändrör2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden’s increased international commitment has altered the forms andenvironments of today's battlefield and military operations for units within theSwedish Armed Forces. First and foremost it means that all units have to be able tohandle all levels of conflict in most types of environments, including urban terrain.As a consequence of this, new needs and requirements arise concerning indirect fireand Artillery precision strike capabilities.

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate if and to what extent a course correctingfuse contributes to an increased tactical efficiency within the areas of effect, cost,logistics and reduced risk of collateral damage. The investigation is made through acomparative literature study with supplementary expert interviews.With the help of a course correcting fuse, which allows for close precision capability,a series of achievements can be acquired.

    Examples of such achievements are reduced dispersion and increased capability ofdimensioning of effects, reduced risk of collateral damage, lower total cost ofmunitions and reduced demand of logistics.

  • 390.
    Vretblad, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Are Quantity-Distances Narrowing in?2010In: Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board Seminar (34th) held in Portland, Oregon on 13-15 July 2010, Portland: Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board , 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantity-Distance (QD) is an established method used among other things for safety related to ammunition storage. The beauty of the QD-method is obvious - the simplicity - a simple solution to a complicated problem.

    As often is the case, the simple solution may be too simple for some applications. This makes a need to question the QD-method - if, when and how to use it.

    QD methods are generally appreciated by authorities who have to apply it and they consider it easy to understand (Acceptable - Not acceptable and nothing in between). Technical people who are involved in the ammunition safety process are well aware of the deficiencies associated with it. These deficiencies have led to alternate ways to be used in safety regulations e.g. methods based upon risk analysis.

    Increased costs for land and military operational requirements make it necessary both to apply alternate methods to ensure adequate safety and to question the criteria behind the QD: s and how they are used for different situations.

    The paper describes the background to and the development of some current regulations for the storage of ammunition. Comparisons are made of different criteria used and how these criteria influence on QD: s and Field Distances for the Military Operational Theater.

    The paper gives special emphasis on work done within the NATO AC/326 Operational Safety Group and efforts made to reduce Field Distances in the interest of Operational Readiness.

  • 391.
    Vretblad, Bengt
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    More Material for Better Protection2010In: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Design and Analysis of Protective Structures 10th ~ 12th May, 2010, Singapore: DSTA , 2010, p. 2-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the protection of key installations, fortification measures may not be sufficient by themselves. A dedicated aggressor may be able to destroy any installation given the right expertise, the right equipment and adequate time. For this reason, the protection design should not be based upon constructions only but on the totality of active and passive measures integrated into a system comprising as well resources from the social society like police, rescue forces, and military. With an abundance of resources from the social society the requirements for fortification measures may by downplayed - with limited support from the social society around the installation, the fortification measures must be more comprehensive.

    Looking at the protection as a system with different passive and active components the efficient use of the combination of these puts requirements not only on the components by themselves but also on the integration and coordination of them.

    To this end, the management of the protection is integral putting emphasis on how the critical information for successful protection is generated, distributed, analysed and used. Studies in Sweden have identified key issues for the handling of information for the protection management for key installations based upon the site-specific situations.

    Findings for protective measures for key installations exposed to extraordinary situations are presented in the paper.  

  • 392.
    Vretblad, Bengt E
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Combined Blast and Fragment Effects in the New Swedish Design Manual for Protective Construction, FKR2011In: ISIEMS 14, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 393.
    Vretblad, Bengt
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Johnsson, Fredrik
    SWEDEC.
    Tool for Clearance of Shaped Charge Ammunition Designed for Military Usefulness2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation and assessment of weapons and weapon systems should be based upon military usefulness. The military usefulness should, similarly, be a basis for the assessment of procedures and processes used for military activities. Even advanced systems may fail when meeting military usefulness criteria.

    The wide use of light anti-tank weapons, such as rocket propelled grenades and the scattering of sub-munitions in different conflict areas have made the clearance of shaped charge ammunition a frequent task. However, unlike other hazards, for shaped charges scientifically based procedures for the design and establishment of protective measures do not exist. Procedures applied in the field are more often than not based upon ad hoc solutions.

     

    To close the gap and find adequate methods for clearance of shaped charge ammunition, a tool has been developed at NDC to meet criteria from military usefulness and adopted to the prevalent operational conditions applicable to military missions, in particular:

     

        *   Complexity should be low bearing in mind the expertise available in the field.

        *   The time factor is essential both from strictly military aspects and from economic point of view.

        *   Information access. Data needed may be obscured or lacking.

        *   Simple construction that may be used with locally available material and equipment.

    In addition to meeting the criteria for military usefulness, such a tool should address the different effects from shaped charges e.g. blast and fragments and – in particular - effects from the jet generated.

     

    The principles for the tool are described in the paper. Of particular interest is the influence of the stand-off distance for the risk reducing methods.

     

    The risks from different effects at different distances and in different directions are analyzed and discussed. In particular, the slug from the jet is shown to be decisive for the hazardous area when protective measures are inadequate.

  • 394.
    Vretblad, Bengt
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Kuylenstierna, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Protection of Key Installations2008In: Stockholm Contributions in Military-Technology 2007 / [ed] Martin Norsell, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2008, p. 255-261Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 395.
    Vretblad, Bengt
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Nilsson, Claes
    Best Practise and Regulations: Do We Need More Manuals or Less?2008In: DDESB Seminar Proceedings, Palm Springs, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 396.
    Walldén, Göran
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Logistisk kulmination - en eller två sidor av myntet?: En betraktelse utifrån ett annorlunda perspektiv2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Logistic Culmination – One or Two Sides of the Coin?

    An Observation From a Different Point of View

     

    Logistic culmination can be compared to a stretched rubber band. If combat units moves in direction away from the supplies the rubber band will gradually stretch. The rubber band will eventually burst and at that point the logistic culmination will be a fact. But if the rubber band was to be let go before bursting, it will instead be contracted. At the maximum contraction point the rubber band will for a split second be wider. Could this metaphor show that there exists an opposite way of reaching logistic culmination?

     

    This essay borrows an old culmination concept from astronomy and utilizes it within logistic culmination. Astronomic culmination has two underlying perspectives, the upper and lower culmination point, in contrast to logistic culmination which only has one perspective. These two points are connected by being each other’s opposites.

     

    By setting the current meaning of logistic culmination as the upper culmination point the author aims at finding out the lower culmination point and examines the connection between these two points.

     

    The examination is built on a statement that there exist two underlying perspectives within logistics, just as in astronomy with the upper and lower culmination point. If the examination of the concept will succeed a wider understanding of how logistic culmination occurs could be achieved. If the lower logistic culmination point can be verified it could mean that logistic culmination within military science can change, which also could affect military planning.

     

    The statement taken has with logic assumptions showed that there are two underlying perspectives in logistics just like astronomy. Logistic culmination as it is explained today has given only half of the meaning compared to how this concept ought to be viewed according to this essay. This essay gives the concept logistic culmination more precision compared to the former meaning.

  • 397.
    Wallgren, Ann-Carol
    Swedish National Defence College.
    UAV som en sensorplattform för den svenskledda Nordic Battle Group (NBG)2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 398.
    Wannehag, Jim
    Swedish Defence University.
    Nytt luftvärnssystem för Sverige: Patriot eller Aster SAMP/T?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the Swedish Armed Forces previous focus on international operations and strategic timeout in the beginning of the 21st century, the air defense today has surface-to-air missile systems that are several decades old. The systems are not designed to handle today’s high-tech opponent and the government has therefore decided that a replacement for MIM-23 HAWK must be in place by 2020. The choice stands between Patriot and Aster SAMP/T, the purpose of this paper is therefore to investigate and assess the military effectiveness of each surface-to-air missile system. The survey is based on a comparative analysis where the systems are compared to each other in a scenario which includes several events and requirements. Finally, the results are compiled and presented in a multi-goal-model to quantitatively measure the differences between the systems. The result shows that Aster SAMP/T has the greatest potential of being effective in a given context, but that Patriot also meets the requirements almost without any limitations. As the comparison is based on a particularly limited scenario with very specified conditions, it is important to take into account that the result is valid only against the scenario and requirements from which the systems are compared.

  • 399.
    Weidenmark, Mattias
    Swedish Defence University.
    Militär nytta av att låta andra fartyg än korvetter dra Towed Array Sonar (TAS)2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 400.
    Westas, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Obemannad undervattensfarkost som hydroakustiskt ubåtsjaktmål2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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