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  • 301.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    FOI.
    Johansson, Björn JE
    FOI.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University.
    The shared priorities measure as a way of assessing team strategic awareness: a bridge between self-assessment and the deep blue sea of field recordings2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, ACM Digital Library, 2014, p. 13-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective, easy to use, easy to comprehend, high face-validity assessment methods for measuring shared awareness in teams are hard to find. This paper describes an experiment where a new measure called Shared Priorities, which is based on ranking of self-generated strategic items, is tested. Trained teams were compared to non-trained teams in a dynamic problem-solving task in terms of performance and shared awareness. The shared priorities measure was used alongside other, well-documented measures of team awareness based on self-rating. The results show that the Shared Priorities measure correlate with performance and could also distinguish between trained and non-trained teams. However, the Shared Priorities measure did not correlate with the other team measures, suggesting that it captures a different quality of team work than the self-rating measures. Further, the shared priorities measure was found to be easily administered and gained a high user acceptance.

  • 302.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    FOI.
    Johansson, Björn JE
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Turcotte, Isabelle
    Laval University, Canada.
    Tremblay, Sébastien
    Laval University, Canada.
    Assessing team focused behaviors in emergency response teams using the shared priorities measure2014In: Proceedings of the 11th International ISCRAM Conference / [ed] S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih, Pennsylvania, USA: ISCRAM , 2014, p. 130-134Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work in progress paper is to report on the method development of the Shared Prioritiesmeasure to include content analysis, as a way of gaining a deeper understanding of team work incrisis/emergency response. An experiment is reported where the performance of six trained teams is comparedwith the performance of six non-trained teams. The experiment was performed using an emergency responsemicroworld simulation with a forest fire scenario. Dependent measures were simulation performance, the CrewAwareness Rating Scale (CARS), and content analysis. Trained teams performed better and scored higher onmeasures of team behaviors.

  • 303.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    FOI.
    Johansson, Björn JE
    FOI.
    Svensson, Erland
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Statistical modelling of team training in a microworld study2014In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Sage Publications, 2014, p. 894-898Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A command and control environment is a dynamic and complex setting with complicated technical systems where teams of operators interact to reach shared goals. This study presents an experiment in which we, by means of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), explain the relations between basic concepts of command and control environments: mental workload, frustration, situational awareness, and performance. This paper reports a LISREL analysis of the Baroutsi, Berggren, Nählinder, & Johansson (2013) data. From that data, a new latent variable “Frustration” emerges, which now can be included in the model.

  • 304.
    Berggrund, Ebba
    Swedish Defence University.
    “You can choose your friends, but not your neighbours”: A field study of the informal practice of restorative justice and its ties to community resilience in rural communities in Nakuru County, Kenya2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The justice system in the east-African country Kenya has long been subject to severe corruption and lengthy bureaucracy.  Both historical and current injustices have been left unattended and unaddressed, obstructing community resilience. This has lead to the development of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) mechanisms that often build on traditional practices. In this study the ADR of restorative justice is examined. The study seeks to explore the relationship between the informal practice of restorative justice and the social dimensions of community resilience in the rural communities of Nakuru County in western Kenya. By merging questions on the practice of restorative justice with indicators of community resilience the study has found that the informal practice of restorative justice indeed has links to the shaping of community resilience. The practice has enabled dialogue between different ethnic groups. This has facilitated reconciliation and healing of trauma partly because new narratives have formed and partly because the culture of silence has been broken allowing people to share testimonies of violence and conflict. The study has also informed the community resilience field on the importance for collectivistic communities to have historical and ancestral events honoured, shared and addressed in order to fully enable conditions under which community resilience can form. However the practice shows ambiguous tendencies when it comes to inclusion of all members of society as community elders’ possesses a lot of power over the process, partially restricting community resilience to form. 

  • 305.
    Bergh, Andreas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Intentionen att tillämpa uppdragstaktik: en fallstudie av TD012009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 306.
    Bergh, Mats
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Manövertänkande inom armén: "nytt" namn på gammalt tänkande?2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Military Strategic Doctrine was published in 2002 and it stated for the first time, that allactivity performed by the Swedish Armed Forces was to be influenced by the concept ofManeuver Thinking. A concept known since the 1980s and established, among others, byWilliam S. Lind in connection with his work concerning new doctrines for the U.S. MarineCorps. In Sweden we have talked about the concept since the 1990s, but we have not madeany formal expression of it in regulations and governing documents.Taking a starting point in the time after the Second World War and moving forward to the endof the 20th century this investigation will take a closer look at three occasions, which all markimportant events for the Swedish Armed Forces and the Army. First the 1950s, which meant acontinuing quantitative development as a consequence of the rearmament during the SecondWorld War. Second the 1970s, which was the beginning of the disarmament by the SwedishArmed Forces that is still in progress, as a result of the Defence Resolution in 1968. Finally,the 1990s, which meant an increased mechanization of the Army with the procurement of theLeopard 2 Improved, Combat Vehicle 90 and various vehicles from the former Eastern states.By using some specifically selected indicators representing the concept of Maneuver Thinkingand a number of governing documents and regulations from the three chosen periods, thisinvestigation will be able to find out to what degree the concept of Manoeuvre Thinkingexisted in the Army before it was formalized in The Military Doctrines. The literature anddocuments that are to be investigated consist of everything from the political and militarystrategic level and the Defence Resolutions down to the common soldier and his instructionsin the “Soldier’s Handbook” (Svensk soldat).The results prove that there has been a concept of Maneuver Thinking within the Army and ithas been expressed in different ways, especially in the investigated Army regulations.

  • 307.
    Bergkvist, Erik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    En relation med problem: problematiken kring den politiska styrningen av Försvarsmakten2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay, at a C-level as a part of the National Defense College Senior Staff Course, has as purpose

    to contribute to the general understanding of the problems connected to the political governance

    of armed forces.

    The main method used in the empiric part of this essay is a text analysis of the political guidelines

    to the military part of the states finances budget process and the corresponding military counterpart.

    A comparison between the documents will be done in order to seek discrepancies in the directives

    from the government and the way they are interpreted by the armed forces.

    The main question is if the governments´ guidelines are indistinct and difficult to interpret or if the

    military, on the contrary, is unable to apprehend?

    In the essay some possible interpretations of how to understand the problems about political governance

    of armed forces will be presented.

  • 308.
    Berglund, Anna Karin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Om höga chefer trivs/inte trivs på jobbet - "smittar det av sig" ända ned till soldater och sjömän?2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med undersökningen var att få fördjupad förståelse om upplevelsen av engagemang i arbetet ”smittar” mellan hierarkiska nivåer. Avsikten var att belysa denna form av påverkan såväl uppifrån och ned som nedifrån och upp. Intervjuer med totalt 26 informanter genomfördes på följande fyra nivåer: (1) Produktions-avdelningen på Högkvarteret, (2) förbands och bataljons-/divisionsledning, (3) kompani och plutons-/fartygsledning och (4) soldater och sjömän.

    Resultatredovisningen fokuserar på betydelsen av informanternas eget handlande för andras engagemang i arbetet och betydelsen av andras handlande för informanternas engagemang i arbetet. Både positiva och negativa aspekter tas upp.

    Resultatet visar att det finns en viss smittoeffekt uppifrån och ned på så sätt att handlingar utförda av ledningen på Högkvarteret har en effekt på förbands-ledningsnivå, som i sin tur har en viss effekt på kompaniledningsnivå, som slutligen har en viss effekt på soldat/sjömansnivå. Smittoeffekten finns i hela den hierarkiska kedjan men är svag när man är två eller fler hierarkiska nivåer från ”smittspridaren”.

    Smittokraften kan däremot vara stark gentemot närmsta hierarkiska nivå, framförallt nedåt i hierarkin. På soldat/sjömansnivå, som är den viktigaste för Försvarsmaktens personalförsörjning, innebär detta att de som betyder mest är de officerare och specialistofficerare som soldaterna och sjömännen dagligen möter. Sannolikt förhåller det sig så att engagerade befäl på denna nivå kan övervinna att ogynnsamt engagemang högre upp i hierarkin. På ett likartat sätt kan sannolikt en brist på engagemang på den lägsta befälsnivån kullkasta effekten av ett stort engagemang högre upp i organisationen.

    Ur personalförsörjningssynpunkt är det således angeläget att den lägsta chefsnivån är engagerad och att organisationen gör sitt yttersta för att optimera förutsättningarna för detta engagemang. Enkelt uttryckt, det är viktigare att gruppchefer, instruktörer samt plutons- och kompanibefäl är engagerade än att förbandsledning och försvarsmaktsledning är det.

  • 309.
    Berglund, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Rätt människa på rätt plats - under rätt tid2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay was to study how the Swedish Armed Forces, officers manningsystem provides officers for Armed Forces HQ and The National Defence College oncompletion of The Advanced Command Program. How is selection turned out and whathappens after the program when the officer is to be posted? The aim was to examine if theofficer manning system is up to date, or if change is required.The essay begins with an introduction of Jay Hall´s theories about competences. Thiscompetence process is strengthened with Sandberg and Targama´s theory about the issue ofcomprehension.Most part of the empiric material is interviews with officers of this level (lieutenant-colonel).The method used in this essay is a qualitative and investigational analysis of the interviewswithin the hermeneutic tradition of science. The purpose is not to fully describe the attitude ofthe Swedish officer corps on this subject, but rather to explore the ideas and thoughts of theseofficers who have actually experienced the situation.Summary: The role of the Swedish Armed Forces is changing, but the officer manning processwith support of officers to higher levels has its limitations, because the overall process has notchanged and must be reviewed. The lack of a clear vision and all-embracing goals for theorganization makes this picture even darker.

  • 310.
    Berglund, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Uppsala University.
    Persson, Anders
    Uppsala University.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University.
    Manufacturing Miniature Langmuir probes by Fusing Platinum Bond Wires2015In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 25, no 10, article id 105012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a novel method for manufacturing microscopic Langmuir probes with spherical tips from platinum bond wires by fusing for plasma characterization in microplasma sources. Here, the resulting endpoints, formed by droplets on the ends of a fused wire, are intended to act as spherical Langmuir probes. For studying the fusing behavior, bond wires were wedge bonded over a 2 mm wide slit, to emulate the final application, and fused with different voltages and currents. For electrical isolation, a set of wires were coated with a 4 μm thick layer of Parylene before they were fused. After fusing, the gap size, as well as the shape and area of the ends of the remaining stubs were measured. The yield of the process was also investigated, and the fusing event was studied using a high-speed camera for analyzing its dynamics. Four characteristic tip shapes were observed: spherical, folded, serpentine shaped and semi-spherical. The stub length leveled out at  ~400 μm as the fusing power increased. The fusing of the coated wires required a higher power to yield a spherical shape. Finally, a Parylene coated bond wire was integrated into a stripline split-ring resonator (SSRR) microplasma source, and was fused to form two Langmuir probes with spherical endpoints. These probes were used for measuring the IV characteristics of a plasma generated by the SSRR. In a voltage range between  −60 V and 60 V, the fused stubs exhibited the expected behavior of spherical Langmuir probes, and will be considered for further integration.

  • 311.
    Berglund, Viktor
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Värnplikt eller frivillighet?: Nya krav på Försvarsmaktens ledare2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the changes in the objectives for the Swedish Armed Forces, where national defense is beingreplaced by international missions in defense of Sweden’s interests, some major changes are taking place within the organization. One of these is replacing the conscription-based army with a professional employed one. One can assume that the human resource direction will have consequences for the demands on the Armed Forces and its leaders. The focus of this paper is on the platoon commanders leadership and management. The aim of the paper is to determine if there are any differences between being a platoon commander over conscripts versus employed soldiers. The question this paper is attempting to answer is whether there is a difference in their leadership and management. The paper is based primarily upon literature concerning leadership and organizations and interviews with platoon commanders. The results of the paper can be summarized with two conclusions. The first is that through realistic and relevant goals, the units become more effective and motivated, unlike when goals are abstractand theoretical, as Sweden’s national defense once was. The second conclusion is that by using a transformational leadership that permeates the organization, personnel and training, end results are much better. The commitment, motivation and openness within the studied units became much higher when transformational leadership was applied.

  • 312.
    Bergman, Amanda
    Swedish Defence University.
    Sveriges avskräckningsstrategi som småstat under två perioder2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Deterrence was during the cold war and is still today an important part of being war deterrent. The military defence of Sweden has since the end of the cold war been under disarmament. Despite the disarmament of the Swedish military, the military strategic policy is still that Sweden shall be able to deter a superpower.

    In what way has the deterrence strategy changed between the periods 1957 to 1963 and 2014 to 2017, regarding the strategic threat, security policy and military capability?

    The aim with this thesis is to mediate an understanding, how Sweden as a small state is trying to accomplish deterrence against a superpower and how Sweden has changed its view of deterrence.

    The analysis show that there has been a change of the deterrence strategy, based on the strategic threat, security policy and military capability, but still some parts remain the same. The biggest change between to two periods is that today deterrence is regarded best achieved together with other countries rather then alone.

     

  • 313.
    Bergman, Andreas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    The Regulation of Private Military and Security Services in Sweden2010Report (Other academic)
  • 314.
    Bergman, Nicklas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Avskräckande effekt hos defensiva luftstridskrafter: En motstridighet?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Svensk doktrin stipulerar att grunden för Försvarsmaktens uppträdande att avskräcka olika aktörer från att använda våld. Detta ifrågasätts här grundat på att avskräckning oftast utgår ifrån numerär överlägsenhet, och Sverige kan anses ha en hotbild från regionala stormakter.

    Vilka luftoperativa förmågor kan då ligga bakom en avskräckande effekt hos en numerärt underlägsen luftstridskraft?  Syftet är att förklara detta genom en flerfallstudie utifrån avskräckningsteorier kopplade till luftmaktsteori i ett småstatsperspektiv. I en avslutande diskussion återkopplas detta mot Sveriges luftoperativa förmågor för att utröna om dessa bidrar till den avskräckande effekt som beskrivs som grundläggande i Försvarsmaktens doktrin.

    Fallstudien gav att Jaktflyg var den enda variabeln som sågs samvariera med lyckad avskräckning. I diskussionen om Sveriges motsvarande förmågor framkom att Försvarsmakten har en relativt hög förmåga till jaktflyg.

  • 315.
    Bergman, Nicklas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Syfte och mening inom svensk doktrinutveckling?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I och med Militärstrategisk doktrin 2012 och senast Operativ doktrin 2014 har Försvarsmakten gått ifrån att vara en debutant i doktrinära sammanhang till att faktiskt genomföra doktrinutveckling. Detta mitt under en tidsperiod som varit säkerhetspolitiskt omvälvande och där doktrinutvecklingen globalt har accelererat under åren som följt efter 9/11. För att få djupare förståelse och insikt för doktrinutveckling går uppsatsen in bakom doktrinens egen text för att analysera dess innebörd och syfte utifrån ett vetenskapligt angreppssätt.

    Uppsatsen syftar till att systematiskt analysera Operativ doktrin 2014 för att få en djupare förståelse för vilken roll och utformning Försvarsmaktens rådande doktrin har.

  • 316.
    Bergqvist, Carl
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Den svenska försvarsreformens drivkrafter 1994-20042014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I och med de tre försvarsbesluten 1996, 2000 och 2004 genomgick det svenska försvaret en omfattandereform där stora delar av försvaret avvecklades, samtidigt som en radikal ominriktning skeddeav försvarets huvuduppgifter. 2014 när det nationella försvaret åter börjar bli en huvuduppgiftför Försvarsmakten ställer sig många frågande till varför så lite av försvaret är kvar idag.Uppsatsen syftar till att identifiera vilka drivkrafter som låg bakom denna mycket omfattande försvarsreformoch även se huruvida drivkrafterna förändrades under reformens gång. För att identifieradrivkrafterna används två analysmodeller för beslutsfattande ur Graham Allisons Essence ofDecision.Resultatet visar att de huvudsakliga drivkrafterna bakom den svenska försvarsreformen kan förklarassom ekonomiska och som en vilja från både politiskt håll och Försvarsmakten att använda försvarettill att genomföra internationella insatser. Under försvarsreformens gång har den ekonomiskadrivkraften bestått och förstärkts av ett köpslående mellan de olika partier som behövts föratt en minoritetsregering ska överleva. Viljan till internationella insatser har under perioden kommitatt bli en allt starkare drivkraft.

  • 317.
    Bergset, Tor Steinar
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Deteksjon av optikk og elektro-optikk ved hjelp av laser: En studie av den militære nytten med et lasersystem for deteksjon av en motstanders optikk og elektro-optikk2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Detection of the optics of an opponent has proven to be of military interest, in order to detect snipers before they have fired. This kind of detection is also of interest when it comes to locating forward observers and other observers, who also use optics to affect our forces indirectly. The principle of such detection is called retro-reflection, where one applies a laser to scan an area and then detect the retro-reflected signal from the opponents optics, and thereby the opponent himself. This thesis investigates what parameters such a system should have, in order to achieve military utility, in a situation where one is typically securing a base or an object in one’s own rear area of operations. This utility is measured against a situation where one does not have systems for detection of the threat. The objects in question may be command posts or other installations of special interest to a sophisticated opponent.

    This thesis examines this topic from a perspective where the military need for such a system is analysed first, followed by identifying what overall functions are needed to fulfill this need and finally what the technical requirements are. The analysis, results and discussions point to four such functions central to fulfilling the military need. It is necessary to have a range that matches the ranges an opponent will operate from. The system must be able to reduce the number of false targets that appear. The safety of one’s own personnel must be adequate. The system configuration must support the other functions at the same time as it fulfills the need for increased situational awareness and flexibility. The examination of the technical factors has shown that the best possible balance of these factors is essential in achieving the desired effects, and avoiding the undesired effects of the system. These factors are described and include laser pulse energies, wavelengths, scanning methods, beam divergence, techniques to minimize the number of false targets and different system configurations, which can increase situational awareness and the usability of the system.

    In order to achieve military utility for the system it is crucial to understand the technical and procedures that can counter the weaknesses of the technology, and in thus produce a flexibility that enables the user to utilize the system as appropriate to the situation

  • 318.
    Bergstrand, Anna
    Swedish National Defence College.
    FN - en organisation i tiden?: en historisk analys av hotbegreppets konstruktion2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien har varit att dekonstruera FN:s förståelse av hot över tid för att diskutera organisationens möjligheter att bekämpa dessa hot i relation till de förväntningar som FN har och har haft på framtiden. Det analysen har visat är att hoten mot internationell fred och säkerhet inte längre konstrueras som dispyter eller konflikter mellan nationer. Istället är det ekonomiska hot, hot mot global goods, internationell terrorism, spridningen av massförstörelsevapen och individer i nöd som Ban Ki-moon konstruerar som hotbilder mot internationell fred och säkerhet, det vill säga det FN syftar till att motverka.

    Lösningen har alltid varit att hot emot internationell fred och säkerhet ska lösas inom ramen för FN, men själva lösningen har skiftat i karaktär. Från att FN kan ses som en arena där nationer får möjlighet till samtal, till att FN ska verka som en neutral eller oberoende aktör, och slutligen att FN ska ta ledarskapet genom att hantera hoten genom organisationens komparativa fördelar och ingå partnerskap med både statliga och icke-statliga aktörer för att bekämpa hoten. Vilket analysen visar då de aktörer som är involverade för att åstadkomma internationell fred och säkerhet har förändrats över tid. Innan Ghali var det nationer som det talades om, med undantag från Waldheim som diskuterade Röda Korset och andra icke-statliga aktörer. Men under Boutros Ghali, Annan och Ki-moon konstrueras en annan bild då icke-statliga och statliga aktörer tillsammans med FN ska åstadkomma lösningen.

    Av de förväntningar som de olika generalsekreterare har haft på framtiden är det fyra begrepp som synliggör förändringen inom organisationen. Den första är frihet, där begreppet tidigare var odefinierat men kan betraktas som frihet för individen inom staten att välja, och som det senare kom att uttryckas var frihet hos individen frihet från begär och rädsla. Detta är en mer abstrakt målsättning än negativ frihet, och något som tidigare endast innebar en positiv frihet; friheten att välja statsskick. Det andra och tredje begreppet är relationen mellan fred och rättvisa, där generalsekreterare innan Boutros Ghali hade förväntningar om en framtid i fred, och att efter Boutros Ghali kom en förväntan på framtiden att glida från en värld i fred till en rättvis värld. Där en rättvis värld är ett bredare och mer abstrakt sätt att uttrycka framtidsförväntningarna. Det sista begreppet som kan beskriva förändringen hos FN:s förväntan på framtiden är initiativ, där det innan Boutros Ghali förväntades att initiativet skulle komma från medlemsnationerna, men i och med ett ökat omfång i FN:s ambition kommer initiativet numera från FN och sprids ned i organisationen och dess partners, i syfte att åstadkomma ett effektivt FN.

    En slutsats att dra är att FN har kommit att konstruera hot, lösningar, aktörsbild och framtidsförväntningar på ett sätt som är alltmer abstrakt och därför är det svårare att skapa en förståelse för vad exakt organisationen ska ägna sig åt, och desto abstraktare hot och lösningar, desto mer abstrakta och svårtydliga blir förväntningarna. Utifrån detta går det också att förstå varför FN idag inte uppfyller de förväntningar som ställs på organisationen.

  • 319.
    Bergstrand, Anna
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Nationellt ägandeskap; lösningen som blir ett problem: den svenska biståndsinsatsen i Afghanistan2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med studien är att pröva om teoribildningen "soptunnemodellen" kan skapa en förståelse för att nationellt ägarskap presenteras som en lösning på den svenska biståndsinsatsen till Afghanistan, trots att regeringens beskrivning av Afghanistan och biståndsmedlens fördelning kan uppfattas som motsägelsefullt.

    Med grund i soptunnemodellen där lösningar söker efter problem beskrivs det diskursiva brottet i svensk biståndspolitik runt 2003 där regeringen i en propositionen beskrev hur den svenska biståndspolitiken skulle läggas om till att utgå från principen om nationellt ägarskap, där mottagarländerna skulle gå från att vara objekt till att vara subjekt. Denna princip, eller lösning som soptunnemodellen skulle beskriva den som, har sedan präglat de svenska biståndsinsatserna och beskrivs även i utvecklingsstrategin från 2007. Nationellt ägarskap kan därför ses som en etablerad, och färdig lösning när det kommer till att genomföra biståndsinsatser. Den ska visserligen då skifta mellan olika nationer, då nationellt ägarskap ska vara behovsstyrt, men själva grundantagandet om att en viss stabilitet ska finnas etablerad för att möjliggöra nationellt ägarskap tycks ha förbisetts. Med anledning av att dessa typer av insatser, eller i alla fall den insats som Afghanistan har varit, egentligen har haft alla typer av insatser: humanitära, utvecklingssamarbete och militära är kontexten annorlunda. I Afghanistan pågår alltså flera olika typer av insatser som pågår samtidigt. Slutsatsen i denna studie är att lösningen om nationellt ägarskap blir själva problemet för biståndsinsatsen i Afghanistan, och därför kan lösningen behöva problematiseras ytterligare för att skapa en förståelse för hur insatsen i Afghanistan ska kunna genomföras i praktiken. Det blir även viktigt för framtida insatser, för att undvika att Sveriges biståndspolitik kan komma att bli kontraproduktiv, vilket soptunnemodellen tillsammans med det institutionella perspektivet hjälper till att synliggöra.

  • 320.
    Bergstrand, Anna
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Tysklands agerande i libyenkonflikten: Fortsatt normalisering?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen handlar om hur inrikespolitiken i Tyskland påverkar det tyska utrikespolitiska handlandet. Den tar sin utgångspunkt i det tyska beslutet att inte delta i insatsen i Libyen och att lägga ned den tyska rösten i Förenta Nationernas (FN) säkerhetsråd.

  • 321.
    Bergstrand, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    To Deploy or Not to Deploy a Parliamentary Army?: German Strategic Culture and International Military Operations2016In: European Participation in Military Operations: The Role of Strategic Culture / [ed] Malena Britz, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 49-75Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 322.
    Bergstrand, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Det nätverksbaserade försvaret ur ett flygvapenperspektiv: en studie av erfarenheter från flygvapnets stridsledning av flygstridskrafter2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2001 the Swedish Parliament decided that the Armed Forces would headtowards a Network Centric Warfare (NCW) So far much of the efforts havefocused on technical solutions and not much on human factors such ascooperation, trust and shared information and shared situational awareness.The aim of this essay is to analyse, from a cognitive perspective, experiences fromthe cooperation between fighter controllers and fighter pilots that might bevaluable for the development of the Swedish NCW programme. The essay usesan investigating and qualitative method. As a basis for theory, specializedliterature from the Swedish Armed Forces as well as American works onNCW has been used. In addition, modern civilian management literature hasalso been used. Five Air force officers have been interviewed regarding theirwork. The conclusions are that several experiences from the Air Force mightbe used in the development of Swedish NCW. The following items are ofgreat importance in this area: a holistic perspective, understanding and trustand proper regulations.

  • 323.
    Bergström, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    Tyskt operativt tänkande: del 22009In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 6, p. 73-104Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 324.
    Bergström, Claes
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för luftoperationer (KV Luft).
    Tyskt operativt tänkande efter 1945: del 12009In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 5, p. 63-88Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 325.
    Bergström, Erik
    Swedish Defence University.
    Pesco - Ett fall av integration inom säkerhet och försvar: En fallstudie av fyra EU- medlemstaters uppfattade säkerhetssituation och roll för EU över tid2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I december 2017 beslutade EU:s medlemsstater att upprätta vad som kallas ett permanent strukturerat samarbete (PESCO) som utgör ett fördjupat samarbete inom säkerhet och försvar på EU nivå. Pesco är dock i grunden inte någonting helt nytt utan utgör en artikel i Lissabonfördraget och således har möjligheten för medlemsstaterna att upprätta, och delta i Pesco funnits sedan fördraget tillkom. Uppsatsen syftar därmed till att undersöka hur det kommer sig att Pesco upprättas först nu och inte i samband med Lissabonfördraget?

    Studien fokuserar på EU:s medlemsstater och undersöker potentiella förändringar av staternas intressen över tid. Detta görs genom en fallstudie där fyra medlemsstater i form av Tyskland, Frankrike, Finland och Irland studeras genom två nedslag i tid. Det första för tiden kring Lissabonfördraget och det andra i närtid.

    Studiens resultat visar på att det de studerade staterna uppvisar betydelsefulla förändringar över tid avseende staternas uppfattade säkerhetssituation och även avseende synen på EU:s roll som säkerhets- och försvarspolitisk aktör. Innebörden av de observerade förändringarna anses i studien bidra till en ökad förståelse kring varför Pesco upprättas först nu och inte i samband med Lissabonfördraget. 

  • 326.
    Bergström, Helena
    Swedish National Defence College. Helmut Schmidt University.
    13 years - Freedom or Security?: A theory testing case study about how cultural dimensions of job motivation are related to organizational structure in the military2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a world where multinational cooperation and cross-cultural challenges are part of daily life, understanding cultures has become increasingly important. That people and organizations develop together might seem obvious, but that culture can be studied to understand the structure and approach of organizations, is perhaps less so.

    In this paper, a major structural difference in the armed forces of Germany and Sweden is examined; having to sign a contract to serve for 13 years or not having to sign a contract with service length restrictions. Hofstede's theory Dimensions of National Culture is applied to the case to see whether the cadets' motivation and behavior is affected by this major difference in the two otherwise very similar organizations. The study aims also to explore whether the findings can be considered correct given that semi-structured interviews were conducted to see if the thoughts of the cadets are in line with what the theory claims.

    The conclusion is that the theory can be used to understand how cadets' motivation and behavior supports the structural organizations present in Germany and Sweden. However, the interviews show that the theory is very generalizing and that not all cadets' thoughts are consistent with what the theory states in every case.

  • 327.
    Bergström, Lars
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Luftmakt och manöverteori, mer än bara understöd2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Maneuverist Approach, according to military strategic doctrine, is the basis forthe Swedish Armed Forces’ actions in all military operations.Maneuver warfare theory is difficult to trace in air operations and airpower theory.Is maneuver warfare theory not consistent with airpower theory?In that case, there would be consequences for the Swedish Airpower Doctrine.Are they consistent? If that is the case, in what way and what consequences would there be for theSwedish Airpower Doctrine?This is the starting point for this essay, whose aim is to investigate how airpower theory relates tomaneuver warfare theory.The essay shows that the theories are consistent, but in a complex way. The strategic airpowertheory shows so much resemblance that it could be an example of maneuver warfare theory initself.The tactical/operational airpower theory itself represents a contrast but it is essential for maneuverwarfare of the ground forces.The result of my survey concerning the relationship of the two theories, is that they affect SwedishAirpower Doctrine. Three facts should be stressed further; 1. Airpower strategic ability; 2. Theneed for cooperation between ground forces and air forces; 3. Advantage of an offensive appearance.Three reasons are given as an explanation to why the theories could look separate from one another;1. Terminology differs between the arenas and in military theory; 2. The physical dimensioncould be regarded as separate; 3. Optimising in each arena could lead to a competitive relationshipin a negative way.

  • 328.
    Bergström, Maria
    Swedish National Defence College.
    "En undersökning av mötet mellan olika kulturer i Försvarsmakten"2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In my thesis I have studied organizational culture. To study organizationalculture is according to many researchers, a complex topic with multipledimensions and aspects. The aim of this thesis was to reflect upon possiblydifferent cultures between the Swedish Navy, Army and Air Force and howthey where displayed. Specific areas where; the meeting between civilian andmilitary culture, the relationship between civilian and military culture and tofind cultural similarities and differences between the three Services.Observations and interviews where performed at three logistic stores, one withconnection to each Service. The theoretical framework was based on Bang’s(1999) work on organizational culture. The analysis had an explorativeperspective and the methods used were qualitative. The most obvious findingsshowed differences especially in the mode of expression, and lingo between theServices. Similarities were found in areas of customer treatment regardless ofrank and the coordination and collaboration between the civilian storekeeperand the commanding officers.

  • 329.
    Bergström, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University.
    ”Klimatfrågan är vår tids ödesfråga”: En studie om klimatförändringarna och Sveriges politiska agenda2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years climate change has increasingly been considered as a threat to international peace and security. This thesis examines how the framing and agenda setting of climate change as a threat has changed in Sweden after the Cold war. By using an explanatory model and focusing on external factors, such as international events and Swedish international identity, the thesis seeks to develop a greater understanding of how external factors effect national framing and agenda setting of climate change. The thesis concludes that military threats does not prevent climate change for being considered a security threat, and that a greater European identity may cause less focus on military insecurity and more focus on alternative threats. 

  • 330.
    Bergström, Susanna
    Swedish Defence University.
    New Public Management och svensk vapenexport: En studie av svensk lagstiftning under åren 1981 till och med årsskiftet 2015/20162017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I uppsatsen undersöktes huruvida regeringen och riksdagen påverkats av ett New Public Management perspektiv (förkortat NPM) i lagstiftningsarbetet om vapenexport under åren 1981 till och med årsskiftet 2015/2016. Undersökningen består av en kvantitativ och en kvalitativ analys del av ämnet och materialet utgjordes av propositioner i ämnet. Det saknas tidigare undersökningar om huruvida New Public Management haft inverkan på vapenexport i Sverige, vilket gör detta till ett relevant ämne att forska på. Detta framgår av resultaten i undersökningen av fem utav Hoods teman för NPM, att användningen av dem ökat från i början av 1980 - talet till och med årsskiftet 2015/2016. Den starkaste trenden gick att se inom kategorin ”konkurrens” vilket den kvalitativa undersökningen befäster. Det gick även att se en koppling mellan utvecklingen och inflytandet från EU- lagstiftningen samt att se en utveckling inom kategorierna ”mål och standardisering”, ”konkurrens” och även ”kostnadsmedvetenhet och effektiv”.

  • 331.
    Berlin, Claés
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Mål- och resultatstyrning i Försvarsmakten - optimal eller utvecklingsbar?2001Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Försvarsmakten är anbefallda av statsmakten att tillämpa en styrmodell  kallad mål- och resultatstyrning.Försvarsmakten har fått kritik för sitt sätt att analysera och utvärdera genomförd verksamhet. Det övergripande syftet med undersökningen är därför att med bakgrund av litteratur på området belysa tillämpningen av mål- och resultatstyrning som styrform i dels ett privat företag och dels i Försvarsmakten. Detta görs genom intervjuer med olika befattningshavare inom respektive organisation. Jag jämför sedan resultatet och påvisar skillnader och likheter.Resultatet jämförs också med vad litteraturen säger i ämnet. Resultatet av undersökningen visar att det finns många likheter men också någraväsentliga skillnader. Dels hur man genomför mål och målnedbrytning och dels på hurman återrapporterar och analyserar genomförd verksamhet.Undersökningen syftade också till att bredda/dementera Bengt A Svenssons slutsatseri dennes undersökning avseende mål- och resultatstyrning inom samma verksamheter.

  • 332.
    Berlin, Mats
    Swedish Defence University.
    Luftmaktsteoriers koppling till svensk doktrin: En kvalitativ undersökning av svensk doktrin2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish armed forces doctrine does not disclose where the knowledge about the use of airpower was acquired. Earlier research supports the fact that doctrine needs to contain theory to support its legitimacy.  The purpose of this study is to examine whether the doctrine contains air power theory. The author believes that increased internationalization may have caused international air power theories to have been integrated in the doctrine. 

    The research was conducted as a qualitative research of the Swedish air force doctrine documents. The research intended to see if the air power theories of John Warden and Shaun Clark have influenced the doctrine. 

    The result of this study shows that the ideas of Shaun Clarke had a much higher presence than the ideas of John Warden. The study has shown that the Swedish air force doctrine has theoretical support. The study concludes that internationalizing has affected but not to the point where the Swedish air force blindly copied air power theories without it suiting the Swedish air force.

  • 333.
    Berner, Stefan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    "Kill with a borrowed sword": kinesisk förmåga till informationsoperationer och CNO2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After the Kuwait war in 1991 has China begun to modernize is defence force and where theinformation technology have got a more important role. The information technology hasbrought to consequence an increased Chinese interest for information operations as a methodto attack adversary systems.The purpose with this essay is to lay a foundation for a increased knowledge in Chinese viewsand capacity to information operations and information warfare, and within these areasespecially highlight CNO. The reason for that is to get an insight in the Chinese rearmament.The method used to analyse this is by text analyses compare Chinese and American fightingcapability in information operations in general and in CNO in particular. The theory base forthe comparison is build upon the Swedish ”Pelarmodellen” as the tool for the analyse of thefighting capacity.The result shows that there is similarities between USA and China, but there is also crucialdifferences. They consists mainly of Chinese integration between civil and military resourceswhere militia units constitute a important contribution to the army, and the use of strategies asa way to compensate technological inferiority in witch I discovered a lack of discussion onlegal aspects revolving the use of CNO on the Chinese part.

  • 334.
    Bernhardtz, Martin
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Frihet vs. Säkerhet i antiterrorismens fotspår2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 335.
    Bertilsson, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Fall Gelb: En analys av Armégrupp A:s framgångar utifrån teorin om de grundläggande förmågorna2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the assault operation against West Europe 1940 the German units achieved great success on all levels. The name of the operation was Fall Gelb, and its success is interesting because it won over a strong alliance. France was one parts and it was one of the world’s strongest armies at that time.

    The purpose of this essay is to analyse the German Army group A´s assault through the Ardennerforrest, over the river Meuse to the Atlantic coast from the theoretical model of the six basic skills. The basic skills are mobility, protection, management, intelligence and information, and endurance.

    The study shows that the technique the German Armygroup A used was characterised by a balance between the different basic skills, and that theirs mobility and management were the determining factors to their success.

  • 336.
    Berwill, Wilhelm
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Invasions- och insatsförsvaret: En professionsteoretisk jämförelse2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is on the subject of the changes that the Swedish military is undergoing. This essay will take the old ways of alignment thinking, were the military was to protect the nation against an invasion and compare it to the newer way of alignment thinking, where the military is to go abroad and do peacekeeping operations as there main objective. This comparison will be done by using Bengt Abrahamson theory about professions. He uses three parts one is specialised theoretical knowledge, another is ethics and the last is corps spirit. This theory will then be connected to four interviews. Two with officers representing the defence thinking and two officers representing the peacekeeping thinking. Through this theory and interviews there will be a comparison which tells the different skills and mental attribute the soldiers of the different alignment way of thinking requires. The results shows that the soldiers from the defensive alignment are not capable to do the samet hings as the soldiers from the peacekeeping alignment, but the soldiers from the peacekeeping alignment can handle both the defence and the peaces keeping. Most importantly it shows that there is a difference in the mental attitude between the two ways of alignment thinking. Something I think should be looked upon further to show if it has any effect on how the different soldiers act depending on which alignment they have been trained under. Can the soldiers from these two alignments be combined, or are they too different to do so?

  • 337.
    Bhatt, Parth
    et al.
    Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brasilien.
    Yano, Edgar Toshiro
    Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brasilien.
    Amorim, Joni
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Gustavsson, Per
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division. George Mason University, USA.
    A Cyber Security Situational Awareness Framework to Track and Project Multistage Cyber Attacks2014In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Cyber Warfare & Security, Academic Conferences Limited, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 338.
    Bhatt, Parth
    et al.
    Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brasilien.
    Yano, Edgar Toshiro
    Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brasilien.
    Gustavsson, Per
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Towards a Framework to Detect Multi-Stage Advanced Persistent Threats Attacks2014In: Service Oriented System Engineering (SOSE), 2014 IEEE 8th International Symposium, IEEE Computer Society, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detecting and defending against Multi-Stage Advanced Persistent Threats (APT) Attacks is a challenge for mechanisms that are static in its nature and are based on blacklisting and malware signature techniques. Blacklists and malware signatures are designed to detect known attacks. But multi-stage attacks are dynamic, conducted in parallel and use several attack paths and can be conducted in multi-year campaigns, in order to reach the desired effect. In this paper the design principles of a framework are presented that model Multi-Stage Attacks in a way that both describes the attack methods as well as the anticipated effects of attacks. The foundation to model behaviors is by the combination of the Intrusion Kill-Chain attack model and defense patterns (i.e. a hypothesis based approach of known patterns). The implementation of the framework is made by using Apache Hadoop with a logic layer that supports the evaluation of a hypothesis.

  • 339.
    Bille-Bergman, Angelica
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Lär offentlig sektor vid återinstitutionalisering av policy?: En fallstudie av Sveriges totalförsvars återinstitutionalisering år 2013-2015 utifrån dess två primära representanter Försvarsmakten samt Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Svensk myndighetsstruktur baseras på de två byggstenarna demokrati och byråkrati där det sistnämnda ska verka som en invaggande trygghet för folket genom dess stabilitet och opartiskhet. (Regeringsformen, 1974) På så sätt ska ett ansvarsfullt hanterande av skattefinansierade medel tillses. Detta till trots förändras svenska myndigheters struktur och organisation fortlöpande. Inte sällan i vågor där den implementerade förändringen i många fall återgår till att likna ursprungsläget något decennium senare. Denna uppsats studerar huruvida offentliga organisationer lär vid återinstitutionalisering av policy. Uppsatsen tar sitt avstamp i ett top-down perspektiv i den strategiska planeringen på central nivå. Uppsatsens studieobjekt är återinstitutionalisering av policyn Sveriges totalförsvar.

    Den vetenskapliga relevansen utgörs av djupdykning i lärande vid återinstitutionalisering av policy. Det forskningsbaserade bidraget sker därmed till området Learning utifrån svensk offentlig förvaltnings perspektiv med dess löpande förändring. Uppsatsen åsyftar att identifiera om offentliga organisationer lär vid återinstitutionalisering av tidigare etablerad policy.

    Denna uppsats är i sin helhet en fallstudie av lärande vid återinstitutionaliseringen av Sveriges Totalförsvar. Totalförsvaret bygger på ett lika stort civilt som militärt försvar. Därför studeras, utöver politisk nivå, de två huvudmyndigheter på central nivå: Försvarsmakten (FM), som representant för det militära, och Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB) som företrädare för det civila.

    Uppsatsen i sin helhet påvisar resultat om lärande i offentlig verksamhet vid återinstitutionalisering av policy utifrån primärt fyra konklusioner: Ett lärande sker innan återinstitutionalisering av policy; Detta lärande är inte baserat på institutionellt minne och sålunda inte baserat på att lärande finns kvar i organisationerna från den tidigare institutionaliserade policyn; En återinstitutionalisering av tidigare institutionaliserad policy särskiljer sig inte från en institutionalisering av en helt ny policy – kunskapen från den tidigare lever inte kvar i organisationen; Lärandet följer inte den process av lärande som teoriernas modeller målar upp – det finns inte en tydlig lärandeprocess utan istället flertalet småprocesser av lärande.

     

  • 340.
    Birath, Johan
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Bataljonsspaning: Ett verktyg i manöverkriget2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay discusses how the Swedish air assault battalion could use its recon platoon to maximise their efforts to achieve manoeuvre warfare. The purpose with this essay is to clarify how to use the recon platoon in an effective way and to bring up some thoughts about the need for a manual on how to use recon platoons in light infantry battalions.

    I have used literature that discusses the use of similar units to the air assault recon platoon and also literature that discusses how to lead a battalion in my efforts to clarify how the platoon should be used to support the battalions’ effort to achieve manoeuvre warfare. With help of the literature I have made a discussion and finally I came to some conclusions about how to use the battalions’ recon platoon in order to support the battalions´ effort to achieve manoeuvre warfare. For example one conclusion is the importance to use the recon platoon towards the battalions´ secondary objectives in order to gain a high tempo in operations.

  • 341.
    Birgersson, Andreas
    Swedish Defence University.
    Hur påverkade kärnkraftsolyckan i Japan den svenska kärnkraftspolitiska debatten?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 342.
    Birkeland, Jacob
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Bemästra, bistå eller både och?: En kritisk studie av Provincial Reconstruction Teams roll och agerande i Afghanistan2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The specific task of this thesis is to illustrate the complexity of a cooperation between civilian and military entities by examining Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs) and their role as an actor among others in the field in a war-torn Afghanistan.

    By using counterinsurgency strategy as an analytical framework it has been possible to examine the civilian and military contexts closer. Underlying structures concerning the norms and interpretation of reality of the PRTs has been partly revealed. Studies of the PRTs as one significant bearers of "the comprehensive approach", which includes a holistic approach regarding the use of civilian and military capabilities, new conclusions can be drawn on whether a general civil-military approach can be a part of the solution for current and future conflicts. Based on the counterinsurgency strategy, the author has identified three themes as bearing and thus appears through the thesis as a foundation. These are Coordination, Development and Security. The empirical material is filtered through these themes as they are central to counterinsurgency and there by affect the PRT-concept.

    This study leads to five conclusions regarding the integration of the civilian and military contexts. In summary the conclusions states that it seems to be no starting points for creating a robust culture for cooperation. The absence of common objectives regarding operation, competition between different narratives as well as parallel processes of development and security risks causing a counterproductive outcome. A single resonance must be allowed to emerge from a convergence of civil and military powers as to what should be the civilmilitary mission. With mutual trust and dialogue improved conditions can be shaped to build common ground and goals for what needs to be done in countries with similar problems like Afghanistan.

  • 343. Birkeland Nielsen, M.
    et al.
    Eid, J.
    Mearns, K.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Authentic leadership and its relationship with risk perception and safety climate2013In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347, Vol. 34, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to examine how authentic leadership relates to risk perception in safety critical organizations (SCOs). It is hypothesized that authentic leaders influence risk perception through the mediating effect of safety climate.

    Design/methodology/approach – Using a survey design, the variables were assessed in a cross-sectional sample of 293 offshore oil installation workers from a single company.

    Findings – The authors’ findings show that follower ratings of authentic leadership are negatively related to risk perception and positively associated with ratings of safety climate. Controlling for personality characteristics and leadership responsibility among respondents, the results confirm the hypothesis in that safety climate mediates the relationship between authentic leadership and risk perception. Safety climate had the strongest relationship with risk perception when assessed as a higher order construct.

    Originality/value – This study is one of the first to investigate the relationship between authentic leadership and safety. The results indicate that authentic leadership and safety climate are important factors that relate to risk perception in SCOs. The authors’ findings suggest that SCOs should consider recruiting and developing authentic leaders to foster positive safety climates and risk management.

  • 344. Birkheim, K.
    et al.
    Eid, J.
    William Hystad, S.
    Birkeland Nielsen, M.
    Mearns, C.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Ledarskapscentrum.
    Luthans, B.
    The Role of Psychological Capital in Perception of Safety Climate Among Air Traffic Controllers2013In: Journal of leadership & organizational studies, ISSN 1548-0518, E-ISSN 1939-7089, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 232-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that psychological capital (PsyCap) is associated with desired employee behavioral and performance outcomes. Extending previous research, we examine, in two studies, if the PsyCap of Norwegian air traffic controllers is related to their perceptions of safety climate. Based on bootstrapping procedures, results from Study 1 (N = 77) and Study 2 (N = 38) revealed that PsyCap was positively correlated with safety climate. In Study 1, PsyCap explained 31% of the variance in safety climate. Controlling for mediating effects of positive and negative emotions in Study 2, PsyCap explained 15.5% of the variance. These results provide first-time empirical evidence linking PsyCap to safety climate in safety critical organizations.

  • 345.
    Biverot, Erik
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Telekrigsförmåga i Nordic Battlegroup2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 346.
    Bjarnesen, Mariam
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    From Perpetrator to Protector?: Post-War Rebel Networks as Informal Security Providers in Liberia2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dismantling of rebel structures at the end of civil war is often considered to be one of the most important aspects of a successful transition to peace. Combatants are expected to lay down their weapons, but also to abandon their wartime networks. Yet, peace agreements and subsequent Disarmament Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) processes do not automatically, or necessarily, destroy rebel networks. In Liberia such structures have lingered since the war came to an end in 2003 and networks of ex-combatants are still active, though maintained and mobilised for new purposes.

    The security political situation in Liberia, with weak formal security institutions and a history of predatory behaviour, has created an environment where informal initiatives for security and protection are called upon. In such an environment informal security groups have a natural platform. Based on original interview material and findings from fieldwork this thesis examines how post-war rebel networks are organised and operate in the informal security arena, while describing the rationale behind these lingering features of war. By doing so this thesis sheds light on how the adaptive capacity of former rebel soldiers is utilised by various Liberian actors, and the risks, but also possible positive outcomes, of such a development.

    This dissertation follows individuals, former rebel commanders in particular, in post-war rebel networks from the time of war to 2013. We will see them, and ex-combatants around them, mobilised as ‘recycled’ warriors in times of regional wars and crisis, as vigilantes and informal security providers for economic and political purposes. Yet, we will also meet them when there are no specific event ex-combatants could be mobilised to fully examine the relevance of post-war rebel networks and ex-combatant identity in contemporary Liberia. In the conclusions basic underlying aims and purposes with the processes of demobilisation and reintegration are challenged. And as this thesis finds, one might even argue that these ex-combatants have succeeded in reintegrating themselves due to, not despite, the fact that they have not been demobilised.

  • 347.
    Bjarnesen, Mariam
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy. Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    The Winner Takes it All: post-War Rebel Networks, Big Man Politics and the Threat of Violence in the 2011 Liberian Elections2018In: Violence in African Elections: between Democracy and Big Man Politics / [ed] Mimmi Söderberg Kovacs and Jesper Bjarnesen, Zed Books, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The holding of multiparty elections has become the bellwether by which all democracies are judged, and the spread of such systems across Africa has been widely hailed as a sign of the continent’s progress towards stability and prosperity. But such elections bring their own challenges, particularly the often intense internecine violence that can follow disputed results. While the consequences of such violence can be profound, undermining the legitimacy of the democratic process and in some cases plunging countries into civil war or renewed dictatorship, little is known about the causes of this violence. By mapping, analyzing, and comparing instances of election violence in different localities across Africa, this collection of detailed case studies sheds light on the underlying dynamics and sub-national causes behind electoral conflicts. It reveals them to be the result of a complex interplay between democratization and the older, patronage-based system of “Big Man” politics and offers practical suggestions for preventing such violence through improved electoral monitoring, voter education, and international assistance.Appealing to policy makers and scholars across the social sciences and humanities interested in democratization, peace-keeping, and peace studies, Violence in African Elections provides important insights into why some communities prove more prone to electoral violence than others, and what can be done to help more democracies succeed.

  • 348.
    Bjerregaard, Thomas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Fjärde generationens krigföring: vetenskapen och propagandan2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is that by highlighting the theory of "Fourth Generation Warfare" (4GW) from two perspectives, science and propaganda, clarify the extent to which 4GW can be understood as a work based on science or a work that uses propaganda techniques to further its message.

    The essay is designed as a qualitative analysis, by applying the definitions of science and propaganda on three papers written by William S. Lind on 4GW.

    The purpose of the paper is not to prove that the concept of 4GW is propaganda in its true sense, but only to show that the techniques and arguments used by Lind is unscientific and has more in common with techniques used in propaganda than with what could be called scientific.

  • 349.
    Bjurholm, Nina
    Swedish Defence University.
    Rekrytering till Försvarsmakten genom Sjövärnskåren: En negligerad rekryteringsbas?2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2010, the political decision was implemented to abolish conscription and build the Swedish Armed Forces on employed soldiers and sailors. Instead of conscription, voluntary military training was introduced in the way of basic military training. The government believes that youth activities, conducted by NGOs such as the Swedish Sea Cadet Corps, are a vital part of recruitment to the Swedish Armed Forces.

    The purpose of this paper is to find out if the Swedish Sea Cadet Corps can make the Swedish Armed Forces attractive and to what extent it motivates young people to apply for basic military training and the now resting conscription.

    This paper is founded on a quantitative method in the form of a questionnaire, based on Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene theory and Hackman and Oldham’s model. The survey was sent to 47 people with a background in the Swedish Sea Cadet Corps and who began the basic military training, NCO training or Officer training, between 2010 and 2013.

    According to this survey, the Swedish Sea Cadet Corps made the Swedish ​​Armed Forces attractive to young people who attended the Swedish Sea Cadet Corps’ summer camps. This was, in particular, thanks to the officers at the summer camps, who acted by being good examples of leaders and representatives of the Swedish Armed Forces.

    One conclusion made is that the Swedish Sea Cadet Corps could be considered as a good recruitment base, where youngsters can try and evaluate military life, which thereafter can lead to motivated and committed recruits.

  • 350.
    Bjursten, Fanny
    Swedish Defence University.
    Fungerande multinationell försvarslogistik - verklighet eller vision?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research paper is to investigate and assess the interoperability of the Swedish Armed Forces Logistics organizations with Nato. The paper also seeks to identify differences in interoperability within the dimensions of organization, behaviour and logistics, and evaluate the possibilities of streamlining cooperation.

    The study is based on Michael Codners theory Dimensions of Multinational Interoperability. The analytical tool that is used in the research paper is based on the OIM model, which was developed to measure organizational interoperability in a military context. The study´s findings indicate significant differences of interoperability in the three dimensions of organization, behavioural and logistics. In addition, the study shows that the Swedish Armed Forces Logistics organization is more interoperable in the dimensions of organization and logistics and less so with regard to behaviour. To attain a higher level of interoperability the two organizations must have a more unified aim regarding the logistics organizations. 

    The study recommends an analysis of the technical dimension of interoperability, which was not analysed in this study, in order to gain a greater overall picture of the Swedish Armed Forces interoperability with Nato regarding logistics. Furthermore the study recommends conducting a more detailed analysis of each of the dimensions in order to achieve greater understanding of each one.

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