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  • 301.
    Edström, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Stat, Säkerhet, Trygghet, Värden och Intressen2008In: Norsk-svenskt försvarssamarbete i en ny tid / [ed] Håkan Edström & Magnus Petersson, Oslo: Institutt for Forsvarsstudier , 2008, p. 43-80Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 302.
    Edström, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Statsvetenskap och krig: forskning i en osäker tid2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 303.
    Edström, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL).
    Strategic Culture and Decision Making in Sweden2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 304.
    Edström, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    Strategic Developments in the Global Context2007In: International Trends Analysis - Yearbook 2007: With an Introduction to the ART-model / [ed] Håkan Edström & Åke Wiss, Stockholm: Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI) , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 305.
    Edström, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    Strategic interaction in international operations2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 306.
    Edström, Håkan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    The ART-model and the new strategic settings2007In: International Trends Analysis - Yearbook 2007: With an Introduction to the ART-model / [ed] Håkan Edström & Åke Wiss, Stockholm: Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI) , 2007, p. 11-30Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 307.
    Edström, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    The Nordic Countries and International Interventions2013In: Conference Proceedings: Nordic Foreign and Security Policies 26 November 2013, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 308.
    Edström, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Tradition eller förnyelse?: Svensk utrikespolitik efter EU-medlemskapet2017 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 309.
    Edström, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Utbildning till varje pris?: monopol kontra marknadsprinciper när officersyrket akademiseras2014In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 3, p. 66-80Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    How efficient is the academic education of military officers at the Swedish National Defence College (SNDC)? Since War Studies and Military Technology are represented at no other Swedish University, it is challenging when comparing them with other subjects in this regard.Another challenge is how to measure efficiency in academic education. In this article the two subjects are compared with the most similar subject at the SNDC; Political Science. Themethod applied is quite simple. By using similar statistics and approach as the Swedish Higher Education Authority (Universitetskanskerämbetet – UKÄ) uses when comparing theefficiency of different Swedish universities, the subjects are compared in terms of full-time equivalent students per full-time equivalent staff members. The result of the comparison is depressing. If War Studies and Military Technology are to be as efficient as Political Science,the number of full-time equivalent students in the two former subjects has to be increasedfrom about 250 to about 1,450. Another option is to decrease the number of full- time equivalent staff members from about 125 to only 25. Even if the efficiency of the two military subjects does not necessarily have to be exactly on the same level as the efficiency of PoliticalScience, the result of this study indicates that something has to be done in order to increase the standards of War Studies and Military Technology.

  • 310.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Ellström, Carin
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Mohlin, Marcus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Oltorp, Anders
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Militärstrategiskt samarbete: Finland lösningen... eller problemet?2016In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 2, p. 108-121Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 311.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Gyllensporre, Dennis
    Swedish Defence University.
    A Scandinavian Approach to the Use of Military Force?2014In: Alike or Different? : Scandinavian approaches to Military Interventions / [ed] Håkan Edström & Dennis Gyllensporre, Stockholm: Santérus Academic Press Sweden, 2014, p. 196-211Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 312.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Gyllensporre, DennisSwedish Defence University.
    Alike or Different?: Scandinavan Approaches to Military Interventions2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite their different experiences during the Second World War Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are often looked upon as similar Scandinavian welfare states in many ways. However, their approach to the European Union and Nato in matters of security and defence politics, differs and this indicates that they might not be that similar after all. On the other hand they have all been active contributors to the efforts of conflict management by the international community. Providing military units to peace support operations all over the globe is consequently yet another similarity. In this book the strategic decision making procedures of the four states are explored and compared. The question whether the states are alike or different regarding the use of military force is hence in focus.

  • 313.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section. Uppsala universitet.
    Gyllensporre, Dennis
    Uppsala universitet.
    Cooperating with the European Union in Europe: Policy or Strategy?2012In: Pursuing Strategy: NATO Operations from the Gulf War to Gaddafi, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 314.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Gyllensporre, Dennis
    Uppsala universitet.
    From Strategy to Operations: or the other way around?2012In: Pursuing Strategy: NATO Operations from the Gulf War to Gaddafi / [ed] Håkan Edström & Dennis Gyllensporre, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 315.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum.
    Gyllensporre, Dennis
    In Pursuit of a UN Military Strategy: Peace Keeping Operations (PKO): A Battle Between Diplomats and Generals?2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 316.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Gyllensporre, Dennis
    Swedish Defence University.
    Minding the gap between words and deeds: Towards a new EU strategy on security2015In: European Foreign Affairs Review, ISSN 1384-6299, E-ISSN 1875-8223, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 3-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article revisits the twenty-three Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)-missions launched before the economic crisis hit the EU and its Member States to generate conclusions that could assist in the strategy process in Brussels. Six questions anchored in the field of Strategic Studies are operationalized in an analytical framework. Extant EU policies are utilized to identify plausible answers. The analysis suggests that the EU must close the gap between words and deeds to become a more credible actor. It would help the EU to operationalize its ambitions by exploiting its broad portfolio of policy options and to vanguard the post-modern society in crisis management.

  • 317.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Gyllensporre, Dennis
    Swedish Defence University.
    Minority Cabinets and Military Interventions: The Case of Sweden2014In: Alike or Different?: Scandinavian approaches to Military Interventions / [ed] Håkan Edström & Dennis Gyllensporre, Stockholm: Santérus Academic Press Sweden, 2014, p. 157-195Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 318.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Gyllensporre, Dennis
    Swedish Defence University.
    Observing War – Keeping Peace?: Unpacking the Military Strategy of UN Non-Force Missions2014In: Journal of International Peacekeeping, ISSN 1875-4104, E-ISSN 1875-4112, Vol. 18, no 3-4, p. 290-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to increase the understanding on the strategic logic behind the un-led military non-force missions. Six out of 25 missions are evaluated to determine how strategy is elaborated within the un-system. The cases include observer missions, liaison missions and advisory missions. The analysis illuminates the interaction between the political and military strategic levels as well as the strategic awareness displayed by the un regarding non-force missions. Also the potential added value of non-force missions in peacekeeping is discussed. The authors conclude that there is an imbalance between the strategic preferences of the unsc and the unsg. The strategic awareness as well as the mission character is shown to differ between types of non-force missions. Their purpose seems to be keeping peace by observing war. It is up to the unsc and the unsg to judge whether passive oversight of the ongoing crisis is sufficient or if more active measures are justified.

  • 319.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section. Uppsala universitet.
    Gyllensporre, Dennis
    Uppsala universitet.
    Painting the Theoretical Landscape2012In: Pursuing Strategy: NATO Operations from the Gulf War to Gaddafi / [ed] Håkan Edström & Dennis Gyllensporre, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 320.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Gyllensporre, Dennis
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Political Aspirations and Perils of Security: Unpacking the Military Strategy of the United Nations2013Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Formulating a military strategy is a complex interaction between politicians, strategic commanders and generals. Formulating such a strategy within a multinational organization is even more complex. In this book, Edström and Gyllensporre explore a range of case studies, based on UN documents, and individually analyse their de facto military strategy in terms of ends, ways, means, and the interaction between the political strategic level (UN Security Council) and the military strategic level (UN Secretary General). Some 100,000 UN soldiers deployed all over the world not only deserve but need to be properly directed. Military strategy is hence a necessity, not an option. Moreover the military strategy should be percieved as a complementary effort to a robust integrated mission concept, including other instruments than the military.

  • 321.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section. Uppsala universitet.
    Gyllensporre, DennisUppsala universitet.
    Pursuing Strategy: NATO Operations from the Gulf War to Gaddafi2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 322.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Gyllensporre, Dennis
    Swedish Defence University.
    Svensk försvarsdoktrin efter kalla kriget: förlorade decennier eller vunna insikter?2014Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att utforma en försvarsdoktrin betyder att inom en given ekonomisk ram balansera förmågan att hantera hot och risker som ligger nära i tiden med behovet av att skapa långsiktig handlingsfrihet genom att utveckla kapacitet mot möjliga framtida hot och risker. Trots att flera argumenterat för vikten av balans finns få exempel på hur detta realiseras. Denna bok förklarar utvecklingen av svensk försvarsdoktrin sedan kalla krigets slut, och stödjer sig främst på officiella tryck från de politiska beslutsprocesserna.

  • 323.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Gyllensporre, Dennis
    Swedish Defence University.
    The Making of Strategy in Scandinavia2014In: Alike or Different?: Scandinavian approaches to Military Interventions / [ed] Håkan Edström & Dennis Gyllensporre, Stockholm: Santérus Academic Press Sweden, 2014, p. 14-35Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 324.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Gyllensporre, Dennis
    Swedish Defence University.
    The Organizational Procedures2014In: Alike or Different?: Scandinavian approaches to Military Interventions / [ed] Håkan Edström & Dennis Gyllensporre, Stockholm: Santérus Academic Press Sweden, 2014, p. 36-61Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 325.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division.
    Gyllensporre, Dennis
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Joint Warfare Division.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Military strategy of small states: Responding to External Shocks of the 21st Century2018Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using primary sources from four Nordic countries, (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden), this volume explores how small states have adjusted their military strategies in response to external shocks of the 21st century. The 9/11 terrorist attacks, the Russian interventions in Georgia and Ukraine, and the rise of the Islamic State have all forced the Nordic states to adopt new strategies. While the responses have not been uniform, their differing relations to the EU and NATO have not prevented these countries from behaving similarly in military affairs. Limitations in military capacity has led all four countries to pursue strategies that include cooperation with more resourceful partners. It is necessary for them to cooperate with others to protect and promote their national interests. Moreover, the Nordic cosmopolitan outlook expresses milieu-shaping ambitions that we generally would not expect small states to pursue against a potential great power aggressor.

    This book will be of much interest to students of military strategy, defense studies, security studies, and international relations.

  • 326.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Josefsson, Anders
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Försvaret av Sverige: vem kan leda operationer... och vem bör?2016In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 1, p. 67-86Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 327.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Lunde, Nils Terje
    Forsvareti kryssild: Konklusjoner og utblikk2010In: Uniformitet eller Mangfold?: norsk militærprofesjon i endring / [ed] Håkan Edström, Nils Terje Lunde, Janne Haaland Matlary, Oslo: Abstrakt forlag, 2010, p. 328-355Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 328.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Lunde, Nils Terje
    Teoretiskeog metodiske utgangspunkter2010In: Uniformitet eller Mangfold?: norsk militærprofesjon i endring / [ed] Håkan Edström, Nils Terje Lunde, Janne Haaland Matlary, Oslo: Abstrakt forlag, 2010, p. 30-68Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 329.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Lunde, Nils Terje
    Haaland Matlary, Janne
    Mangfold som utfordring i Forsvaret2010In: Uniformitet eller Mangfold? / [ed] Håkan Edström, Nils Terje Lunde & Janne Haaland Matlary, Oslo: Abstrakt forlag, 2010, p. 15-29Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 330.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört). Uppsala universitet.
    Petersson, Magnus
    Institutt for Forsvarsstudier.
    Akademisering på avvägar?: Utbildning och forskning i krigsvetenskap vid Försvarshögskolan2013In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 2, p. 37-46Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 331.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Petersson, Magnus
    Institutt for Forsvarsstudier, Norge.
    Slutreplik: Seniorprofessorer på avvägar!2014In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 3, p. 33-36Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In an article in this journal (2:2013) we identified several important shortcomings of War Studies at the Swedish National Defence College (SNDC) during the period of 2007–2012.In this article, we conclude that the authors of a responding article (4:2013), Senior Professors Stefan Axberg and Berndt Brehmer not only continue to focus on irrelevant aspects of asubject outside their expertise, but also neglect to recognize their own responsibility regarding the causes of the shortcomings. Furthermore, we find that their recommendations are incommensurable with the view presented by the Swedish Armed Forces and the current development of War Studies at the SNDC.

  • 332.
    Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört).
    Ydstebø, Palle
    Forsvarets stabsskole, Norge.
    Mot en strategisk renessanse?2011In: Militærstrategi på norsk: en innføring / [ed] Håkan Edström & Palle Ydstebø, Oslo: Abstrakt forlag, 2011, p. 15-35Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 333.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Between reluctance and necessity: the utility of military force in humanitarian and development operations2009Report (Other academic)
  • 334.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Between reluctance and necessity: the utility of military force in humanitarian and development operations2008In: Small Wars & Insurgencies, ISSN 0959-2318, E-ISSN 1743-9558, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 397-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The civil-military interface in peace support operations is changing due to increasingly overlapping tasks, increased military involvement in humanitarian activities, and increased integration of all involved actors, not least through various current strategic concepts. This article not only describes these trends, but also, more importantly, analyses certain consequences in terms of mission effectiveness. The focus of the analysis is the ideas of 'militarisation of humanitarian aid' and the reverse 'humanitarianisation of the military'. The main arguments of this contribution are that the assumptions of increased effectiveness stemming from civil-military integration cannot be taken for granted and that there are harmful consequences stemming from blurring the lines between civilian, humanitarian and military actors. There is, in other words, a need to better specify and explain the causal mechanisms that lead to effectiveness in complex peace support operations.

  • 335.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Civil-Military Aspects of Effectiveness in Peace Support Operations2009In: The Transformation of the World of Warfare and Peace Support Operations / [ed] Kobi Michael & David Kellen & Eyal Ben-Ari, Westport, Conn: Praeger Security International , 2009, p. 122-138Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 336.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Civil-Military Cooperation in Response to a Complex Emergency: Just Another Drill?2010In: International Sociology, ISSN 0268-5809, E-ISSN 1461-7242, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 739-742Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 337.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Complex peace operations and civil-military relations: winning the peace2009Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book explores the impact of different civil-military structures on operational effectiveness in complex peace operations. Recent operations in Iraq, Afghanistan and Somalia are examples of grand failures to enforce peace and to promote democracy and development through international interventions. A missing variable in analyses of these conflicts hitherto has been the nature of the civil-military interface and its impact. The principal argument of this book is that the civil-military interface should ideally be integrated within the interagency arena as well as within the defence ministry. Such integration has the potential to provide joint civil-military planning and comprehensive approaches to operations. It also creates mutual trust and understanding amongst officers and civil servants from different departments, agencies and units, and thereby, a co-operative interagency culture. For the civil-military interface to function effectively within the chain of command during operations, a co-operative culture of trust is essential. Crucially, structurally and culturally integrated civil-military structures are likely to provide a more balanced view of the functional imperative of the armed forces. The results are armed forces fit for whatever purpose the political leadership decides for them - including complex peace support operations. Empirically, the book applies the theoretical framework to a comparative study of US and British patterns of civil-military relations, their strategic cultures and their operations in Iraq. This book will be of much interest to students of peace operations, civil-military relations, humanitarian intervention, and security studies/IR in general. Robert Egnell is a lecturer in War Studies at the Swedish National Defence College and a senior researcher at the Swedish Defence Research Agency. He was awarded the 2008 Kenneth N. Waltz Dissertation Prize for the best thesis in the field of international security.

  • 338.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum. Georgetown University.
    Conclusion: Lessons and consequences of Operation Unified Protector2013In: The NATO Intervention in Libya: Lessons Learned from the Campaign / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt, Marcus Mohlin, Charlotte Wagnsson, Abingdon: Routledge, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 339.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), ISSL Directorate.
    Feministisk utrikespolitik i teori och praktik2016In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 563-587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the article is to study the intellectual background and practicalimplementation of the so called ”feminist foreign policy” of Sweden since thegeneral election in 2014. Where did it come from and what sort of policies does itinvolve? The article thereby covers the description and analysis of a number of policyprogrammes, as well as an early analysis and discussion of their consequences,using strategic theory as a framework for analysis. The article finds that there isplenty of continuity in the feminist stance, but that the announcement of a feministforeign policy has added both emphasis and new implementation programmesand approaches. The biggest difference might however be in the external interpretationof Swedish foreign policy, indicating that feminism may be a much sharperinstrument, and of greater impact, than anticipated in policy circles.

  • 340.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Framtida konfliktyper: En modell för kategorisering av krig och konflikter (S14)2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att kategorisera och namnge möjliga framtida konflikter syftar till att mentalt förbereda sig på olika alternativ och därmed ge organisationen möjlighet att anpassa sin förmåga att hantera de olika utmaningar som dessa konfliktkategorier kan tänkas medföra. Begrepp, eller teoretiska koncept, är viktiga då de har dubbla roller. Dels är de analytiska instrument för att förenkla, strukturera och förstå verkligheten. Överförenklade begrepp och kategorier riskerar däremot att fördärva vår verklighetsuppfattning och angripa de ”verkliga” problemen på ett effektivt sätt. Begrepp är dock inte bara analytiska avbilder av verkligheten, de har även en konstruktivistisk roll – de formar vår verklighetsuppfattning. Detta innebär att de definitioner och begrepp vi använder på insatser kommer att forma vår uppfattning och förståelse av insatsen. Det senaste utkastet till Militärstrategisk doktrin 2012 gör vikten av förståelse av konflikters karaktär mycket tydlig:

    All personal i Försvarsmakten måste förstå och kunna hantera krigets skiftande karaktär. Det ligger i krigets natur att dess karaktär ständigt skiftar och aldrig upprepar sig. Ingen kan styra krigets karaktär. Vi måste därför i vart fall noga bedöma den specifika konfliktens karaktär och anpassa medel och metoder därefter.

    Syftet med studien är därför att assistera Försvarsmakten i strävan efter denna förståelse genom att skapa en tydlig kategorisering av möjliga framtida konflikter. Denna kategorisering utgår från centrala parametrar och begrepp som anses tongivande för att förstå olika typer av framtida konflikter. Beskrivna konflikttyper skall sedan användas för att ta fram övergripande beskrivningar av möjliga framtida försvarsmaktsprofiler, så kallade idébilder, samt för utveckling av Försvarsmaktens befintliga strategiska typscenarier.

     

    Baserat på en generell diskussion om drivkrafter för framtida konflikter och en genomgång av existerande begrepp för att kategorisera konflikter så har en relativt enkel modell skapats i denna studie. En fyrfältare har skapats baserad på två variabler som påverkar konfliktens karaktär:

    1. Militär förmåga (Från låg till hög förmåga)
    2. Relativ förmåga i förhållande till motpart (Symmetri eller asymmetri av förmåga)

     

    Reguljär/Symmetrisk konflikt

    Reguljär/symmetrisk krigföring kännetecknas av två aktörer med likartad och hög militär förmåga – med största sannolikhet två stater. Denna typ av krigföring är mycket väl beskriven i både doktrin och teoretiska sammanhang och behöver inte beskrivas närmare här. Värt att notera är att dessa krig tenderar att bli storskaliga och högintensiva, dels på grund av krigets inre logik vilket leder till eskalation (Clausewitz) och dels på grund av de stora aktörernas förmåga och kapacitet att eskalera.

    Reguljär/Asymmetriskt konflikt

    Dessa konflikter kännetecknas av två aktörer med hög militär förmåga men som ändå är långt ifrån symmetriska. Exempel är Falklandskriget 1982 och Gulfkriget 1991. Trots att Saddam Hussein kunde mobilisera mer än en halv miljon man så medförde deras tekniska underlägsenhet gentemot den USA-ledda koalitionen en asymmetrisk konflikt. Dessa konflikter tenderar att bli mycket kortvariga om inte den svagare parten övergår i irreguljär krigföring.

    Irreguljär/Symmetrisk konflikt

    Dessa konflikter kännetecknas av två svaga (med traditionella mått på militär krigföringsförmåga) militära aktörer som slåss med samma irreguljära metoder. Flera inbördeskrig i Afrika tillhört denna kategori. Inte minst kriget i Liberia mellan bland andra NPFL och INPFL. Dessa konflikter eskalerar snarare i brott mot krigets lagar än i konfliktens intensitet – vilket i slutändan innebär allvarliga brott mot mänskliga rättigheter, barnsoldater, våld mot civila och därmed mycket svårläkta sår för samhället i en post-konfliktsitutation.

    Irreguljär/Asymmetrisk

    Denna konfliktkategori omfattar två aktörer med olika krigföringsförmåga där den svagare parten valt irreguljära metoder för att bekämpa en överlägsen fiende. Gerillakrig, upprorsmotverkan och många komplexa fredsfrämjande insatser ryms inom denna kategori. Pågående konflikter i Afghanistan, Irak, Colombia och mellan Israel och Palestinierna är ett antal exempel.

    Hybridkrigföring

    Hybridkrigföring beskrivs som en kombination av traditionell krigföring, blandat med terrorism, andra asymmetriska hot och upprorsverksamhet. Orsaken till begreppet är en ökad insikt om att de traditionella dikotomierna beskrivna ovan är missvisande i en betydligt mer komplex verklighet där olika typer av krigföring flyter ihop. Det är viktigt att notera att då fienden bedriver flera olika typer av krigföring samtidigt – hybridkrigföring – så ställs det med stor sannolikhet liknande krav på våra förband.

    Aktörers intressen och förändringar av konflikters karaktär

    Analysen trycker vid flera tillfällen på vikten av förståelse för att konflikter inte är statiska utan att konflikters karaktär kan ändras på flera olika sätt. Därför har studien även diskuterat ett antal tänkbara rörelser mellan modellens fem fält. Aktörernas intressen är utöver detta avgörande för förändringsbenägenheten i konflikter, då motgångar för aktörer med absoluta mål kommer leda till metodförändringar vilket i sin tur förändrar konfliktens karaktär.

     

    Slutligen presenterar studien ett par exempel på hur modellen kan användas inom FM för strategisk planering och framtagande av typscenarior. Trots att territoriella hot mot Sverige inte diskuterades framkom det med tydlighet att det kommer krävas en mycket stor bredd av förmågor för svenska förband – en kraftfull och expeditionär Försvarsmakt som med trovärdighet kan agera utmed hela konfliktskalan – på hemmaplan, i närområdet och internationellt. Flexibilitet och anpassningsförmåga är dessutom central ledord för att kunna följa med i framtida konflikters karaktärsförändringar. Statiska militära organisationer tillhör det förflutna.

  • 341.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL). Georgetown University, Washington D.C., USA.
    Gender Perspectives and Military Effectiveness: Implementing UNSCR 1325 and the National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security2016In: Prism, ISSN 2157-0663, E-ISSN 2157-0671, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 73-89Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 342.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), ISSL Directorate.
    Introducing gender perspectives in operations: Afghanistan as a catalyst2017In: The Swedish presence in Afghanistan: security and defence transformation / [ed] Arita Holmberg and Jan Hallenberg, Abingdon: Routledge, 2017, p. 138-159Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 343.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Kopplingen mellan säkerhet och utveckling: Civil-militär samverkan och genusperspektiv i svensk säkerhetspolitik2015In: Svensk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt, Arita Holmberg och Jan Ångström, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2015, 2, p. 145-164Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 344.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Lessons from Helmand, Afghanistan: What now for British counterinsurgency?2011In: International Affairs, ISSN 0020-5850, E-ISSN 1468-2346, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 297-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the conduct of British operations in Helmand between 2006 and 2010 and discusses the implications for the legacy and future of British counterinsurgency. Substantially changed training, painful relearning of counterinsurgency principles and changed mindsets are necessary to avoid repeated early failures in the future. Moreover, despite eventually adapting tactically to the situation and task in Helmand, the British Armed Forces proved inadequate in dealing with the task assigned to them for two key reasons. First, the resources of the British military are simply too small for dealing with large-scale complex engagements such as those in Helmand or southern Iraq. Second, the over-arching comprehensive approach, and especially the civilian lines of operations that underpinned Britain's historical successes with counterinsurgency, are today missing.

  • 345.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen med folkrättscentrum (upphört). Georgetown University.
    New agendas in statebuilding: hybridity, contingency and history2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume connects the study of statebuilding to broader aspects of social theory and the historical study of the state, bringing forth new questions and starting-points, both academically and practically, for the field. Building states has become a highly prioritized issue in international politics. Since the 1990s, mainly Western countries and international institutions have invested large sums of money, vast amounts of manpower, and considerable political capital in ventures of this kind all across the globe. Most of the focus in current literature is on the acute cases, such as Afghanistan and Iraq, but also to states that seem to fit the label 'failed states' such as Liberia, Sierra Leone and Somalia. This book brings together a diverse group of scholars who introduce new theoretical approaches from the broader social sciences. The chapters revisit historical cases of statebuilding, and provide thought-provoking, new strategic perspectives on the field. The result is a volume that broadens and deepens our understanding of statebuilding by highlighting the importance of hybridity, contingency and history in a broad range of case-studies. This book will be of much interest to students of statebuilding and intervention, peacebuilding, war and conflict studies, security studies and IR in general.

  • 346.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Leadership.
    Sweden's Implementation of a Gender Perspective: Cutting Edge but Momentum Lost2019In: Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military: An International Comparison / [ed] Egnell, Robert; Alam, Mayesha, Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2019, p. 41-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 347.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    The organised hypocrisy of international state-building2010In: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 465-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses the concept of 'organised hypocrisy' as a means of making sense of the inconsistencies and contradictions in contemporary theory and practice of international state-building. While organised hypocrisy in international politics allows states and organisations to maintain systemic stability and legitimacy by managing irreconcilable pressures that might otherwise render them unable to operate effectively, this paper argues that organised hypocrisy also has negative impacts on the operational effectiveness of state-building. It allows organisations to engage in operations without sufficient resources, thereby seriously undermining operational effectiveness and the credibility of international state-building as a legitimate political tool. Organised hypocrisy also creates false expectations among the local and global populations and thereby decreases the credibility of the strategic narrative that is supposed to explain and make sense of the transformation processes to the general public. The paper also explores a number of options for dealing with organised hypocrisy in a way that could improve the effectiveness of international state-building.

  • 348.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL). Georgetown University, Washington D.C., USA.
    The Swedish Experience: Overcoming the Non–NATO-Member Conundrum2015In: Precision and Purpose: Airpower in the Libyan Civil War / [ed] Mueller, Karl P., Santa Monica, Californien, USA: Rand Corporation, 2015, p. 309-338Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 349.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Strategy Section.
    Vad gjorde vi för nytta?: svenskt deltagande i fredsfrämjande insatser sedan 19452009In: Fredssoldater / [ed] Holger, Lena, Stockholm: Armémuseum , 2009, p. 135-165Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 350.
    Egnell, Robert
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Strategy Section.
    Winning 'Hearts and Minds'?: A Critical Analysis of Counter-Insurgency Operations in Afghanistan2010In: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, E-ISSN 1743-968X, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 282-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article conducts a critical analysis of the historical lessons, theassumptions and the conduct of ‘hearts and minds’ approaches to counterinsurgency.This results in challenges. Theoretically the ‘hearts and minds’approach is rooted in modernisation theory and a normative Western approachto legitimacy that fails to live up to the expectations of the local population.The approach is also based on lessons from past successes such as the British1950s campaign in Malaya. However, a great contextual shift has taken placesince then and the relevance of past experiences is therefore questionable ina context of complex state-building in the wake of intervention. This also haspractical consequences as we seek to rectify the often misapplied approachesof today.

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