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  • 301.
    Eriksson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Operational Functions Section.
    Pettersson, UlricaSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies.
    Special Operations from a Small State Perspective: Future Security Challenges2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 302.
    Eriksson, Niklas
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola.
    During, Carl
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Holmlund, Joakim
    Södertörns högskola.
    Rönnby, Johan
    Södertörns högskola.
    Sjöblom, Ingvar
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst).
    Ågren, Michael
    Resande mannen (1660): Marinarkeologisk rapport 20122013Report (Other academic)
  • 303.
    Farcas, Florentina
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Road traffic noise: GIS tools for noise mapping and a case study for Skåne region2009In: ISPRS Workshop on quality, scale and analysis aspects of city models, Lund, Sweden, December 3-4, 2009, Lund, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic noise pollution is a growing problem that highly affects the health of people. To cope with this problem one has to regulate traffic or construct noise barriers. In order to implement effective measures against traffic noise the information about its distribution – noise maps - is imperative. This paper presents our work in creating a noise calculator software package implementation that can create noise maps. The noise calculator is based on the noise model described in Nordic prediction method for road traffic noise. As a case study, the noise calculator was used to build both large noise maps for Skåne region in south of Sweden and detailed noise maps for smaller areas in the city of Lund.

  • 304.
    Farr, Keith
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för språk (KV Språk).
    A study into the motivation of Swedish military staff officers to learn English2016In: Konin Language Studies, ISSN 2353-1983, Vol. 4, no 4/2006, p. 391-413, article id KSJ 4 (4). 2016. 391-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among those teaching a group of Swedish military officers, little is known about motivation to learn English as part of a one-year military staff course. This research therefore aims to explore possible motivational characteristics while attempting to identify ways in which they may be theoretically linked to Dörnyei’s (2009) L2 motivational self system. A particular area of interest is the officers’ view of their motivation having taken part in a one-year English course and also an international military staff exercise which was conducted in English. The study used a two phase mixed-methods design, with an interview study and a follow-up questionnaire. Qualitative data were gathered by conducting seven individual interviews using a semi-structured interview schedule. Analysis of the qualitative data allowed themes to emerge. The questionnaire used in phase two was based on these themes and enabled the qualitative data to be triangulated. Twenty-eight Swedish military officers responded to the questionnaire. A variety of key variables were confirmed and it was possible to view them using the chosen theoretical framework. The Ideal L2 self and L2 learning experience were found to be particularly important motivators. It was also found that despite the officers’ high levels of motivation, their willingness to exert effort on learning is relatively low. It may therefore be concluded that teachers could address this through a focus on motivational teaching practice. Overall, this research provides insight into L2 motivation within a participant group which has not previously been studied.

  • 305.
    Finlan, Alastair
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Joint Operations Section.
    A dangerous pathway? Toward a theory of special forces2019In: Comparative Strategy, ISSN 0149-5933, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 255-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores what is considered by some to be a dangerous pathway:the development of a theory of special forces. The world is now inthe third age of special forces and these secret military units are atthe forefront of the use of force in international relations. This research identifies a large theory-knowledge gap concerning these military “first responders” for modern nation-states and offers a tentative theory of special forces that goes beyond traditional annihilation/attrition models of wartoward a new anaphylaxis model. It makes the case that the theory pathwayis not dangerous, but emancipatory.

  • 306.
    Finlan, Alastair
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Joint Operations Section.
    Special Forces: Leadership, Processes and the British Special Air Service (SAS)2017In: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Special Operations Forces / [ed] Gitte Højstrup Christensen, Copenhagen: Royal Danish Defence College Publishing House, 2017, 1, p. 74-87Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the research question of what kind of leadership, processes, and work climate best support employee-driven/bottom-up innovation in SOF. It starts with the suggestion that the term, Special Operations Forces (SOF), needs to be intellectually unpacked and its diverse elements (of which Special Forces are just one part) disaggregated in order to elicit definitional clarity. From this conceptual starting point, it becomes immediately clear that Special Forces represent the ‘special’ component in the SOF designation. This research contends they are a new type of soldier (and a product of modern warfare) that is defined by differentness in relation to conventional forces and activities within a battlespace, working in traditionally restricted areas. David Stirling, one of the founders of the famed British Special Air Service (SAS), is highlighted as an exemplar of the sort of leadership that provoked rare operational level effects. The paper also suggests that unorthodox forces operating in a unique operational environment demand unusual personality types and atypical command/control processes encapsulated by the so-called ‘Chinese Parliament’ that emerged in the SAS.

  • 307.
    Finlan, Alastair
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Joint Operations Section.
    Special Operations in Contemporary Warfare: Challenges and Opportunities2017In: Tidskrift i Sjöväsendet, ISSN 0040-6945, no 2, p. 168-174Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study suggests that the world is now in a third age of Special Forces and one that in all likelihood will witness an increasing utility of these unusual military units in orthodox and unorthodox warfare in international relations.

  • 308.
    Finlan, Alastair
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division, Joint Operations Section.
    Collier, Paul
    Grove, Mark
    Grove, Philip
    Hart, Russell
    Hart, Stephen
    Havers, Robin
    Horner, Davis
    Jukes, Geoffrey
    Hastings, Max
    The Second World War2018 (ed. 2nd)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Second World War was the most devastating conflict in human history and one which provides innumerable lessons - military, political, and moral. Across the globe, both soldier and civilian endured suffering on a scale previously unknown to humanity as nations grappled with the demands of total war.

  • 309.
    Flygelholm, Stefan
    et al.
    Försvarsmakten.
    Norlander, Arne
    Försvarsmakten.
    Hansson, Lars-Åke
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Sjöblom, Ingvar
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för operationskonst (KV Opkonst).
    Genomförande av expeditionära operationer: Tillämpat koncept 2012-06-212012Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 310.
    Flyghed, Pär
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för marina operationer (KV Marin).
    Japans ubåtsvapen under andra världskriget: Förutsättningar och verklighet2008In: Krigsvetenskaplig årsbok 2007 / [ed] Dan Öberg, Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan , 2008, p. 85-109Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 311.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Angrepp mot Iran: Möjligheter och svårigheter2012In: Slagfjädern:frivillig försvars- och beredskapsutbildning, ISSN 2001-5186, no 1, p. 8-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 312.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Boxer en ersättare för M 1132012In: Pansar, ISSN 0349-7844, no 2, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 313.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    En tyskförsvarsjätte2012In: Slagfjädern: frivillig försvars- och beredskapsutbildning, ISSN 2001-5186, no 4, p. 6-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 314.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Ett nytt kallt krig skapas i vårt närområde2012In: Slagfjädern: frivillig försvars- och beredskapsutbildning, ISSN 2001-5186, no 3, p. 6-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 315.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Femdagarskriget som avgjordes på 48 timmar!2009In: Hemvärnsnytt: Tidning för Hemvärnets personal i Livgardesgruppen, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 10-12Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 316.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Förnyelse av svenska stridsfordon2011In: Slagfjädern: frivillig försvars- och beredskapsutbildning, ISSN 2001-5186, Vol. 93, no 2, p. 20-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 317.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Ingenjörbandvagn 1202012In: Pansar, ISSN 0349-7844, no 1, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 318.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Irans kärnvapenprogram och luftvärn2012In: Vårt Luftvärn, no 1, p. 7-12Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 319.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Katastrofövning på Frankfurts flygplats2010In: Slagfjädern: frivillig försvars- och beredskapsutbildning, ISSN 2001-5186, Vol. 92, no 4, p. 10-10Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 320.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Kriget i Libanon 2006: ett tekniskt genombrott?2011In: Slagfjädern: frivillig försvars- och beredskapsutbildning, ISSN 2001-5186, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 16-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 321.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Livgardesgruppen deltog i stor katastrofövning2010In: Hemvärnsnytt: Tidning för Hemvärnets personal i Livgardesgruppen, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 18-19Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 322.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Luftlandsättningstrupperna får nya stridsfordon 2S252010In: Pansar, ISSN 0349-7844, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 323.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Nya vapensystem i vårt närområde2012In: Vårt Luftvärn, no 3, p. 14-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 324.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Nytt ryskt rekord i vapenexport2011In: Slagfjädern: frivillig försvars- och beredskapsutbildning, ISSN 2001-5186, Vol. 93, no 4, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 325.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    När Sverige köpte östtyska stridsfordon2010In: Slagfjädern: frivillig försvars- och beredskapsutbildning, ISSN 2001-5186, Vol. 92, no 1, p. 16-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 326.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Ryska luftlandsättningsförband övar igen2011In: Vårt Luftvärn, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 6-8Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 327.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Ryssland omstrukturerar sitt stridsflyg2010In: Slagfjädern: frivillig försvars- och beredskapsubildning, ISSN 2001-5186, Vol. 92, no 4, p. 19-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 328.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Ryssland omstrukturerar sitt stridsflyg2011In: Vårt Luftvärn, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 15-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 329.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Segerparaden i Moskva 9 maj 20102010In: Slagfjädern: frivillig försvars- och beredskapsutbildning, ISSN 2001-5186, Vol. 92, no 2, p. 21-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 330.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Storövning med ny materiel2010In: Slagfjädern: frivillig försvars- och beredskapsutbildning, ISSN 2001-5186, Vol. 92, no 2, p. 16-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 331.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Svenska Leoparder klara för utlandsmission2011In: Slagfjädern: frivillig försvars- och beredskapsutbildning, ISSN 2001-5186, no 3, p. 14-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 332.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Svenska Leoparder klara för utlandsmission2011In: Pansar, ISSN 0349-7844, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 333.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    T-90 en utveckling av T-72 och T-80U2010In: Pansar, ISSN 0349-7844, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 4-8Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 334.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Tyska Panzerlehrbrigade 9 visar tänderna2010In: Slagfjädern: frivillig försvars- och beredskapsutbildning, ISSN 2001-5186, Vol. 92, no 3, p. 12-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 335.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Ännu en storövning med ryska luftlandsättningsförband2010In: Slagfjädern: frivillig försvars- och beredskapsutbildning, ISSN 2001-5186, Vol. 92, no 3, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 336. Fouts, D. J.
    et al.
    Pace, P. E.
    Karow, C.
    Ekestorm, Stig R. T.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    A single-chip false target radar image generator for countering wideband imaging radars2002In: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, ISSN 0018-9200, E-ISSN 1558-173X, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 751-759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the theory, design, implementation, simulation, and testing of an ASIC capable of generating false target radar images for countering wideband synthetic aperture and inverse synthetic aperture imaging radars. The 5.5 x 6.1 mm IC has 81632 transistors, 132 I/O pins, and consumes 0.132 W at 70 MHz from a 3.3-V supply. An introduction to the application and operation of the ASIC in an electronic attack system is also presented. The false target image is fully programmable and the chip is capable of generating images of both small and large targets, even up to the size of an aircraft carrier. This is the first reported use of all-digital technology to generate false target radar images of large targets.

  • 337.
    Foyer, Pemilla
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    Wilsson, Erik
    Wright, Dominic
    Jensen, Per
    Early experiences modulate stress coping in a population of German shepherd dogs2013In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 146, no 1-4, p. 79-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early experiences may alter later behavioural expressions in animals and these differences can be consistent through adulthood. In dogs, this may have a profound impact on welfare and working ability and, it is therefore interesting to evaluate how experiences during the first weeks of life contribute to shaping the long-term behaviour. We analysed data from 503 dogs from 105 litters, bred at the Swedish Armed Forces Dog Kennel. For each dog, the data comprised information on dam and sire, sex, litter size, sex ratio of litter, date of birth, and weight at birth, and at 10 days of age. Between the ages of 377 and 593 days, the dogs were tested in a temperament test, assessing their suitability as working dogs. The behaviour test comprised 12 different sub-tests, and was scored on a behavioural rating scale. A principal component analysis showed that the test performance could largely be attributed to four principal components (explaining 55.7% of variation), labelled Confidence, Physical Engagement, Social Engagement and Aggression. We analysed the effects of the different early life variables and sex on the principal component scores (PC scores) using linear modelling. PC scores on Confidence were affected by parity, sex and litter size, and Physical Engagement was affected by parity, growth rate, litter size and season of birth. Social Engagement was affected by growth rate and sex, and Aggression was affected by sex. Some of these effects disappeared when they were combined into a single linear model, but most of them remained significant also when controlling for collinearity. The results suggest that the early environment of dogs have long-lasting effects on their behaviour and coping styles in a stressful test situation and this knowledge can be used in the work with breeding of future military or police working dogs.

  • 338.
    Foyer, Pernilla
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Early Experience, Maternal Care and Behavioural Test Design: Effects on the Temperament of Military Working Dogs2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Domestication has resulted in animals with broad variations between as well as within breeds, which allows for the selection and breeding of animals for preferred traits. This selection has affected both the genotypes and phenotypes of animals. In dogs, it has allowed for breeding for different purposes, such as companionship or the performance of specific tasks, e.g., herding, hunting, searching and protecting. Each of these types of working dogs has specific traits that are, in part, controlled by genes; however, genes are not solely responsible for the variations in the traits of an individual. The environment also plays a role, which has been studied in rodents and primates in recent decades. For instance, it has been shown that the amount of maternal care that a rat receives as a pup affects its temperament later in life; the more maternal care, i.e., licking, grooming and arched-back nursing (LG-ABN), that a rat receives, the more stress resistant, less reactive and more explorative it will be as an adult. However, the question is whether this is also true for dogs, and the investigation of how temperament in dogs is affected by environmental factors early in life is the main objective of this thesis. Three of the studies presented in this thesis focused on investigating the general parameters, particularly maternal care, that influences offspring behaviour to contribute to the understanding of temperament development in military working dogs. One of these studies concentrated on the environmental factors that influence dogs early in life, and the results indicated that some factors, such as parity, litter size and birth season, affect temperament later in life. Another study investigated how females take care of their young, and the results demonstrated that females consistently vary in their maternal style during the first three weeks postpartum and that this variation affects the temperament of the offspring. The third study focused on factors in the home environment, and the results showed that dogs approved through the evaluative temperament test were significantly associated with being hyperactive or restless and having difficulty settling down in the home environment. However, those dogs were also left home alone for more hours in a day than non-approved dogs. To be able to operate functionally, a military working dog needs to possess certain traits, or a certain temperament, and a vital characteristic is the way it responds to and copes with stress. This was investigated during an evaluative temperament test used to select dogs suitable for further training. Surprisingly, the results showed that the dogs approved for further training had significantly higher levels of salivary cortisol both before and after the test compared with the non-approved dogs. These findings may be of profound importance for understanding individual variations in behaviour and improving breeding schemes for working dogs.

  • 339.
    Foyer, Pernilla
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Linköping University.
    Bjallerhag, Nathalie
    IFM Biology, AVIAN Behaviour Genomics and Physiology group, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Wilsson, Erik
    Dog Instruction Centre, Swedish Armed Forces, Sweden.
    Jensen, Per
    IFM Biology, AVIAN Behaviour Genomics and Physiology group, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Behaviour and experiences of dogs during the first year of life predict the outcome in a later temperament test2014In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 155, p. 93-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early life experiences are known to shape the behavioural development of animals, and therefore events occurring during preadolescence and adolescence may have long-term effects. In dogs, this period of time may be important for later behaviour and thereby also the suitability of dogs for different working tasks. We used the breeding practice for Swedish military working dogs to investigate this possibility. German Shepherds were bred at a central facility and then kept in host families for about a year, before participating in a standardised test determining their temperament, behaviour, and suitability for further training. We surveyed the link between the behaviour of 71 prospective military working dogs in their home situations during the first year of life as assessed by an amended C-BARQ survey, and their performance in a temperament test (T-test) applied at about 17 months of age. Dogs which scored high for C-BARQ category "Trainability" showed a significantly higher success rate in the T-test (P < 0.001), while dogs that scored high for "Stranger-directed fear", "Non-social fear" and "Dog-directed fear" showed a significantly lower success rate (all P < 0.05). Also dogs with higher C-BARQ scores on "Hyperactivity/restlessness, difficulties in settling down" (P=0.028), and "Chasing/following shadows or light spots" (P=0.035) were more successful, as were dogs left longer times at home (2.97 +/- 0.32 vs. 2.04 +/- 0.33 h/day; P=0.050). Index value, describing the expected success rate in the T-test, was negatively correlated with "Non-social fear" (r = -0.35) and "Stranger directed fear" (r = -0.35). The combined effect of the significant C-BARQ categories explained 29.5% of the variance in the later T-test results (P=0.006). The results indicate that the experiences and behaviour of the dogs during their first year of life is crucial in determining their later behaviour and temperament, something that could potentially be used to improve selection procedures for working dogs. Furthermore, an unsuspected result was that success in the T-test was correlated with behaviours usually associated with problem behaviour, which calls for a deeper analysis of the selection criteria used for working dogs. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 340.
    Foyer, Pernilla
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Linköpings universitet, Biologi.
    Svedberg, Anna-Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Biologi.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Linköpings universitet, Biologi.
    Wilsson, Erik
    Swedish Armed Forces Dog Training Unit, Märsta, Sweden.
    Olsen Faresjö, Åshild
    Linköpings universitet, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Biologi.
    Behavior and cortisol responses of dogs evaluated in a standardized temperament test for military working dogs2016In: Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, ISSN 1558-7878, E-ISSN 1878-7517, Vol. 11, p. 7-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military and police working dogs are often exposed to stressful or threatening events, and an improper response, e.g., fear, may implicate both reduced working efficiency and welfare. Therefore, identifying individuals that display a favorable response to potentially threatening situations is of great interest. In the present study, we investigated behavior responses of 85 prospective military working dogs in 4 subtests in a standardized temperament test used to select working dogs for the Swedish Armed Forces. Our goal was to evaluate behavioral responses in specific subtests and cortisol responses of candidate dogs. After dogs were rated as approved or nonapproved based on the test leader’s assessment of the full test result, we independently analyzed video recordings of 4 subtests. In addition, for 37 dogs, we analyzed pretest and posttest salivary cortisol levels. Dogs which were approved by the test leader for further training scored higher in the video recordings on emotionality and, in particular, fear-related behavior during a subset of the test and had higher levels of cortisol both before and after the test, than nonapproved dogs. Although this may actually reflect the desired traits, it could also indicate a bias in the selection procedure, which may pose limitations on the attempts to recruit the most suitable working dogs.

  • 341.
    Foyer, Pernilla
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Linköpings universitet, Biologi.
    Wilsson, Erik
    Swedish Armed Forces Dog Instruction Centre, Märsta, Sweden.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Biologi.
    Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult off spring temperament2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 19253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs.

  • 342.
    Frank, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division, Sektionen för krigsspel.
    Achieving Game Goals at All Costs?: The Effect of Reward Structures on Tactics Employed in Educational Military Wargaming2014In: FRONTIERS IN GAMING SIMULATION, 2014, p. 13-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key motive in using gaming for educational purposes is to enhance user motivation and involvement to the subject matter. Within military education, games have always been utilized as a means to think clearly about military operations. However, some research results have shown that gaming, regardless of what the game is supposed to portray, is a meaningful activity in itself, and this can distract the learner away from the educational objective. Playing the game, then, becomes similar to competition, such as in sports where the objective is to only win the game. The player directs actions to achieving game goals even though some actions are inappropriate from a learning perspective. To shed light on the discrepancy between playing a game to win and playing a game to learn, we conducted an experiment on cadets playing an educational wargame. By varying the conditions of the game, playing with or without points, while still in line with the learning objective, we were interested to see what impact it had on the tactics employed by cadets. The results showed that adding reward structures, such as points, changed the outcome of the game, that is, groups playing with points played the game more aggressively and utilized the military units more extensively. These findings suggest that changes in the game design, although educationally relevant, may distract learners to be more oriented towards a lusory attitude, in which achieving the game goals becomes players' biggest concern.

  • 343.
    Frank, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Difficulties in maintaining theme focused frameworks in educational wargaming2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 344.
    Frank, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division, Sektionen för krigsspel. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Gamer mode: Identifying and managing unwanted behaviour in military educational wargaming2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Games are rule-governed systems at the same time as they are fiction, simulating or representing a real or an abstract world. This defining characteristic may create for different forms of tensions, that is, at different times players may focus on the rules, the fiction or on both during game play. In military education with games, this poses a problem when the learner becomes too focused on the rules, trying to win at any price rather than taking the representation and what it implies in terms of permissible behaviour seriously. In here we attempt to understand how participants in a wargaming situation act out this tension by studying the interaction between the player and the game in military tactical training.

    The results first of all confirm that there is a tension – there are occasions where players are mainly concerned with winning the wargame, disregarding what the theme is meant to represent. I propose the term gamer mode to refer to this player orientation: players in gamer mode have an extreme rule-focused interaction, meaning they behave rationally with respect to game rules but irrationally with respect to the portrayed real-life situation they are training for. Gamer mode can probably occur for many reasons. This thesis documents two contributing factors. The first concerns whenever the game does not match players’ expectation on mimicking warfare. In these situations players may find that the game breaks the fragile contract of upholding an accurate representation of warfare. The other factor that may lead to gamer mode are game design features such as explicit reward structures or victory conditions.

    To remedy the situation, the instructor can, in real-time, actively support players’ orientation towards the game and explain in-game events, keeping them on track. When gamer mode occur I argue that the conditions for learning are compromised as the gaming activity becomes its own learning subject, blurring and overshadowing the learning objective. Although the results suggest that gamer mode is mainly detrimental to learning I conclude that gamer mode is a natural way students will approach games and as such, needs to be dealt with by the instructor.

  • 345.
    Frank, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Gaming the Game: A Study of the Gamer Mode in Educational Wargaming2012In: Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, Vol. 43, p. 118-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A risk associated with the use of games in training and education is that players "game the game," instead of focusing on their learning goals. The term gamer mode is proposed to describe this attitude. A player with a gamer-mode attitude strives to achieve goals that are optimal for winning the game, but suboptimal with respect to educational objectives. In this study of cadets playing an educational wargame to learn ground warfare tactics, the author examined occurrences of gamer mode. The results show that gamer mode on and off emerged in all analyzed sessions. Cadets understanding of the wargame was different from what the instructors expected. This study discusses why it is important to avoid situations where the gamer mode emerges and also speculates on the sources that generate this attitude-the game itself, the educational setting, and the participants' previous experiences.

  • 346.
    Frank, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division, Sektionen för krigsspel. Försvarshögskolan. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    The Instructor Role during Educational Wargaming2014In: THE SHIFT FROM TEACHING TO LEARNING: Individual, Collective and Organizational Learning through Gaming / [ed] Willy C. Kriz, Bielefeld: W. Bertelsmann Verlag , 2014, p. 66-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The instructor has a vital role in leading the debriefing discussion in game-based learning. The role during the gaming part is however not as clear. Some results suggest that the instructor should take an active and authoritative role, but results provide few clues on how to apply this to military wargaming. Wargaming is a two-sided game activity where both sides are assumed to learn from their play experience. Wargaming against a live opponent can however produce unwanted effects. One such effect is ‘gamer mode’ that is a result of an exaggerated willingness to win, which can be observed when the players, for instance, exploit the game rules in unrealistic manner. This paper investigates the main responsibilities or duties of the instructor to prevent gamer mode to occur and instead support the desired player-orientation toward the game. By reasoning on the main characteristic features of wargaming, to play the game and to learn from the experience, I conclude that the main duties of the instructor are to frame the game activity and to steer the learning process. This supports earlier results that the instructor should take an active part in the gaming process, yet needs to have the skills, knowledge, and authority to intervene in students’ game play. The findings are illustrated with excerpts from videotaped wargaming sessions at the Swedish National Defence College.

  • 347.
    Frank, Anders
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Unexpected game calculations in educational wargaming: Design flaw or beneficial to learning?2011In: Think Design Play, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes situations where learning games are not perceived by the player as being realistic. In educational wargaming this is seen when the game calculates battle-outcomes. Defined as unexpected game calculations, these incidents can cause players to adopt a Gamer Mode attitude, in which players reject the idea that the game accurately portrays warfare. In a study involving cadets playing a commercial strategic wargame as part of their course in war science, unexpected game calculations emerged and resulted in different user responses. Although user responses risked damaging the worth of learning from gaming, this paper argues that these incidents could enhance learning, as the cadets became interested and keen on finding rationales to why and how unexpected calculations occur.

  • 348.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI); Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS).
    Cohen, Mika
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Sigholm, Johan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Applications Section.
    What can we learn from enterprise architecture models?: An experiment comparing models and documents for capability development2018In: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 695-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise architecture (EA) has been established as a discipline to cope with the complex interactions of business operations and technology. Models, i.e., formal descriptions in terms of diagrams and views, are at the heart of the approach. Though it is widely thought that such architecture models can contribute to improved understanding and decision making, this proposition has not rigorously been tested. This article describes an experiment conducted with a real EA model and corresponding real traditional documents, investigating whether the model or the documents lead to better and faster understanding. Understanding is interesting to study, as it is a prerequisite to other EA uses. The subjects (N = 98) were officer cadets, and the experiment was carried out using a comprehensive description of military Close Air Support capability either (1) in the form of a MODAF model or (2) in the form of traditional documents. Based on the results, the model seems to lead to better, though not faster, understanding.

  • 349.
    Fransson, Bengt
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies.
    Hur kan effektivitet inom underrättelsetjänst värderas?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Införandet av Grundsyn Underrättelsetjänst (Grundsyn Und08) beskrivs som en stor utmaning för underrättelsetjänsten i så motto att nya metoder och processer skall utvecklas som gör att man på ett effektivare sätt möter olika beslutsfattares framtida krav.

    Inom verksamhetsfältet underrättelsetjänst saknas en allmänt erkänd effektivitetsdefinition varvid ordets betydelse och användning ligger öppet för bedömning och tolkning. Man kan därför på goda grunder anta att det inom professionen finns en mängd olika uppfattningar om hur begreppet effektivitet bör värderas.

    Detta är inte tillfredsställande om man beaktar hur värdeladdat effektivitetsbegreppet är i de sammanhang det används. Avsaknad av en effektivitetsdefinition innebär ur en teoretisk synvinkel att effektivitetsbegreppets räckvidd därmed blir oklar. Det behövs därför en gemensam förståelse av hur effektivitetsbegreppet kan tolkas och förstås. De tankar som här läggs fram skall i detta sammanhang förhoppningsvis utgöra ett bidrag som ökar förståelse för användandet av effektivitetsbegreppet inom underrättelsetjänsten.

  • 350.
    Franzén, Simon
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies.
    Russian Information Warfare2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Having entered the information age, Bishop and Goldman argue that information as warfare has become as important as information in warfare. With the Russian annexation of Crimea in 2014, the role of information in warfare became one of the pillars in discussions concerning hybrid warfare. This dissertation examines if there is such a phenomenon as a specific form of Russian information warfare. Using Bishop and Goldman’s model of information warfare, the dissertation uses a directed content analysis to analyse the annexation of Crimea, the Russian – Georgia war, as well as other country’s information operations. 

    Arguing that the western understanding of information warfare is an insufficient tool to grasp the extent of Russian information warfare, the dissertation instead suggests using the Soviet concept of Active Measures to conceptualise Russian actions; that these actions should be viewed as continuation of traditional Soviet measures. The means differ, the purpose does not.

    Concluding, the dissertation argues that a heightened degree of information security is required within the Swedish armed forces, and further research, for example into the French and American presidential elections, would wield further credence to the idea of Russian Active Measures.

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