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  • 301.
    Persson, Robert
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Hur kan effektiviteten i planeringen av svensk pilotutbildning ökas?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka hur man skulle kunna öka effektiviteten i svenskpilotutbildning genom att effektivisera planeringen och schemaläggningen.Utbildningsplanering tillhör en typ av verksamhet som kan hänföras till kategorinschemaläggningsproblem. Det vill säga någon form av verksamhet där aktiviteter ska tilldelasresurser och planeras över tiden. Ett sätt att lösa denna typ av problem är att använda sig avoptimeringsmetoder. Det vill säga matematiska modeller och metoder som syftar till att hitta detbästa (optimala) alternativet i en beslutssituation.I uppsatsen jämförs planeringen av svensk pilotutbildning med en liknande turkisk verksamhet.Detta görs i syfte att undersöka om de optimeringsmetoder som används i Turkiet kan användasför att öka effektiviteten i den svenska utbildningsplaneringen.Uppsatsen visar att det är möjligt att erhålla stora effektivitetsökningar vid en lyckadimplementering av optimeringsmetoder men att det är svårt att direkt överföra erfarenheter frånett problem till ett annat. En viktig slutsats är att effektiviteten i planeringen i första hand ärberoende av organisation, arbetssätt och principer för resursutnyttjande snarare än användande avoptimeringsmetoder.

  • 302.
    Petersson, Jimmy
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Finkalibriga projektiler, RSV och penetrerande stridsvagnsminor: vad krävs av ett ballistiskt skydd för att undvika penetration från dessa stridsdelar?2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete syftar till att undersöka vilket konventionellt ballistiskt skydd som krävs för att undvika penetration från finkalibriga projektiler, RSV-stridsdelar samt penetrerande stridsvagnsmina. Arbetet tar sitt ursprung i en handbok utgiven av FMV där stridsdelar som kan förekomma i Afghanistan behandlas. Handboken anger data och prestanda för dessa stridsdelar och det är därifrån arbetet tar uppgifter om genomslagsförmåga för stridsdelen. Skyddsprinciper och verkansprinciper för stridsdelar hämtas i huvudsak från rapporter utgivna av FOI samt från litteratur utgiven av FHS. Arbetets beskrivande delar inleds med en redogörelse för homogena ballistiska skyddsmaterial av metall samt keramer. Därefter beskrivs verkans principer för finkalibriga projektiler, strålbildande RSV, projektilbildande RSV samt penetrerande stridsvagnsminor. Arbetet fortgår med en beskrivning av en finkalibrig projektil med kaliber 7,62*54R mm, hot av typen RPG-7 med tillhörande ammunition samt stridsvagnsmina TMK-2. Avslutningsvis presenteras resultat på vilket ballistiskt skydd som krävs för att skydda sig mot dessa stridsdelar samt en diskussion kring resultatet och alternativa lösningar på problemet. Det presenteras även några förslag på ny forskning inom området verkan och skydd.

  • 303.
    Pettersson, Alexander
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Additiv tillverkning för högre teknisk tillgänglighet i internationella insatsområden2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the military utility of additive manufacturing of spare parts during international deployment is explored. We also analyze the effect that additive manufacturing has on technical availability.

    International deployment can be tough for logistical reasons and this leads to a difficulty in supplying ground troops with spare parts. If the spare parts cannot be acquired in the deployment area these have to be shipped from central distribution centers or be ordered directly from the industries. Some spare parts are uncommon and not stored in distribution centers but only get manufactured on order. This type of production can lead to delivery times of up to 40-50 weeks. With additive manufacturing this process could be shortened to 4-10 weeks.

    Conclusions that can be drawn is that additive manufacturing has military utility and can give a higher technical availability, given that a few technical difficulties are resolved. At this point there is a shortcoming in the number of qualified materials for printing spare parts for regular vehicles and this makes it difficult for the industry to approve of spare parts constructed with additive manufacturing. The winning in technical availability is directly linked to how difficult the deployment area is to reach for logistical units. Additive manufacturing has a higher positive effect in areas that are hard to reach.

  • 304.
    Pettersson, Mikael
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Erfarenheter av forcerad materielförsörjning av Vapensystem 012012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This Thesis in Military Technology deals with experiences drawn from the forced introduction of Weapons Station 01, 2009. The work aims to identify the experiences regarding the forced procurement of military equipment to see how they can develop normal and fast procurement of equipment. The main conclusions of  this work, is to achieve greater capability and increase the military utility, are:

     

    -          Common objectives and priorities of stakeholders

    -          Response and joint types shall determine requirements for system

    -          Ensure an integrated project team also at lower levels

    -          Engage the integrated logistic support early in the materiel process

    -          Include Armed Forces staff as early as possible in the testing and validation

    -          Prioritize work to facilitate the rapid development of decision on use (BOA)

    -          Provide back up for increased redundancy in the mission area 

  • 305.
    Pettersson, Ulrica
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA).
    A New Incident Report Form Leads to Improved Foundation for the Lessons Learned Cycle2012Inngår i: International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISSN 1937-9390, E-ISSN 1937-9420, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 14-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 306.
    Pettersson, Ulrica
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA).
    Improving incident reports in the swedish armed forces2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally maintained that learning should be a part of the daily routines of many organizations; this is often referred to as lesson learned processes. The purpose of organizational learning is to foster improvements that seek to both reduce incidents and accidents and reduce their consequences when they nevertheless happen. Safety work is widespread among many organizations, e.g. aviation, hospitals, process industry, fire departments and several armed forces. A considerable part of safety work involves accident prevention, and aims to investigate why and how previous accidents and incidents happened, in order to learn how to avoid them, or minimize losses when they do occur. The collection of information after incidents represents one of the first steps in a lessons learned process, and the result is crucial for further work. Unfortunately, incident reports often tend to be unfocused (they represent a very wide area of issues) and, for that reason, cannot be clustered. They also frequently lack by analysts required information. The overall research objective in this thesis was to develop a report structure that enables the individuals who participated in or observed an incident to provide more information that is relevant about that incident. The first research question seeks to identify whether the Swedish Armed Forces face the kinds of problems that have been identified in earlier research on attempts to learn from accidents and incidents. The second and third research questions aim to ascertain whether the scope and quality of collected information in incident reports can be improved and if the number of incident reports can be increased. The results agree with earlier research and show that many of the problems that are common in other organizations (e.g. aviation, hospitals and the process industry) can also be observed and are a reality within the SwAF. In addition, the results showed that both scope and quality of collected information can be influenced. Group reporting using a consensus process neither had an appreciable effect on the quality of collected information, nor on the quantity of the reports. On the other hand, the new reporting form, which was based on interview and questionnaire methodology, and to some extent witness psychology, significantly improved the quality of the information collected after incidents. The new form proved to be superior, regardless of the character and context of the incidents. The information collected was also in accordance with what had actually happened and, finally, the form proved to be useful when various military “real world” incidents were reported. Finally, the results also provide new insights into the problems and possibilities associated with acquiring useful incident reports. The problem seems not only to be that people may be unwilling to report incidents that they have participated in or witnessed; it is also that they may be unable to do so. Consequently, it may not be sufficient to change the culture of the organization into a learning culture to receive by analysts required information. It is also necessary to help people report what they actually know by means of an improved report structure.

  • 307.
    Pettersson, Ulrica
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA).
    Sharing Knowledge: How to Highlight Proven Experience in the Swedish Armed Forces2011Inngår i: Journal of Communication and Computer, ISSN 1548-7709, ISSN 1548-7709, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 410-414Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 308.
    Pettersson, Ulrica
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA).
    Success and Failure Factors for KM: The Utilization of Knowledge in the Swedish Armed Forces2009Inngår i: Journal of universal computer science (Online), ISSN 0948-695X, E-ISSN 0948-6968, Vol. 15, nr 8, s. 1735-1743Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 309.
    Quist, Hampus
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Stridsledningssystem Bataljon (SLB) i nationell konflikt: en systemutvärdering2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag använder Försvarsmakten högteknologiska ledningssystem för att underlätta ledning på stridsfältet. Några av dessa system är idag utvecklade för internationella insatser mot en lågteknologisk motståndare, men vad skulle hända i en nationell konflikt mot en högteknologisk motståndare? I denna uppsats utvärderas SLB utifrån ett fiktivt framtidsscenario för att komma fram till tekniska eller taktiska anpassningar för att öka den militära nyttan med systemet.

    Studien bygger på för och nackdelar med SLB utifrån Försvarsmaktens sex grundläggande förmågor som sedan analyseras för att komma fram till anpassningsmöjligheter för SLB. En av de slutsatser som studien visar är vikten av realistiska övningar med systemet för att öva personalen mot en högteknologisk motståndare.

  • 310.
    Ramsay-Bokelberg, Philip
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Ett mobilt granatkastarsystem till Jägarbataljonen2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 311.
    Reberg, Michael
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Framtida lufthot mot Sverige2002Student paper otherOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen diskuterar möjliga lufthot mot Sverige i dag och i framtiden intill ca 2020 ur ett teknisktperspektiv, samt föreslår att kryssningsrobotar samt autonoma substridsdelar från dessa bör varadimensionerande för utformningen av det svenska luftförsvaret.Stridsdelar med såväl konventionella-, massförstörelse-, som möjliga framtida vapen behandlas. Somvapenbärare diskuteras flygplan, helikoptrar, obemannade farkoster (UAV/UCAV), kryssningsrobotar,ballistiska missiler och satelliter.

  • 312.
    Reinhold, Tore
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Ad hoc-nät - något för mobila enheter i NBF?2002Student paper otherOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett syfte med nätverksbaserat försvar är att erhålla snabbare reaktionstider i ledningssystem.Ad hoc-näten utgör en framtida möjlighet att erbjuda taktiskt rörliga enheteruppkoppling i nätverk även under förflyttning. Det kan på sikt inkludera de funktionersom har krav på liten fördröjning i uppkopplingarna. Exempel på en sådan funktion ärsensorintegration genom sensornät. Ett av problemen i ad hoc-nätverksutvecklingenligger i att de dataprotokoll som ska utnyttjas för att erbjuda en kompabilitet mot denfasta nätstrukturen, inte har den funktionsduglighet som krävs i ett ad hoc-nät. För att gesnabb överföring krävs en utvecklad variant av de nätverksprotokoll (TCP/IP) somhanterar uppkomna fel på förbindelsen. Detta är avgörande för ad hoc-nätverkensfunktionsduglighet. Det skulle resultera i minskade fördröjningar och därmed ökadkapacitet. Mycket talar för att snabbheten kommer att bli så stor att multisensordatafusionkan realiseras i ad hoc-nät.

  • 313.
    Rigestam, Staffan
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Ärbass: en leksak eller en skarp UAV?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 314.
    Rutgersson, Lars Göran
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Den militära nyttan med ett digitalt eldledningsstödssystem vid precisionbekämpning2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Då dagens konflikter ofta utspelar sig mitt ibland civilbefolkningen och där aktörerna kan utgöras av allt från miliser till kriminella gäng ställs det nya krav på de militära förmågorna för att kunna agera i dessa komplexa miljöer. En generell trend för dagens artilleriförband är att de används till att verka mot mindre målgrupper utgörandes av två till fyra personer. Erfarenheter från konflikter i likhet med de i Irak och Afghanistan har visat på vikten av tillgång till precisionsbekämpning med indirekt eld för att undvika förluster bland de civila. En förutsättning för att kunna genomföra precisionbekämpning är att målets position kan lägesbestämmas med en mycket hög noggrannhet.

    Med hjälp av ett digitalt eldledningsstödssystem innehållandes en tredimensionell digital karta kopplat till EOI:et kan positionsfel i måluttaget i en urban miljö reduceras till under metern. 

  • 315.
    Rutgersson, Lars Göran
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Den militära nyttan med geografiska informationssystem kopplat till eldlednings- och observationsinstrumentet vid precisionsbekämpning.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med Försvarsmaktens ökade engagemang internationellt och det faktum att alla insatsförband inom Försvarsmakten ska kunna verka på alla konfliktnivåer och i en urban miljö kommer nya krav och behov på bekämpningsförmågan att uppstå avseende precisionsbekämpning.

    Med hjälp av ett GIS kopplat till EOI:et vid en insats i en urban miljö kan en rad vinster erhållas för att stödja artilleriet vad avser precisionsbekämpning. Exempel på sådana områden är: målverifiering, justering av målkoordinater, lägesuppfattning avseende målets närmiljö, redovisning och presentation av verkansområde inför en insats för dimensionering av verkan.

  • 316.
    Rybansky, Marian
    et al.
    University of Defence in Brno, Czech Republic.
    Brenova, M
    University of Defence in Brno, Czech Republic.
    Cermak, J
    Mendel university Brno, Czech Republic.
    van Genderen, J
    University of Twente, Netherlands.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Vegetation structure determination using LIDAR data and the forest growth parameters2016Inngår i: 8th IGRSM International Conference and Exhibition on Geospatial & Remote Sensing (IGRSM 2016), Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2016, Vol. 37, artikkel-id 012031Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this paper is to identify the main vegetation factors in the terrain, which are important for the analysis of forest structure. Such an analysis is important for forestry, rescue operations management during crises situations and disasters such as fires, storms, earthquakes and military analysis (transportation, cover, concealment, etc.). For the forest structure determination, both LIDAR and the forest growth prediction analysis were used. As main results, the vegetation height, tree spacing and stem diameters were determined

  • 317.
    Rydmarker, Jonas
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Spaning och navigering2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 318.
    Sahlström, Stefan
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Operativ och taktisk logistik- Jämförelse melllan stridskrafterna avseende tillgänglighet, kontinuitet och förmåga till överlevnad2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att, med hjälp av främst Moshe Kress principer för operativ logistik, analysera likheter och skillnader avseende hur armén, flygvapnet och marinen tillämpar logistik samt identifiera eventuella möjligheter att samordna tillämpningen för optimal effektivitet i en utveckling mot allt fler gemensamma operationer. Tyngdpunkt är på taktisk nivå.

     

    Det råder ingen tvekan om att logistik är viktigt för all militär verksamhet. Försvarsmakten genomgår omstrukturering som innebär utmaningar när samma resurser behövs av flera samtidigt. Gemensamma operationer ställer krav på interoperabilitet vilket är en utmaning för logistiken som av tradition varit stridskraftsspecifik med begränsat erfarenhetsutbyte över gränserna.

     

    Med stöd av Kress teorier om operativ logistik har tre faktorer operationaliserats. Empirin inhämtas ur Försvarsmaktens styrdokument samt genom intervjuer med nyckelpersoner från Högkvarteret. Genom jämförande analys har likheter och skillnader mellan stridskrafternas logistikkoncept, och tillämpning av desamma, genomlysts. Likheterna är tydligast avseende tidens centrala betydelse, behovet av transportresurser och logistikens tidiga integrering i planeringsarbetet. Även behovet av rutiner, hänvisningar och understöd från andra förenar. Skillnaderna avser främst snabbhet, distribution och leverans, centraliserat respektive decentraliserat ledarskap. Förutsättningarna för val och anpassningsmöjligheter av leveransplatser skiljer sig åt.

     

    Uttalade möjligheter till omedelbar samordning har inte identifierats. Däremot finns det stöd för att ökad förståelse för och kunskap om varandras logistikkoncept, och tillämpningen, kan ge bättre möjligheter till samordnat utnyttjande av befintliga resurser. Över tid bör det kunna leda till ökad effektivitet utan att koncepten måste likriktas.

     

  • 319.
    Schedin, Niclas
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Alternativa Drivmedel som Enhetsdrivmedel2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Fossila drivmedel står idag för en överlägsen majoritet av den totala användningen av drivmedel som dagligen förburkas. Alternativ till de fossila drivmedlen krävs för att säkerställa tillgång i framtiden. Försvarsmakten har fått uppdrag från regeringen att utforska möjligheten att övergå till att driva sina fordon på förnyelsebara bränslen.Militära organisationer strävar efter ett enhetsdrivmedel, alltså ett gemensamt drivmedel som driver samtliga fordon och enheter. Största anledningen är den förenklade logistik som kan uppnås om endast ett drivmedel används.Detta arbete har sökt efter ett alternativt drivmedel som skulle kunna användas som enhetsdrivmedel inom Försvarsmakten. Detta för att lösa problematiken med att både byta till ett förnyelsebart drivmedel och ett enhetsdrivmedel i samma fas.Slutsatserna som dragit i detta arbete är att FT-bränslen har potential att användas som enhetsdrivmedel ur ett tekniskt perspektiv. Den höga flampunkt som FT-bränslen har skulle kunna innebära att även sjöfarkoster kan använda samma drivmedel som mark- och luftfarkoster. Dock saknas i dagsläget tillräcklig tillgänglighet och framställningen är i utvecklingsfasen.

  • 320.
    Segerman, Mikael
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Precisionsbekämpning av taktiska markmål, en framtida förmåga?2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 321.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Collection and Distribution of Disaster Field Data2010Inngår i: Proceedings of the First National Symposium on Technology and Methodology for Security and Crisis Management / [ed] Fredrik Gustafsson, 2010, s. 48-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This extended abstract describes a field test of the Field Information Support Tool (FIST) during the international Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief exercise Pacific Endeavor 2010, in Singapore and the Philippines.

  • 322.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Increasing Robustness in the Network Society: A Comprehensive Approach to Cyber Security in Sweden2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference of the Society for Philosophy and Technology, Denton, TX, USA, May 26-29, 2011: Technology & Security / [ed] David Kaplan och Adam Briggle, Denton: University of North Texas , 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the emerging digital threats that our increasingly connected network society is faced with. It considers a strategy based on collaboration and information sharing between civilian and military agencies aimed at increasing societal robustness in a small, yet highly connected country with limited resources.

    The term Network Society, first coined in the 1990s by Jan van Dijk (2006) and Manuel Castells (1996), refers to a societal structure formed by the abundant access to information and communication technologies (ICTs), allowing information to be generated, processed and distributed on the basis of the knowledge accumulated in the nodes of the network. In the network society, government decision making and public service delivery are conducted by increasing use of advanced ICTs (Yang and Bergrud, 2008). ICT is also leveraged to create new and improved public services, for more efficient service provisioning and for reduction of operating expenses.

    However, as information becomes pervasive, complex intersystem dependencies are formed that may induce serious vulnerabilities. These vulnerabilities can manifest as single points of failure in critical infrastructures, but also as an increased exposure to antagonistic threats such as cyber attacks. Mitigating the vulnerability of our increasingly technology-dependant society has therefore become a high-priority task for many governments and administrations of technically mature countries with well-developed ICT infrastructures. In Sweden, commonly ranking among the top countries in the world when it comes to ICT use, cyber security has become an increasingly important issue.

    In 2010, the Swedish government decided to develop a national strategy for the protection of critical public services and infrastructure. The work was initiated by the identification of sectors containing functionality that continuously needs to be upheld in order to guarantee delivery of basic societal services, such as power production, water and food distribution, voice and data communications, emergency health care and financial services. These highly important societal functions are faced with several threats; traditional ones such as natural disasters and large-scale accidents may lead to disruptions limiting the access to goods and services. There are also new threats, brought on by the transition to a network society.

    Preparing for these extreme events is an obviously difficult task, not least since they are unexpected by nature and hard to characterize in detail. When it comes to cyber security, this holds even more true. Not only is the target hard to predict, but the method of attack and the extent of the resulting consequences are often difficult to fully evaluate. A challenging problem is the initial classification of a cyber attack – as a criminal act or a military aggression. Since the identity of the attacker is commonly unknown, and since information flowing through computer networks is oblivious to geographical boundaries, an attack emanating from a server physically located in a certain country could in reality be initiated by a person in the same country as the victim, or equally by a government-sanctioned entity in an unidentified hostile nation.

    Creating a robust network society requires a systematic analysis of existing threats, which vulnerabilities they may exploit, what assets that are involved and an assessment of the resulting risk. Several countries have invested substantial resources in building new lines of defense against the emerging digital threats, where the U.S. is probably the one that has come the farthest by the establishment of its Cyber Command. Sweden is in these circumstances a quite small country, geographically the size of California but with a population not exceeding 10 million. Even though the degree of national ICT development is high, the available resources for dealing with the threat of large scale hostile cyber attacks are limited, both when it comes to civilian agencies and the armed forces. Combining resources in a comprehensive approach to cyber security is thus needed in order to achieve effect.

    A focus on increased collaboration, information exchange, education and combined exercises between the stakeholders responsible for responding to cyber attacks is most likely a key factor in increasing robustness of the network society. Besides reactive resources, which can be used to mitigate the consequences of an attack, proactive methods and assets are also needed to prevent an attack from succeeding or to limit its consequences. Signals intelligence and information operations have proven to be useful methods in this work and an extensive cooperation between parties possessing these capabilities is thus highly valuable. One must also realize that technology itself will not solve any problems, either civilian or military, but the focus must instead be on how it is used and in what context.

  • 323.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Kanalsamverkan för en mer robust trådlös kriskommunikation2012Inngår i: Att kommunicera det (o)tänkbara: Hur formar vi framtidens riskkommunikation?, Mittuniversitetet , 2012, s. 29-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle har vi vant oss vid att information och kommunikation är ubikvitär, det vill säga alltid inom räckhåll. I de nordiska länderna, som vanligtvis intar topplaceringar i internationella jämförelser av såväl internetanvändande som tillgång till avancerade kommunikationstjänster, är denna trend särskilt tydlig. Vår ökande tillit till systemen som tillhandahåller dessa tjänster innebär vidare att vi numera anförtror dem med allt ifrån personlig information till kritiska samhällstjänster.

    När en kris inträffar sätts våra kommunikationssystem på stora prövningar. Detta gäller inte minst de trådlösa kommunikationssystem som såväl myndigheter som privatpersoner är direkt beroende av. Robustheten i trådlösa system har dock ofta prioriterats lägre än faktorer såsom datahastighet och pris, samtidigt som operatörer inte ansett att kostnaden för ett robust system kunnat räknas hem. Flera av de kriser som inträffat de senaste åren har därför visat att befintliga kommunikationssystem inte alltid lever upp till förväntningarna på tillgänglighet.

    Detta paper diskuterar hur robusthet och störtålighet i trådlösa kommunikationssystem kan förbättras, samtidigt som kostnadsökningar och systemkomplexitet begränsas. Vi presenterar ett förslag med tekniska och administrativa metoder för utökad samverkan mellan olika kommunikationskanaler, såsom ett system för obligatorisk samtrafik mellan operatörer och täckningskomplettering genom flyttbara eller luftburna basstationer för mobilkommunikation.

  • 324.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Reconfigurable Radio Systems: Towards Secure Collaboration for Peace Support and Public Safety2010Inngår i: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Information Warfare and Security / [ed] Josef Demergis, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences Publishing, 2010, s. 268-274Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As military priorities are shifting from invasion defense to crisis management and peace support operations, the capability to partake in efficient inter-organizational collaboration is becoming increasingly important for armed forces across Europe. The “solidarity clause” of the Treaty of Lisbon, which entered into force on December 1st 2009, dictates that all EU member states shall act jointly if another member state is the target of a terrorist attack or the victim of a natural or man-made disaster. Sweden has gone even further, stating that it will not remain passive if a member state or another Nordic country is attacked, and expects these countries to act in the same manner if Sweden is attacked. This declaration obligates Sweden to be able to collaborate successfully with allied partners, both within own territories and abroad. Application-based collaboration tools for use in unpredictable settings, requiring high user mobility and network survivability, put high demands on the underlying ICT systems in order to function correctly. Networks employing the TErrestrial Trunked RAdio (TETRA) standard are becoming pervasive as platforms for interagency collaboration in crisis response. Although these networks provide many benefits compared to legacy technology they lack the possibility to offer secure, infrastructure-less and disruption-tolerant communication in challenging environments. Emerging ICT such as MANET-based Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS) shows potential for overcoming these problems, in addition to resolving issues of technical heterogeneity. The Common Tactical Radio System (GTRS) is an RRS being developed by the Swedish Armed Forces, intended to be the future ICT system for all parts of the forces, used both in national and international mission settings. However, remaining challenges include threats of node compromisation and adversary network infiltration, as well as the safeguarding of confidential information shared by collaborating parties and preventing information leakage. This paper contributes by (i) giving a summary of recent work in mechanisms for achieving information security in tactical MANETs and Hastily Formed Networks for disaster response. The paper also (ii) presents in-progress work towards the design of a gossip-based cross-layer Distributed Intrusion Detection System (DIDS) for the GTRS system, which takes resource constraints of portable devices into account, and offloads traffic analysis and anomaly detection to more powerful “Big Brother” nodes. An outline of the proposed DIDS architecture is presented, and the paper (iii) suggests future work towards offering a dependable and trustworthy communications platform for efficient and secure inter-organizational collaboration.

  • 325.
    Sigholm, Johan
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Towards Secure Collaboration Through Emerging ICT: A Distributed IDS for Tactical MANETs2010Inngår i: Collaboration Tools in the Military Environment / [ed] Jorma Jormakka och Sakari Oksa, Helsinki: Finnish National Defence University, Department of Military Technology , 2010, s. 47-58Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 326.
    Sigholm, Johan
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Andersson, Dennis
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut.
    Privacy on the Battlefield?: Ethical Issues of Emerging Military ICTs2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of Computer Ethics: Philosophical Enquiry: Crossing Boundaries: Ethics in Interdisciplinary and Intercultural Relations / [ed] Jeremy Mauger, Milwaukee: INSEIT , 2011, s. 256-268Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Privacy on the battlefield? A bizarre thought at first glance – but is it really that far-fetched? In this study we look at modern conflicts, such as the war on terror, and dig deeper into what privacy means to a soldier engaged in such a campaign. With the ever-increasing amount of technology used for troop command and control, there is less room for an individual soldier to act without being watched. An open question is how the soldiers will react to all this surveillance. It is a long established fact that excessive workplace surveillance may result in negative performance consequences for the affected employees. We believe it is fair to raise the same question about emerging technology for the modern battlefield, and to critically assess this technology from a privacy perspective. Our study does not reveal any hard evidence of ongoing privacy violations, nor of the actual significance of privacy in modern warfare. We do however provide a model for studying how soldier performance relates to the fulfillment of various needs, and examine where attributes such as privacy fit in to the equation. We also call for the research community to pick up the thread and conduct empirical studies on the matter.

  • 327.
    Sigholm, Johan
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Larsson, Emil
    Svenska Dagbladet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Determining the Utility of Cyber Vulnerability Implantation: The Heartbleed Bug as a Cyber Operation2014Inngår i: Military Communications Conference (MILCOM), 2014 IEEE, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, s. 110-116Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Flaws in computer software or hardware that are as yet unknown to the public, known as zero-day vulnerabilities, are an increasingly sought-after resource by actors conducting cyber operations. While the objective pursued is commonly defensive, as in protecting own systems and networks, cyber operations may also involve exploiting identified vulnerabilities for intelligence collection or to produce military effects. The weapon zing and stockpiling of such vulnerabilities by various actors, or even the intentional implantation into cyberspace infrastructure, is a trend that currently resembles an arms race. An open question is how to measure the utility that access to these exploitable vulnerabilities provides for military purposes, and how to contrast and compare this to the possible adverse societal consequences that withholding disclosure of them may result in, such as loss of privacy or impeded freedom of the press. This paper presents a case study focusing on the Heart bleed bug, used as a tool in an offensive cyber operation. We introduce a model to estimate the adoption rate of an implanted flaw in Open SSL, derived by fitting collected real-world data. Our calculations show that reaching a global adoption of at least 50 % would take approximately three years from the time of release, given that the vulnerability remains undiscovered, while surpassing 75 % adoption would take an estimated four years. The paper concludes that while exploiting zero-day vulnerabilities may indeed be of significant military utility, such operations take time. They may also incur non-negligible risks of collateral damage and other societal costs.

  • 328.
    Sigurdsson, Jan
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Data- och informationsfusion i marin miljö2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 329.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Ett militärtekniskt perspektiv på förmågeutveckling2017Inngår i: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, nr 1, s. 71-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes how external changes, doctrines, personnel, organization and technology have interacted over time. Based on Swedish government terms in office from 1991 to present time, we give a general overview of some important changes in the international development and their influence on defence policy reports, defence policy bills and on the Swedish Armed Forces capability development. We use two approaches, demand pull and technology push, to describe the changes observed. Among external changes, the ongoing technology development is important. In order to meet the challenges of the future, we propose that the Swedish Armed Forces should increase their investments on research and development as well as on technology forecasting.

  • 330.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Andersson, Kent
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Hult, Gunnar
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Sivertun, Åke
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Bull, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Jensen, Eva
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Reberg, Michael
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Biverot, Erik
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Löfgren, Lars
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Persson, Björn
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Sigholm, Johan
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Sturesson, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Technology Forecast 2013 Military Utility of Six Technologies: a Report from Seminars at the SNDC Department of Military-Technology2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Four technology forecast reports from the Fraunhofer Institute and two internet based search reports from Recorded Future have been reviewed by staff at the Department of Military- Technology at the Swedish National Defence College (Note that there probably are other technology areas, equally interesting, but not included in this study). The task given by FMV was to assess the military utility of the chosen technologies in a time frame from 2025 to 2030, from a SwAF viewpoint.

    We assess the military utility of a certain technology, as its contribution to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, within identified relevant scenarios.

    The technologies were grouped in three classes; technologies with potentially significant, uncertain or negligible military utility.

    The following technologies were assessed to have a potential for significant military utility;

    • Alternative fuels
    • High altitude platforms
    • Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
    • Cyber Defence
    • The forecasting and analysis technology described in the report "Future of Cyber Threats" if the tool is combined with advanced artificial intelligence algorithms

    The following technology was assessed to have uncertain military utility;

    • The forecasting and analysis technology described in the report "Future of Cyber Threats" in its present form

    The following technology was assessed to have negligible military utility;

    • Walking machines

    The method used was first to make a summary of each forecast report. The technology was then put into one or more scenarios that are assessed to be the best in order to show possible military utility as well as possibilities and drawbacks of the technologies. Based on a SWOT-analysis, the contribution to SwAF capabilities and the cost in terms of acquisition, C2 footprint, logistic footprint, doctrine/TTP, training, facilities and R&D were assessed. Conclusions regarding the military utility of the technology were drawn.

    Our evaluation of the method used shows that there is a risk that the assessment is biased by the participating experts’ presumptions and experiences from their own field of research. The scenarios that were chosen do not cover all aspects of the technology and their possible contribution to operational capabilities. It should be stressed that we have assessed the six technologies’ potential military utility within the presented scenarios, not the technology itself.

    The chosen definition of military utility clearly affects the result of the study. The definition (the military utility of a certain technology is its contribution to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, within identified relevant scenarios) has been slightly modified from the one used in the Technology Forecast 2012. It is believed to be good enough for this report, but could be further elaborated in the future.

    The greatest value of the method used is its simplicity, cost effectiveness and the tradeoff that it promotes learning within the working group. The composition of the working group and the methodology used is believed to provide for a broad and balanced coverage of the technologies under study. This report provides executive summaries of the Fraunhofer and Recorded Future reports and helps the SwAF Headquarter to evaluate the military utility of emerging technologies within identified relevant scenarios.

    Given the limited quantitative base (only 2 reports) for assessing the potential value of using the tool Temporal Analytics™ used by Recorded Future, our conclusion is nevertheless that the overall value of using the tool for technology forecasting is rather poor. Our assessment is that Recorded Future at present can’t be used as an alternative to the Fraunhofer Institute. Overall, the quality of the Fraunhofer reports is considered to be balanced and of a high level of critical analysis regarding technology development. These reports are in line with our task to evaluate the military utility of the emerging technologies. In the case of Recorded Future’s technology forecast, the sources that are relevant for making military predictions are considered to be ill-suited for aggregation in the form the tool in focus, Temporal Analytics™, provides. The tool requires further development to fit military purposes. Further use of Recorded Future in the technology forecast process is therefore not recommended, at least not until the tool has been combined with advanced artificial intelligence algorithms.

    We propose that the Department of Military Technology at SNDC could be involved in the early phase of the Technology Forecast process giving support to FMV in choosing which technology areas that should be selected to be studied by the Fraunhofer Institute within the framework of the Technology Forecast project (Teknisk Prognos).

  • 331.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Backstrom, M.
    Loren, J.
    Microwave field-to-wire coupling measurements in anechoic and reverberation chambers2002Inngår i: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 222-232Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the differences in radiated susceptibility (RS) testing in anechoic (AC) and reverberation chambers (RC) is essential for analysis of the susceptibility of electronic systems to microwave radiation. We have studied microwave field-to-wire coupling for some basic wire geometries above a ground plane in ACs and RC. Results for receiving parameters such as the antenna receiving cross section sigma(w) and the effective antenna length of the wire, h(e), are presented. The ratio between the maximum and average values of sigma(w) may exceed 15 dB in the AC, the average being equal to sigma(w) measured in the RC. Large variations in sigma(w) show that the outcome of an RS test in an AC may depend strongly on the direction and polarization of the incident field. For a realistic RS test in ACs only a few angles of incidence can typically be afforded, implying a substantial risk for undertesting. Furthermore, a. measured in the RC follows a chi(2)-distribution with two degrees of freedom. The measurements in the AC do not follow the same distribution.

  • 332.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Bull, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Hult, Gunnar
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Sivertun, Åke
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Hagenbo, Mikael
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Andersson, Kent
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Persson, Björn
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Sigholm, Johan
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Sturesson, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Technology Forecast 2014 Military Utility of Four Technologies: A Report from Seminars at the SNDC Department of Military-Technology2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Four technology forecast reports from the Fraunhofer Institute have been reviewed by staff at the Department of Military-Technology at the Swedish National Defence College. The task given by the Swedish Defence Material Administration, FMV, was to assess the military utility of the given technologies in a time frame to 2040, from a Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) point of view.

    We assess the military utility of a certain technology as its contribution to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, based on identified relevant scenarios. Since a new capability catalogue is under development at the SwAF Headquarters, we will only present general assessments of the capability impact from the technologies under study.

    The technologies were grouped in three classes; technologies with potentially significant, uncertain or negligible military utility. The classification uncertain is given for technologies that are difficult to put in the two other classes, however it is not because the technology readiness level (TRL) is not reached by 2040.

    The following technologies were assessed to have a potential for significant military utility;

    Kinodynamic motion planning

    This technology is a prerequisite for reaching full autonomy of highly agile unmanned systems and is probably a logical, evolutionary way to go forward. It will affect most SwAF capabilities through enhanced mobility. This technology should be studied by the SwAF, preferably within all operational environments.

    Bio-inspired Adaptive Camouflage Surfaces

    "Bio-inspired camouflage" should be viewed in a broad multispectral perspective involving design requirements for low contrast in the visual- and IR-spectrum as well as, for most applications, low reflectivity in the radar-band. There is an ongoing duel between sensor development and camouflage systems and our assessment is that the fewer and more valuable platforms we have, we will need better camouflage performance in order to maintain low probability of detection and short detection distances for an adversary, at least if faced with a technologically mature adversary. Our overall assessment is that bio-inspired adaptive camouflage systems have significant potential for military utility.

    UCAV

    If the idea that UCAV are superior in air combat is realizable, we may be facing a paradigm shift of the same magnitude as that which airborne radar or air-to-air missiles introduced. Thus, UCAV are deemed to have potential for significant military utility in future air operations even though it is, at present, hard to predict how they will be used to maximize their military utility.

    The following technology was assessed to have uncertain military utility;

    Bulk metallic glass (BMG)

    If BMG innovations prove to form a new performance step in armour and weapons development, it will from a Swedish perspective be crucial to take part in that development or else take the risk of being inferior on the battlefield. Given the many uncertainties concerning production and applications, we assess BMGs to have uncertain potential for military utility in 2040. However, the SwAF should monitor the development and applications in this area.

    None of the studied technologies were found to have negligible military utility. .

    The method used in this technology forecast report was to assign each Fraunhofer report to one reviewer in the working group. First, a summary of each forecast report was made. The Fraunhofer assessment of technical readiness level (TRL) in 2030-40 was held to be correct. The technology was then put into one or more scenarios that were assessed to be suitable in order to assess the military utility as well as indicate possibilities and drawbacks of the technologies. Based on a SWOT-analysis, the contribution to SwAF capabilities and the cost in terms of acquisition, C2 footprint, logistic footprint, doctrine/TTP, training, facilities and R&D were assessed. Finally, conclusions regarding the potential military utility of the technology were drawn.

    The chosen definition of military utility clearly affects the result of the study. The definition (the military utility of a certain technology is its contribution to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, within identified relevant scenarios) is the same that was used in the Technology Forecast 2013. It is believed to be good enough for this report, but could be further elaborated in the future. An article that in depth presents our concept of military utility has been elaborated at the department.1

    Our evaluation of the method used shows that there is a risk that the assessment is biased by the participating experts’ presumptions and experiences from their own field of research. The scenarios that were chosen do not cover all aspects of the technology and their possible contribution to operational capabilities. It should be stressed that we have assessed the four technologies’ potential military utility within the specific presented scenarios, not the technology itself. When additional results have been found in the analysis this is mentioned.

    The greatest value of the method used is its simplicity, cost effectiveness and the tradeoff that it promotes learning within the working group. The composition of the working group and the methodology used is believed to provide for a broad and balanced coverage of the technologies under study. This report provides executive summaries of the Fraunhofer and Recorded Future reports and the intention is to help the SwAF Headquarter to evaluate the military utility of emerging technologies within identified relevant scenarios.

    Overall, the quality of the Fraunhofer reports is considered to be balanced and of a high level of critical analysis regarding technology development. These reports are in line with our task to evaluate the military utility of the emerging technologies.

    We appreciate that the Department of Military Technology at SNDC this time has been involved in the early phase of the Technology Forecast process.

  • 333.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Bäckström, Mats
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Lorén, Jörgen
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Microwave Field-to-Wire Coupling Measurements1998Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of antenna receiving properties of wires and cables is essential in the analysis of susceptibility of electronic systems to microwave radiation. This paper presents measurements of receiving parameters for basic wire geometries. Directional properties of realized gain, receiving cross section and of effective antenna lenght for the wires are presented. The impact of measured directivity effects of the order of 15 dB on radiated susceptibility testing in anechoic and mode-stirred chambers is discussed.

  • 334.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Bäckström, Mats
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Lorén, Jörgen
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Microwave Field-to-Wire Coupling Measurements in Anechoic and Reverberation Chambers2002Inngår i: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 222-232Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the differences in radiated susceptibility (RS) testing in anechoic (AC) and reverberation chambers (RC) is essential for analysis of the susceptibility of electronic systems to microwave radiation. We have studied microwave field-to-wire coupling for some basic wire geometries above a ground plane in ACs and RC. Results for receiving parameters such as the antenna receiving cross section and the effective antenna length of the wire, he, are presented. The ratio between the maximum and average values of the antenna receiving cross section may exceed 15 dB in the AC, the average being equal to the antenna receiving cross section measured in the RC. Large variations in the antenna receiving cross section show that the outcome of an RS test in an AC may depend strongly on the direction and polarization of the incident field. For a realistic RS test in ACs only a few angles of incidence can typically be afforded, implying a substantial risk for undertesting. Furthermore, the antenna receiving cross section measured in the RC follows a Chi-square-distribution with two degrees of freedom. The measurements in the AC do not follow the same distribution.

  • 335.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Liwång, Hans
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Hult, Gunnar
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Bull, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Persson, Björn
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Thunqvist, Ola
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Sigholm, Johan
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Sturesson, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Technology Forecast 2016: The Military Utility of Future Technologies: a Report from seminars at the Swedish Defence University’s Military-Technology Division2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Three technology forecast reports from the Fraunhofer Institute and four reports on literature studies (sometimes called scanning reports) from the Swedish Defence Research Institute (FOI) have been reviewed by staff at the Military-Technology Division at the Swedish Defence University (SEDU). The task given by the Defence Material Administration FMV was to assess the military utility of the given technologies in a time frame to 2040, from a Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) point of view.

    In the review we assess the military utility of a certain technology as a possible contribution to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, based on identified relevant scenarios. Since a new capability catalogue is under development at the SwAF Headquarters, this report will only present general assessments of the capability impact from the technologies under study.

    The technologies were grouped into four classes: potentially significant, moderate, negligible, or uncertain military utility.

    The following technology was assessed to have a potential for significant military utility;

     Multi robot systems

    The following technologies were assessed to have a potential for moderate military utility;

     Over-the-Horizon Radar

     Space-based imaging radar

    The following technology was found to have negligible military utility.

     Moving Target Defence

    The following technologies were assessed to have uncertain military utility;

     Software-Defined Networking

     Transient Materials- Programmed to Perish, but this technology should be monitored since it might reach high technical readiness level (TRL) by 2050-60

    The method used in this technology forecast report was to assign each report to one reviewer in the working group. First, a summary of each forecast report was made. The Fraunhofer assessment of TRL in the time period to 2035 was held to be correct. The technology was then put into one or more scenarios that were deemed to be suitable in order to assess the military utility as well as indicate possibilities and drawbacks of each technology. Based on a SWOT-analysis, the assessed contribution to the fundamental capabilities and to the factors DOTMPLFI (Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Personnel, Leadership, Facilities and Interoperability) were listed. Furthermore, the expected requirements on the SwAF R&D in order to facilitate the introduction of the technology are given.

    As a consequence of our continuing development of the evaluation process, we have for the first time used a model developed at the division of Military-Technology to assess the Military utility1 of the technologies. Finally, conclusions and an overall rating regarding the potential military utility of each technology were presented.

    The chosen definition of military utility clearly affects the result of the study. The definition (the military utility of a certain technology is its contribution to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, within identified relevant scenarios) is the same as used in our Technology Forecasts since 2013.

    Our evaluation of the method used shows that there is a risk that the assessment is biased by the participating experts’ presumptions and experiences from their own field of research. Also, it should be stressed that the six technologies’ potential military utility was assessed within the specific presented scenarios, and their possible contribution to operational capabilities within those scenarios, not in general. When additional results have been found in the analysis this is mentioned. The last chapter of this report analyzes thinking and debate on war and warfare in three military great powers: USA, Russia and China. Therefore, this chapter has a different structure. Aspects of military technology are discussed at the end of the chapter, but no assessment of the military utility is made.

    The greatest value of the method used is its simplicity, cost effectiveness and that it promotes learning within the working group. The composition of the working group and the methodology used is believed to provide a broad and balanced coverage of the technologies under study. This report is to been seen as an executive summary of the Fraunhofer reports and the reports on literature studies from FOI. The intention is to help the SwAF Headquarters to evaluate the military utility of emerging technologies within identified relevant scenarios.

    Overall, the quality of the Fraunhofer reports is considered to be balanced and of a high level of critical analysis regarding technology development. These reports are in line with our task to evaluate the military utility of the emerging technologies. The FOI reports are considered to be high quality. However, the selection of topics can be discussed since the selection

  • 336.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    Liwång, Hans
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska tillämpningar (MteT).
    Hult, Gunnar
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Ledningssektionen (Ledn).
    Sivertun, Åke
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    Bull, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska tillämpningar (MteT).
    Sigholm, Johan
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    Lundmark, Martin
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    von Gerber, Carl
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska tillämpningar (MteT).
    Andersson, Kent
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    Sturesson, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Avdelningen för ledningsvetenskap och militärteknik (ALM), Sektionen för militärtekniska system (MteS).
    Technology Forecast 2017 - Military Utility of Future Technologies: A Report from Seminars at the Swedish Defence University’s (SEDU) Military-Technology Division2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Two technology forecast reports from the Fraunhofer Institute, three reports from the Swedish Defence Research Institute (FOI) and two publications from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have been reviewed by staff at the Military-Technology Division at the Swedish Defence University (SEDU). The task given by the Defence Material Administration (FMV) was to assess the military utility of the given technologies in a time frame to up 2040, from a Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) perspective.

    In the review we assessed the military utility of certain technologies as possible contributions to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, based on identified and relevant scenarios. Because a new capability catalogue is under development at the SwAF Headquarters, this report only presents general assessments of the capability impact of the technologies studied.

    The technologies were grouped into four classes: potentially significant, moderate, negligible, or uncertain military utility.

    The classification uncertain military utility was given to technologies that are difficult to put in the other three classes, it was not because the technology readiness level (TRL) will not bereached by 2040.

    The following technologies were assessed to have the potential for significant military utility:

    - Nanocarbons for photonic applications

    The following technologies were assessed to have a potential for moderate military utility;

    - Internet of things (IoT)

    - Materials and technologies for protection against chemical agents

    The following technologies were assessed to have uncertain military utility;

    - Post-quantum cryptography

    - New applications for hyperspectral image analysis for chemical and biological agents

    No technology was found to have negligible military utility.

    The method used in this technology forecast report was to assign each report to one reviewer in the working group. Firstly, each forecast report was summarized. The Fraunhofer assessment of technical readiness level (TRL) in the time period was held to be correct. Each technology was then put into one or more scenarios that were assessed to be suitable for assessing the military utility as well as indicating any possibilities and drawbacks. Based on a SWOTanalysis, the assessed contributions to the fundamental capabilities, and to the factors DOTMPLFI (Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Leadership, Personnel, Facilities and Interoperability), were listed. Furthermore, the expected SwAF R&D requirements, to facilitate the introduction of the technology are given. The Military utility was assessed using a model developed by the Military-Technology Division. Finally, conclusions and an overall rating of the potential military utility of each technology were presented.

    The chosen definition of military utility clearly affects the result of the study. The definition used here (“the military utility of a certain technology is its contribution to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, within identified relevant scenarios”) has been used in our Technology Forecasts since 2013.

    Our evaluation of the method used shows that there is a risk that assessments can be biased by the participating experts’ presumptions and experience from their own field of research. It should also be stressed that the seven technologies’ potential military utility was assessed within the specific presented scenarios and their possible contribution to operational capabilities within those specific scenarios, not in general. When additional results have been found in the analysis, this is mentioned.

    The greatest value of the method used is its simplicity, cost effectiveness and that it promotes learning within the working group. The composition of the working group and the methodology used are believed to provide a broad and balanced coverage of the technologies being studied. This report should be seen as an executive summary of the research reports and the intention is to help the SwAF Headquarters to evaluate the military utility of emerging technologies within identified relevant scenarios.

    Overall, the research reports are considered to be balanced and of high quality in terms of their level of critical analysis regarding technology development. These reports are in line with our task to evaluate the military utility of the emerging technologies.

  • 337.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Norsell, Martin
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Bull, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Fransson, Torsten
    Kungl Tekniska Högskolan (KTH), Skolan för industriell teknik och management, Institutionen för energiteknik.
    Interactive Teaching of Military-Technology: A Pilot Study of Implementation2011Inngår i: Stockholm Contributions in Military-Technology 2010 / [ed] Åke Sivertun, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2011, 1, s. 141-150Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The interactive learning platform Comp Edu, developed and used since 1997 at the Division of Heat and Power Technology at the Royal Institute of Technology, has recently been introduced as a new tool for teaching Military-Technology at the Swedish National Defence College. In this pilot study, interactive teaching has been tested at the initial training of junior officers at the Swedish National Defence College. Results from a student evaluation of the tool are presented. These results will be incorporated in future implementations of this interactive teaching method on a broader scale in Military-Technology. The students appreciated the freedom of being able to choose when and where to study the pensum and found CompEdu being an excellent tool for facilitating reviewing the chapter before an exam. An outline for future work is presented.

  • 338.
    Silfverskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Thottappillil, Rajeev
    Uppsala Universitet, Institutionen för Högspänningsforskning.
    Ye, Ming
    Uppsala Universitet, Institutionen för Högspänningsforskning.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala Universitet, Institutionen för Högspänningsforskning.
    Scuka, Viktor
    Uppsala Universitet, Institutionen för Högspänningsforskning.
    Induced Voltages in a Low-Voltage Power Installation Network Due to Lightning Electronmagnetic Fields: An Experimental Study1999Inngår i: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 265-271Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the experimental results on the induced common-mode (CM) voltages in a residential low-voltage power installation (LVPI) network exposed to electromagnetic fields from lightning. The objective of this investigation was to find out the severity of inducedvoltages in a low voltage network due to direct coupling of the lightning electromagnetic fields with the network in the absence of transient overvoltages coming through the distribution lines. Therefore, during the experiment the LVPI network was disconnected from the distribution network to exclude conducted transients in the measured signals entering through the mains. The induced CM voltages in a power outlet of the network were measured simultaneously with the vertical component of the electric field near the installation. The sequence of induced voltage events during the complete duration of one negative cloud-to-ground (CG) flash, one positive CG flash, and one cloud flash (CC), thought to be typical, is presented simultaneously with the electric field. It is shown that in addition to the return strokes in ground flashes, other discharge events taking place in the cloud; notably, the bipolar pulse trains associated with the initiation of both CG lightning and cloud lightning, are also important in determining the transient environment of electronic devices connected to a LVPI network. Flashes at a distance of about 25 km produced many induced-voltage pulses as large as 100 V, six such pulses in a time period of 0.4 ms in a negative CG flash, and 11 such pulses in a time period of 3 ms in a CC that immediately followed the ground flash.

  • 339.
    Silfwerplatz, Claes
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Utformning av ett svenskt försvar mot fjärrstridsmedel av typen kryssningsrobotar och ballistiska robotar2002Student paper otherOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I uppsatsen studeras hur ett svenskt försvar mot kryssningsrobotar och ballistiska robotar kan utformas.Uppsatsen konstaterar att en aktör med tillgång till kryssningsrobotar och ballistiska robotar har enfjärrbekämpningsförmåga till en förhållandevis låg kostnad. För att ytterligare förstärka sinfjärrstridspotential kan aktören förse dessa vapensystem med massförstörelseeffekt. Uppsatsen visar att ettframtida försvarskoncept mot det aktuella hotet är en kombination av offensiva och defensiva insatser. Föratt skydda nationen från insatser med massförstörelsevapen burna av en kryssningsrobot krävsvapensystem med långa räckvidder så att bekämpningen kan ske över hav eller obefolkade områden. Enbekämpad stridsdel med massförstörelsevapen kan resultera i ett restnedfall med förödande effekt. För attbekämpa ballistiska robotar krävs system med extrema prestanda. Bekämpningssystemen skall kunnamöta inkommande robotar med farter mellan 2500 till 5000 m/s. För att minimera restnedfallet från enmassförstörelsestridsspets krävs att den ballistiska roboten bekämpas i den yttre atmosfären.Trots de stora investeringarna i JAS 39-systemet kommer Sverige att sakna ett relevant försvar motkryssningsrobotar och ballistiska robotar. Uppsatsen bedömer att Sverige inte på egen hand kan bygga uppett försvar mot dessa vapen. De två huvudsakliga motiven till detta är ekonomin och behoven av ensamordnad insats om det finns risk för restnedfall vid en bekämpad massförstörelsestridsdel. Uppsatsenförordar ett internationellt samarbete för ett framtida svenskt försvar mot kryssningsrobotar och ballistiskarobotar. För att kunna skaffa sig en framtida förmåga krävs en omfattande kunskapsuppbyggnad inomlandet. Den nuvarande kunskapsnivån räcker inte ens för att fatta de inledande besluten för enövergripande inriktning.

  • 340.
    Silvferskiöld, Stefan
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Bull, Peter
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Hult, Gunnar
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Hagenbo, Mikael
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Andersson, Kent
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Persson, Björn
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Sigholm, Johan
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Bang, Martin
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Technology Forecast 2015, Military Utility of Five Technologies: a report from seminars at the Department of Military-Technology at the Swedish Defence University2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Five technology forecast reports from the Fraunhofer Institute have been reviewed by staff at the Department of Military-Technology at the Swedish Defence University. The task given by the Swedish Defence Material Administration (FMV) was to assess the military utility of the given technologies in a time frame to 2040 from a Swedish Armed Forces’ (SwAF) perspective.

    We assess the military utility of a certain technology based on its contribution to the operational capabilities of the SwAF, according to identified relevant scenarios. It should be noted that the military utility of the technology in this report is assessed solely in the presented scenario, not for the technology in any other scenarios. Since a new capability catalogue is under development at the SwAF Headquarters, we will only present general assessments of the capability impact from the technologies under study.

    After the seminars, the technologies were grouped into three classes; technologies with potentially significant, uncertain or negligible military utility. The classification uncertain is given for technologies that are difficult to put into the two other classes, and not because a high technology readiness level (TRL) will not be reached by 2040.

    The following technologies were assessed to have a potential for significant military utility;

    3D Printers

    Our overall assessment is that 3D printing has significant potential for military utility, possibly disruptive. Logistic concepts for both national and expeditionary missions will be affected in the 2040 time frame. The technology development will be driven by civilian industry, but a SwAF in-depth study is recommended as it could help form potential logistic concepts and determine what methods and systems are suitable for military adoption and what kind of application-specific issues have to be addressed in order to take full advantage of the new technology.

    Deep Learning

    The military utility for deep learning is assessed to be significant, primarily regarding SIGINT and IMINT, which is where the greatest utility can be seen. The driving force as regards research in the field is the private sector. We therefore recommend that the SwAF follow the research conducted and focus studies on how and where deep learning can be implemented within the organization.

    Nanothermites

    We suggest that a deeper study into the feasibility of nanothermite munitions and their possible military utility is carried out, since they are assessed to have a potential for significant military utility. Some of the remaining challenges include resolving risks and uncertainties pertaining to health, legality and material development. We also suggest that nanothermites should be incorporated as a future area of interest within the SwAF R&D projects.

    Unmanned Surface Vessels

    USV could be used for many tasks that are dull, difficult and dangerous. If employed to search for submarines they are expected to lower the cost of personnel, enhance the readiness level and increase the probability of finding hostile submarines. Therefore, we assess that USV have potential for significant military utility. The effectiveness of USV for the SwAF will depend greatly on how the platforms are incorporated into the organization. Research on how to use the USV tactically will likely be imperative if the technology is to reach its full potential. We recommended that the SwAF should follow the development and pursue research on USV before acquiring own platforms.

    Structural Health Monitoring

    Structural health monitoring is a key part when utilizing kinodynamic motion planning in automated and autonomous systems; therefore it will affect the capability of all systems that rely on kinodynamic motion planning. This technology has the capacity to enhance the capabilities of automatic and autonomous systems. Therefore, our assessment is that structural health monitoring has significant potential for military utility

    No technology was assessed to have uncertain or negligible military utility.

    The result of our technology forecast is different from previous years since all the technologies were assessed to have significant potential for military utility. The reason for this is assumed to be because these technologies have been selected by a board of experts from the SwAF and the Defence Materiel Administration, (FMV), as well as from a number of interesting, potentially disruptive technologies proposed by the Fraunhofer Institute. Furthermore, the Fraunhofer Institute estimates that all technologies in this report will reach high TRL levels, mostly 8 and 9 by 2035.

    The method used in this technology forecast report was to assign each Fraunhofer report to one reviewer in the working group. First, a summary of each forecast report was made. The Fraunhofer assessment of technical readiness level (TRL) in the time period to 2035 was held to be correct. The technology was then put into one scenario that was assumed to be suitable in order to assess the military utility as well as indicate possibilities and drawbacks of the technology. Based on a SWOT analysis, an assessment of the capability impact was made. An improvement this year is that the footprint table has been adjusted to the one used by NORDEFCO, presenting the assessed contribution to the factors DOTMPLFI (Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Personnel, Leadership, Facilities and Interoperability). Furthermore, the demands that are expected to be put on the SwAF R&D in order to facilitate the introduction of the technology were indicated. Finally, conclusions regarding the potential military utility of each technology were drawn. We believe that this information could be used as decision support for future R&D investments.

    The chosen definition of military utility clearly affects the result of the study. The definition of the military utility of a certain technology is its contribution to the operational capabilities of the SwAF within identified relevant scenarios and is the same as used in the Technology Forecast of 2013 and 2014. This definition is believed to be good enough for this

    report but could be further elaborated in the future. An article that in-depth presents our concept of military utility has recently been published.1

    Our evaluation of the method used shows that there is a risk that the assessment is biased because of the participating experts’ presumptions and experiences from their own field of research. The scenarios that were chosen do not cover all aspects of the technologies and their possible contribution to operational capabilities. It should be stressed that we have assessed potential military utility of the five technologies within the specific presented scenarios, not the technology itself. Any additional results found in the analysis are mentioned.

    The greatest value of the method used is its simplicity, cost effectiveness and not least the tradeoff that it promotes learning within the working group. The composition of the working group and the methodology used are believed to provide for a broad and balanced coverage of the technologies under study. This report provides executive summaries of the Fraunhofer reports and the intention is to help the SwAF Headquarters evaluate the military utility of emerging technologies within identified relevant scenarios.

    Overall, the quality of the Fraunhofer reports is considered to be balanced and of a high level of critical analysis regarding technology development. However, the report on Unmanned Surface Vessels was found to have a somewhat lower quality than the other reports, for instance, some parts of the text are copied and pasted from last year’s report on UCAV and some parts of the assessments are missing, e.g. in the TRL evaluation. Nonetheless, the reports are in line with our task of evaluating the military utility of the emerging technologies.

  • 341.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA). MTA Försvarhögskolan.
    Critique systems for Geographic information and GIS2009Inngår i: Proceedings at 24th International Cartographic Conference ICC 2009 Santiago, Chile, Santiago, Chile, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 342.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Critique systems for Geographic information and GIS2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 24th international cartographic conference ICC: The world's geo - spatial solutions, 15-21 November, 2009 Santiago, Chile. - Santiago, Santiago, Chile, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 343.
    Sivertun, Åke
    2Department of Computer and Information Science (IDA), Linköping University, Sweden.
    Integration of remote sensed images and semantic based Descriptors for Hazards and risks management2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 344.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Militärgeografi och GIS: delar av militärteknik2012Inngår i: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, nr 1, s. 108-120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's wars and crises, placing new demands on the abilities to work through the society's greater vulnerability. Furthermore, the Earth is more densely populated and the population is concentrated in coastal areas and river valleys. Unfortunately, these coastlines, river valleys and other sensitive areas are places where natural disasters and conflicts can create great strain on society. Armed conflicts and struggles, now often conducted in populated areas does not make the situation easier. The tools for dealing with these problems are largely technical in nature but a close link between technology, tactics and operations need to be emphasized. Linking and study the use of technologies in different situations and at the various challenges of the military activity is a major aim of the subject of military technology. Here there are clear analogies with civilian crisis management that must be able to relate to, among other things military activities. The subject of military-technology, we want to scientifically de-scribe and explain how technology affects military operations at all levels and how the mili-tary actually affect and are affected by technology. Military-technology is rooted in several different areas of knowledge or scientific disciplines and combines social science's under-standing of the military profession with a foundation in natural science added with the dynam-ics in engineering. Military technique thus treats the technology in its military context and with the military staff's perspective (Axberg 2009).

    As a result military-technology is interdisciplinary, conducting studies and develops the sub-ject with the support of both natural, social, and engineering sciences. Through both weapon systems development as the overall development of location-based services such as GPS, and various types of sensors and information systems have been implemented, Military Geogra-phy and GIS had a renaissance.

    Knowing the battle arena is one of the preconditions for military operations and a geographic information superiority can provide important opportunities and benefits to achieve the great-est military benefit. With military advantage means that you effectively and at minimum cost, both in material life, can achieve the targets set for the military action. Today, the need is growing to reduce collateral damage and accidental control of important aspects that are regu-lated in both the laws of war and civilian conventions. In this article I will describe some technical areas where military spatial data and methods managed in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) seems likely to have an increasing importance.

  • 345.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    Stockholm Contributions in Military-Technology 20102011Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 346.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Militärtekniska avdelningen (MTA).
    The Role of ICT in Defence Industry and Systems2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 347.
    Sjöberg, Toivo
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Skydd av Amfibieförbandens båtar i en förändrad hotbild2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenska amfibieförband kommer i en nära framtid att kunna nyttjas inomramen för internationella operationer. Operationerna kan komma attgenomföras var som helst i världen. Hotbilden är både komplex och diffusoch kommer också att ändras med den tekniska utvecklingen. Den globalaspridningen av vapen, spaningsutrustning och annan militär utrustning ökar.Det är rimligt att vår utsända personal är skyddad med hjälp av den nyateknik som finns att tillgå. Båtarna som amfibieförbanden använder skakunna erbjuda ett tillräckligt skydd.Amfibieförbandens pågående modernisering innebär bland annat att en nystridsbåt ska tillföras förbanden. Båten beräknas finnas som prototyp 2009.Det är viktigt att skyddstekniken får en central roll under hela produktionstiden.Båtarna bör utrustas för att ha möjlighet att ge ett tillräckligt skyddmot upptäckt och mot vapenverkan. Under en FN-operation är det som regelviktigt att synas och visa flagg. Då uppdragets karaktär med kort förvarningändras kan dolt uppträdande under vapenhot bli nödvändigt. Båtarna skakunna uppträda i båda dessa situationer.Jag vill med uppsatsen ge en översiktlig bild av den skyddsteknik som vårförsvarsmakt utvecklar för båtar och som inom produktionsperioden förstridsbåten kommer att finnas tillgänglig.

  • 348.
    Sjöholm, Anders
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Simulering av ett framtida luftförsvar till sjöss: kryssningsrobotar vs långräckviddiga luftvärnsrobotar2001Student paper otherOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvecklingen av sjöstridskrafternas luftförsvarssystem blir allt mer kostsam. Om luft-försvaret får en mer offensiv roll i framtiden, tvingas man kanske välja mellan ett kryssningsrobotsystem och ett långräckviddigt luftvärnsrobotsystem. En stokastisk modell har tagits fram. Med denna modell som grund har 23625 simuleringar genom-förts med 189 olika kombinationer av parametrar. Enligt dessa simuleringar bör en sjöstyrka bestyckas med både ett kryssningsrobotsystem och ett långräckviddigt luft-värnsrobotsystem. Bestyckningen bör bestå av minst lika många kryssningsrobotar som långräckviddiga luftvärnsrobotar.

  • 349.
    Sjöwall, Ulf
    Försvarshögskolan.
    USA:s och Sveriges betraktelse över sjöminkrigföringens strategiska roll i ett historiskt perspektiv2001Student paper otherOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I USA:s nya maritima strategi anges kravet att kunna uppträda med marina enheter i farvatten från havet intill kusten. För att kontrollera det kustnära havsområdet krävs effektivitet inom krigföring på och under ytan.  Den nya maritima strategin har lyft fram minkrigföringens roll. Minvapnet framställs dels som ett hot men också som en möjlighet att utnyttja i offensiva och defensiva syften. Med de nya strategiska kraven har amerikanska marinen vidtagit åtgärder för att förbättra kapaciteten inom minkrigföringen. En historisk jämförelse mellan USA som enda kvarvarande supermakt och Sverige som en småstat belägen vid ett innanhav idealiskt för minkrigföring kan ge intressanta aspekter på minkrigföringens strategiska roll.Denna studie fokuserar på USA:s och Sveriges syn på minkrigföringens strategiska roll under 100 år, 1900 – 2000. Under denna period fick minkrigföringen sitt absoluta genombrott i sjökriget. Studien ger en översikt hur synen på minkrigföringen påverkas av erfarenheter från olika konflikter, krig och den tekniska utvecklingen.

  • 350.
    Skoglund, Ulf
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Network interdiction2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Network Interdiction-problem innehåller två mot varandra stående styrkor, en användare och en angripare, somär inbegripna i en krigsliknande konflikt. Användaren använder ett nätverk för att optimera en funktion, t.ex.att förflytta en underhållskonvoj så snabbt som möjligt, eller maximera mängden materiel som transporterasgenom nätverket. Det innebär att användaren vill använda den kortaste eller snabbaste vägen vid transporter,och han vill maximera flödet genom nätverket. Nätverket kan t.ex. vara ett vägnät, kraftförsörjningsnät eller ettdatornätverk. Angriparen försöker begränsa användarens möjlighet att optimera sin funktion. Angriparenssyftet är att maximera den kortaste/snabbaste vägen eller att minimera det maximala flödet genom nätverket.Angriparen uppnår detta genom att angripa bågar eller noder i nätverket och förstöra dem totalt eller reduceraderas kapacitet. Angriparens resurser är begränsade och det finns ett behov av att optimera användandet. Imånga fall är nätverket stort och många parametrar påverkar planeringen. Detta ger en komplexplaneringsförutsättning för angriparen. Genomförs planläggningen av Network Interdiction på traditionellt sätt,tvingas planeraren att använda sin intuition. Resultatet beror till stor del på planläggarens förmåga och tid tillförfogande. Om algoritmer kunde användas för att stödja planläggaren, skulle resursutnyttjandet och effektenav angreppen kunna optimeras. Uppsatsen undersöker om det är möjligt att använda Network Interdictionalgoritmervid planering av Network Interdiction.

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